A Long Time Ago

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					                                   A long time ago
          Band of development Early childhood
          Curriculum organiser Social Sciences / English
                     Year level(s) 1/2
              Proposed duration 10 weeks
              Essential Learning 2. The student understands and applies the inquiry
                  Achievements process.
                                       8. The student listens and speaks with purpose and
                                       effect.
                                       9. The student reads effectively.
                                       10. The student writes effectively.
                                       21. The student understands about Australia and
                                       Australians.




ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Thank you to the Curriculum Support section for developing and sharing this
unit.


This is a sample unit of work. Teachers need to consider its usefulness within the context    Posted:
of their own students’ needs and school’s curriculum plan and adapt it accordingly.
                                                                                             November
                                                                                                 2007
                                  How did children live in other times?

                               BAND OF DEVELOPMENT- Early childhood
                               YEAR LEVEL- 1/2
                               DURATION- 10 weeks
                               TEACHER-

          This unit involves students in an inquiry to learn about the lives of children in
          the past. They use a range of strategies to find out about and interpret
          information. The scope of the inquiry allows it to respond to the interests and
          backgrounds of students. The unit uses the inquiry process of Kath Murdoch.

Big Ideas
   We learn about lifestyles and events which are important to individuals through personal and oral histories,
    artefacts, memorabilia and documents.
   Stories teach us how to live now - we can learn from the past.
   We learn about lifestyles and events which are important to the community through museums, libraries and
    sites.
   People lived differently in different times.
   The lives of people are affected by the place they live, events, changes in the social composition of society
    and changes in technology.

Key Understandings
 People tell stories to help us learn about the past.
 We can learn about the past from special things people keep.
 We can learn from the things stored in museums.
 We can learn from books and other resources in libraries.
 We can learn from significant places in the community.
 People’s lives change because of the effects of technology.
 People’s lifestyles change because of contact with new customs and beliefs.

Possible Generalisations
 Children have families, possessions, opinions, beliefs and customs which are of varying importance to
   them.
 People remember significant people, events, places and possessions in their lives.
 Photographs show fashions, environments and technology of the past.
 Photographs help us remember events, feelings and things of the past.
 Photographic evidence needs to be verified by other evidence.
 Documents such as letters, certificates, birthday cards and newspaper clippings help people remember the
   past.
 Keepsakes and memorabilia help people remember about the past.
 Museums, heritage sites and libraries store and display things from the past.

Worthwhile Learning
In addition to the essential content, students have opportunities to learn about;
 graphs as a tool to show comparisons
 toys and play throughout history
 artefacts, museums and oral histories as sources of information




                                                                                                        2
Unit Outcomes: (may be replaced with those from school documents)

By the end of the unit, students will: (in SOSE)
 Retell the stories of some past events and people.
 Identify sources of information for finding out about the past.
 Identify how people’s lives are affected by technology and resources.

By the end of the unit, students will: (in English)
 Design questions and use interviews to find out information.
 Plan and present oral presentations both formally and informally.
 Produce texts in a range of forms.


Values and Attitudes
The unit fosters the following values and attitudes:

ELA 2 The student understands and applies the inquiry process
  develop curiosity, openness to new ideas and an inquiring habit of mind

ELA 8 The student listens and speaks with purpose and effect
  develop respect for others and consideration of everyone’s right to speak and to be heard

ELA 9 The student reads effectively
  develop a positive attitude towards reading as an intrinsically satisfying and enjoyable lifelong activity that
   increases in skill and sophistication the more it is practised

ELA 10 The student writes effectively
  value writing as a medium for creative expression and for recording and communicating ideas, feelings
   and understandings

ELA 21 The student understands about Australia and Australians
  develop an interest in finding out about Australia and the lives of Australians at different times
  value and respect Indigenous peoples both past and present, their cultures and spiritual connection to the
   land and sea
  appreciate and respect the diversity of Australians and their contributions to the development of Australia




                                                                                                           3
                  Essential Learning Achievements Addressed by this unit

The Essential Content detailed below is mapped to the teaching and learning activities.
Some content, especially that from literacy and inquiry based ELAs should feature in most
lessons and requires ongoing exposure and practice by students. This content is
marked below in italics.

Discipline Based ELAs

ELA 21 The student understands about Australia and Australians
In the early childhood band of development, students have opportunities to understand and learns about:
21EC1 Australia as a large land mass with a variety of environments (e.g. varied landscapes, animals and
plants, places where people live)
21EC2 some places and landmarks in the local community
21EC3 the meaning of names given to some familiar places (e.g. names of Canberra’s streets and
suburbs)
21EC4 the stories of some people and events in Australia’s past (e.g. children’s lives at different times
such as during war, in the bush, before television, before colonisation, during migration, in the local area)
21EC5 Indigenous people as the first Australians and that Australia’s history predates British colonisation
21EC6 individuals and groups in the community (e.g. through simple information texts, family histories,
Dreaming stories, folk tales)
21EC8 the diversity of Australians (e.g. people may look and speak differently from each other and come
from a variety of backgrounds)

In the early childhood band of development, students have opportunities to learn to:
21EC10 recognise Australia’s shape (e.g. in images and on maps) and some of its places (e.g. relevant to
students experiences or classroom focus)
21EC11 find out about people’s lives in the past by asking questions of people they know (e.g. find out
what their parents lives were like when they were children).

ELA 23 The student understands world events and issues
In the early childhood band of development, students have opportunities to understand and learns about:
23EC5 ways people live differently in different places (e.g. food, features of culture, language and religion,
schooling, clothing, access to resources)



ELA 7 The student creates, presents and appreciates artistic works
In the early childhood band of development, students have opportunities to learn to:
7EC8 create artistic works that tell a story (e.g. comic strip, storyboard, dance or puppet play)


Interdisciplinary ELAs (taught throughout the unit in all activities)
ELA 2 The student understands and applies the inquiry process
In the early childhood band of development, students have opportunities to learn to:
2EC1 explore inquiry as a useful process for creating knowledge and understanding the world around
them
2EC2 contribute to planning and conducting simple investigations by asking questions and seeking
answers through observing, experimenting, engaging with information in texts, discussing ideas with
others and using ICT
2EC3 ask questions and identify possible sources of information to seek answers
2EC6 follow suggestions to collect and record data or information from a small range of sources (e.g. from
simple experimentation, mathematical procedures, talking with others or from one or two text sources)
2EC8 make judgements about the usefulness of data or information collected
2EC9 follow suggestions to order and present data or information (e.g. grouping or sequencing, drawing,
simple table, graph or timeline)
2EC11 attempt to convince themselves and others about whether their findings are true
2EC12 share and communicate observations, findings, ideas and understandings.




                                                                                                                 4
                                                 Literacy Focus
Literacy Focus: narrative, recount, exposition, speaking and listening
This unit should be taught in conjunction with the class literacy program. The content identified below is covered
by this unit, either generally through all sessions or explicitly.
ELA 8 The student listens and speaks with purpose and effect
In the early childhood band of development, students have opportunities to understand and learns about:
8EC2 listening and speaking as providing opportunities to exchange information, to share and explore ideas, and
to express opinions and listen to the opinions of others.

In the early childhood band of development, students have opportunities to learn to:
8EC3 listen and speak in discussions, conversations and oral presentations in small and large groups, which are
usually informal
8EC4 listen attentively through showing interest in a speaker’s turn or presentation and appropriate body
language (e.g. facing the speaker, facial expressions, gestures) to emphasise and clarify meaning
8EC6 make oral presentations of personal recounts or reports about people, places and things related to their
own experience, understand the topic, provide some relevant ideas and information, and include events in
sequence
8EC7 ask questions, contribute information and ideas, and express opinions relevant to the topic, and use
statements, questions and commands
8EC8 speak audibly, with some sense of addressing an audience and the needs of listeners (e.g. vary voice tone
and volume to add interest).

ELA 11 The student critically interprets and creates texts
In the early childhood band of development, students have opportunities to learn to:
11EC6 notice meaning that is implied in a text (e.g. how the changing colours of the sky in a sequence of
pictures gives the sense of time passing)

ELA 9 The student reads effectively
In the early childhood band of development, students have opportunities to understand and learns about:
9EC1 a range of imaginative and information texts (e.g. children’s stories, rhymed verses, fairytales, fables,
simple reports, transactions and explanations)
9EC2 how imaginative texts can entertain, move and teach important things, have plots, settings and characters,
and are produced for particular audiences

In the early childhood band of development, students have opportunities to learn to:
9EC7 read and interpret simple imaginative texts containing ideas and information related to their real and
imagined worlds, with illustrations that clarify meaning

ELA 10 The student writes effectively
In the early childhood band of development, students have opportunities to understand and learns about:
10EC1 how writing communicates a message for a variety of purposes to different audiences
10EC3 structures and features of imaginative texts (e.g. characters, a setting and a plot in stories) and of
information texts (e.g. descriptions of people and events or giving opinions)
10EC4 similarities and differences between spoken and written language (e.g. how patterns of repetition are
used in written language to emphasise actions or ideas in texts)
10EC5 processes of planning, drafting, checking and editing writing to make the message clear for an intended
audience.

In the early childhood band of development, students have opportunities to learn to:
10EC6 write imaginative and information texts for known readers to entertain, describe, give information and
express opinions on familiar topics using handwriting or word processing (e.g. simple stories, recounts,
descriptions and explanations)
10EC8 write recounts or descriptions that order information or sequence events using some detail and/or
supporting illustrations
10EC11 write simple sentences, using suitable vocabulary for the topic, basic punctuation (capital letters, full
stops, commas in lists) and appropriate grammar, and experiment with using conjunctions (e.g. and, but,
because) for adding ideas and information and giving reasons, and cohesive devices (e.g. then, next) to guide
readers through a series of events and adjectives, adverbs and prepositional phrases to elaborate ideas.




                                                                                                                   5
                                 Teaching and Learning Activities


                                                    Tuning In
Note- all activities throughout the unit build to create a ‘museum’ in the classroom.
Teaching/Learning activity                           Outcomes (individual           Notes/Register/Teacher
                                                     teachers should include        Reflection
                                                     assessment
                                                     ideas/observations)
  Introduce the question of inquiry- How did         Identify sources of
   children live in other times?                         information for finding
 Ask students what they would like to know              out about the past.
   about children in the past. Record their
   ideas on cards and display in the
   classroom. Identify some potential
   questions and sources to help frame the
   inquiry.
Essential Content (2EC2, 2EC3)
 Have students brainstorm answers to the               Retell the stories of
   question, ‘What is history?’. List their              some past events and
   responses. Point out that histories range             people.
   from personal through to national and                Identify sources of
   international. Make a poster which defines            information for finding
   history and display in the classroom.                 out about the past.
Essential Content (2EC8)
 It is important to explain that the focus in          Retell the stories of
   this unit is on children in Australia, England        some past events and
   and some of the places our class members              people.
   are from and that students in other places in
   the world live differently.
 Discuss some things we know about
   different countries.
 Show a map of Australia and explain that
   even in Australia children’s lives are very
   different. Compare different temperatures
   and landscapes encouraging students to
   guess what type of games students play in
   different places.
Essential Content (21EC8, 23EC5,
21EC1,21EC10, 8EC3, 8EC2)
 Define what artefacts are used for                    Retell the stories of
 Visit a museum or look at museum                       some past events and
   exhibitions online. Demonstrate the layout            people.
   of exhibits and that artefacts are labelled          Identify sources of
   with explanations. Have students apply this           information for finding
   knowledge as the class museum is created.             out about the past.
 Create interview questions which could be             Design questions and
   used to find out about artefacts.                     use interviews to find
 Home activity - Draw (or photograph) one               out information.
   artefact of family significance. Interview the       Plan and present oral
   person who shows it to you to find out about          presentations both
   its significance. Report back to the class            formally and informally.
   about the artefact.
Essential Content (2EC2, 2EC12, 11EC6,
10EC1, 8EC2, 8EC11, 8EC6, 8EC4, 8EC8,
21EC4, 21EC6, 21EC12)
 Discuss events, people and possessions                Retell the stories of
   students can recall from their past. Bundle           some past events and
   these and recall why they are remembered.             people.
Essential Content (8EC2, 8EC3, 21EC11)


                                                                                                      6
  Read Wilfred Gordon McDonald Partridge                Retell the stories of
   (Mem Fox) and share special Memories                   some past events and
   from the story.                                        people.
 Record one special memory each on a
   sheet of paper which students cut and
   decorate appropriately for a class display.
Essential Content (9EC1, 9EC2, 9EC7)
 View the song, ‘My favourite things’ in the            Retell the stories of
   movie, The Sound of Music. Discuss the                 some past events and
   children in the movie (when and where they             people.
   lived) and their favourite things. Create a list      Identify how people’s
   of things which are important in children’s            lives are affected by
   lives today (favourite foods, drinks, clothes,         technology and
   activities, shows, movies, books, games,               resources.
   sports, toys etc). Find pictures of these             Produce texts in a
   things and stick them on cut outs of                   range of forms.
   cardboard children.
 Graph favourite things
Essential Content (8EC2, 9EC2, 11EC6,
21EC6, 7EC8,, 2EC6, 21EC6)
 Review favourite toys. Show students                   Identify how people’s
   images or toys/computer games etc.                     lives are affected by
   Discuss whether students think these toys              technology and
   would have been played with in the past.               resources.
 Create a list of adjectives which could be             Produce texts in a
   used to describe the toys.                             range of forms.
 Students each draw their favourite toy and
   write a description underneath it. Display in
   class museum.
Essential Content (2EC11, 10EC11, 7EC8,
2EC9, 10EC5, 10EC1, 10EC3, 10EC8, 21EC4)
 Read Too Many Sevens and discuss the                   Retell the stories of
   story and the ways in which Matthew’s                  some past events and
   family remembers the past.                             people.
 Create and send home decorated                         Identify sources of
   invitations to                                         information for finding
   parents/grandparents/neighbours etc about              out about the past.
   sharing their experiences and borrowing               Plan and present oral
   memorabilia for a classroom museum.                    presentations both
 Jointly construct an interview which could              formally and informally.
   be used to find out about people’s lives in           Produce texts in a
   the past. Discuss behaviours for asking and            range of forms.
   recording interview questions.
Essential Content (9EC1, 9EC2, 9EC7,
10EC1, 10EC5, 21EC11, 2EC2, 2EC3, 2EC6,
8EC8, 8EC4)
                                                    Finding Out
Teaching/Learning activity                            Outcomes/Indicators            Notes
                                                      (assessment for
                                                      learning)
  Explicitly teach about oral histories and             Retell the stories of
   storytelling as ways of giving history.                some past events and
   Discuss the implications of oral history (e.g.         people.
   you only tell what you want to etc)                   Identify sources of
 Discuss oral tradition of aboriginal                    information for finding
   communities                                            out about the past.
 Teacher model telling about history from an            Plan and present oral
   item                                                   presentations both
Essential Content (21EC4, 21EC5, 21EC11,                  formally and

                                                                                             7
10EC4, 8EC8, 8EC7))                                        informally.

  Interview family and community members to              Retell the stories of
   learn about their histories. These stories              some past events and
   may be tape recorded as oral histories                  people.
 Create a class timeline which stories/items             Design questions and
   are recorded on visually.                               use interviews to find
Essential Content (2EC9, 2EC3, 2EC6, 8EC3,                 out information.
8EC4)                                                     Produce texts in a
                                                           range of forms.
  Explore diverse pictures of families-ask               Produce texts in a
   questions:                                              range of forms.
Who might the people in this picture be?
Why do you think so?
Do any of these people look similar?
 Explain that we are inferring to find meaning
   based on our own experiences. We have to
   get more information to get facts from
   images.
 Build up a bank of family words
Essential Content (21EC8, 2EC11, 11EC6)
 Explore the saying ‘Children should be seen             Produce texts in a
   and not heard” what does it mean? Is it a               range of forms.
   good saying? Write a list of reasons why
   and why not. These may be developed into
   written expositions.
Essential Content (8EC7, 10EC6, 21EC4)
 Explore the interactive Technology at Home              Retell the stories of
   and discuss the implications for family life.           some past events and
Essential Content (21EC4)                                  people.
                                                          Identify sources of
                                                           information for finding
                                                           out about the past.
                                                          Identify how people’s
                                                           lives are affected by
                                                           technology and
                                                           resources.

    Ask the children to bring in old toys                Retell the stories of
    belonging to grandparents if possible. Try to          some past events and
    represent the cultural diversity of the class in       people.
    this activity using a map/globe to support the        Identify sources of
    learning.                                              information for finding
 Ask students to discuss the toys they think              out about the past.
    Aboriginal children may have played with              Identify how people’s
    over time. Information can be found at:                lives are affected by
http://www.dreamtime.net.au/indigenous/family.             technology and
cfm                                                        resources.
http://mms.qld.edu.au/aboriginal-toys/index.html          Produce texts in a
Haagen, Claudia (1995) Bush Toys, Aboriginal               range of forms.
Children at Play (ISBN 0 85575 245 9)

   The Photos of Toys may be helpful for
    looking at old toys. Start the lesson with the
    Describing Toys interactive (Old and New)
    to see if the children can spot the difference
    between old and new toys. Talk about the
    characteristics of each set and discuss how
    they decided whether a toy was old or new.
    Students may then complete the description
    and Venn diagram on the interactive. These
    may be printed as assessment tasks.

                                                                                     8
   Students can then draw a favourite old toy
   and describe it to contrast with their new
   one.
Essential Content (2EC2, 21EC4, 21EC5,
10EC8, 2EC11, 8EC7)
 As a class, discuss some of the toys on the           Identify how people’s
   History Channel timeline. Talks about the             lives are affected by
   differences between those toys and ones               technology and
   students use now. Do we still play with any           resources.
   of them?
Essential Content (21EC4, 9EC1)
 Discuss childhood memories. Create a                  Retell the stories of
   memories retrieval chart using the                    some past events and
   characters in the text and the heading                people.
   Gifts/Celebrations/Customs/Jobs/ Machines.           Identify sources of
 Invite other teachers in to discuss their              information for finding
   childhood memories.                                   out about the past.
Essential Content (8EC7, 8EC4)                          Identify how people’s
                                                         lives are affected by
                                                         technology and
                                                         resources.
                                                        Produce texts in a
                                                         range of forms.
  Excursion- If the excursion to Lanyon                Retell the stories of
   homestead is occurring, the previsit                  some past events and
   activities should be complete here.                   people.
   Alternatively, show images of historic               Identify sources of
   Canberra houses and discuss the                       information for finding
   development of Canberra. Locate these on              out about the past.
   maps. Discuss the names of these places              Identify how people’s
   and whether they have influenced name of              lives are affected by
   Canberra streets or suburbs.                          technology and
Essential Content (21EC2, 21EC3, 21EC10)                 resources.
                                                        Design questions and
                                                         use interviews to find
                                                         out information.
                                                        Plan and present oral
                                                         presentations both
                                                         formally and
                                                         informally.

  Optional activity- complete activities and           Retell the stories of
                                th
   watch movies from The 19 Century House,               some past events and
   Seven Little Australians, or other programs           people.
   about children in the past.                          Identify sources of
Essential Content (9EC1, 21EC6, 21EC8,                   information for finding
21EC4)                                                   out about the past.
 Show the students the school scene in the             Identify how people’s
   movie, Playing Beatie Bow (the whole movie            lives are affected by
   is not appropriate for this age group)                technology and
 Discuss the differences between school in              resources.
   the past and present
Essential Content (21EC4, 2EC11, 8EC7)


                                                 Sorting Out
Teaching/Learning activity                       Outcomes/Indicators               Notes
                                                 (assessment for
                                                 learning)
   Show the children old and new toys of           Identify how people’s
    similar types, eg two teddies, two trains.       lives are affected by

                                                                                           9
    Download pairs of similar toys from the           technology and
    Pairs site if necessary or let children           resources.
    view them online.                                Produce texts in a range
   Ask the children to talk about what is the        of forms.
    same and what is different between the
    toys. Discuss and draw their attention to
    the design, materials, movement and
    appearance of the toys.
 Ask the children to draw a picture of each
   toy and to write sentences showing the
   differences and similarities.
Essential Content (8EC7, 2EC6, 10EC11,
10EC6, 2EC12, 7EC8)
 Read some sections of ‘My Place’ by                Retell the stories of some
   Nadia Wheatley. Discuss how the                    past events and people.
   children change over time as well as the
   place
Essential Content (9EC1, 9EC2, 9EC7,
21EC6, 21EC8, 21EC2, 21EC4)
 Ask students if they know of some                  Retell the stories of some
   personal or community stories passed               past events and people.
   through generations and try to establish
   their purpose (e.g. to teach, entertain).
   Use local dreaming stories, world myths
   and legends, fables fairy tales and
   student’s examples.
 Optional activity- students may retell
   stories from above activity to understand
   that that is how stories are passed on.
   Use a game of Chinese whispers to
   illustrate how changes occur in retellings.
Essential Content (21EC6, 8EC8, 8EC3,
21EC4)
 As a class, jointly construct a recount of         Retell the stories of some
   a past event. Model the process of telling         past events and people.
   events in chronological order.                    Produce texts in a range
 Select another event for students to write          of forms.
   a recount of in pairs.
 Students independently write a recount
   of a special family event (a homework
   sheet may provide a scaffold). Create a
   class book of the events. Include painted
   pictures of things learnt, smelt, seen, felt
   etc
 If the excursion to Lanyon occurred,
   students write a recount of the visit.
Essential Content (10EC8, 7EC8, 10EC11,
10EC5, 10EC3))


                                            Making Conclusions
Teaching/Learning activity                        Outcomes/Indicators              Notes
                                                  (assessment for
                                                  learning)
It is imperative at this stage that the teacher and students make some generalisations about the focus
question. These generalisations, hopefully demonstrate a deeper understanding of the big ideas than the
first generalisations did. Teachers need to compare and contrast one of the Tuning In activities with the
concluding activity to assess student understanding.
   Revisit the collection of new and old toys.      Retell the stories of some
    Ask students to classify in a Venn                past events and people.
    diagram toys for boys and girls. Ask             Identify how people’s

                                                                                                 10
   students to describe what toys tell us               lives are affected by
   about the lives of adults at different times.        technology and
   Discuss whether toys are more gendered               resources.
   now or in the past.                                 Plan and present oral
Essential Content (21EC4, 2EC11)                        presentations both
                                                        formally and informally.

  If the Lanyon visit was not completed,              Retell the stories of some
   show students images of Canberra in the              past events and people.
   past. Explain that the lake was not                 Identify sources of
   always there. Create a ‘before’ and ‘after’          information for finding out
   mural of artworks.                                   about the past.
Essential Content (7EC8, 21EC2, 21EC10)
 Would you like to be a child in a different          Retell the stories of some
   time? Create exposition texts looking at             past events and people.
   the good/bad points of different times-             Produce texts in a range
   yellow/black hat thinking. Make                      of forms.
   comparisons between children’s lives
   today and that of children in other times.
   If I was born in another time……
 If Lanyon was visited, contrast students’
   lives to James’.
Essential Content (10EC6, 10EC5, 2EC8,
10EC3, 2EC11)
 Laying it on the line.                               Plan and present oral
 Students state their opinion about a                  presentations both
   given generalisation from the unit, or               formally and informally.
   another statement generated by the
   teacher or another student. E.g.
   Children’s lives in the past have been
   much easier than mine.
Essential Content (8EC7)
   Time Capsule (brown paper bags)                    Retell the stories of some
   Photograph or draw items which will be              past events and people.
    placed in ‘time capsules’ to allow future          Identify sources of
    generations of children to gain                     information for finding out
    information about the lives of children             about the past.
    now.                                               Produce texts in a range
Essential Content (2EC11, 2EC12, 2EC8)                  of forms.


                                                   Taking Action
Teaching/Learning activity                          Outcomes/Indicators               Notes
                                                    (assessment for
                                                    learning)
  Locate photos of children in other times
   in the school and Canberra. The website,
   Reflections of Canberra has many
   images.
Essential Content (10EC6, 10EC11,
21EC8, 11EC6, 21EC4)
 If the Lanyon visit was completed,
   additional activities could be done here.
 Using knowledge from the unit and any
   further research to plan an ‘old fashioned
   school day’ with lessons, food, toys etc
   similar to those in the past.
 Visitors should be invited to this. Take
   them on a tour of the class museum. This
   will allow students to demonstrate

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   understandings and memorabilia.
   Parents may also bring in precious items
   discussed in the unit to share and take
   home.
 Invite visitors (parents/grandparents/local
   senior’s group) to a morning session to
   show what students do in 2007. Have a
   morning tea arranged.
Essential Content (2EC12, 2EC11, 8EC8,
8EC6, 8EC3, 8EC2)




Lanyon Homestead Visit- Additional Activities

Finding Out
Lanyon previsit activities

    1. Show photograph of James Cunningham. Discuss whether the picture is old or new. How can we
       tell? What looks different about James in comparison to young boys today. Tell students James used
       to live in Canberra. In the picture, James is about 9 years old. When he was this age, his parents
       built a brand new homestead on the outskirts of Canberra. That was in 1859, before Canberra was
       built. The homestead was on the property called Lanyon. Read James’ diary. Essential Content
       (11EC6, 9EC1)
    2. Brainstorm ideas about what kind of things would have been very different about living 144 years
       ago. Encourage discussion to explore things such as clothing, energy, entertainment, schooling,
       transport, and furniture. Essential Content (2EC2, 8EC3, 8EC7)
    3. Search on the Internet for information about Lanyon and the Cunningham family. Essential Content
       (2EC3)
    4. Locate Lanyon on a map of Canberra/Tuggeranong. Locate other points of interest including
       suburbs, schools, and homes. Paint pictures of the landscape that might have been in Tuggeranong
       when James was a child- create a ‘then and now’ mural. Trace on a map the route you might take to
       get to Lanyon. What might Lanyon look like today? Talk with students about the types of people who
       worked at Lanyon and the types of buildings there might be. Design a map of the homestead area.
       Students can compare their maps to the sight when visiting. Essential Content (21EC2, 21EC3,
       21EC10, 7EC8)

Taking Action
    1. Design a brochure to encourage others to visit Lanyon to investigate the past. Send a copy to
       Lanyon.
    2. Write a letter to Lanyon to share our feelings towards the way they have preserved memorabilia from
       the life of James Cunningham.
    Essential Content (10EC1, 10EC3, 10EC6, 10EC8, 2EC12)



References
        Technology at Home, A Science Odyssey, 1998, WGBH, Boston, viewed 13 November 2007
        http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/tryit/tech/
        Family, Indigenous Australia, 2004, Australian Museum, viewed 13 November 2007
        http://www.dreamtime.net.au/indigenous/family.cfm
        Aboriginal Playthings, Museum Magnet Schools, 2003, Department of Education, Queensland
        Government, viewed 13 November 2007, http://mms.qld.edu.au/aboriginal-toys/index.html
        Photos of Toys, Bedford Bytes, 2004, Bedford Borough Council, Bedford, viewed 13 November 2007
        http://www.museumeducation.bedford.gov.uk/Bedfordbytes/toys/images_toys/gallery_toy_photos/ind
        ex.htm
        Describing Toys interactive, Bedford Bytes, 2004, Bedford Borough Council, Bedford, viewed 13
        November 2007,
        http://www.museumeducation.bedford.gov.uk/Bedfordbytes/toys/describing_toys.htm
        Haagen, Claudia (1995) Bush Toys, Aboriginal Children at Play (ISBN 0 85575 245 9)



                                                                                                        12
History Channel Timeline, Encyclopedia: Lincoln, Abraham, 2004, The History Channel website,
viewed 13 November 2007, http://www.history.com/exhibits/toys/chess.html
The 1900 House, 2000, Thirteenwnet, New York, viewed 13 November 2007,
http://www.pbs.org/wnet/1900house/
Pairs of Old and New Toys, Bedford Bytes, 2004, Bedford Borough Council, Bedford, viewed 13
November 2007, http://www.museumeducation.bedford.gov.uk/Bedfordbytes/toys/pairs.htm
Reflections of Canberra, ACT Heritage Library, 1998, Information Management, Urban Services, ACT
Government, Canberra, viewed 13 November 2007,
http://www.library.act.gov.au/reflectionscd/REFLECT/main.htm




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