VIEWS: 9 PAGES: 34 POSTED ON: 5/12/2010
Unit II- Becoming a World Power Chapter 8 Section 3 The Home Front The Home Front The Main Idea The U.S. mobilized a variety of resources to wage World War I. Reading Focus How did the government mobilize the economy for the war effort? How did workers mobilize on the home front? How did the government try to influence public opinion about the war? Mobilizing the Economy • Going to war was extremely expensive, and President Wilson needed to find ways to pay for it. Taxes Loans and Liberty Regulating Bonds Industry • Congress passed the War Revenue Act of • Wilson sparked an • Congress created 1917, which intense campaign administrative established very to sell Liberty boards to prepare high taxes. Bonds. industries for war. • It taxed wealthy • They were a form Americans up to 77 of loan to the • The War percent of their government from Industries Board incomes. American people. (WIB) regulated all war materials. • It increased federal • The national debt • It increased revenue by 400 grew from $1.2 percent within two billion to $25.5 industrial years. billion in three production by 20 years. percent. Government takes control- War Industries Board The Overman Act of 1918 helped create the War Industries Board- Bernard M. Baruch in charge. – Job- decide what goods should be produced and set prices for government purchases or supplies. – During the war production went up, waste went down and criticism lessened. Mobilization of Money Military Expenses – Expenses for army, navy, credit and materials for allies ran into billions. – $23 billion for the U.S. war effort and $10 billion for war loans to Allies. – Taxes and Loans to pay the expenses. Increased taxes brought in $10.5 billion The rest came from loans from the people through sale of Liberty Loans and a Victory Loan. Raising Money, Conservation and Government Controls- 2:21 min. Daylight Savings, Taxes, and Liberty Bonds – 1:04 Mobilization Army needed to be fed, clothed, equipped and armed – Shortages at first – American factories were supplying pistols, rifles, machine guns, shells and bullets. – Heavy equipment- artillery, tanks and airplanes were provided by British and French. Regulations to Supply U.S. and Allied Troops Regulating Food Regulating Fuel • Congress passed the Lever Food • The Fuel Administration was and Fuel Control Act, letting the established to set production government set prices and goals and prices for fuel. establish production controls. • Harry Garfield, son of former • Herbert Hoover’s Food president James A. Garfield, Administration promised farmers headed the administration. higher prices for crops. • He also asked Americans to eat • Garfield introduced daylight less and to plant food gardens. savings time to extend daylight hours for factory • Prohibition also helped the war, workers with long shifts. as alcohol is made using food crops like grapes and wheat. • He promoted fuel • The 1919 Volstead Act passed conservation by encouraging Prohibition as the temperance Americans to go without gas movement gained strength. and heat on certain days. Government takes control Some Private Businesses were taken over. – Some railroads and railway express companies, and inland waterway systems. Then telephone, telegraph and cable. – 1/2 billion was invested in improvements and equipment. Council of Defense – National Food-control program- Herbert Hoover – Broad powers over production and distribution of food, fuel, fertilizer, and farm machinery. – Voluntary “wheatless, meatless, and heatless’ days. – War gardens – Set Prices for crops to help farmers and encourage production. Farmers paid off mortgages, new machinery, etc. Price of land went up. (Farmers would pay a peacetime price for wartime prosperity) – Rationed coal Mobilizing the Economy How did the government mobilize the economy for the war effort? What was the War Revenue Act of 1917? What was the function of the War Industries Board? Why do you think it was necessary for the government to set prices and production controls for food and fuel during the war? Mobilizing the Economy What steps did the Fuel Administration take to encourage fuel conservation? How did patriotism play a part in the passage of the 18th Amendment? Mobilizing Workers During the war, the profits of many major industrial companies skyrocketed because companies sold to the federal government. This created enormous profits for stockholders of industries like steel, oil, and chemicals. Factory wages also increased, but the rising cost of food and housing meant that workers were not much better off. War demands also led to laborers working long hours in increasingly dangerous conditions in order to produce the needed materials on time and faster than other companies. These harsher conditions led many workers to join labor unions. Union membership increased by about 60 percent between 1916 and 1919, and unions boomed as well, with more than 6,000 strikes held during the war. Wartime Workers National War Labor Board Women’s War Efforts • Leaders feared strikes would • As men left their jobs to disrupt production for the war fight, women moved in to keep the American economy effort. moving. • The Wilson administration • Women took many jobs created the National War traditionally held by men on Labor Board in 1918. the railroads, in factories, and on docks, as well as • The board judged disputes building ships and airplanes. between workers and management, handling 1,200 • Other women filled more cases during the war years. traditional jobs as teachers and nurses, and many • Also, to improve working volunteered. conditions, it established an • About 1 million women eight-hour workday, sought joined the workforce during companies to recognize unions, the war, and women used and urged equal pay for women. this as leverage for suffrage movements. Government takes control- The Labor Force A million women helped fill the gap in the labor force left by men. Mills and factories Acts of Patriotism by women, but yet after the war they were asked to leave their jobs for men returning. Blacks- moved north to get jobs. Shortage of labor sent wages up. Real income went up 20% United States Employment Service created to fill jobs in vital industries. A National War Labor Board- created to arbitrate labor disputes.- 8 hour workday and government support of unions. Influenza Spreads Three waves of a severe flu epidemic broke out between 1918 and 1919 in Europe and in America. Of all American troops who died in World War II, half died from influenza. On the Western Front, crowded and unsanitary trenches helped flu spread among troops, then to American military camps in Kansas and beyond. This strain of influenza was deadly, killing healthy people within days, and during the month of October 1918, influenza killed nearly 200,000 Americans. Panicked city leaders halted gatherings, and people accused the Germans of releasing flu germs into the populace. By the time it passed, over 600,000 Americans lost their lives. The Great Influenza- Spanish Flu Pandemic In the spring of 1918 large numbers of soldiers in the trenches in France became ill. The soldiers complained of a sore throat, headaches and a loss of appetite. Although it appeared to be highly infectious, recovery was rapid and doctors gave it the name of 'three-day fever'. At first doctors were unable to identify the illness but eventually they decided it was a new strain of influenza. The soldiers gave it the name Spanish Flu but there is no evidence that it really did originate from that country. In fact, in Spain they called it French Flu. Others claimed that the disease started in the Middle Eastern battlefields, whereas others blamed it on China and India. Other notions of this strain of influenza's origin contained less-politically charged, but equally specious logic. According to one theory, poison gases used in the war, air charged with carbon dioxide from the trenches, and gases formed from decomposing bodies and exploding munitions had all fused to form a highly toxic vapor that flu victims had inhaled. Among the other causes advanced were: air stagnation, coal dust, fleas, the distemper of cats and dogs, and dirty dishwater. A recent study argued that the disease was brought to the Western Front by a group of USA soldiers from Kansas. It originally most likely came from animals. The Great Influenza- Spanish Flu Pandemic The USA was also very badly affected by the virus. By September a particularly virulent strain began to sweep through the country. By early December about 450,000 Americans had died of the disease. The country that suffered most was India. The first cases appeared in Bombay in June 1918. The following month deaths were being reported in Karachi and Madras. With large numbers of India's doctors serving with the British Army the country was unable to cope with the epidemic. Some historians claim that between June 1918 and July 1919 over 16,000,000 people in India died of the virus. It has been estimated that throughout the world over 70 million people died of the influenza pandemic. In India alone, more people died of influenza than were killed all over the world during the entire 1st World War. Mobilizing Workers How did workers mobilize on the home front? What were some of the policies set by the National War Labor Board? What can you infer from the fact that profits of many major industrial corporations skyrocketed because they sold their products to the federal government? How did war demands lead to an increase in union membership? Mobilizing Workers How did the influenza epidemic affect American life? How did the influenza epidemic spread? Influencing Public Opinion President Wilson used a number of tactics to gain the support of Americans who had favored neutrality in World War I. Propaganda Reactions • The Committee on Public • Some Americans began to Information (CPI) appointed distrust German things. reporter and reformer George • Many schools stopped Creel as its leader. teaching German, and symphonies stopped playing • Creel began a campaign of German music. propaganda: posters, news stories, speeches, and other • German-sounding names were changed, so sauerkraut materials to influence opinion. became liberty cabbage and • Creel hired movie stars to hamburgers became liberty speak, and artists to create steak. patriotic posters and pamphlets. • Reports spread that German secret agents were operating • One famous poster by James in the U.S., causing some Montgomery Flagg pictures Americans to discriminate Uncle Sam saying “I Want You against German Americans. for the U.S. Army.” Fear on the Homefront: The Espionage and Sedition Acts (05:19) Government takes control- Mobilizing Minds Millions opposed to war- German Americans, Irish Americans, Socialists, Progressives, Pacifists, Committee on Public Information- The Creel Committee – Assigned to “sell the war to America” – Propaganda- depict the Germans as hateful beasts, barbarous Huns bent on world domination. – Whip up enthusiasm, sell war bonds, hate our enemy, keep people working hard. – Stirred up spy scares, traitor hunts, slackers, etc. – German language studies dropped, German words changed, Anti- German madness was really Anti-American. Propaganda and the Creel Committee – 1:51 Limiting Antiwar Speech Some Americans Speak Out • Prominent Americans such as pacifist reformer Jane Addams and Senator Robert La Follette spoke out against the war. • Addams founded the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom. • Wilson’s administration tried to limit public speech about the war. Legislation • Congress passed the Espionage Act, which punished people for aiding the enemy or refusing military duty. • The year after, it passed the Sedition Act, making it illegal for Americans to criticize the government, flag, or military in speech or writing. Opponents • More than 1,000 opponents of war were jailed under those acts, including Robert Goldstein, who directed a film called The Spirit of ‘76 and refused to remove scenes of British brutality during the American Revolution. • Socialist Party leader Eugene Debs was sentenced to 10 years in prison for criticizing the Espionage Act but was released after the war. Government takes control- Attacking Civil Liberties Espionage Act of 1917 – Censorship – Penalties against anyone who handed out information about anything connected with national defense. – Penalties to anyone urging resistance to military duty or draft. Trading with the Enemy Act of 1917 – Any newspaper printed in a foreign language in the U.S. must furnish an English translation to the Postmaster general Sedition Act of 1918- went further that the 1798 version. – Penalties on anyone who used “disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language about the U.S. government, flag or uniform. Strange way to fight a war- Eugene Debs socialist candidate for President went to jail. How can the nation improve its war effort if citizens are not allowed to criticize the gov’t or armed forces? Actual opposition was light and did little to hamper the war effort. Opponents Go to the Supreme Court Many Americans thought the Espionage and Sedition Acts violated the First Amendment, but others thought they were essential to protect military secrets and the safety of America. The Supreme Court also struggled to interpret the acts. In one case, Charles Schenck, an official of the American Socialist Party, organized the printing of 15,000 leaflets opposing the war and was convicted of violating the Espionage Act. He challenged the conviction in the Supreme Court, but the Court upheld his conviction, limiting free speech during war. Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. wrote the Court’s unanimous decision, stating that some things said safely in peacetime are dangerous to the country during wartime. Influencing Public Opinion How did the government try to influence public opinion about the war? What is propaganda? How did anti-German feelings affect American life during World War I?
Pages to are hidden for
"The Homefront"Please download to view full document