CHAPTER - 17

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					                              CHAPTER - 17

                  NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF HYDROLOGY

HIGHLIGHTS

   •    More than 64 Research papers published in national and international
        journals, seminars, symposiums, conferences etc.
   •    National Symposium on Hydrology and the Urban Hydrology
        organized in July, 2000.
   •    4 studies were taken up in the North Eastern region for different
        aspects of Hydrology.
   •    An International Conference on “Integrated Water Resources
        Management for Sustainable Development” organized in December,
        2000.
   •    Under the Hydrology Project, three training courses on HYMOS
        were held in July, 2000 for officers of Central/ State Governments.


NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF HYDROLOGY
THE INSTITUTE AND ITS FUNCTIONS

       The National Institute of Hydrology was established by the Government
of India in December 1978 with its headquarters at Roorkee as an
autonomous society, fully aided by the Ministry of Water Resources.
       The Union Minister of Water Resources is the President of the NIH
Society and the Union Minister of State for Water Resources is its Vice-
President. The Ministers-in-Charge of Irrigation in the States (for ten
States to be nominated for every three years by the President of the
Society), the Secretaries of the Ministries in the Government of India
concerned with water and related areas, and experts in hydrology and water
resources are members of the Society. The Secretary, Ministry of Water
Resources, Government of India, is the Chairman of the Governing body.
The Institute’s research and other technical activities are monitored and
guided by the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) headed by the Chairman,
Central Water Commission. The Director of the Institute is appointed by
the Government of India and he is the Principal Executive Officer of the
Society.
     In order to deal with specific hydrological problems of different
regions of the country and for providing effective interaction with the
States, the Institute has set up regional centres of Hard Rock region, North
Eastern region, Western Himalayan region, Ganga Plains (North), Deltaic and
East Coast region and for Ganga Plains (South) at Belgaum, Guwahati, Jammu,
Patna, Kakinada and Sagar, respectively. Regional Coordination Committees
have been constituted for each of the six regional centres to ensure
effective co-ordination with various academic and field organisations and to
advise on programme of studies and research to be undertaken by the
respective regional centres.
FUNCTIONS
The main objectives for which National Institute of Hydrology has been
established are :-
a)   To undertake, aid, promote and coordinate systematic and scientific
studies in all aspects of hydrology so as to improve the present practices in
planning, design and operation of water resources projects;
b)   To cooperate and collaborate with other national and international
organisations in the field of hydrology ;
c)   To establish and maintain a research and reference library in
pursuance of the objectives of the Society, and to equip the this with books,
reviews, magazines, and other relevant publications and ;
d)    To do all other such things as the Society may consider necessary,
incidental or conducive to the attainment of the objectives for which the
Institute has been established.
STUDIES AND RESEARCH
     Studies and research in the Institute are being carried out by the
eighteen scientific divisions at Roorkee and the six regional Centres, broadly
under the following major categories:
      ·        Basic studies and research
      ·        Applied studies and research
      ·        Software development
      ·        Field and laboratory oriented studies
      ·        Sponsored and consultancy research
      During 2000-2001, studies and research have been carried out in
various areas of hydrology.      Based on these, eighty reports are being
brought out.     More than sixty five papers have also been published in
national and international journals and proceedings of national and
international conferences/seminars/ symposia.
    Since the inception of the Institute, besides carrying out regular basic
and applied research and development studies, the Institute and its regional
centres have also taken up a few problems with emphasis on research
content, which are specifically referred to it by the Central and the State
Government Organisations and Public Sector Undertakings. Also, a number
of Central and State Governments are sponsoring research projects. During
2000- 2001 work on eight ongoing projects was continued. Studies on two
sponsored projects and two consultancy projects were completed and final
reports were submitted.
EFFICIENT WATER MANAGEMENT
      The Institute is taking various steps for water conservation and
efficient use of water management in the country.      In this direction, a
National Symposium on Hydrology with the theme “Urban Hydrology” was
organised at New Delhi on July 18-19, 2000.
INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT
    At the Rio de Janeiro Conference on Environment and Development,
Principle   3 characterised sustainable development as the right to
development.     Sustainable development means economic development and
improvement in standards of living which do not impair the future ability of
the environment to provide sustenance.
     Keeping this in view, the National Institute of hydrology has organised
an International Conference on “Integrated Water Resources Management
for Sustainable Development” at New Delhi from 19-21 December, 2000.
The International Conference was inaugurated by Shri K.C. Pant, Deputy
Chairman, Planning Commission, Government of India.         Shri Nitish Kumar,
Union Minister for Agriculture, presided the inaugural function.
The technical sessions in the conference were held under the following
themes :
            Research and Development for the Management of Surface Water
            Research and Development for the Management of Ground Water
               Water      Pollution    and    Environmental       considerations
                 Integrated           Water         Resources      Management
             Stochastic and Systems Approach to Hydrologic Problems
              Watershed       Management      and     Community    Participation
            Assessment of Hydrological Hazards and impact of climate change
             Remote Sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS) and
      Hydrologic Instrumentation
          133 papers were included in the proceedings of the conference. 112
technical papers were presented during the course of the Conference in the
technical sessions. 175 delegates from India and 45 delegates from outside
India, representing 20 countries, participated in the three day International
Conference.
          Shri Arjun Charan Sethi, Union Minister for Water Resources, was
the Chief Guest of the valedictory function held on 21st December, 2000.
Smt. Bijoya Chakravarty, Union Minister of State for Water Resources,
presided over this function.
     Some of the important recommendations of the Conference are listed
below :
    To mitigate the present and impending water crisis in water short,
regions it would be necessary to undertake interbasin transfer of water. It
is essential to evaluate the environmental effects which could occur in the
donor basin as well as the receiver basin owing to such transfers of water.
   There is a need for creation of large storages keeping in view the needs
of water for urban use, power and production of food besides moderation of
floods and mitigation of droughts in future.
    While efforts could be made to bring more areas under irrigation, the
emphasis has to be on improving irrigation efficiency i.e. increasing crop
production per unit of water used.
    So far, the modelling of sedimentation in reservoirs is based on one
dimensional models, restricted to prediction of new zero elevation and
reduced capacity at different levels. With a large number of reservoirs
having been surveyed in three dimensions, attempts at mathematical
modelling in three dimensions need to be made.
   Ground water quantity and quality modelling is an important activity and
necessary data bases are required to be created for developing and using
such models, and desired facilities need to be created for providing training
to the field engineers in such areas.
    The relationship between over exploitation and quality of ground water
needs to be studied.
    A number of water quality models are available and being developed.
However, there is an immediate need to apply these models to actual
situations for maintaining or improving the water quality.
   In depth biological studies need to be taken up along with chemical water
quality studies.
   Area specific studies relating to arsenic, fluoride, nitrates etc. need to
be taken up.
   Recycling of waste water and pollution control are imperative to conserve
sources of fresh water.
   Taking into account the trends of supply and demand of various water use
sectors, preparation of strategic action/ programmes at various levels like
villages/ city, watershed/ basin, block/ district/ state, region/ country,
should be given high priority.
    Augmentation of water availability with emphasis on rain water
harvesting and artificial recharge of ground water need to be taken up.
    Planning for optimal development of watersheds involving sustainable
management of all resources including land and water, based on systematic
and scientific studies are required to be taken.
    Scientific study of occurrence of natural disasters – floods, droughts,
cyclones – and evolving disaster management strategies and plans to be taken
up in right earnest.
    People’s participation is a must for successful implementation of
watershed management programmes.
     Techno-economic-social     and   environmental   factors,   followed   by
evaluation, deserve due attention in an integrated manner.
    There is a need to develop suitable methods and techniques for
forecasting the onset and termination of droughts and to have regional
drought frequency analysis to help plan measures for mitigating impacts of
drought.
   It may be worth studying the severity and vulnerability of hydrological
hazards under the influence of projected climate change, and to suggest
preparedness strategies to mitigate their impacts.
   The potential of GIS in analysis, management and display of spatial data
is now firmly established but researchers have to put in extra efforts to
verify the correctness of the spatial pattern of the results.
HYDROLOGY PROJECT
     The main role of the National Institute of Hydrology in the ‘Hydrology
Project’, funded by World Bank, is to strengthen and expand Institute’s
capabilities for training to serve the important training objectives in the
hydrology Project, namely (i) Data collection and processing procedures and
(ii) Use of computers and software for water data management. A major
responsibility of the Institute would be to provide for training of trainers in
the required skills through short courses run at Roorkee and in the States,
and organising courses for data base managers and data base supervisors for
use of software.
      During the interactive session with the trainers, the HP Consultants
decided that the training courses on HYMOS may be organised on basinwise.
Basis, with a mixture of trainees from Central Water Commission and the
States. Accordingly, three week training courses on HYMOS were held at
NIH, Roorkee for the officers from Central Water Commission and States.
      Under the Hydrology Project work on the following demand driven
Research and Development Projects is being carried out in collaboration with
the concerned State organisations :-
·    Fresh Water – saline Water Inter Relationship in Multi-acquifer System
of          Krishna         Delta           in      Andhra         Pradesh.
·    Estimation of Irrigation return flow in Lokapavani Area of K R Sagar
Command                                in                        Karnataka.
·    Artificial measures for Ground Water recharge in Alluvial and Hard Rock
areas of Maharashtra.
      The NIH has submitted a Research & Development Project for carrying
out ‘Hydrological Investigations and Modelling for Water Quality and
Sedimentation in the Upper Bhopal Lake’. This project was approved by the
Research & Development Evaluation Committee of the Hydrology Project at
the 8th meeting held on 3rd May, 2000. The approval of the project was
formally conveyed to the NIH in August, 2000. Scientists from the NIH
visited the study area a number of times and carried out the preliminary
survey and field investigations.
INDIAN NATIONAL COMMITTEE ON HYDROLOGY(INCOH)
      The Indian National Committee on Hydrology (INCOH) was constituted
by the Ministry of Water Resources in the year 1982. It is an apex body
with the responsibility of co-ordinating various activities concerning
hydrology in the country. The Chairman, Central Water Commission is the
Chairman of the Committee, with members drawn from the Central and the
State Governments as well as experts from academic and research
organisations, besides a few members drawn from non-governmental
professional associations. The Committee gets a feed back from States and
co-ordinates activities of State level through State Co-ordinators.     The
Secretariat of the INCOH is with NIH. The Committee has successfully
fulfilled its role and made important contributions for hydrological activities
in the country during the past eighteen years. The Committee brings out a
bi- yearly journal entitled “ Jal Vigyan Sameeksha” and also coordinates the
International Hydrology Programme (IHP) of UNESCO in India.
     During the year, the Committee provided sponsorship to eleven
conferences, seminars, etc.     Also three R&D projects sponsored by the
INCOH were completed and presently fourteen projects are in progress.
During the year, two State-of-the-art reports have been published and work
on completion of two reports is under progress. Two issues of Jal Vigyan
Sameeksha were brought out during the year. India is actively participating
in the Fifth Phase of the IHP of UNESCO.           The preparation for India’s
participation in IHP-VI has also been initiated.
ACTIVITIES IN THE NORTH EAST
Studies carried out by North Eastern Regional Centre, Guwahati, during
2000-2001 are as under:-
1. Daily Time Series Analysis of Discharge Data of North Bank
Tributaries of the Brahmaputra
Time series analysis of discharge data helps in identifying the pattern that
can be used to describe it.      The identified pattern is extrapolated or
extended to forecast future events, on the assumption that the pattern
identified from the historical record is continuous and is likely to prevail in
the future. To know the properties of the historical record the time series
is broken up into individual components and then each component separately
to understand the mechanism of different components. In this study the
historical daily discharge records of north bank tributaries of Brahmaputra
is being analysed for determination of trend and seasonality.
2.    The    Water    Balance    of   Krishnai     Sub   Basin   according   to
Thornthwaite’s concept of potential evapotranspiration
       The water balance method of determining water deficiency is a
powerful tool for irrigation scheduling. It can not only indicate when water
is needed but also provides information about how much water to apply. In a
region such as North East India where drought and water surplus both
prevail, and there is a requirement both for water conservation and
irrigation, the water balance method offers a firm basis for appraising
problems in the planning stage. Such a study is proposed for the Krishnai
basin.
3.       Ground Water Quality monitoring in Terai region of North Bengal
(part of Cooch Behar and Jalpaiguri district) with special reference to
Fluoride
In the study an attempt would be made to highlight the water quality
monitoring aspects for drinking and irrigation water problems of Terai
region. The determination of physicochemical parameters from time to time
is very important for appraisal of pollution hazards. The main objective of
the study would be to assess the suitability of water for various designated
uses, by making physicochemical tests on samples collected from different
sampling points from time to time in and around Terai region.
4.       Hydrologic Properties and Infiltration characteristics of soils in
Dudhanai Basin
Accurate estimation of infiltration is essential for better understanding of
the rainfall runoff relationship of a basin. The hydrological properties of
soils govern their infiltration characteristics. These properties include the
tension-moisture content relationship, saturated hydraulic conductivity and
hydraulic conductivity    – moisture    content relationship of the soil.
Infiltration tests have been conducted at different locations/ soil types in
the representative basin at Dudhanai for validation of the model developed.
AWARDS
     The Institute has instituted two awards. The Bharat Singh Award is
given biennially in recognition of significant research contributions in the
area of hydrology. The National Hydrology Award is also given biennially for
stimulating original research, organisation and promotion of research
activities in operational hydrology.
     The Institute has also a scheme of annual cash awards for encouraging
studies and research by scientists of the Institute. The annual cash awards
for the year 1998-99 were presented by the Union Minister of Water
Resources, Shri Arjun Charan Sethi, to Shri S.K. Jain, Scientist E and Dr.
B.K. Purandara, Scientist ‘B’ at New Delhi on 2nd December, 2000.
FINANCE AND BUDGET
     The Institute receives funds from the Ministry of Water Resources as
grants-in-aid. The revised estimates of the Institute for the year 2000-
2001 was Rs. 3.20 crore under non-plan and 1.60 crore under plan, crore and
for Hydrology Project it was Rs. 0.70 crore.
USE OF HINDI
       A number of programmes were organised by the Institute for
implementing    and       promoting   the   use    of   Hindi    in   various
Technical/Administrative works. The Ministry of Water Resources has
awarded Chal Vajanti award II for Hindi activities of the Insitute during
this year on 12th September, 2000. A workshop on Internet programme (in
Hindi) was organised for updating the knowledge of ministerial staff of the
Institute. Pravahani, literary in house annual magazine, has been published in
Hindi during this year.
VIGILANCE
     During the year, there was no vigilance case requiring major or minor
penalties. Vigilance inspections were made from time to time and necessary
follow up measures were taken.
REDRESSAL OF STAFF GRIEVANCES
      There is no staff grievance pending in the Institute.