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					Introduction to
Environmental and Agricultural Science

Lesson Title:        Plant Propagation – Sexual and Asexual Propagation

NE Career Field/     Environmental and Agricultural SystemsAgricultural and Natural ResourcesPlant
Career Cluster/      Systems
Career Pathway:

Overview:            This lesson presents an overview of how plants are propagated. Upon completion of this unit
                     students will know how to propagate plants both sexually and asexually.

Student Learning     Objective 1: The learner will define propagation.
Objectives:
                     Objective 2: The learner will describe the advantages of both sexual and asexual
                     propagation.
                     Objective 3: The learner will identify seed anatomy and describe seed germination.
                     Objective 4: The learner will demonstrate knowledge of asexual plant propagation and propagate a
                     plant using three different methods.

Course Outcomes:     Technical Content, Experiential Learning,

Content Standards    AE 12.5.3, AE 12.5.8
(NE L.E.A.R.N.S.):

Leadership           A1. Work independently and in group settings to get things done.
Standards
                     A5. Communicate effectively withy others.
(LifeKnowledge):
                     B2. Interact and work with others.

Key Terms:           Propagation, Reproduction, Sexual Reproduction, Seed Coat, Endosperm, Embryo, Asexual
                     Propagation, Viable Seed, Scarification, Hybrid Vigor

Time:                3 (45) minute class periods

Resource(s):         Delmar Agriscience Fundamentals and Applications Text, 4th edition.

Tools, Equipment,    Activity Sheet 1-2 (1 per student), Seeds (Monocot/Corn and Dicot/Soybeans), Paper
and Supplies:        Toweling, Clear container(s), Water, Model – (picture) of a complete flower – Florist or garden
                     flowers will work ex. – Lilies, Stock Plants for asexual Propagation – Swedish Ivy, Wondering
                     Jew, Golden Pothos, 6 inch Azalea Pot, Tape, Permanent Marker, Growing Medium for each
                     pot, a clear plastic bag for each pot, Rooting hormone.

Early Work           Day 1: Why is respiration important in plants?
                     Day 2: List three advantages of both sexual and asexual propagation?
                     Day 3: List three methods of seed scarification?
                     6 plus Billion People might be motivation ( population map)

Interest Approach:   Sexual -- Five days prior to class construct two to three seed germinators to be placed around the
                     classroom. Classroom seed germinators should consist of clear plastic containers, moistened
                     paper towels, and 20 seeds (10 corn & 10 soybean). Line the inside of the jar with the moistened
                     paper towels at least two towels in thickness. Then situate the seeds around the jar so that they
                     are located between the clear plastic/glass sidewall of the container and the moistened towels.
                                                                                                            Page 1 of 14
                     Classroom seed germinators present a good visual image of seeds germinating. Germination
                     percentage can also be incorporated into this lesson.
                     Three days prior to this lesson place 30 corn and 30 soybean seeds into moistened paper towels,
                     Roll up and place into a plastic bag. These seeds will be used for seed anatomy identification.
                     Anchoring could be used to get students thinking of the parts of the seed and factors of
                     germination. Example - Seed Coat - A student standing and wearing a coat (What is the purpose of
                     this coat?) Endosperm - Another student holding a sack of groceries for a baby. Embryo – A
                     student holding a baby or small plant.
                     Asexual – Have stock plants in your classroom that have been asexually propagated – ask
                     students to find the phenotypical or physical differences in the plants.

Summary of Content   Instructions Day 1: Pass out the Activity Sheet 1 for plant propagation/ sexual propagation.
for Objective 1:     Instructors will use the plant propagation power point to teach this unit. Stop after slide 9 and
                     pass out the Activity Sheet 2. Day 2: finish power point with asexual propagation handout.
                     Use power point and talk through notes. Complete asexual propagation lab after power point.


                     Objective 1: The learner will define propagation.


                          Today we are going to begin to learn about the sex life of plants – That’s right we going to
                           be talking about Plant Reproduction. When I say “go”, you are to get up from your seat
                           and go to another person in the room and discuss with them all that you know about Plant
                           Reproduction. Are there any questions? Okay, go!
                     Allow approximately two minutes of discussion, more if needed. Rotate through the room to
                     ensure students are staying on task.
                          Okay, let’s wrap this discussion up and bring it all back together as a group and quickly
                           discuss what you know about plant reproduction.
                          Many of you still recall some of what you learned in science class, but there are probably
                           still some “gray” areas that we need to review. And, there are certainly some areas that
                           we will be covering that you are unfamiliar with. For the next three class periods we will
                           begin the story of “Plant Sex” a.k.a. Plant Reproduction.
                          The Activity Sheet 1 will serve as a guide to help you remember and retain what we will be
                           covering. The Activity Sheet will serve as an excellent study guide for the quiz which will
                           take place following this unit.


                     Propagation or Reproduction
                               * Method used to increase the numbers of a species
                               * Two types of propagation used in the plant industry -
                                          -Sexual is the union of an egg (ovule) and sperm (pollen)
                                          -Asexual uses a part of the parent plant to produce a new plant)
                          Are there any questions about the definition of propagation and the two types of plant
                           propagation?
                          Great! Now let’s dig a little deeper into this story and learn about the advantages of both
                           asexual and sexual reproduction.

Summary of Content   Objective 2: The learner will describe the advantages of both sexual and asexual
for Objective 2:     propagation.


                     Sexual Propagation Advantages

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                             * Less Expensive
                             * Many plants can be produced quickly
                             * Only way to obtain new varieties, crosses result in hybrid vigor
                             * Avoids passing on some diseases
                             * For some plants only way to propagate them
                     Asexual Propagation Advantages
                             * In some cases easier and less expensive
                             * Plants are identical to parent plants (clones)
                             * In some species, it is the only way to propagate them
                          We are moving rather quickly through our learning objectives, does anyone have any
                           questions?
                          Can anyone give me some examples of the two types of propagation that we have
                           discussed?
                     Elicit responses from students relating to sexual (planting corn, soybeans, garden vegetables, etc)
                     and asexual (planting potatoes, cuttings from trees, flowers, landscaping plants, etc.) propagation.
                          Great answers everyone! Now let’s go beyond scratching the surface and dissect some
                           anatomical information about seeds and germination.

Summary of Content   Objective 3: The learner will identify seed anatomy and describe seed germination.
for Objective 3:

                     Seed Anatomy and Factors of Seed Germination
                              Seed Coat – Protects seed – can prevent germination
                              Endosperm – food reserve – will supply the new plant with nourishment
                              Embryo – the young plant itself
                     Germination – to start to grow or to sprout
                       - Must have favorable conditions for effective germination.
                     Factors needed for seed germination:
                             Water – absorption of water is the first step in the germination process. Moist germination
                             medium is a key to successful germination. Note – water softens the seed coat and
                             activates the endosperm (swelling, activates nutrients in endosperm making them
                             available to the embryo).
                             Air – Respiration takes place in all viable seeds. Oxygen is required. Respiration increases
                             as germination starts.
                             Viable Seed – alive and capable of germinating. Seeds for germination need to be
                             complete and not damaged.
                             Light – some seeds are stimulated to grow by light. Some seeds are inhibited by the
                             presence of light. Germinating light requirements will determine if the seed should be
                             seeded on the surface or under the surface of your growing medium.
                             Temperature – Germination rate and the percentage of seed that germinates are affected
                             by the availability of heat. Some seeds germinate over a wide range of temperatures,
                             while others have a narrow limit. (Seed germination periods can be researched).
                             Scarification – Some seed coats are extremely hard and must be altered to allow moisture
                             to penetrate into the endosperm. Ways to scarify a seed include:
                                     Scratch or nick with a knife or file


                                                                                                              Page 3 of 14
                                       Soak seeds in a concentration of sulfuric acid
                                       Place seeds in hot water and allow to soak
                                       Place seeds in a warm, damp container


                            Okay class, now we are going to do some dissecting of a monocotyledon and a
                             dicotyldedon. Can anyone tell me what are some examples of each seed type?
                            We all know that “mono” means one and “di” means two, therefore we need to determine
                             what the root “cotyledon” means. Does anyone have an idea? Those are good guesses
                             and I will expand upon your statements by saying that the cotyledon means the primary
                             leaf from the seed.
                            What have you learned from each of these words?
                     Elicit responses that relate to monocots having a one leaf “shoot” such as corn, while dicots have a
                     two leaf “shoot” such as soybeans.
                            Now let’s take what we have learned and apply it to seed dissection.
                     Have students in teams of two to three label the parts of a corn and soybean seed. Can the
                     students recognize the differences? Have the students record the differences between the seeds
                     they have labeled.
                            I want to remind you to make sure to take some notes on this dissection activity. Are there
                             any questions?

Summary of Content   Objective 4: The learner will demonstrate knowledge of asexual plant propagation and
for Objective 4      propagate a plant using three different methods.
                               Since we are becoming so proficient at hands-on activities, let’s begin to think about
                                asexual propagation and everything that goes along with that.
                     Begin the final portion of the PowerPoint presentation.
                     Asexual Propagation
                           Primary Methods – cuttings, layering, division, grafting, and tissue culture.
                     Common types of cuttings-
                                  * Stem Cutting
                     Herbaceous and woody plants are often propagated by cuttings (vegetative parts that the plant
                     uses to regenerate itself)
                     Types of cutting are named for the parts of the plant from which they come.
                     They are stem tip cuttings, stem cuttings, cane cutting, leaf cuttings, leaf petiole cuttings and root
                     cuttings.
                     Procedures for taking cuttings are simple:
                       -     You will need a sharp knife, scalpel, or razor blade.
                       -     Clean your cutting instrument with 10% bleach or rubbing alcohol.
                       -     Remove flowers and buds. – This allows the plant to use energy for food storage and root
                             formation instead of flowering and fruit production.
                       -     Rooting hormone (optional – caution) is used to simulate root development.
                       -     Place cuttings in a commercial medium or one of sand, perlite, soil, and vermiculite.
                       -     Keep medium moist.


                     Leaf type Cuttings


                                                                                                                 Page 4 of 14
                         -    Produce herbaceous plants quickly and efficiently.
                         -    Will not normally work on woody plants.
                         Root Cuttings
                         -    Best to use plants that are at least 2-3 years old
                         -    Should be taken in the dormant season when roots have a large supply of carbohydrates in
                              reserve.
                       Layering
                         -    Stems will develop roots in any area that is in contact with the medium while still attached to
                              the parent plant.
                         -    After roots form, shoots develop at the same point.
                       Division
                         -    Propagating plants by dividing or separating the main part into smaller parts.
                         -    Used with plants that have crowns, corms, or bulbs.
                         Grafting
                         -    Procedure for joining two plant parts together so they grow as one.
                         -    Used when plants do not root well as cuttings or when a root system is unable to support the
                              plant for good growth. (roses)
                         -    Allows production of unusual combinations of plants. (Several varieties of apples on one
                              tree, or the famous potato tomato plant)
                          As we near an end to our lesson do you have any questions about asexual propagation?
                           We are going to perform our final plant propagation activity by creating our very own
                           miniature asexual propagation chamber. We will need to break into teams of two or three to
                           move forward. Find someone you haven’t paired up with in any of the lessons thus far and
                           pick a location in the lab/classroom to begin this activity.
                       Creation of a miniature asexual propagation chamber.
                       Material: 1 6” azalea pot with moistened medium, various stock plants (Stock Plants for
                       asexual propagation – Swedish Ivy, Wondering Jew, Golden Pothos), Tape, Permanent
                       Marker, and a clear plastic bag for each pot.
                             1. Each student, or team of students, will label their pot with their names, date, and
                                type(s) of cutting.
                             2. Each student/team collects at least ten cuttings of 2-3 different types from the stock
                                plants.
                             3. Randomly select half of the students/teams to treat their cutting with rooting hormone
                                while the other half of students/teams will serve as the control group.
                             4. Place the cutting into moistened medium and cover with a clear plastic bag.
                             5. Place the asexual propagation chambers in the back of the classroom (never in a
                                window or greenhouse).
                             6. After 4-7 days start checking for root development by gently pulling on the plants’
                                stems.
                             7. Record data such as days to root development, type of cutting to root development,
                                etc.
                             8. Data recording should be done on a daily basis.

Extended               When working with the corn and soybean plants and seeds – the differences of plants -
Classroom/             monocotyledon (monocot) and dicotyledon (dicot) should be noted.
Laboratory Activity:
                       Students could plant various seeds in seeding medium and record data (germination

                                                                                                                  Page 5 of 14
                    percentage, days to germination) Students could vary the germination requirements to see
                    the affects on germination percentages.
                    Delmar Agriscience Fundamentals and Applications, Lab Manual Exercise 23 - Requirements
                    of Seed Germination pages 99-102.
                    The amazing pressure of seed germination can be demonstrated by placing a quart jar full of
                    soybeans in a cake pan. Next sand is poured into the jar of soybeans, shaking the sand into the air
                    spaces between the beans. Last, water is added to the soybean-sand mix and the lid is placed on
                    the jar. (Safety glasses required. Questions: Why did the jar break? What happens to a grain bin if
                    rain gets inside?)

Extended            CDE – Ag Science Contest, Plant Science Contest, Ag Science Research
FFA/Leadership
Activity:

Extended            Students can collect soybeans from home and check their germination percentage. Corn
SAE/Experiential    population checks could be made to see the final stand verses seeding rate to determine the
Activity:           germination rate. This could be done as a role play researcher for a crop consulting firm.

Assessment:         Activity Sheet 2 (Plant Propagation Quiz)

Assessment Answer   Teacher Sheet 1 (Plant Propagation Quiz – Key)
Key/Rubric:




                                                                                                           Page 6 of 14
Activity Sheet 1
UNIT 17
PLANT REPRODUCTION
SKELETAL NOTES

NAME: _______________________________________                           DATE: _____________

    1. Propagation or                           is simply the process of _____________ the numbers of a
          _______________.

    2. Two types of propagation are                        and                      .
    3. Sexual reproduction is the union of an egg (                ) and sperm (          ), resulting in a
          _______.
    4. Two parents creating a third individual is referred to as _______________ propagation.
    5. Asexual reproduction uses a              or           of only one parent
                    . The new plant is a                 or an exact duplicate of its parent.
    6. This type of reproduction uses the                         parts of the plant, mostly      ___ ,
          __________or              __, so it is referred to as                    propagation.
 Advantages of Sexual Propagation

    7.                 Expensive
    8.                    than some other methods
    9. Only way to obtain new                        and capture ______ vigor
    10. Avoids passing on some _____________
    11. For some plants, it is the only way to ______________ them
    12. Hybrid vigor-refers to the tendency for ________ plants to be ____________ and survive better
          than _______________ plants.
 Advantages of Asexual Propagation

    13. In some cases _________ and _______ expensive
    14. Plants are _____________ to parent plants
    15. In some species, it is the only way to ___________________ them
 SEXUAL PROPAGATION

                         Parts of a Seed
    16.            Seed Coat – _________________________
    17.            Endosperm – ________________________
    18.            Embryo – ___________________________

 Germination

                                                                                                        Page 7 of 14
    19. to start to ____________ or _______________
    20. Must be in certain favorable conditions for effective ___________

   Water
    21. _____________ of water is the _________ step in germinating process. Moist germination
       ___________

    Air
    22. __________________ takes place in all ___________ seeds. _________________ is
       required.
    23. Respiration _______________ as the germination starts.

 Viable

    24. __________ and capable of ______________
 Light

    25. Some seeds are ______________ to grow by light.
    26. Some are ________________ by the presence of light.

 Temperature

    27. _______________ rate and the percentage of seed that germinates are affected by the
       availability of ________. Some seeds germinate over a _________ range of temperatures,
       while others have _____________ limits.
 How do you scarify a seed with a hard seed coat?

           a. ___________ or nick it with a __________ or file.
           b. _________ seeds in concentrated _____________ acid.
           c. Place seeds in ___________ water and allow to ________.
           d. Place seeds in a _________, _________ container
ASEXUAL PROPAGATION
    28. Primary Methods – ___________, layering, ______________, ___________ and tissue culture.
 Stem Cuttings

    29. ___________ and woody plants are often propagated by _________ (vegetative parts that the
       _________ plant uses to regenerate itself).
    30. _________ of cuttings are named for the _________ of the plants from which they come.
    31. They are ________ tip cuttings, stem cuttings, ______ cuttings, _______ cuttings, leaf
       ____________ cuttings and ________ cuttings.
                                                                                                 Page 8 of 14
 Procedure

  32. Need sharp __________ or razor ___________.
  33. Clean knife or razor blade with __________ or rubbing alcohol
  34. __________ and buds should be ________________
  35. Allows cutting to use its energy for food storage and ________ formation instead of _________
     & fruit development
  36. ____________ hormone is used to stimulate ________ development
  37. Place cuttings in a medium of sand, __________, soil, a mixture of __________ and perlite or
     vermiculite
  38. Keep medium _______________
 Leaf-type Cuttings

  39. Produces herbaceous plants ____________ and ___________________.
  40. Will not normally work for _____________ plants


 Root Cuttings

  41. Best to use plants that are at least ________ years old
  42. Should be taken in the ___________ season when the roots have a large supply of
     ___________________ in reserve
 Layering

  43. Stems will develop __________ in any area that is in contact with the medium while still attached
     to the ____________ plant.
  44. After roots form, _____________ develop at the same point.
 Division

  45. Propagating plants by ____________ or separating the __________ part into smaller parts
  46. Used with plants that have ___________, __________, or ___________
 Grafting

  47. Procedure for joining _______ plant parts together so they grow as __________.
  48. Used when plants do not root well as ___________ or when a plant’s root system is unable to
     ___________ the plant for good growth
  49. Allows production of unusual _____________ of plants. (Several ______________ of apples
     can be grown on _______ tree)




                                                                                            Page 9 of 14
Teacher Sheet 1
UNIT 17
PLANT REPRODUCTION
NOTES

Propagation or Reproduction is simply the process of increasing the numbers of a species.

Two types of propagation are sexual and asexual.
      Sexual reproduction is the union of an egg (ovule) and sperm (pollen),
      resulting in a seed. Two parents creating a third individual is referred to as
      sexual propagation.

       Asexual reproduction uses a part or parts of only one parent plant. The new plant is a
       clone or an exact duplicate of its parent. This type of reproduction uses the vegetative parts
       of the plant, mostly stems, roots or leaves, so it is referred to as vegetative propagation.

Advantages of Sexual Propagation
    Less Expensive
    Quicker than some other methods
    Only way to obtain new varieties and capture hybrid vigor
    Avoids passing on some diseases
    For some plants, it is the only way to propagate them
Hybrid vigor-refers to the tendency for hybrid plants to be stronger and survive better than purebred
plants.

Advantages of Asexual Propagation
    In some cases easier and less expensive
    Plants are identical to parent plants
    In some species, it is the only way to propagate them

SEXUAL PROPAGATION
Parts of a Seed
       Seed Coat – protects the seed
       Endosperm – food reserve
       Embryo – young plant

Germination – to start to grow or sprout
     Must be in certain favorable conditions for effective germination
            Water – absorption of water is the first step in germinating process
                   Moist germination medium
            Air – Respiration takes place in all viable seeds. Oxygen is required.
                   Respiration increases as the germination starts.
                           Viable – alive and capable of germinating
            Light – Some seeds are stimulated to grow by light. Some are
                           inhibited by the presence of light.
            Temperature – Germination rate and the percentage of seed that
                                                                                             Page 10 of 14
                          germinates are affected by the availability of heat. Some
                          seeds germinate over a wide range of temperatures, while       others
                    have narrower limits.

How do you scarify a seed with a hard seed coat?
   Scratch or nick it with a knife or file.
    Soak seeds in concentrated sulfuric acid.
    Place seeds in hot water and allow to soak.
    Place seeds in a warm, damp container

ASEXUAL PROPAGATION
 Primary Methods – cuttings, layering, division, grafting and tissue culture.
 Stem Cuttings
  o Herbaceous and woody plants are often propagated by cuttings (vegetative parts that the
     parent plant uses to regenerate itself).
  o Types of cuttings are named for the parts of the plants from which they come.
  o They are stem tip cuttings, stem cuttings, cane cuttings, leaf cuttings, leaf petiole cuttings
     and root cuttings.
  o Procedure is simple.
         Need sharp knife or razor blade.
         Clean knife or razor blade with bleach or rubbing alcohol
         Flowers and buds should be removed
         Allows cutting to use its energy for food storage and root formation instead of flower
            & fruit development
         Rooting hormone is used to stimulate root development
         Place cuttings in a medium of sand, perlite, soil, a mixture of peat and perlite or
            vermiculite
         Keep medium moist

 Leaf-type Cuttings
   o Produces herbaceous plants quickly and efficiently.
   o Will not normally work for woody plants

 Root Cuttings
   o Best to use plants that are at least 2-3 years old
   o Should be taken in the dormant season when the roots have a large supply of
     carbohydrates in reserve

 Layering
   o Stems will develop roots in any area that is in contact with the medium while still attached to
     the parent plant.
   o After roots form, shoots develop at the same point.




                                                                                         Page 11 of 14
 Division
   o Propagating plants by dividing or separating the main part into smaller parts
   o Used with plants that have crowns, corms, or bulbs

 Grafting
   o Procedure for joining two plant parts together so they grow as one.
   o Used when plants do not root well as cuttings or when a plant’s root system is unable to
     support the plant for good growth
   o Allows production of unusual combinations of plants. (Several varieties of apples can be
     grown on one tree)




                                                                                      Page 12 of 14
Activity Sheet 2
PLANT REPRODUCTION
QUIZ

NAME: ______________________________________ DATE: _____________ Score: ______________

Please answer the following questions by filling in the blanks with the best words or listing what is asked for.

1. The two types of reproduction are: (1 Point Each)
                    a. ____________________________________
                    b. ____________________________________

2. Sexual reproduction is the reproduction of plants from the union of ___________ and ____________ resulting in a
___________. (3 Points)

3. Please list 2 benefits of sexual propagation. (1 Point Each)
                    a. ____________________________________
                    b. ____________________________________

4. Asexual propagation is the reproduction of plants from the _________, __________ or ___________ of a
__________ plant. (4 Points)

5. Please list 2 benefits of asexual propagation. (1 Point Each)
                    a. ____________________________________
                    b. ____________________________________

6. What is the most common method of asexual propagation? (1 Point)


7. Please list 3 methods of asexual propagation not including your answer to Question 6. (1 Point Each)
                      a. ____________________________________
                      b. ____________________________________
                      c. ____________________________________

8. Please list 3 types (part of plant they come from) of cuttings. (3 Points)
                       a. ____________________________________
                       b. ____________________________________
                       c. ____________________________________

9. Matching (1 Point Each)
______ 1. Seed Coat               A. Food Reserve
______ 2. Endosperm               B. Young Plant
______ 3. Embryo                  C. Protects the seed

10. Germination is to start to ________ or __________. (2 Points)

11. What four things are needed to have favorable conditions for effective germination? (1 Point Each)
                     a. ____________________________________
                     b. ____________________________________
                     c. ____________________________________
                     d. ____________________________________

12. What are two ways you can scarify a hard seed coat?
                    a. ____________________________________
                    b. ____________________________________
.

***Bonus***
Define Hybrid Vigor.

                                                                                                              Page 13 of 14
Teacher Sheet 2
PLANT REPRODUCTION
QUIZ KEY


Please answer the following questions by filling in the blanks with the best words or listing what is asked for.

1. The two types of reproduction are: (1 Point Each)
                    a. sexual
                    b. asexual

2. Sexual reproduction is the reproduction of plants from the union of egg(ovule) and sperm(pollen) resulting in a
embroyo(seed). (3 Points)

3. Please list 2 benefits of sexual propagation. (1 Point Each)
                       a. Less Expensive, Quicker than some other methods, Only way to obtain new varieties and
                            capture hybrid vigor, Avoids passing on some diseases, For some plants, it is the only way
                            to propagate them
                       b. ____________________________________

4. Asexual propagation is the reproduction of plants from the stems, leaves, or root of a parent plant. (4 Points)

5. Please list 2 benefits of asexual propagation. (1 Point Each)
                       a. In some cases easier and less expensive, Plants are identical to parent plants, In some
                            species, it is the only way to propagate them
                       b. ___________________________________

    6. What is the most common method of asexual propagation? (1 Point)
         a. Cuttings

7. Please list 3 methods of asexual propagation not including your answer to Question 6. (1 Point Each)
                      a. Layering
                      b. Division
                      c. Grafting

8. Please list 3 types (part of plant they come from) of cuttings. (3 Points)
                       a. Leaf
                       b. Stem
                       c. Root

9. Matching (1 Point Each)
C 1. Seed Coat         A. Food Reserve
A 2. Endosperm         B. Young Plant
B 3. Embryo            C. Protects the seed

10. Germination is to start to grow or sprout. (2 Points)

11. What four things are needed to have favorable conditions for effective germination? (1 Point Each)
                     a. Water
                     b. Air
                     c. Light
                     d. Temperature

12. What are two ways you can scarify a hard seed coat?
          a. Scratch or nick it with a knife or file, Soak seeds in concentrated sulfuric acid, Place seeds in hot water
               and allow to soak, Place seeds in a warm, damp container.
          b. ___________________________________

***Bonus***
Define Hybrid Vigor.
                                                                                                              Page 14 of 14

				
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