Cell Injury and Cell Death - PowerPoint by puffdaddy

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									Cell Injury and Cell Death


       Dr. John Rossiter
  Department of Pathology and
      Molecular Medicine

  rossiter@cliff.path.queensu.ca
Mosby 2000;
Pathology, 2nd Ed.,
Stevens & Lowe
Mosby 2000; Pathology, 2nd Ed, Stevens & Lowe, p17
Leg muscle of a normal 50 year old




Mosby 2000; Pathology, 2nd Ed., Stevens & Lowe, p. 10
Leg muscle of a marathon runner – hypertrophy in
response to exercise




  Mosby 2000, Pathology, 2nd Ed., Stevens & Lowe, p. 10
   Normal heart                  Hypertrophied heart




Mosby 2000; Pathology, 2nd Ed., Stevens & Lowe, p. 11
 Normal cardiac muscle          Hypertrophied cardiac muscle




Mosby 2000; Pathology, 2nd Ed., Stevens & Lowe, p. 11
Mosby 2000; Pathology, 2nd Ed, Stevens & Lowe, p17
Columnar to squamous epithelial metaplasia in response to
chronic irritation by cigarette smoke. Robbins, 7th Ed., p.10
B. Levine, Nature,
2007; 446:746
B. Levine, Nature, 2007; 446:746
Robbins, 6th Ed, p.26
Autophago-
lysosome
containing a
degenerating
mitochondrio
n.
Robbins, 6th
Ed., p. 26
A.L. Goldberg, NEJM 2007;357(11):1150
Mosby 2000; Pathology, 2nd Ed., Stevens & Lowe, p.8
Consequences of
ATP Depletion
Consequences
of Mitochondrial
injury
Disruption of
Calcium homeostasis
Reactive Oxygen Species / Free Radicals
Lipid
peroxidation




Pathology,
3rd Ed.,
Rubin &
Farber. p.22
          Necrosis
Traditionally defined by a
sequence of morphological
changes occurring after death
of cells within a living organism
         Necrosis
Typically occurs following
severe and sudden injury to
cells by a diverse range of
lethal stimuli
         e.g.
Severe hypoxia
Severe hypoglycemia
Severe physical injury
Toxin exposure
Complement attack
Viral infections
Progressive sequence of changes

  Biochemical,
  Ultrastructural,
  Light microscopic,
  Gross morphologic changes
 Results predominantly from:

(A) Enzymatic breakdown of cell
    components, and
(B) Denaturation of proteins
        Necrosis
Early loss of membrane
integrity, dissolution of
organelles and release of cell
contents, leading to an
Inflammatory Response
Electronmicrograph of a necrotic cell
Types of Necrosis
 Coagulative,
 Gangrenous,
 Liquefactive,
 Caseous,
 Hemorrhagic
 Enzymatic fat necrosis
Coagulative necrosis of myocardium




SDH Enzyme staining
Normal       Coagulative necrosis




         Myocardium
Kidney – coagulative necrosis
Normal     Coagulative necrosis




         Kidney
Spleen: infarcts (coagulative necrosis)
Normal    Coagulative necrosis




         Spleen
Gangrene of little toe (coagulative necrosis)
Liquefactive necrosis
Microabsceses (liquefactive nec.)




             Kidney
Fungal abscess (liquefactive nec)
Lung: liquefactive necrosis
Aspergillus fungal infection




           Lung
Caseous
necrosis
due to TB
infection




 Lung
Caseous
necrosis
due to TB
infection




  Lung
Caseous necrosis




     Lung
Granulomatous inflammation
Hemorrhagic + Enzymatic fat necr.




     Acute pancreatitis
Acute pancreatitis
Enzymatic fat necrosis




      Peritoneal cavity
Normal      Enzymatic fat nec.




     Intra-abdominal Fat

								
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