WHAT RESEARCH SAYS ABOUT PARENT INVOLVEMENT IN CHILDREN'S EDUCATION by wyj96198

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									   WHAT RESEARCH SAYS ABOUT PARENT INVOLVEMENT IN CHILDREN’S EDUCATION
                        In Relation to Academic Achievement


Where Children Spend Their Time                          Parent Expectations and Student Achievement
   School age children spend 70% of their waking             The most consistent predictors of children’s
   hours (including weekends and holidays) outside           academic achievement and social adjustment are
   of school.1                                               parent expectations of the child’s academic
                                                             attainment and satisfaction with their child’s
When Parents Should Get Involved                             education at school.10
   The earlier in a child’s educational process parent       Parents of high-achieving students set higher
   involvement begins, the more powerful the                 standards for their children’s educational
   effects.2                                                 activities than parents of low-achieving
   The most effective forms of parent involvement            students.11
   are those, which engage parents in working
   directly with their children on learning activities   Major Factors of Parent Involvement
   at home.3                                                Three major factors of parental involvement in
                                                            the education of their children12:
Impact                                                      1. Parents’ beliefs about what is important,
   86% of the general public believes that support              necessary and permissible for them to do with
   from parents is the most important way to                    and on behalf of their children;
   improve the schools.4                                    2. The extent to which parents believe that they
   Lack of parental involvement is the biggest                  can have a positive influence on their
   problem facing public schools.5                              children’s education; and
   Decades of research show that when parents are           3. Parents’ perceptions that their children and
   involved students have6:                                     school want them to be involved.
   - Higher grades, test scores, and graduation rates
   - Better school attendance                            Type of Involvement
   - Increased motivation, better self-esteem                Although most parents do not know how to help
   - Lower rates of suspension                               their children with their education, with guidance
   - Decreased use of drugs and alcohol                      and support, they may become increasingly
   - Fewer instances of violent behavior                     involved in home learning activities and find
   Family participation in education was twice as            themselves with opportunities to teach, to be
   predictive of students’ academic success as               models for and to guide their children.13
   family socioeconomic status. Some of the more             When schools encourage children to practice
   intensive programs had effects that were 10 times         reading at home with parents, the children make
   greater than other factors.7                              significant gains in reading achievement
   The more intensely parents are involved, the              compared to those who only practice at school.14
   more beneficial the achievement effects.8                 Parents, who read to their children, have books
   The more parents participate in schooling, in a           available, take trips, guide TV watching, and
   sustained way, at every level -- in advocacy,             provide stimulating experiences contribute to
   decision-making and oversight roles, as fund-             student achievement.15
   raisers and boosters, as volunteers and para-
   professionals, and as home teachers -- the better
   for student achievement.9
Type of Involvement (continued)                           School and District Leadership
    Families whose children are doing well in school          The strongest and most consistent predictors of
    exhibit the following characteristics:16                  parent involvement at school and at home are the
    1. Establish a daily family routine.                      specific school programs and teacher practices
        Examples: Providing time and a quiet place to         that encourage parent involvement at school and
        study, assigning responsibility for household         guide parents in how to help their children at
        chores, being firm about bedtime and having           home.19
        dinner together.                                      School initiated activities to help parents change
    2. Monitor out-of-school activities.                      the home environment can have a strong
        Examples: Setting limits on TV watching,              influence on children’s school performance.20
        checking up on children when parents are not          Parents need specific information on how to help
        home, arranging for after-school activities           and what to do.21
        and supervised care.
    3. Model the value of learning, self-discipline,      Federal and State Requirements
        and hard work. Examples: Communicating                Parent involvement components are required in
        through questioning and conversation,                 the federal Elementary and Secondary Education
        demonstrating that achievement comes from             Act (ESEA), and various federal and state
        working hard.                                         education programs including Early On,
    4. Express high but realistic expectations for            Michigan School Readiness Program and Title 1.
        achievement. Examples: Setting goals and
        standards that are appropriate for children's     Obstacles
        age and maturity, recognizing and                     School activities to develop and maintain
        encouraging special talents, informing friends        partnerships with families decline with each
        and family about successes.                           grade level, and drop dramatically at the
    5. Encourage children's development/                      transition to middle grades.22
        progress in school. Examples: Maintaining             Teachers often think that low-income parents and
        a warm and supportive home, showing                   single parents will not or cannot spend as much
        interest in children's progress at school,            time helping their children at home as do middle-
        helping with homework, discussing the value           class parents with more education and leisure
        of a good education and possible career               time.23
        options, staying in touch with teachers and
        school staff.                                     Epstein's Six Types of Parent Involvement
    6. Encourage reading, writing, and                    Joyce Epstein of Johns Hopkins University has
        discussions among family members.                 developed a framework for defining six different types
        Examples: Reading, listening to children read     of parent involvement. This framework assists
        and talking about what is being read.             educators in developing school and family partnership
                                                          programs. "There are many reasons for developing
Student Interest                                          school, family, and community partnerships," she
    Most students at all levels – elementary, middle,     writes. "The main reason to create such partnerships
    and high school – want their families to be more      is to help all youngsters succeed in school and in later
    knowledgeable partners about schooling and are        life."
    willing to take active roles in assisting
    communications between home and school.17             Epstein's framework defines the six types of
    When parents come to school regularly, it             involvement and lists sample practices or activities to
    reinforces the view in the child's mind that school   describe the involvement more fully. Her work also
    and home are connected and that school is an          describes the challenges inherent in fostering each
    integral part of the whole family's life.18           type of parent involvement as well as the expected
                                                          results of implementing them for students, parents,
                                                          and teachers.
Epstein's Framework of Six Types of Involvement

1. PARENTING: Help all families establish home           6. COLLABORATING WITH COMMUNITY:
   environments to support children as students.            Identify and integrate resources and services from
   o Parent education and other courses or training         the community to strengthen school programs,
       for parents (e.g., GED, college credit, family       family practices, and student learning and
       literacy).                                           development.
   o Family support programs to assist families             o    Information for students and families on
       with health, nutrition, and other services.               community health, cultural, recreational,
   o Home visits at transition points to pre-school,             social support, and other programs/services.
       elementary, middle, and high school.                 o    Information on community activities that link
2. COMMUNICATING: Design effective forms of                      to learning skills and talents, including
   school-to-home and home-to-school                             summer programs for students.
   communications about school programs and
   children's progress.                                  National Standards for Parent/Family Involvement
   o Conferences with every parent at least once a       Building upon the six types of parent involvement
       year.                                             identified by Joyce L. Epstein, Ph.D., of the Center on
   o Language translators to assist families as          School, Family, and Community Partnerships at Johns
       needed.                                           Hopkins University, National PTA created program
   o Regular schedule of useful notices, memos,          standards of excellence.
       phone calls, newsletters, and other
       communications.                                       National Standards for Parent/Family
3. VOLUNTEERING: Recruit and organize parent                       Involvement Programs
   help and support.
   o School and classroom volunteer program to           Standard 1: Communicating—
       help teachers, administrators, students, and                  Communication between home
       other parents.                                                and school is regular, two-way,
   o Parent room or family center for volunteer                      and meaningful.
       work, meetings, and resources for families.       Standard II: Parenting—Parenting skills are
   o Annual postcard survey to identify all                           promoted and supported.
       available talents, times, and locations of
                                                         Standard III: Student Learning—Parents play
       volunteers.
4. LEARNING AT HOME: Provide information                               an integral role in assisting
   and ideas to families about how to help students at                 student learning.
   home with homework and other curriculum-related       Standard IV: Volunteering—Parents are
   activities, decisions, and planning.                               welcome in the school, and their
   o Information for families on skills required for                  support and assistance are
       students in all subjects at each grade.                        sought.
   o Information on homework policies and how to
                                                         Standard V: School Decision Making and
       monitor and discuss schoolwork at home.
   o Family participation in setting student goals
                                                                     Advocacy—Parents are full
       each year and in planning for college or work.                partners in the decisions that
5. DECISION MAKING: Include parents in school                        affect children and families.
   decisions, developing parent leaders and              Standard VI: Collaborating with Community—
   representatives.                                                   Community resources are used
       o Active PTA/PTO or other parent                               to strengthen schools, families,
            organizations, advisory councils, or                      and student learning.
            committees for parent leadership and
            participation.
       o Independent advocacy groups to lobby and
            work for school reform and improvements.
       o Networks to link all families with parent
            representatives.
1                                                            23
  Clark, R.M. (1990). Why Disadvantaged Children                Reynolds, et, al., (6)
                                                             23
Succeed. Public Welfare (Spring): 17-23.                        Clark (7:85-105)
2                                                            23
  Cotton, K., Wikelund, K., Northwest Regional                  Cotton, K., Wikelund, K., Northwest Regional
Educational Laboratory, School Improvement Research          Educational Laboratory, School Improvement Research
Series. In Parent Involvement in Education.                  Series. In Parent Involvement in Education.
3                                                            23
  Cotton, K., Wikelund, K., Northwest Regional                  Cotton, K., Wikelund, K., Northwest Regional
Educational Laboratory, School Improvement Research          Educational Laboratory, School Improvement Research
Series. In Parent Involvement in Education.                  Series. In Parent Involvement in Education.
4                                                            23
  Rose, Gallup, & Elam, 1997                                    Epstein, 1995, p. 703
5                                                            23
  Rose, Gallup, & Elam, 1997                                    Steinberg (8)
6                                                            23
  Parent Teacher Association                                    1997 Review of Educational Research, a journal of the
7
  Walberg (1984) in his review of 29 studies of school–      American Educational Research Association
                                                             23
parent programs.                                                Roberts, 1992. In Online Resources for Parent/Family
8
  Cotton, K., Wikelund, K., Northwest Regional               Involvement. ERIC Digest by Ngeow, Karen Yeok-Hwa,
Educational Laboratory, School Improvement Research          1999.
                                                             23
Series. In Parent Involvement in Education.                     Tizard, J.; Schofield, W.N.; & Hewison, J. (1982).
9
  Williams, D.L. & Chavkin, N.F. (1989). Essential           Collaboration Between Teachers and Parents in Assisting
elements of strong parent involvement programs.              Children’s Reading.
                                                             23
Educational Leadership, 47, 18-20                               Sattes (5:2)
10                                                           23
   Reynolds, et, al., (6)                                       Henderson (1:9)
11                                                           23
   Clark (7:85-105)                                             Dauber and Epstein (11:61)
12                                                           23
   1997 Review of Educational Research, a journal of the        Leler, H. (1983) Parent Education and Involvement in
American Educational Research Association                    Relation to the Schools and to Parents of School-aged
13
   Roberts, 1992. In Online Resources for Parent/Family      Children.
                                                             23
Involvement. ERIC Digest by Ngeow, Karen Yeok-Hwa,              Morton-Williams, R. “The Survey of Parental Attitude
1999.                                                        and Circumstances, 1964.”
14                                                           23
   Tizard, J.; Schofield, W.N.; & Hewison, J. (1982).           Epstein, J.L. (1992) School and Family Partnerships.
                                                             23
Collaboration Between Teachers and Parents in Assisting         Epstein J.L. (1984, March). Single Parents and Schools:
Children’s Reading.                                          The effects of marital status Parent and Teacher
15
   Sattes (5:2)                                              Evaluations.
16
   Henderson (1:9)
17
   Epstein, 1995, p. 703
18
   Steinberg (8)
19
   Dauber and Epstein (11:61)
20
   Leler, H. (1983) Parent Education and Involvement in
Relation to the Schools and to Parents of School-aged
Children.
21
   Morton-Williams, R. “The Survey of Parental Attitude
and Circumstances, 1964.”
22
   Epstein, J.L. (1992) School and Family Partnerships.
23
   Epstein J.L. (1984, March). Single Parents and Schools:
The effects of marital status Parent and Teacher
Evaluations. 23 Clark, R.M. (1990). Why Disadvantaged
Children Succeed. Public Welfare (Spring): 17-23.
23
   Rose, Gallup, & Elam, 1997
23
   Rose, Gallup, & Elam, 1997
23
   Henderson and Berla, 1994
23
   Walberg (1984) in his review of 29 studies of school–
parent programs.
23
   Cotton, K., Wikelund, K., Northwest Regional
Educational Laboratory, School Improvement Research
Series. In Parent Involvement in Education.
23
   Williams, D.L. & Chavkin, N.F. (1989). Essential
elements of strong parent involvement programs.
Educational Leadership, 47, 18-20
23
   Parent Teacher Association                                                                               March 2002

								
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