The Homefront by chenshu

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									Unit II- Becoming a World Power


         Chapter 8 Section 3
          The Home Front
The Home Front

                                    The Main Idea
             The U.S. mobilized a variety of resources to wage World War I.

                                    Reading Focus
   How did the government mobilize the economy for the war effort?
   How did workers mobilize on the home front?
   How did the government try to influence public opinion about the war?
Mobilizing the Economy
• Going to war was extremely expensive, and President Wilson needed to
  find ways to pay for it.

        Taxes             Loans and Liberty          Regulating
                                Bonds                   Industry
• Congress passed the
  War Revenue Act of      • Wilson sparked an    • Congress created
  1917, which               intense campaign       administrative
  established very          to sell Liberty        boards to prepare
  high taxes.               Bonds.                 industries for
                                                   war.
• It taxed wealthy        • They were a form
  Americans up to 77        of loan to the       • The War
  percent of their          government from        Industries Board
  incomes.                  American people.       (WIB) regulated
                                                   all war materials.
• It increased federal    • The national debt
                                                 • It increased
  revenue by 400            grew from $1.2
  percent within two        billion to $25.5       industrial
  years.                    billion in three       production by 20
                            years.                 percent.
     Government takes control- War
           Industries Board
   The Overman Act of 1918 helped create the
    War Industries Board- Bernard M. Baruch
    in charge.
     – Job- decide what goods should be
       produced and set prices for government
       purchases or supplies.
     – During the war production went up,
       waste went down and criticism lessened.
Mobilization of Money
   Military Expenses
    –   Expenses for army, navy, credit and
        materials for allies ran into billions.
    –   $23 billion for the U.S. war effort and $10
        billion for war loans to Allies.
    –   Taxes and Loans to pay the expenses.
          Increased taxes brought in $10.5 billion
          The rest came from loans from the people
           through sale of Liberty Loans and a Victory
           Loan.
Raising Money, Conservation and
Government Controls- 2:21 min.
Daylight Savings, Taxes, and
   Liberty Bonds – 1:04
                  Mobilization
   Army needed to be fed, clothed, equipped
    and armed
    –   Shortages at first
    –   American factories were supplying pistols,
        rifles, machine guns, shells and bullets.
    –   Heavy equipment- artillery, tanks and
        airplanes were provided by British and
        French.
Regulations to Supply U.S. and Allied Troops

        Regulating Food                     Regulating Fuel
• Congress passed the Lever Food      • The Fuel Administration was
  and Fuel Control Act, letting the     established to set production
  government set prices and             goals and prices for fuel.
  establish production controls.
                                      • Harry Garfield, son of former
• Herbert Hoover’s Food
                                        president James A. Garfield,
  Administration promised farmers
                                        headed the administration.
  higher prices for crops.
• He also asked Americans to eat      • Garfield introduced daylight
  less and to plant food gardens.       savings time to extend
                                        daylight hours for factory
• Prohibition also helped the war,
                                        workers with long shifts.
  as alcohol is made using food
  crops like grapes and wheat.        • He promoted fuel
• The 1919 Volstead Act passed          conservation by encouraging
  Prohibition as the temperance         Americans to go without gas
  movement gained strength.             and heat on certain days.
Government takes control
   Some Private Businesses were taken over.
    –   Some railroads and railway express companies, and inland
        waterway systems. Then telephone, telegraph and cable.
    –   1/2 billion was invested in improvements and equipment.
   Council of Defense
    –   National Food-control program- Herbert Hoover
    –   Broad powers over production and distribution of food, fuel,
        fertilizer, and farm machinery.
    –   Voluntary “wheatless, meatless, and heatless’ days.
    –   War gardens
    –   Set Prices for crops to help farmers and encourage production.
        Farmers paid off mortgages, new machinery, etc. Price of land went
        up. (Farmers would pay a peacetime price for wartime prosperity)
    –   Rationed coal
Mobilizing the Economy
   How did the government mobilize the economy
    for the war effort?
   What was the War Revenue Act of 1917?
   What was the function of the War Industries
    Board?
   Why do you think it was necessary for the
    government to set prices and production
    controls for food and fuel during the war?
Mobilizing the Economy

 What  steps did the Fuel
  Administration take to encourage
  fuel conservation?
 How did patriotism play a part in
  the passage of the 18th
  Amendment?
Mobilizing Workers
   During the war, the profits of many major industrial companies skyrocketed because
    companies sold to the federal government.
   This created enormous profits for stockholders of industries like steel, oil, and
    chemicals.
   Factory wages also increased, but the rising cost of food and housing meant that
    workers were not much better off.
   War demands also led to laborers working long hours in increasingly dangerous
    conditions in order to produce the needed materials on time and faster than other
    companies.
   These harsher conditions led many workers to join labor unions.

          Union membership increased by about 60 percent between
          1916 and 1919, and unions boomed as well, with more than
          6,000 strikes held during the war.
Wartime Workers
  National War Labor Board            Women’s War Efforts
• Leaders feared strikes would     • As men left their jobs to
  disrupt production for the war     fight, women moved in to
                                     keep the American economy
  effort.
                                     moving.
• The Wilson administration        • Women took many jobs
  created the National War           traditionally held by men on
  Labor Board in 1918.               the railroads, in factories,
                                     and on docks, as well as
• The board judged disputes
                                     building ships and airplanes.
  between workers and
  management, handling 1,200       • Other women filled more
  cases during the war years.        traditional jobs as teachers
                                     and nurses, and many
• Also, to improve working           volunteered.
  conditions, it established an
                                   • About 1 million women
  eight-hour workday, sought         joined the workforce during
  companies to recognize unions,     the war, and women used
  and urged equal pay for women.     this as leverage for suffrage
                                     movements.
      Government takes control- The
             Labor Force
   A million women helped fill the gap in the labor force left
    by men.
   Mills and factories
   Acts of Patriotism by women, but yet after the war they
    were asked to leave their jobs for men returning.
   Blacks- moved north to get jobs.
   Shortage of labor sent wages up. Real income went up
    20%
   United States Employment Service created to fill jobs in
    vital industries.
   A National War Labor Board- created to arbitrate labor
    disputes.- 8 hour workday and government support of
    unions.
Influenza Spreads
   Three waves of a severe flu epidemic broke out between 1918 and 1919 in Europe
    and in America.
   Of all American troops who died in World War II, half died from influenza.
   On the Western Front, crowded and unsanitary trenches helped flu spread among
    troops, then to American military camps in Kansas and beyond.
   This strain of influenza was deadly, killing healthy people within days, and during
    the month of October 1918, influenza killed nearly 200,000 Americans.
   Panicked city leaders halted gatherings, and people accused the Germans of releasing
    flu germs into the populace.




        By the time it passed, over 600,000 Americans lost their lives.
The Great Influenza- Spanish Flu Pandemic
   In the spring of 1918 large numbers of soldiers in the trenches in France
    became ill. The soldiers complained of a sore throat, headaches and a loss of
    appetite. Although it appeared to be highly infectious, recovery was rapid and
    doctors gave it the name of 'three-day fever'. At first doctors were unable to
    identify the illness but eventually they decided it was a new strain of influenza.
   The soldiers gave it the name Spanish Flu but there is no evidence that it really
    did originate from that country. In fact, in Spain they called it French Flu.
    Others claimed that the disease started in the Middle Eastern battlefields,
    whereas others blamed it on China and India.
   Other notions of this strain of influenza's origin contained less-politically
    charged, but equally specious logic. According to one theory, poison gases used
    in the war, air charged with carbon dioxide from the trenches, and gases
    formed from decomposing bodies and exploding munitions had all fused to
    form a highly toxic vapor that flu victims had inhaled. Among the other causes
    advanced were: air stagnation, coal dust, fleas, the distemper of cats and dogs,
    and dirty dishwater. A recent study argued that the disease was brought to the
    Western Front by a group of USA soldiers from Kansas. It originally most
    likely came from animals.
The Great Influenza- Spanish Flu Pandemic
   The USA was also very badly affected by the virus. By September a
    particularly virulent strain began to sweep through the country. By early
    December about 450,000 Americans had died of the disease.
   The country that suffered most was India. The first cases appeared in Bombay
    in June 1918. The following month deaths were being reported in Karachi and
    Madras. With large numbers of India's doctors serving with the British Army
    the country was unable to cope with the epidemic. Some historians claim that
    between June 1918 and July 1919 over 16,000,000 people in India died of the
    virus.
   It has been estimated that throughout the world over 70 million people died of
    the influenza pandemic. In India alone, more people died of influenza than
    were killed all over the world during the entire 1st World War.
Mobilizing Workers
   How did workers mobilize on the home front?
   What were some of the policies set by the
    National War Labor Board?
   What can you infer from the fact that profits of
    many major industrial corporations skyrocketed
    because they sold their products to the federal
    government?
   How did war demands lead to an increase in union
    membership?
Mobilizing Workers

How   did the influenza
 epidemic affect American
 life?
How did the influenza
 epidemic spread?
Influencing Public Opinion
President Wilson used a number of tactics to gain the support of
Americans who had favored neutrality in World War I.

           Propaganda                            Reactions
• The Committee on Public              • Some Americans began to
  Information (CPI) appointed            distrust German things.
  reporter and reformer George         • Many schools stopped
  Creel as its leader.                   teaching German, and
                                         symphonies stopped playing
• Creel began a campaign of              German music.
  propaganda: posters, news
  stories, speeches, and other         • German-sounding names
                                         were changed, so sauerkraut
  materials to influence opinion.        became liberty cabbage and
• Creel hired movie stars to             hamburgers became liberty
  speak, and artists to create           steak.
  patriotic posters and pamphlets.     • Reports spread that German
                                         secret agents were operating
• One famous poster by James             in the U.S., causing some
  Montgomery Flagg pictures              Americans to discriminate
  Uncle Sam saying “I Want You           against German Americans.
  for the U.S. Army.”
Fear on the Homefront: The
Espionage and Sedition Acts (05:19)
          Government takes control-
             Mobilizing Minds
   Millions opposed to war- German Americans, Irish
    Americans, Socialists, Progressives, Pacifists,
   Committee on Public Information- The Creel Committee
    –   Assigned to “sell the war to America”
    –   Propaganda- depict the Germans as hateful beasts,
        barbarous Huns bent on world domination.
    –   Whip up enthusiasm, sell war bonds, hate our enemy, keep
        people working hard.
    –   Stirred up spy scares, traitor hunts, slackers, etc.
    –   German language studies dropped, German words changed,
        Anti- German madness was really Anti-American.
Propaganda and the Creel Committee – 1:51
  Limiting Antiwar Speech
Some Americans Speak Out
• Prominent Americans such as pacifist reformer Jane Addams and Senator
  Robert La Follette spoke out against the war.
• Addams founded the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom.
• Wilson’s administration tried to limit public speech about the war.

Legislation

 • Congress passed the Espionage Act, which punished people for aiding the
  enemy or refusing military duty.
 • The year after, it passed the Sedition Act, making it illegal for Americans to
  criticize the government, flag, or military in speech or writing.
Opponents
• More than 1,000 opponents of war were jailed under those acts, including
  Robert Goldstein, who directed a film called The Spirit of ‘76 and refused to
  remove scenes of British brutality during the American Revolution.
• Socialist Party leader Eugene Debs was sentenced to 10 years in prison for
  criticizing the Espionage Act but was released after the war.
            Government takes control-
            Attacking Civil Liberties
   Espionage Act of 1917
     –   Censorship
     –   Penalties against anyone who handed out information about anything
         connected with national defense.
     –   Penalties to anyone urging resistance to military duty or draft.
   Trading with the Enemy Act of 1917
     – Any newspaper printed in a foreign language in the U.S. must
         furnish an English translation to the Postmaster general
   Sedition Act of 1918- went further that the 1798 version.
     – Penalties on anyone who used “disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or
         abusive language about the U.S. government, flag or uniform.
   Strange way to fight a war- Eugene Debs socialist candidate for
    President went to jail. How can the nation improve its war effort if
    citizens are not allowed to criticize the gov’t or armed forces? Actual
    opposition was light and did little to hamper the war effort.
Opponents Go to the Supreme Court
   Many Americans thought the Espionage and Sedition Acts violated the First
    Amendment, but others thought they were essential to protect military
    secrets and the safety of America.
   The Supreme Court also struggled to interpret the acts.
   In one case, Charles Schenck, an official of the American Socialist Party,
    organized the printing of 15,000 leaflets opposing the war and was
    convicted of violating the Espionage Act.
   He challenged the conviction in the Supreme Court, but the Court upheld his
    conviction, limiting free speech during war.
   Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. wrote the Court’s unanimous decision,
    stating that some things said safely in peacetime are dangerous to the
    country during wartime.
Influencing Public Opinion

 How   did the government try to
  influence public opinion about
  the war?
 What is propaganda?
 How did anti-German feelings
  affect American life during
  World War I?

								
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