Pictures for Teachers to Copy

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    1000+Pictures
    for Teachers Copy
               to

    AndrewWright




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Contentsand Introduction                                                                                                                                                                                      :

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1              How to draw                                                                    3      The organisation of the book and the selection
                                                                                                                                                                                                              =
                                                                                                     of language items
2               Settings                                                                    36                                                                                                                    +=-
                                                                                            The se.lection,             topics and larrguageitems in this book are
                                                                                            b.rserl on the T/rrcs/lo/rlLct,cl a clocume.nt producec'l bv
                                                                                                                                                   ,
3              Topics, behaviour, notions                                             54
                                                                                            tire Cor-rncil Europe for language svllabus designers.I
                                                                                                                     of                                                                                       +-
4              Illustrated vocabulary and grammar                                     84 have also referreclto the Cnrlhrill,gt'                             Erg/ls/rLc,rlcon.
                                                                                                 Language is enormouslv rich. A r,r'orcl                                  can have nranv                      a
               Pictures for composition                                             118     meanings depe.nding on context. I have had to be
5
                                                                                            sr.lcctive.        and have.ofte.nonlv been able to illustrate orre
                                                                                            of se.,'e.ral         possiblc.mearring:. I have rrrnitted concepts
                                                                                                                                                                                                              a
6              Some basic ways of using pictures in
               language teaching                                                    128 that are impossible to represent pictori.rllv ancl language
                                                                                            ite.mslvhich are re.latir.e.lt                     inirr.tluent,r.c. rr'ithin stages5                             a
Further reading                                                                     1,36 or 6 of the Canrbridge English Lexicon.
                                                                                                 Onlt' rarclv can a picture contmunicate the same                                                             >
Index                                                                               137 rnc'aningto evervone n'ho seesit. The role of piciures in
                                                                                            t l r i s b r t t r k i : t r ) c ( ) n t r i h u t ct o t h t ' l e , r r n i n g r ' f m e . r n i n g
                                                                                            erperienced bv the learner .rsprrt ot a situ.rtitrn:referred                                                      F:
                                                                                            k r i n a c o n r . e r s a t i o ni,l l r r s t r a t i n sr s t o r ) ' ( r r a s p a r t o f a
                                                                                            gar-ne.It is the experience of the situation as a n hole
                                                                                            r,''hich helps thc lcarne.r to build up a sense of the
                                                                                                                                                                       (For r-nore the
                                                                                                                or
M a n y t e a c h e r s r e c o g n i s e t h e ' t t s e f u l n e s s o f * i r t r p l e n-reaning mcanings of thc langr.rage.                                                           on
                                                                                                                                                                                                              -c
dran'ings in their te.rching. Dran'ings have tnan"'                                         tcaching of me.anincsc.e                        pagc.128).
advantages: thev are quick to do; their content can be
determined exactlv bv vou, the teacher;thev are easv tc) Stereotyping
reproduce. But manv teachersthink thev c.rnnot drau'l There has been no attemDt to reDrese.nt                                                                              clifferent racial
Or if thev can clrau' the'v feel ther. have not got etrt,ltglt t r p r ' * i r t t l r e d r , r t r ' i t t g . i r r L l r i . t r t ' r t r kT h e r e            .
                                                                                            'pot.rto'                                                                             S,etter,tli*t'd
time.                                                                                                        he.rcls me.lnt to representall of us! The r-rse
                                                                                                                         are                                                                         of
   This book is based on years of enjov.rble experie'nce' s t e r c t r t v p i c r l , r . r c i . - r ls v m b o l s h a s b c c n r e . j e . c t e c l s                                        a
gained in helping teachersto learn hon' to c-iran' over rrr-rdesirable..    tn
thirtv countries. It contains a care'ful intrtttiuction ttr
                                                                   for
dran ing and over one thorrsandclrarvirrgs teacherstr-r T h i s n e w e d i t i o n
coPi/
                                                                                            1000 PrcluHr,sr,orrTr,.rcrrF-Jts Colv has been usc'd bv  r()                                                      !-
Who might use this book?                                                                    teachers in countries all over the n'orltl. Some tcacher-s
                                                                                            have said that thev rvoulcl n()t bc n'ithout itl
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  .l_
The rnain users of this book u'ill be langrrage teache'rs. \ e ' r ' e r t h e l e s s , s u g g e s t i o n s h a v e b c ' e n m a c l e f o r i t s
Hor,r'ever,      teachersof othe'r subjccts,arrd ir-rdeecl                  anvone' i ) n p r ( ) \ ' c m c n itr r t l r eJ i g l i to i t l t i r r , r t l t ' - r . r r r g i r r g \ F e r i r n ( ' H
                                                                                                                                                          i                         L'
r,r'hose job involvt's commttnici'ttiort, rt'ill finrl this of use in so lrr;lnv classrooms.ln this neu' cclitior-r                                                                           there           :
m a t e r i a l r c l e v a n t . I h a r . e m e t s p c e c h t l r e r , r p i s t : . are sixteenertra pages.Additions inclucle:more pages of
sociologists, vouth leaders, voga teachers as r,r'ell as faces ir-rclrrclirrg                                               hou. to look v()unger (.rlu'avs r-rseful                                 in           l-
teachersof historr,,geographv anc-l                    ecttnomicsu'ho make these stressful times); ne\\' pJge\ illustrating tenses anrl
use of simple rc'pre'sc'ntations.             With the examp)t': givt'tt phclnologv and nine mor€.pagcs on iclcasfor making use
in this book, teachersand their stuc'lcnts                        ctrn drar'r'their of the pictures in tlie book for languare te.aching.                                                     Marrv                l--
orvn pictures r,r'itl-r       computer softu'are clr.rn'ing packages oi the inclivitir"ral                                   pictrrreshave been motlifiecl.The inclex
as lt'ell ;rs lnore trac'litionallvon thc' boarcl,on hanclouts no'"r'incorporatesArnerican crs\r'ell as tsritishEnglish.                                                                                          t-
and in displavs.
                                                                                                     Acknowledgement                        and thanks
Copying           the pictures                                                                                                                                                                                -!-
                                                                                                     I r.r'otrlcllike to thank thc. r-n.urv,r-nanvte.rchcrsrvho h.rr.e
B v c o p v i n g I r n e a n , l o o L i n g a t t h r ' p i c t t r r e si r t t h e b o c t k
and drarl,ing vour ()\vr1 r'e'rsions.I also mr'an that a
                                                                                                     p a s s e do n t o m e t h e i r p l t ' . r t u r r ' i r t u * r r r g t h i s b o o k a n d
                                                                                                     macle their suggestionsior changr.sin the nerv eclition. I
                                                                                                                                                                                                              .>
teacher,having bought hi-. or her o\\'n copv nf the book,                                            particul.rrlr' \\'alrt t() thank I'aula Saudhan'r .rncl Julia
should feel that he or she can m(rke multiple copies ior                                             Dlrcl.rs,foi p.rssing on their experience to nte and for                                                 >
use nith his or her or.r'nstttdents. I'ermissittn to m;rke                                           r-nakir-rg manv helpir-rI
                                                                                                                so                      snggestions.
multiple' copies is not gra ntecl for itny other
circumstancesexcept r'r'ith erprcss pcrmission givert b1
                                                                                                                                                                                                              .>
tl.republisher.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              >

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             THow to draw

            In the first section I have reproduced the way        Photocopying
            in which I help people to draw more effectively.
                                                                  1 Don't go to the edge of your paper.
            The level is higher than you need for copying
                                                                  2 Don't use larger areas of black than your
            the drawings in this book. However, I have
                                                                    machine can reproduce.
            decided to put it at the beginning of the book
                                                                  3 If you stick smaller piecesof paper down so
            becauseyou need basic help even for copying.
                                                                    that the levels are different put typist's white
               Essentially, in order to copy (i.e. without
                                                                    opaque along the edges to remove the shad-
            photocopying!) you must:
                                                                    owed line.
            1 judge proportions (is a line is longer or shorter
              than another, or a shape thicker or thinner);
            2 judge the angle of the lines (whether they are      Grids
              lines or the edgesof shapes).                       To give a senseof organisation to your text and
            These are the main things. However, it will           pictures arrange them within a frame and align
            also help you to study how I draw solid people.       their edges. A frame (in British English - a
            When you learn my approach you will be able           'grid')
                                                                          may be made of one, two or even more
            to copy my solid people much more easily.             columns.
      --_   Similarly with the settings: when you learn
            how I have avoided using perspective,you              Tracing
            will be able to copy them much more easily.
                                                                  If your top piece of paper is too thick for you to
               So, please,even if you are only going to copy
                                                                  see the image clearly put them both againsta
            the pictures in this book (and not produce your
                                                                  window pane and copy it like that.
            own), do look through this first section.
            Thanks.
                                                                  How big?
      =                                                           Letters should be about two cms high. But
                                                                  guiding rules like this are not very useful. Try a
      "!    Materials and techniques                              sample - see what it looks like from the back of
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            Card or paper                                         the class.
-           Teachers' flash cards should certainly be on
-     --t
            card and not paper. Card lasts longer and is          Colour
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            easier to handle. For pupils it may be as cheap
            to use duplicated sheets rather than card. In         It is so tempiing to use lots of bright coloursin
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            Britain it is possible to get cheap or free offcuts   order to please the students. Much better to
            of paper and card from printing houses.               choose colours for other purposes:
                                                                  1 to make an object more recognisable if the
                                                                     shape is rather ordinary, for example, an
            Adhesives                                                orange;
                                                                  2 to direct attention to something, particularly
      -A    Sometimes you may want to stick thin paper to            if it is small within a picture, for example,
            card. You can:                                           one person giving another a present. The
      ,4t   I use a rubber baseci glue which does not                people could be drawn in black line and the
              wrinkle the paper. Professionaldesignersdo             present in a colour;
              this.                                               3 to express feelings and to make the picture
            2 use a paste. If you use a paste put it on the          look nice!
              thin paper and leave the paper to expand for
              some time before putting it onto the card.
                                                                                           ,-<.


                                                                                              --
How to draw                                                                            .l:i




stickpeople                                                                                 -1_



                                                                                                  -

                                                                                              -
Canyou seethe difference? A wider than B?Is F longer than D?
                        Is
                                                                                              :

                                                                                              -
                                                                                       F-:
                                    D
                                                   F                                   +.-
If you think A is wider and D is longerthen you canjudge anglesand proportions         ,a
and that is all you need for copyingthe drawingsin this book. Indeed,it is the basic
skill you need for doing objective drawingsof the highestorder.                        f


Amazing factsabout the human body
                                                                                       e-
The head and body are equalin length to the length of the legs.
The arms are as long as the body.                                                          3a
                                                                More amazing facts


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                                                                elbows are halfway
                                                                down the arms and
              {    f   no hips,no hands                         point backwards

                                                                knees are halfway


                  L\[m.mr'.'il$:s't'"                           down the legs and
                                                                point forwards
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         How to draw

         stickpeople
         We canonly interpret a stickperson's                          position and copying each bit, starting
         actions he or shehas the sameessential
                if                                                     with the body) or a friend or someone in
         features a'real' person;so you must
                  of                                                   a photo.
         baseyour drawingson how peoplelook                            Most artists study a photograph or a
         and move.The 'real'people   you copy                          model if they are drawing something for
         could be you (yourself,actingout the                          the first time.

              ,(g      lf you or youtftiend, ak achn!ouV a posrlton,
                                                                   then
                       clo se the whdovts O,td loch- the doors in Cate Wu afe
                             d
                       laoh.e bpon aad Jadged lo bec.azy!
         Here are someactionsto copy. Study the                        Copy theangles  exactlyas you seethem
         anglesof the body, then the arms and                          here and you will then have the same
         legs.Judgethe anglesof eachbit by                             dynamicaction.And you CAN judge
         comparingit with eithera verticalor                           angles! You did it on page 4lIf you[et it
         horizontalline.                                               *ro.rg, do it again!

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stickpeople                                                                  -
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C o p y t h e s ed r a w i n g s . S t a r tw i t h t h e b o d y .

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 Start u'ith the chair, then do the body.
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  Make drawings from thesephotographs,stick by stick. Start with the body.        1
  Compare the angleswith vertical and horizontal lines.                           !-
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     How to draw

     stickpeople

     Copy the angles exactly!




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       Slighbcharyes angleillus1raLe    diFFerznb waqsoFwolking
                                                    (*t, fon-s.-
       ar',il ,runniXg,and Jo,.ev"nepr.sent dif?err^L


      Balance                                 is
                                         dancer fuung
                                Tnisbatle?                           5he co,"lL
                                ove( Decause we$ht
                                           her                       prl[ trp
                                   is no{over t*f
                                            her                      fue box(,




     Draw furnifure, cyclesfirst                       \innc- \ess


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boxpeople                                                         :
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 Box people are useful becausethey have                           L..
 characterand can be seenmore easilythan                          .-
                                                 p
 s t i c k p e o p l ei n a c o m p l i c a t e d i c t u r e .   E-.-


                                                                  t-
 Tne vifatacfiono{ the borperson achtcvedexac?lylius
                                ts                                "-
 L1naYo( q Sl'icKpe               sf*r( wilh the body .
                  rson. llo,rtever,                               E_

 Wha( sorL o( bod'yd,oyan want lo give hru or her?                -
 Choose   one!                                                    r-




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                     'lhen
 Draw (ne bod.V
              hrsf .       drcta shcRgcrson lrhbs in t-he         e-
 qcdon you wanl . prau Lhe lr'nbs kom lhecorners o( lhebox.           i5*


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         boxpeople

           lrlOW draw tn ltneS r?presentingfhe oth<r sdie o( fhe lrrybs.
           These llnes Shouttdno? tuifare srabf folds o{ a[oth,el.c.
                                                 Ie
            praw rh fhe teeCaslria.ngles.NriY fr,qfo draut real shoesl
            [( is fu aifhcnl? a,nd no( uorth fhe eftort .
            Draur ln fhe heds and. hands.




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           Not.tfhe yrtre(Astlones o.nd,




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How to draw                                                              >
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boxpeople                                                                =

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                         boxpeople d'raon n the sa^e sfaSes
     Here are urz.e rnor.e       aU                       as
     ou7h'neaaboe. Nofe ho.l linesdis oppear fun|ta bodrcs
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     o( oVher linrbs.
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                                                         beca,ns.
     {Woslo( th" drausingsin fhis booQ-are sfr'ctrp ec>ple
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     hry are fias? 7o l*owever, ca^ maUe a^q o( t!'terq solrd
                     do.          Yo6                                        E
      by lhe ftrhniqnz )i,ren her< .

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      4

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             *ny rough arcl e willdo tor alace, parficularly if ir is
             i r r e g v t l a r a n d bumpy!
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             P, 3 in fhe eyes av$l nose firs( : thrU 4on'( Shou,rQXPrc-et|on in
             Srn plz dra utt ng . ftooev er , noses can beg rn fo sho"r ina{iu
              rn                                                              id.uqb

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              lon have tltree lines le{t,6na for the 7y16wth fi"Jo
                                                          cnd,    -for theeyebroc.ts
                                                                                  .
              Nirh thes? Ilneson ev(ra.ord.t'n^rUnuMber d ex?resrIons    cqn be
              rndde. tbueler, c,stn li(e the h,crLl cypresrionsfou r.o[e uitl
              Y€rvratn arnbjkok-r        . Facio,l expresrions     con(fi'bwfe fo ye4rltnJ
              Yo e fhe
               g           with o the r b o d y h rqu,u,vtic ah oa, r er b a.l h ;,11v1 1Lo,h on,
                                                                                     u4
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              S e tti rg a n d , fh e p e fcelver ' s axpe.c.( df1' ons,oYe.

              lV is alrnos( rn^possib Yo
                                   le drad ovr eypresion{essfac< |
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                                      High eyebrows    Low eyebrows           Angled eyebrows
                                      show surprise.   show concentration.    show pain.


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                                                                                                    11
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     The eyebrows rise                  The eyebrows are      Eyebrows still more   Now the head is      =
     in the centre. There               now slightly          concave and further   back. The brows
     must be a gap                      concave- this gives   apart.The mouth,      are nearer the       L
     between them or he                 that look of pain.    down-tumed, is        eyes due to the
                                                              weakly down more      concentration        =
     will look too                      The mouth is now
     determined.The                     longer and weaker     on one side.          of the outburst.     1

     mouth turns down.                  and further down.                           The mouth must
                                                                                    turn down.           =

                                                                                                         =
      qettt'^g morc shrTrised,
                                                                                                         ]_

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     Arching eyebrows.                  High eyebrows, not High eyebr ows. Surprisedhorror               +
     S m a l l m o u t h ,i n t h i s   t o o c l o s et o g e t h e r . Smalleyes,rather Bulgingeyes.
     casevery slightly                  Slightly larger eyes. intense.                    Tiny m outh.   >-
                                        Mouth shows hint
     upwards, giving a
     hint of pleasure.                  of pleasure in the                                               r
                                        surnrise.



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              Florv to draw
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                  faces

                     QeEhng hoppier ail the ?i,ye!


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                  T h e e y e b r o w sr i s e          T h e e v c b r o w sa r e       The distance                  Now the headgoes
                  and curve.                            not onlv high and                between the                   back(vou show this
                  The mouth begins                      rounded but are                  eyebrows is so                by placing all the
                  to curve upwards.                     n o w f u r t h e ra p a r t .   importantfor that             features higher on
                                                        The mouth, of                    s i m p l eo p e ns m i l e   t h e f a c e ) .T h e e y e s
                                                        c o u r s e ,i s n o w a                                       c l o s e .T h e m o u t h
                                                        fuller smile.                                                  opens.



                     Qettng qrirnner


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                  This face is                          The eyebrows are                 The eyebrows now               One eyebrow rests
                  s u r p r i s e d ,a l m o s t        now nearer to the                touch the eyes.They            on the eye:the
                  sad! The eyebrows                     eyes and nearer to               nearly meet and they           other has flown
                  are rather high. The                  the centre. The                  tip downwards                  upwards. There
                  mouth looksa little                   mouth is bunched                 towards the centre.            is a compressed
                  weak - perhaps                        and a little nearer                                             fold of skin
                  becauseit is rather                   the nose.                                                       between the
                  low.                                                                                                  eyebrows. Note
                                                                                                                        the corner of the
      =                                                                                                                 mouth is dou,tt.
          -

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                  determined     disappointed   disapproving   disgusted
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faces

 How to make more individual faces

 Dlfteren(0ttes           maRe thedikftnce !
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         -*   How to draw
         4

         4,
              caricatures
         zj


         -
               Essentially caricaturemeans exaggeration.
     -1

               I f s o m e o n eh a s a s q u a r i s hh e a c li t i s r n a d e
               s q u a r e .I f h e h a s a l o n g i s hp o i n t e dn o s ei t
               is drart'n'u'erylong anclr'ery pointed.
                                                    i
               P o s i t i o n c . ff e a t u r e s : i t h e c . v e s r en e a rt h e
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               t o p o f t h e h e a r dh e . v r e d r . r w nr i f t h c . o p o f
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               A real test of a caricatureis if vou can
               redraw it from memory. For people with
     a         p o o r v i s u a l m e m o r i e st h i s m e a n sb e i n g
               able to remember the appearance the                 of
     -         c a r i c a t u r ei n w o r d s .
     a         Try it with the caricatures drawn above.
               Look at them for a few moments, describe
               them to yourself, and then, remembering
               this verbal description, try to draw them
               from memory.


                                                                                          I9
                                             +

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caricatures                                  L



                                             =

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 ha1 ar< easitr to renember.
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              carlcatures
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                                 Pea( head         short hair
---=                             Smaf eyebrows
                                      l            angular heaa
     1
                                 big eyes          big ea.5
                                 lonq nose         sly smile
     -
                                 Small  mouAlt     qqare body
     -:
                                 big pear bod'y
                                 Squa(e sh.r'rE
    -*:                              legs
                                 t1nin
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                                                                  27
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              How to draw

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              Your characters
                            must live somewhere.        the students decide where the schools.
              Theremust be a contextfor things to       hospital, etc. should be.
              happenin. Hereis a map. Copy it and let




                                                                                                 25
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fantasycreatures   --

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26
 /       How to draw

-1
         animals and obiects
 :


         If you want to draw from a real object or a
         photograph of it, there are, basically,two
         things to think of: first of all, the
         proportions of the basic shape(s)     and
         secondly the angles of the edgesof the
         shape.

         Aasi shwe of ob)eclt
         lf you wavt( to raakea drauttg ol-a car,fi* of ^ll f+ t
          tnto a ve^j basicshape  t"kei rtcrartgto'.qek
                                                      ewzcntVb-orre.t!
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         Tlacxore tlp otttg +* W6;t4s fD bnsvev0t fl^ts stage.


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              yau have [ot tl*. popotior't ol $e nMtA rettanqle arred.
         Wh:er\
         krok(or inpdtTr;t nternal shapesaM gek dte a,ngli: correct.




         Now yaa have qov the ,,..aLr.
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                                                                         27
 4
How to draw                                                :


animals and obiects
                                                            :*

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                                                            ---

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                                                            :*

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                                                            -

                                                            :
Here are examples
of how to find basic                                        :
shapes in a variety of
creatures.                                                 _-

                                                           -t-
Once you have this
basic shape you can                                        _-
put in a few important
curves and details.                                         -

                                                            F
                         find a rcc(angk uhtcherrcloses    _-
                         the nwn Shape the qntrnal o,
                                      "(                    :
                         aQlect.Qet the proporfions o{
                         the ftc(atgle corfect and.qou     _-

                          ha(e'eptkred.' iE !              _F-
                         Mob, if is tnncheasterbjndge      _t--
                         the gfoporftons af a reol'an7te
                         tlp.n o{ ^ cfcl< o{ oval .
                                                           _f

                                                           _-
                         Trq {ofina 4 re{al\gle{or l6is    _-
                         She.ep
                                                           _-

                                                           _i-=



28                                                         -:
-1

            How to draw

            animals and objects
            T h e r e a r e m a n y a n i m a l sa n d o b j e c t s r a w n
                                                                    d
            in this book which vou maywish tocopy.


            On these pages(zq-so)you
                    fr^to                                                      get the propofiionc o{-th<
            can .feehou I maae funfr'nol                                       Area"s,ltnssand" a.agfr5r$hvf
            drawngs and hou t1ouCan bpq
            ther,'t.Above all,mahe -sur</on




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animals and objects    :

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30
ts-


                       How to draw
       -,
                       scenesand objects
                       and avoid perspective


      -a               A v o i d a l l p e r s p e c t i v e r a w , i n gi f ; r ta l l
                                                              d                                   O n t h e r i g h t n e a r l ya l l t h e l i n e so f t h e
                                          er
                       p - r o s s i b lD . a w b u i l d i n g sa n d s i m i l a r              f u r n i t u r e a n d t h e b u i l d i n g s a r ee i t h e r
                       ob jectsface-onratherthan going away kom                                   v e r t i c a l o r h o r i z o n t a l .A l s o n o t e t h a t t h e
                       y o u . I t i s n e a r l v a l w a y s p o s s i b l e !C o r n p a r e   chairs, the table and the people'sfeet are
                       t h e d r a w i n g s b e l o w . O n t h e l e f t a r es o m e           on the ground line.
                       t y p i c a l a t t e m p t st o c l r a wp e r s p e c t i v eO n.
                       t h e r i g h t i s t h e e a s va n d e f f e c t i v e o l u t i o n .
                                                                                s


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      ./
                       in the section on settings.
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How to draw                                                                             .-
                                                                                         .-
scenesand objects
                                                                                         -


Of course, when you draw something'flat
on', without perspective,you must still
make decisions. You must decide which
view to take. Some objectsare easierto
recognise from the front, some from the
side.

                                                                                        :-

                                                                                        :-

                                                                                        :--



                                                                                         --

                                                                                        :*

                                                                                        _=-
Televisions are most easily recognised       Chairs are most easilyrecognisedfrom the
                                                                                         l-
from the front.                              side.

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34
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         -
                How to design

         -4
                handouts,posters,displays
         j




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        -..4E   A Traditional page design. Is it boring or dignified? It depends what it's forl
                      'ragged'
                B The          right hand edge of text adds informality and interest.
        +
                C Centralising (so easy with word processors)is attractive.
        +
                D Two-column designs are ordered but flexible to different elements.

         =
                E Displays can be as ordered or as chaotic as you wish.
                F Underlying two column design gives order to an informal display.
        *_
                G An example of really beginning to plav with shapes and composition.
         =        Suitable perhaps for a poster.

        -t



        -
                                                                                                                                       35
        --
2 Settings

When people say they cannot draw they often
mean they cannot draw things in perspective.
In fact, perspective (in the sense of parallel
lines converging to a vanishing point) is usually
unnecessary!Indeed, it is often clearernot to
use perspectiveand it is certainlymuch faster-
On page 37 I have drawn one of the pictures
of the street in perspective in order to
demonstrate that there is no particular gain.       L

   If you draw flatly across the picture all the
lines on buildings will be either vertical or
horizontal. But avoid perspectiveeven in the
case of objects like cars or even a brush! (See
page31.


Thick and thin lines                                !



In a scene there are a lot of lines: this can be
confusing for the student. Of course,you can
                                                    I-



use colour to identify one subiectfrom another.     \--
If you cannot use colour, as I cannot in this
book, you must use different thicknessesof          L-

line. For example, draw all the stickpeoplewith
a thick line and the background with a thin line.
   Another way of separatingpeople away from
the background is to draw them as solid people      >
or boxmen. In the following section I have
used both stickpeopleand boxpeopleto show
what the effectlooks like.
   Lines which are sketchy and which do not
                                                    L-


 yoin up with other lines of the sameobjectalso
 causeconfusion.                                    :.
   All these points relateto the'gestalt' theory
 of visual perception, which argues that we
 gather together visual information we think
 belongs together.
   For uses of settings by language teachers,
 see Section 6, pages 128-736.
                                                    F-

                                                    F_

                                                    --

                                                    :-

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 36
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               Settings
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40
--1

              -    Settings
              ':

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      --=

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              :




              .-




          ::"



          ,-

          4




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      4




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      a
                                         47
      a
Settings
Train and aeroplane
                                                  :

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                                                  :-=

                                                  =-

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                  this             (he
                           rnwsafiil blarp5oard
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42
       Settings

       Kitchen and bathroom




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-4



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                                                               -1.



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                                                               !:

                                                               5:

                                                               =

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44
---

           -    Settings

                Sitting room and bedroom


                           trEE,
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                           6eDt
                           a g E9




        .:




      -:



      -.:




       ./

           ./

      ,-

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       /,

       1
                                           45
       4
Settings                 :


Baker and superrnarket   :



                         :-
                         -




                         --

                         --




                         =-



                         =

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                         =



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                         =-



                         ]-

                         L-


                         f-

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46
Ft



               Settings

     -=
          -_
               Restaurantand caf6
          -

          :

     '-

     --

          =

          =

          =



          "=




      :

          :

          =

      =

      -

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Travel agentand hotel
                        >

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,18
        Settings
-
        Post office and telephone
        booth

:_




:




    _

:




=




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a

a
                                    49
a
                         -
                        !-"=-
                        <
Settings                :--


Hospital and doctor's   -

                        :--

waiting room             -.
                        :.-

                        :.,-.

                        =:

                        =.-

                        =--"-

                        -

                        ----

                        ----



                        i--



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                        ---

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                        L-

                        b:

                        L:

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                        b-=

                        L---




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50
F'z


              Settings

              Classroomand police station
       1

       '-




      =
       -=

       a




          :




          :




       '=



      u_


      -li



          -

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      a




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      4

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                                        51
      1
                     *--:
                     --__-
Settings             >F.




Library and museum   l-




                     a--
                           -=.
                     L<



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                     t-



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                     L_



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                     E-

                     L-

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                      L.



                      L*



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                             -


                          L--:
-,-.-

                    Settings

        -
                    Art galleryand cinema
            -:




        -

                :

            :

        -1


        '::




        -:




            -

        -

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        -:

        -
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                                            53
        I
                                                   t


3 Topics,                                          L-

                                                   =-

       behaviout, notions                          E-

                                                   }--

                                                   a-

How to draw
                                                   1-:
In order to copy these drawings you will have
to make judgements about angles and pro-
                                                   L=
portions. Have you looked at Section l How to
draw?

Subiects covered                                   >--

The subjects are taken from the Council of
                                                   D--
Europe Threshold Leuel contents list. I have
omitted Education - you will find some pictorial    L

reference in Section 2. Household articles are
under'House and home'.                             >i-

Ambiguity                                          .ti-




These pictures are not expected to illustrate
unambiguously the word you are trying to teach
                                                   t.-
(seeintroduction).
                                                   t--
Note                                               t-
Most of the settings on page 23 need to be
simplified if you copy them out yourself. I        E:
recommend you use photocopies of this page
                                                    t-
if you can.
                                                   t-
                                                    L.-



                                                    F--

                                                   b:

                                                    b-=

                                                    b--

                                                    b--

                                                   b-

                                                    F

                                                    b-:

                                                    b-

                                                    b-

                                                     b-


54
'_--1



E-            Topics, behaviour, notions
-1'
-'-           Personal identification
              (appearance)


                     hghV
              feaYqres  ana      fea,(uresSfronqand   sligh( {ru"rn, pLr^p         At'ncheeks,(h,n
               Iower61e,s4       fugher morz naf
                                       ,              i ; h t n r l e s ch a i r   hLt( | ltn<S
        -




                 young (child)     young (adult)          middle aged                     old




                                       short                                               thin




        '-:


                    strong                                   straight                  stooped
        -=



                                                       "ffi;(,,01

        al
                   e
                 broad-faced        thin-faced
                                                          UN'
                                                        fringe/ponytail                  plait
                 moustache            beard
        6_




        e

        I

        n

        -         dark-haired        fair-haired               bald                  dark-haired
                   straight             wavy                                            curly
        -

                                                                                                     55
Topics, behaviour, notions                                            L-




Personalidentification
(appearance)
                                                                      L




                                                                      -

                                                                      l-_



                                                                      L--



     {eafutes loood,ov>non    sho^ldeG                 {at chth,
                                                                      !-
     Ae head , head larqe     larg)er,                 fatter
     (etakd. lo the bod.t1,   Ctttn                    sf'oma.c\,
                                                                      !--
     My    snail.             slirtt                    thiclcerand
                                                        Slryhrlq      F
                                                        bo;ea
                                                        legs.         l-

                                                                      :-

                                                                      :-

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                                                        middle-       L-_

 very young                   young                     aged
                                                                      L



                                                       middle-        L

                                                       aged
                                                                      :

                                                                      :._

                                                                      --



                                                                      :--

                                                                      :--
     very young               young                                   =
     heads                     tn,^>ed,
                                      bod,",         head             -
     bouted                    boed lejs."           hPngh? anat'
                                                     . welllorosara
                                                       on the         --
                                                        booeA
                                                        chesl.        --

                                                                      :-

                                                                      -

                                                                      =*

                                                                      -

                                                                      -
                                               old            old
                                                                      :

                                                                      >
56
                                                                      L
F-,



      .'      Topics, behaviour, notions

              Personalidentification
              (family       relationships)
      2



      *_                                           loHN BROWN MARYBROWN
                                                   (1.e20-1.970) (b. 1e25)
      n_




                                                       grand father        grandmother




              C E O R G EB R O W N                    BARBARA ROWN    B                      H A R O L DC R E E N
              (b.leso)         A N D R E r y B R O W N( b . 1 9 6 0 )   R A C H E L B R O W N( 1 9 s 0 - 1 9 9 0 ) j A N E T G R E E N
                               (b. 1952)                                (b. 1e65)                                  (b. 1e60)




                  uncle              father                  mother               aunt
                                                                                                   @ uncle             aunt




      .J
              JOHN BROWN        PE'IER ROWN NANCY BROWN
                                      B                                       ELIZABETH REEN
                                                                                        C                      PETER REEN
                                                                                                                      G
              (b.1e83)          (1984-198s) (b.1e81)                          (b. 1e78)                        (b. 1e83)
      "1




      !
          t
              @                                                                     @
               I
=                                    brother                                           COUSI N                    cousln
-d_


=
      :

      a

      1

      /

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                                                                                                                                   57
                                                                 L



Topics, behaviour, notions                                       L


Personalidentification
(professions/occupations)
                                                                 L=-




                                                                 :-


                                                                     -
                                                                 L.--




                                                                 L.-




                                                                 l-

                                                                 l-


                                                         /
                                               businessman
 architect        artist             baker               woman   l!-




               d
                                                                 :=



                                                                 L,-



                                                                 >-

                   chemist
                                                                 L.-
 butcher           (druggist - US)             doctor
                                                                 L._



                                                                 L==:




 driver
          4
          ql      factoryworker      farmer    fireman
                                                                 +


                                                                 !-

                                                                 lr-




                                                                 L--




                                      BfTl€C                     E-

 footballer                                    &
       player- US) Sreengrocer
 (soccer                             grocer    lolner

                                                                 l--=




                                                                 l--


 labourer          mechanic          milkman   mrner
                                                                 b-

                                                                 l---
58
                                                                 7
                                                                 - --
F-



                   Topics, behaviour, notions

      -=
                   Personalidentification
                   (professions/occupations)
       .-




                    musician         nurse                      office worker   photographer




                    pianist          pilot                      policemin       policewoman


                                     frJ
                                     nilt
                                     EI
                                                                                  Rt-=-F)
                    postman
                    (mailman - US)
                                     qt
                                     tt'|l


                                     s h op a s s i s t a n t   soldier
                                                                                 F
                                                                                s eaman


                                                        O+'




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                                                       A,
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     ,A             street cleaner   teacher                    typist          u n e m p loyed



       :

     -'a-


       -
                    waiter           wrrter                     yoga teacher
      -

       -                                                                                          59
           !
                                                                                                                           -
                                                                                                                     A

Topics, behaviour, notions                                                                                           <
                                                                                                                     L




Flouse and home
(rooms
                                                                                                                     L-




                etc.)                                                                                                j-




        rutl
        LI     ru                      semi-detached                                                      "-FEg      :--

     detachedhouse                                                         bungalow                        cottage   l\-
                                          house
                                                                                                                     -.-

                                                                                                                     -<




                                             attic bcdrot               a t t i cs i t t i n gr o o n r
                                                                   fl
                                                                                                                     f




                                                                                                                     -.-
                                                                                bathroonr

                                                                                                                     ---
                  first flclor
         (secondfloor - 115)
                                                                                                                     a--



                                     slttrng roonl          dining room

                                                                                                                     a-
               ground floor
            (first floor - U5)




                                                                                                                     L-



                                                                                                                     tr--


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         trurl                                                                                                       tf-


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         r]nt]                   l      n tr Wm
           flat
     (apartment -    us)
                                 l      nronN
                                      terraced house             caravan(trailer - US)                     tent      ta-



                                                                                                                     F.
60

                                                                                                                     -
ts-

 --         Topics, behaviour,notions
--          House and home
"-          (furniture     and amenities)




             armchair          bath                                                         blanket



                                                                                       o
                                                                                                     \-,
                                                                        o              o

                                                                        o              o

             bookshelves       chair                             chest of drawers            clock




                                                                                                      olo




            coathooks          computer                               (     -
                                                                 cooker stove US) cupboard




      *
                                                                                            electric firc
      -11
             desk                  dishwasher                    d r e s s i n gt a b l e   (electricheater - US)

      -"

      T


                                     l l rr t l l          ttl
                              t:
                                                           'll
      -     hand basin
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                                                                                                                61
      4
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Topics,behaviour, notions                                                       t

House and home
(furniture
                                                                                1



                 and amenities)
                                                                                        -
                                                                                L-



                                                                                1


                                                                                t-..-


                                                                                t-=-


                                                                                L.-



                                                                                1-
                                                                radiator
 picture             pillow             potted plants        (centralheating)   a.


                                                                                l-.



                                                                                L,_



                                                                                a._-



                                                                                L



                                                                                --
 record player       refrigerator       settee/couch
                                                                                t---


                                                                                :--

                                                                                -.r-=

                                                                                L-



                                                                                !-
 shower
                                                                                L,€



                                                                    (B          L-



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                                                                    EIEIGI
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 switch              tabie              t a b l ec l o t h   telephone          =:


                 o
                 o
                 o
                 6
                 o
                                                                                =-

                                                                                =--

 televisrcln         t o i l e t / WC   wardrobe             washing machine
                                                                                >




                                                                                -
tsz


            Topics, behaviour, notions
       '=

      -=
            House and home
            (household tools)
                       articlesand


      .":




             bowl        brush and pan   cup and saucer            fork
      '=
                                                           "A
       --                                                  4r
                                                          (\^.
                                                             (>t
       --




             hammer      iron            kettle                    knife




                                                 o
             mrxer        pan            plate                     pliers

      .-




      -4


                                                                   spanner
       d

                         SCISSOTS        screwdriver               (wrench - US)
      .J




                                                                   trl c:
       -                                 torch
             spoon       teapot          (flashlight - US)         vacuum cleaner
      -

       a                                                                            63
       {
                                                                      L-


Topics, behaviour, notions                                            :


Reguons                                                               I-



                                                                      ]-

                                                                      =:

                                                                      1-



                                                                      l-*


                    n
                                                                      l--
                    0
                    0
                    n



                              factory/                                >_
                                             area farm/farming area
                                    rndustrial                        L-



                                                                      =:

                                                                      L=



                                                                      t--=



                                                                      >

      fields                  flat country                            L




                                                                      L-



                                                                       =:


                                                 "#,,.,,-,,y,          =:

                                                                          l-



                                                                          L,-
      island                  mourrtain           rlver
                                                                           !--

                                                                           L-




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                         o
                         D
                                                                           r€


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      seaside                                     village
                                                                            -

                                                                            }-

                                                                            -

                                                                               -



                                                                               lr-



o1+                                                                            :_

                                                                               a
--

-_         Topics, behaviour, notions
 -,.       Animals



            bat          bear                   bird




           bird          butterfly      camel




                         cock(erel)             crab




     _-4




           crocodile                    deer
     =

     '-




                         elephant       fish

     ,-
                                                       65
     -1
Topics, behaviour, notions

Animals                                                              ::

                                                                     :

                                                                     :

                                                                     5-




 giraffe      goat                goose             hedgehog


                                                                     >
                                                                     l!-




                                                                     L



                                                                     lL-
 hen/chick     horse              kangaroo


A
                                                                     L-




                             a\                                      L:


                                                                     r-_

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                                                                     t--
                                                    n 1^g )
 monkey        mouse                                f
                                                        a

                                                                     E-
                        I\




                                                                     -

                                                                     E-
                                                                     F--



 rabbit        sh.rrk             sheep             snake            F_



                                                              jv--   E-


                                                                     l--



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                                                                      t--



                                                                      f-
     swan      f iopr
               "b-'               tortoise/turtle   whalc'
                                                                         ]-
66

                                                                     ^
---

                   Topics, behaviour, notions
                   T-rl        1
              .:
                   rLants



          -:
                    branch


          -'                             il
                                              /
                                          q
                                          4
                                         //^




                                                               V
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                                                                     grass


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      :                                           \U(z-.--
      a             hedge                          m.trsh
      -

      4



      =

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      I

                    cirn,s.rnthemum
      t



      Ii
                                                                                        67
      I
Topics, behaviour, notions

Free time and entertainment




     acting                           b a l l e t( g o i n g t o )      baseball                      basketball




     bird watching                                         camping               car racing (watching)




                                         cinema (going to)
 c h e s s( p l a y i n g )              [movies (going to) - US]                c l o t h e s( m a k i n g )

                                                      computer




                                         (plaving
 c o l i c c t i n g( s t a m p s )       computcr games)            concerts (going to)




                                                                                 disco-
 cricke'(pla1,ing)
        t                                - . '- , . ,. -
                                         r-rrclit-r tr               clancing    dancing clriving

                                                                                                                   .-
68

                                                                                                                   t_
          Topics, behaviour, notions
    -

    '-
          Free time and entertainment
    -:



'=




                                                      films (watching)
                                                      lmovies (watching)                             football
    -     fencing                                     _ uSl                        I fishing   ?     (soccer- US)
    .:




          gardenin                hang gliding                  hiking           hockey            hunting


'a




    -:,

          ,javelin(throwing)                                  jumping                  model making



                          C,NEA4A
I                           R,EX




          f
-l




a
4
                                         a ppR
          m o v i e s ( g o i n g t o ) ) o p e r a( g o i n gt o t h e )   I   painting       pets (lookingafter

J



4



                                                                                                   /:*:#
-
          photography                    picnics (going on/having)                     poetry lwriting)
-

-
                                                                                                               69
I
                                                                                                        :-

Topics, behaviour,notions                                                                               .<
                                                                                                        :


Free time and entertainment                                                                             :'

                                                                                                        :--

                                                                                                        L--




                                                                                                        F-

                                                                                                        =-

                                                                                                        :-

 r a d i o ( l i s t e n i n gt o )         reading                                        riding       :-

                                                                                                        :

                                                                                                        E



                                                                                                        L-




                                                                                                        :

                                                                                                        L_

 rockclimbing                         runnlng ()         sailing        shopping           singing
                                                                                                        L-



                                                                                                        >-
                                                                                                        !:-

                                                                                                        F

                                                                                                        F
 skiing                  snorkelling               sq u ash( playing)    s u n b a t h i n g swlmmlng
                                                                                                        t--_

                                                                          poo t' ErrgD(]

                                                                          Ir@n                          l+




                                                                          [-1 D                         F-

                                                                                    o                   t--
                                                                                                        t-_
                             television                   tennis             fi
                                                                         theatre
 table tennis                  (watching)                   (playing)      (going to)       touring     l,-




                                                                                                        5

                                                                                                        -
                                                                                               €,
                                                                                                        ts:


video (making) video (watching)                          walking        water-skiing
                                                                                             4$
                                                                                             yoga
                                                                                                        ]-

                                                                                                        1-

70
                                                                                                        5

                                                                                                        1
"-'--

              Topics, behaviour, notions

              Travel and rplaces
              (types     of transport)




              bv bicycle                                                    by camel




              by car             by elephant          on/by foot   on horseback




                                by lorry/wagon
              by hovercraft     (by truck - US)       by motorcycle     by scooter

        '.-



        -*

        .*

        -a    b y pl a n e         on roller skates by ship           by taxi

        I




        -
              by train        by underground                          by unicycle


        4
                                                                                       71
        -.t
                                                                                 L-_



Topics, behaviour, notions                                                       !


Travel and places
(road features) r-                                                               :-

                                                                                 F-

                                                                                 :-

                                                                                 >--
                                                                                 >--
                                                                                 :--

                                                                                 =-




                                                                                 -



                                                                                 =
roundabout                                 junction
                                                                I Icorner        =

                                                            o                    --

                                                                             t
                                                                                 -




                                           pedestrian               -
                                                           (cros?wak US)
                                                    crossing                     ]:

                                                                                 !r-_

                                                                                 l-_




                                                      l]--n;r-ll
                                                      :
                                                                                 !--

                                                        [f-Tl     = I't-Tl       t--

                                                                                 =--
                                           one-way street
                                                                                 ="

                                                                                 P

                                                                                 !t-:
                                                                                 ,.-
                                                                                 =-

                                                                                 F_

                                                                                 !--
   traffic lights (traffic signals - US)   no waitin
                                                                                 lL-




                                                                                 -
    --   Topics,behaviour,nouns

         Places atown
               in
                               BANK
                                                 Etr
                                                  l-ll   l-ll




                                                                      railway station
                                                                   (railroad station- US


                                                                           cafe
                                                                      @
                                                                           Nm
=
                                police station   pub/publichouse
                                                                   -Ju-^



=        Corner Shop                                               YJ
                                                                   ;-9




.a


4                              doctor'ssurgery   swimming pool
'a
=

=
-=

-t



a                                                                    football stadium
         information service
                                                                   soccerstadium - US
4

4
                                                                                       73
                                                                                             L-




Topics, behaviour, notions                                                                   :



Relations
(invitations and correspondence)
                                                                                             :--

                                                                                             l:
                                                                                               -


                                                                                             :-



|l                                                                                           L-




il
 d tnner
                                                                                             L--



                                                                                             L.-


                                                                                             L_



                                                                                             L--



                                                                                             L,_



                                                                                             D.



                                                                                             >-*


                                                                                             L-


                                                                                             -=

                                                                                              L



                                                                                              L-



 cocktailparty                                               party
                                                bring-a-bottle                                -

                                                                                                 :-

                                                                                                 l-



                                                                                                 L



                                                                                                 F

                                                                                                  =
  p r e s e n t / gfit l g i v i n g a )             writing a letter   receiving a letter

                                                                              v                   :
                                                                          O
                                                                              I                   t-

                                                                                                  l-

                                                                                                  F

                                                                                                  :
  telephoning                         friends         not friends       lovers
                                                                                                      f-

                                                                                                      :-

                                                                                                      --
1--




       -        Topics, behaviour, notions

                Health and welfare
                (parts body)
                       of the

                body                                                          ankle



                   shoulders
                                                                      ankle




                                                                    thigh


                                                   thumb
                                                   finger

                                                                     stomach
                                                                        waist

                                                                        heart               chest
                                                                       breast
                                                            elbow




           I    head       foot
                              -Gr-
                                            foot
                                     feet              face
       I                                                                    hair --+
                        *---hair                      forehead
       I                                               eyebrow                         '1
       "J                                               eye

       I
                                                      cheek
                                                      ear
                                                                                       @,
                                                       nose                            *(
            I                c- moustache
                                tooth                       mouth                      'g
           t              e-      tongue
                                                              chin
                            e--       beard
                                                                     neck
      -/


                                                                                                    75
       -l
                                                                 :-

Topics, behaviour, notions                                       :


Health and welfare
(ailments, accidents,medical services)                           5.

                                                                 :--




                                                                 :-=

                                                                 t-



                                                                     L,-
 got a cold         a sore throat      a cough   a headache
                                                                 :-:

                                                                 :-.



                     a rF,                                       L--


                                                                     L

 stomach ache       toothache          sunburn   a temperature
                                                                     l-.:.




                t                                                    L-




                \                                                     =-



 a broken arm       a bruise                     a sprain
                                                                      -

                                                                         --

                                                                         :--,
                                     AMBULANCE
                                                                         -

                                                                         F

                                                                         =
                         ambulance                stretcher
                                                                         F=

                                                                         F

                                                                          -


                                                       @E                 F

                                                                          l-


                                                       tablets
                                                                             L-




76
ts--

*-           Topics, behaviour, notions

             Clothes



                               blouse             boots        bra




                  CAP                                          hat




        J

                                             jumper
       --J       jacket        leans              -
                                           (sweater US)   nightdress



       4

       !

        t
        -:                    pullover
                 panties            -
                            (sweater US)    oviamas
                                            I   J l
                                                            raincoat
       J



       J-



       -,

       *4

       4
                                           4
                 sandals                          shoes      shorts
       -1,



       -t
                                                                       77
       J
                                                                          r--15

Topics,behaviour,nouns                                                   :


Clothes
                                                                          I

                                                                         :--.
                                                                           -
                                                                         !.--=
                                                                           -
                                                                         5--
                                                                                  .E
                                                                         j}--




                                                                         :-
                                                                                  -
                                                                         !-

                                                                         -k



                                                                         :-
       skirt           slippers            socks
                                                                         !-.

                                                                         --=

                                                                             >4-


                                                                                  -
                                                                          r-.,


                   swimming costume                         tights           ]
       suit         (swimsuit - US)   swimming trunks              -
                                                        (pantyhose US)    tL-



                                                                             r.<



                                                                          :-:-

                                                                             -r*


                                                          waistcoat          !--
       trousers
     (pants- US)        T-shirt         underwear         (vest - US)         t           --



                                                                              l--




                                                           I             --L-



                                                                         -l-<
                                                                              :--




                                                                          -F
        belt           bracelet          brooch           earrlnS
                                                                                  r.-


                                                                          -L.-



                                                                          _t-
                                                                                  I

                                                                          _-

                                                                          _t--
      necklace          purse              nng            sunglasses
                                                                          _-

                                                                                      -
78
--           Topics, behaviour, notions
      -a
             Food and drink



                 biscuit
               (cookie- US)




                               tm
  .-




                                     cnsps
                chocolate              chips- US)
                              (p o ta to                 pancake         pastry (Danish)

         -




 _:

  -:               pre            sandwich          sweets(candy - US)        tart




 *j

 -". I



       J
                                   coffee                 cream
  -l




 J



                                     tea

 ,-t
                                                                                       79
 --J
                                                                                     t
Topics, behaviour, notions                                                           -


Food
                                                                                     L-


                                                                                     a:




                                                                                     --.-




                                                                                     L--


        bacon                  butter                 cheese             chicken
                                                                                     t-.-


                                                                                     L--


                                                                                     L-




                                                                     bE;;€o
         egg                                       jam (jelly- us)       omelette    L




                                                                                     L--




                                                                                     =




      meat (beef)              sauce                  sausage              soup
                                                                                         =




                                                                                     =
 -
                             chips                                                       E

        cereal         (french fries - US)              nce              spaghetti
                                                                                         =

                    t t ltr.            ,t                     'ltt{ll                   =

                                    tl{ r lr,
                                    -0-!--0-.0-LL
                                                                                         =-
     barbecue                                fry
                                                                                         =


80
=---




:      Food:vegetables
                         d ,a rL re 4




                                               wh'rbe
           uhib            aubergine     Xre?-n,
                                          or brcwn
         asParagus       (eggplant - US)    beans       beans (French)      broccoli
                         glcf''or(ed'




                \

                                                         uLiYe ceafr<
       Brussel
             sprouts         cabbage                     cauliflower         celery

                                                                          r^lhilc




                                         r"l hile
         courgette
       (zucchini - US)       cucumber         garlic        lettuce       mushroom

       O(ce^ aY           brO.-rn                                         red or
        black
                                                         o(ae^                      Sree^




           olive               onion         Parsnlp        Peas            PePPer

                           r<d                                            9(een.




       urhrt<                                                    tlhtlc


          potato               radish        tomato         turnip        watercress


                                                                                        81
                                                                                            -
                                                                                            I

                                                                                            ]-
Topics,behaviour,notions                                                                                -


Food:fruit
                                                                                            Gl




                                                                                            F
                                                                                                4

                                                                                            -
                                                                                            -
                                                                                            l.-...1

                                                        of 9fec^
 green or "€dt
                                                                                            --



                            @avocado                                   coconut
                                                                                            ]'..<




                                                                                            t-




 green or dark purple
                                                                               or 9r"e;'\
                                                                   )e\oo

                                                                                            ='

                                                                                            =

                                                                                            =
                            grapefruit           kiwi fruit

                                                                   yellot.l,
                        yle rea                                                             --
                        Cl/otJrl
   9(ee^                                     \

                             #                                                                  l-

                                                                                                L-_


                                                                          melon
                                                                                                --

                                             yellout <nol red                                   L
  Of a,nQ?-
                                                                   yellow                       ---

                                                                                                ir--


                                                                                                =-

                                                                                                L-
                             pawpaw
                                                                                                F--
                            grcL^or yallow
                                                 d



                             O
                                                                                                l--

                                                           t,
                                                  ffiu
                                                 d-ar                                           L-
                                                 EffTI
                                                 H,

                                                      .g                                        l--



                                                                                                L-
                                                 raspberry              strawberry
       pineapple
                                                                                                 L


                                                                                                 L-

 82
                                                                                                    f
     Topics, behaviour, notions

     Weather


                                                                   lightniry



                                                                    thunderstorm




                            it's windy            it's foggy          it's cloudy


     /,,




           it's raining    it's snowing           it's sunny         it's verv cold




                          t8ffit}
                             Ll.'r:1.1.-.t
-J
                             ';!*i1j7.;,:.
                             ,i.:.i'-:':,.:
-t
                            I'm cold              I'm wet           it's very hot




                                                ha
                                                                                 oa


             spring         summer            autumn (fall - US)       winter


                                                                                      83
                                                 s-
4 Illustratedvocabulary                          \




and grammar                                      b=

                                                 L-_



                                                 >-_
In Section 4 there are over 500 drawings
illustrating prepositions, verbs, passives,      L*

adjectives and nouns. In some cases you
could copy the drawings onto the blackboard
and use it to teach the meaning of the
associatedword. In other casesthe picture is
best used to contribute to an overall experi-
ence which helps the student appreciate the      >_
meaning of the associatedlanguage.
   These drawings are more useful for practice
                                                 >_
than for presentation. The drawings can be       L_

used to cue alternatives in sentence patterns,
or to cue answers to questions or as reference   L--


and the starting point for discussion, con-
                            'Some basic ways
versation and stories. (See
of using pictures in language teaching'/ pages
 128-736).                                       L-




                                                 L-




                                                 L--



                                                     =

                                                     s-


                                                     >-
                                                     l-

                                                     L.--




                                                     =-

                                                     >-
                                                     L=



                                                     =

                                                     L--



                                                      =-



                                                      L--
84
                                                      L
         Illustratedvocabularyand grammar

         Prepositions
                 rLrtq,reus              -n n a re(uJ

                                   I
                 @a w
                 before                   after
                                                  )rt




                                                           in front of   behind


                                                                          u{ton^el


                                                  f;
                          up               down                                   to




                     in                   out




_t




 -!

     a



4
                          v
                                            f               a

                                                           \3:

                                        g                        tq+
                      {

                 \t
            \-                ,1
                 -



            with (sugar)               without (sugar)   away from         towards


                                                                                       85
Illustrated vocabulary and grammar                          t-


Prepositions                                                E--

                                                            E_-
                                                            .-
                                                            l---
                                                            L




                                                            t--
                                                     t.."
                                                     T      t-




     around
                           a T near (to)
                                               +li
                                           next to
                                                            E:.

                                                            f--



                                                            L-

                                                            ---

                                                            J+




                               under        over
                                                            -*

                                                            --

                                                            --

                                                            -:

                                                                =:-
                  inside        across                          =:

                                                                F-=



                              d\                                L:




                              Y
                                                                L.



                                                                F:


                              between
                                                                >
                                                                >*
                                                                >_


                  A
                  h rou
                                                                l.-



                                                                >-

                                                                |rL




86
                                                                -
      Illustrated vocabularyand grammar

      Verbs

        l6R SALAI
                                                 70.,q{i4



                           allow    answer
                                             T-,,:f,y{,y
                                                 "ii';r r',fn
                                                answer




                apologise arnve    :-r          attack




                           E{
                           bark                 bathe




                 /=i.-."
:il



 -a
                 itv
                                   blanre
a
-=

-:


                =.13
      blor,r'                      brakr:
                                                  ^f8,
                                                break


                                                                87
Illustrated vocabulary and grammar

Verbs                                      =




                                           >-.
                                           >_.
                                           >_-




                                           >__




                                           >_.


                                           >_=


                                           iL-


                                           --

                                           -

                                           --

                                           --

                                           t-

                                           --

                                           =

                                           -"
                      '
        {     Y;e-v                        --
              come down
                                           t--

                                     //a

                                      ?\
                                     OJ
                                           F

                                           t-

                                            >.



88
                                            -
      Illustrated vocabularyand grammar

      Verbs

                                 tznx$
                                     {    nt


                                dance     dance




      demand                    descend




      disagree    disappear               divid e
                                                  ffi
'-

 a
 a
,t_
                                          l-
                                          drive




 :

 '-



                                          examlne

-'=                                                     89
Illustrated vocabularyand grammar                           :


Verbs                                                       :*




                              fall off


                                                    .trtl

                              finish




                                         frighten




 gather         get/receive   get down




 get on/puton   get on


90
         Illustrated vocabularyand gramrnar

         Verbs



         gl!'e        gro\v




                                                            hitch hike




                     w' f
                                     \




                      hunt          imitate                 lmprove
                                          ?kose corvt< o
                                           -llturcday
                                                       .l




     I




                      introduce

                                   f^il" x *i
=J




                                   ftxapr'/




                                   keepquiet


                                                                         91
Illustrated vocabulary and grammar

Verbs



                                                    L-




                                                    >
                                                    :

                                                    =

                                                    :-

                                                    +-
                                                    +
              H
 ,"lJ ll ILU  lie                                   A-



                                                    +
                                                    -L




                                                    +
                                                    +
                                                        l-

                                        Iisten to
                                                    5
                                                        il



                                                        1




                                                    !



                           look after
                                                    -1



                                                    J
92
                                                    !
Illustrated vocabulary and grammar

Verbs



                                     make




                      g


             obey
                     ,trP




                                            93
Illustrated vocabulary and grammar             :


Verbs                                          :



                                               >




                          *b
                           polish




                                               l--




                                               I-_



                                               IL



             prefer
                                               =



                                               =

                                               !-

                                               5-



 put away    put down                quarrel   5-



                                               !L_




                                               ,L-



                                               JL*


                                               jL-.




                                               rr--



                                                .l_



                                                tr,-



                                                   L_

                  ,*
                                                   -_
                  nd
                                                   l-



                                                   a
O1


                                                   -
Illustrated vocabularyand grammar

Verbs




             sell




 tt




shake




                          sing


                                    95
Illustrated vocabularyand grammar

Verbs                                        :



                                             :



                                             -=
                               r-

                                             -


                sl e e p




                                             tr-



                                             L--



                                             li,



 smell                               spill
                                             ilr-




                                             .L,-




                                             .L,-




     'E-  L/)
                                             --

                                             5-



 splash                    standu             \.

     BAKER                                   .r-,

                                             -L-




                                              l-



                                             i]-




                                              rr-=
                           sting
                                              l,-



                                              l_



                                              l--




                                             ^--

                                                 t_

                           supporr
                                             =

                                                   I
96
                                              -
Illustrated vocabulary and grammar

Verbs



                                      take off




                          telephone




thank



                                      ){,
                                            r
                                            \




                                      turn on




turn off


                                                 97
                                            L.




Illustrated vocabulary and grammar          L




Verbs                                       L



                                            l-



                                            L



                                            L




                                            L_




                                            _L--



                                            L-
                                     wear



                                            ilL




                                            .L-



                                            5-


                           wish

                                            I--



                                            .L,-_



                                            -5.-



                                            jL-,




                                            iL-




                                            +-


                                             -L-




                                             .a-=_


                                             l=



                                             [-_

                                             L=


                                             t=


                                             l,_



                                                 t-



                                                 I
98
                                             t
    Illustrated vocabulary and grammar

    Passives



    S h e ' sh a v i n g h e r p h o t o t a k e n .      They're having their housepainted.

                                                                          I t ' s e l e v e no ' c l o c k .S h e
                                                                          wants to go to bed: the cat
                                                                          has been put out. The
                                                                          g a r a g eh a s b e e n l o c k e d .
                                                                          T h e l i g h t s h a v eb e e n s w i t c h e d
                                                                          off. The radiator has been
                                                                          turned off. The washing up
                                                                          h a sb e e n d o n e .


                                                                        Fslr orrrce




    being posted
    (mailed - US)                   being collected           being taken                   being sorted

    ytcToRtA

I




    being takei                      b e i n gp u t o n       b e i n g t a k e nb v         being taken off



                      FOST


    being takEn to                   br'rng sorted again           being cle.live.red


                                                                                                                       99
                                                                                         +--
Illustratedvocabularyand grammar                                                         l




Tenses                                                                                   L




                                                                                         :--

                                                                                         >-
                                                                                         =
                                                                                          -
                                                                                         _1-



                                                                                         a-:
                                                                                          -
                                                                                         =-

                                                                                         =-

                                                                                         =

            y swims in a pool,        t toda ne s swlmmln   in the sea!                      =

                                                                                         =.

                                                                                         =--

                                                                                         -

                                                                                         =*

                                                                                         =-

                                                                                         =-

                                                                                             .r-



trs'H 7\r#14'.
  This rmorning l_,lrrrnpedouL of bea, goE o{ressecl,
                                                                                             =-

                                                                                             _1---


                                                                                             !=-
   Yan up a /vroL(hfain swom to rniles and play<d lennis.
                        ,
                                                                                             =

                                                                   alb onaztng! And          --t-:


                                                                  ils onlv luvtchlinel       !-:

                                                                                             :---

                                                                                             l*




                                                                                             ]--

                                                                                             =:

                                      (t,                                                    :--

                                       ((                                                    -L.



 S h e ' sg o i n g t o d r i v e .   She'sdriving.                       has driven.
                                                                  She's/She                  l_

                                                                                             ]-
100
                                                                                             -
           Illustratedvocabularyand grammar

           Tenses




              ile he was watching television the telephone rang.




           After he had eaten the fish he began to feel ill.


               lf Lh" sqn                                                          .
                               cotvtes oaf, I r:ilt 9o a,nol oor|a tA El,'regc.nc{e,,r




-2,



      '.
                ff I wovl {t ^illion,l woqfd sail Found the Norld .




                                                                                         101
                                                     l--

Illustratedvocabularyand grammar                     L




Vowelsand dipthongs                                  L




                                                     5

                                                     >-
                                                      -
                                                     =-
                                              E
                                                     :--



                                            .G
                                                     =:
      sheep              fish        bed     hat
                                                     =:
       o:
                                                     =.-

                                                     --- -

                                                     =-
                                                     -
                                                     L



      arm                box         claw     foot
                                                     =-
       u:
                                                     =--

                                                     =--

                                                     'tt-:_


                                                     =-




                  'H
                                                      -
      boot               sun        curly   panda    _r-

                                     AI       AU     F-

                                                     =-

                                                     F-

                  .';/                               .rL_
                                /

                                                     !--
      radio              road        Ple
                                                     :--.
       CI

                                                     !-




              C
                                                         F-


 s                                                       l--

                                                         -L.

       oil               ear                flower        -
                                                         l_

102                                                      t---
                                                         -
Illustratedvocabularyand grammar

Consonants



    pen          bed                  doll




                             chick   juggler




                 video       three   feather




    socks        zebra       shark   treasure




                 mask                 wlng




                             yacht


                                                103
                                                                    E-
Illustrated vocabularyand grammar                                   -


Adj ectives                                                         E

                                                                    L-

                                                                    +..
                                                 A m la l i ( e ?   +
                                                  lrw    tV Vl
                                                  o                 --

                                                                    +--
                                                                    -._

                                                                    _:-._
           absent       afraid    aggresslve     alive


                                               LT? 77    7-         +-


                                                                    *-

                                                                    ,il,



                                                                    --__

                                                                    i-


            alone       ancient     apart        asleep


                                      '
                                                                    ---




                                   ,,rc                             f_




                                                                    -

                                                                    -=

                         bad        bald         bare               -,-

                                                                    F-

                                                                     --

                                                                     l=



                                                                     L-



                                                                     L-
           beautiful     hio        blind
                                                                    =*.
       -           e\

           1tr
             .VI
                                                                     t-


                                                                     l_-




                                                                    :-:

                                                                        L


            blooclv      blunt      brave        bright
                                                                     =

                                                                        1-
10.r
                                                                     -
     Illustrated vocabularyand grammar

     Adi ectives



                                                             careful

       &                                        f,r\t   /,




      nntaho
        careless        cautior-rs               cheap       cheerful


      >2rl\Z                              ;-,      #'
           ,,F
                   \.
                                                 clever




-t
=1
                        tt           \t
 t
        cloudy                             cornfortable      content
-!




                                                costlv       crooked


                                                                        105
                                                      i-
Illustrated vocabularyand grammar                     c

Adj ectives                                           5-




                                                      &*
                                                      .L



                                                      *

                                                      *



                                                      +_


                                                      -\_
  crushed                      dangerous
                                                      .L



                                                      -L



                                                      JL



                                                      -a-_


                                                      -a



                                                      .\-

                                                      .a_


                                                      l=_



                                                      .4,*




      delicate   clelighted
                              1ffi
                               different
                                                      -4,-_



                                                      =-

                                                       --

                  2_                                   L




                   L                                   ---


                  +                                   -.-

                                                      t-

                   EASV         eldest     electric
                                                      a-.


                                                      l_



                                                      t-




      emptv      endless       enormous
                                           nn
                                            equal
                                                       r-=

                                                       l-




                                                       =

                                                       a
106
                                                       -
      Illustrated vocabularyand grammar

      Adj ectives



        expenslVe     false


                       r\,M
                       t,t


                       v)
        favourite
                       .t\
                       first




         foisetful




- j




-t

-t_

                     generous      gentle
-




                                            107
                                                                   L.



Illustrated vocabularyand grammar                                  >




Adiectives                                                         L-'._



                                                                   :-




                                                '%-:
                                                                   L-


                                                \/      \ r-       L--




                                                                   L.

                    hollow


                                                                   L_



                                                                   L-




                                                                   >



                   humorous   ill (sick - US)        rmportant     L_



                                                                    L-_



                              'L--                                  -




      impossible                instant              intelligent


                                                                       L,-




       iealous
                                                                       >




                                                                        -



                                  light

                                                                        }.
108
                                                                        -
          Illustrated vocabularyand grammar

          Adj ectives



             lonely


          frA6                                              '/f#,^

          A f,"4                                            ,[i

           $,,"ft        middle-aged
                                          './,/ (!-*--.,
                                             narrow




     .l
                      t lfr
                          1?'


                      t ftrI
                J         a7              .al1
I



J-
     :
                         o Pp o s r t e
                                            7
                                            painfu
                                                           f.polite




              Poor       powerfr-rl         precious


                                                                      109
                                                   =-.-

Illustrated vocabularyand grammar                  5


Adj ectives                                        =

                                                   s-
                                                   !f-

                                                   5

                                                   gl--




                                      pfl          -llll-



                                                   5

                                                   l
    quiet                    rapid    respectful
                                                   s
                                                   :-''ll




                                                   *-

                                                   -o


    responsible                                    _,l--



                                                   :l

                                                   :l-




                           w//#
                                                   .+_


                                                   :l-

                                                   _ll_




                  IF€EEI                           +-
                                /{                 :
                                oeo                 +
                                                   '.4_

(
                                                   _l-_

    rude          ru sry              selfish
                                                    =

                                                    +
                                                   +
                                                    _l'_-



                                                    +-
    serious       shallow                           _r-


                                                    +
                                                       t
         Illustrated vocabulary and grammar

         Adiectives



          ffi
          thy
                                   I

                                     -
                      si ck(n a useousUS)     similar

                              &2,'2:


          skilful     sl e e p y




          smooth                              srormy




     t

                                                    \-
     a


_t
          straight
 4




                                                         111
Illustrated vocabulary and grammar

Adj ectives



                           thoughtful

       **9
                    OJ'

  unconscl0us   unhappy     untidy      unwilling




                                        wealthy




                wicked     wide

  aTfk-r,

                woollen


t72
      Illustrated vocabulary and grammar

      Nouns



                                           balloon




       banana


--




 t,


-t

 t
                                           chimneys
 !




                      ' 'fiY
                   CTTCUS
                           iltfi
                                                      113
Illustrated vocabulary and grammar                                :


Nouns                                                             :

                                                                  !--

                                                                  !-

                                                                  l

                                                                  :-

                                                                  :-

                                                                  I
                                curtains
                                       -
                                (drapes US)                       l

                                                                  l

                                                                  :

                                                                  :

                                                                  :-

                                              dustman             L


            devil                             (garbageman - US)
                                                                  :

                                                                  I

                       4?^                                        l

                                                                  L-



                                                                  :-
 earrlng            envelope    family        feather
                                                                  l-

 (,{ h1                                                           l--


  : ft5                                                           :-

                                                                  F


 de
 fire               fireplace
                                                                  t-_


                                                                  t-
                                                                  F




        d€
                                                                  !

                                                                  l-



        n
        e                                     guitar
                                                                  F

                                                                  5

                                                                  t-

                                                                  L
174

                                                                  I
:            Illustrated vocabularyand grammar

             Nouns



             bl i r d r i e r
             ha                 handbag                 handkerchief        handles




                                 t          /
                                                                     rl
                                                                     .a

                                                                     Ir t
                                                               {[(




              ice cream                                 iail




                                k"y                     king
                                      1t{   3l rt




                                                    0
         t
    -:

    ,a
             knot               lift (elevator - US)    Iipstick            Ioaf
    4




             Iock               luggage                 matches(box of)     microphone


                                                                                         115
     :
                                                              }-:

Illustrated vocabulary and grammar                            >.




Nouns                                                         L



                                                              >:


                                                              L-.-



                                                              =-.-

                                                              L,-




                                                              =--


  qblt
    iq
  mosque     mosquito      moustache       mouth
                                                              =--

                                                              =-

                                                              =
                                                    Ergli>h
                                                              =-

                                                              :--:_

                                                              --

                                                              -*

  nest        nuts         overcoat                           -_

                                                              t_


                                                              --_

                                                              +-
                                                              -=_

              pencil       plano           ple                L=_


                                                              L-_




                          fr
                                                              l=-



                                       g                      l-


                             '{::::-
                                                              F--

                                                              =-=
  pl8eon      p rp e       pond            prlson
                                                              l,-



                                                              l,--




                                                              >-
                                                               L--_



                                                               l_:


 pylamas      queen                        razor               -_.-

                                                                  l-
116
                                                              -
:
         Illustrated vocabulary and grammar

         Nouns

                                      o

                               r-.
                           ) saddle
                           '                   shirt                    sleeve




          spade              stick             sword                    tap (faucet- US)




                            toothbrush/paste   towel                    tractor




    _a


    -4

    -t
          Vre               van                VASC                     violin
    4
          't\ll'
                    ,tt:

                                                        '-''rq.
                                               ++i.d'             *-.

          volcano           watch              windmiil                 zip (zipper - US)


                                                                                       T17
                                                                                                        >:

5 Picturesfor Composition                                                                               -
                                                                                                        L-




                                                                                                        l =




                                                                                                              I

                                                                                                        L-



                                                                                                        5-:
                                                                                                         -
                                                                                                        Il-_
It is quite easy to invent speculative pictures
and story sequences.However, people do not        Story sequences                                       \
usually think it is going to be easy so they do   Once more I think it is better to allow a certain
not even try. When you have copied some of        ambiguity in the story. Fairy storiesand other        !---
these you will feel more confident in doing       traditional tales give a clear story to illustrate,
vour own.                                         see'Beautyand the Beast',page 726.                    _L-_




Individual speculative                            For ways of using these pictures, see page            L-_


                                                  135.
pictures
The secret of inventing these is to clear your                                                          L-
mind of any specific incident. The picture
must be ambiguous! For ways of using these                                                              L,-:

pictures, see page 134.
                                                                                                        L=



                                                                                                        L



                                                                                                        L-




                                                                                                        >-=
                                                                                                        >-=
                                                                                                        -

                                                                                                        L,_




                                                                                                        >-
                                                                                                        -

                                                                                                        L-=:




                                                                                                        =--

                                                                                                        -

                                                                                                        !-.

                                                                                                        -

                                                                                                        L--_



                                                                                                        =--

                                                                                                        !:

                                                                                                        }.-



                                                                                                        L.-
118

                                                                                                        D
         Pictures for composition

         Individual speculative
         pictures




                                    sffi
                 wd-
                 A9
*:

-a


:.

-a


4
         [1fnI
--=

-:
                                           h
                                           179
     t
Pictures for composition

Individual speculative
pictures




 rfE
                                    .2Yt-   :-




                                            :-

                                            -




              1^nr      /--L1
              y-<),!f           l
              Wi,.o
     Picturesfor composition

     Story sequences




                               e
                                e
                                &
                                 e




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-!

 :

4




                                     121
 I
Pictures composition
        for

Two story sequences




                       :-




                $
                       :-

                       :

                       L

122
                       1
                Pictures composition
                        for
                Two story sequences



                                       ffi 4
                                          -D
                                         G5



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                              10          ':b:
           t"
                                          / r'
      "L




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      t


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     -&


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4


-

4

.,

J,




 a
                                               tzJ

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        for
Pictures composition   :


Story Maze             :
                        -
                       :-

                       :-

                       :-

                       :

                       ! :




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                       l--

                       :

                       :-

                       :--

                       t-



                        :

                       :

                       :-




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                           :

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124
         Pictures composition
                 for

         StoryMaze




     -

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_a_

                                     hoppV , peacefr^l
     t


     a




                                evci(ed , nerro^s


                                             a^9(t
       for
Pictures composition

Storysequence               I
Beautyand the Beast         >-


                             }-.-

                            F:



                            --
               <
               -,-1     @    :

               Ae
               l',,\l
               s-/      o    :'

                             --

                             --

                             :




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                             l-

                             :-:

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                             >-
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126

                             -
,-_

           Pictures composition
                   for

           Story sequence
           Little Red Ridirg Hood


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       a
                                                                                                                                      FF

6 Somebasicways of using
                                                                                                                                      .=<-
                                                                                                                                      =

                                                                                                                                      ==-

  picturesin language                                                                                                                 1--



                                                                                                                                      t-


  teaching                                                                                                                            =-

                                                                                                                                      --L=-



                                                                                                                                      F

                                                                                                                                      --
I hope that people rvith cttncerns verv different from
those of language te-achers  rvill find this book useiul as a
                                 language teacherstrnd, in
                                                                                                                                      =-
source of pictures. Hor,r'ever,
particular, teachers of foreign and second languages,rvill
                                                                                                                                      l:,_
probablv be the chief users and it is for them that I am
ac'ldingthis section.                                                                                                                  -
                                                                                                                                      =-.-
The section is dii'ided into four parts:
Listttt i rr,g,r cntlirg ntrtl 7t t u rt s
                      t          tc
                                                                                                                                      l€:
S1tcnkirt,q, i t it tg nrd 7t t tt rcs
              t r               ic
Exnn4tlcs ir,nysof usirtg Tticturt's
              trf                          Ttage ttngc
                                               by
Mtdin                                                                                                                                 l-._



The ideas suggested in this section can be added to bv                                                                                D-
referring to the books to be found in Furthcr readirtgon
page139.
                                                                                                                                      =
                                                                 It it,nsn bttdday for Tom! First of all, he fell out of hed! Then
Listening, reading and pictures                                  Itt' stctodotr tht cat! Tlrcn tlrc coffeeu,as hot and he burnt his
                                                                 nrottth! Tlten he missedhis bus! Then he was late for work!          !|.-
Somewaysof usingpictures                                         Wmt a day! etc.
1 To interest the student                                        The cards are turned around after the story has been told.            =-
               'translate' the meaning of the gist of the text   Then the class are asked Wlnt hattpenedto Tom? IMat
2 To help to
or of indir''idual items of language                             hapltenedfirsf? He fell out of bed? (turring the first card
                                                                                                                                       L.-
3 To give a context for the language and for the students'       arourtd)Yes,he fell orrtof bed.Then ithat happened?
activitv
4 To eive cultural information                                   Exnmple2: Show the students a complicated picture, put                --
5 To iontribute to the search for specific information in        it away and then challenge the students to remember it
                                                                 half an hour later. This immediately calls for the use of
the text and to help the students demonstrate non-
.,'e.rbal1v                                                      the past tense form, providing you do not pick up the
                                                                                                                                       >--
           that s/he has for-rnd that information and
underslood it arrd has a personal responseto offer about         picture but leave it hidden.
                                                                 (e.g.a student,tryirtg to rememher picfure) It was a seaside
                                                                                                      the                              }.-
it.
                                                                 picture. Thert u,are  tzto boats... no, thereu,erethreeboats...
                                                                 etc.                                                                  =-
Teaching meaning
                                                                    In these two examples the past tense form is
A single picture ma1,,occasionally,be used to teach the          illustrated, not bv the picture alone, but by the way in
meaning of a word or phrase ne$' to the student.                 r,r,hichthe pictr-rrels used and referred to.                         :-
Howe'u,er, pictr"rres are usually ambiguous; people                 A1l the suggestions made in Section 6 for activities
interpret them differentlv.                                      rvitl-r picturc's concern rvavs in which pictures can be              --
   The most useful contribution a picture can make is to         used to introduce meaning and to personalise this for the
contribute to the student's understanding of a more              learner.
                                                                                                                                       }-,
general context rvhich mav be made up of pictures, the              A most effective wav of helping students to become
ieacher'sactions,the student's actions,sound effectsand          familiar with the meaning of lanp;uagenew to them is to
words. It is in the understanding of this overall context        ask the students to produce a more effective picture than             t=-
that the language new to the student vr'ill have meaning         the one used in 1000 PlcruRESron TeecHrRs ro Copv!
   It is often the rt'ny the picture is used and referred to                                                                           5--
                                                       'new'
lr.4rich gives (or doesn't give!) meaning to the                 Demonstrating        understanding
language.
                                                                 In orcler to shon their understanding and perhaps their
Exnntplc .l: To introduce Past tense forms the teacher           personal response to what they have heard or read, the
could tell a storv illustrating it with a series of picture      students can be asked to point to a picture, to draw a
cards n'hich s/he props on the ledge along the bottom of
                                                                                                                                           !.--
                                                                 picture or to arrange several pictures in an order.
ihe board.




                                                                                                                                           L_

128
                                                                                                                                           D
      Demonstrotinp; ttrderstanding of uocnbulan1
                                                                     Speaking,writing and pictures
     Most pages with multiple, individual pictures.
     A well known activitv is Bingo (Lotto). For example,
                                                                     Some ways of using pictures
     photocopv a few pages of the 6ook which have on them
     many small pictures; cut up the pages; distribute the          I To motivate the student to speak or to r,r.rite
     prctures among the students (five each); call out the          2 To create a context r,r,ithirrlr,hich his/her response r,r,ill
     words randomly; when a student hears a r,r,ord naming          have meaning
     one of his or her pictures he or she turns it over. When a     3 To provide the student with information to use rn
     student has turned over all five pictures s/he calls out,      cott.trolletlpractice work. pictures showing objects,
     B/NCO!                                                         actlons, events and relationships can cue answers to
     Alternativelv, rather than calling out a word for each         questions,substitutions and sen[encecomplettons
     picture you can describe the piclures. This is clearly a       ,1To sponsor,stimulate and possibly to
                                                                                                                r,iriit, spoken and
     more demanding activitv.                                       r,vritten descriptions, narrations or dialogues
                                                                    5 To sponsor, stimulate .rnd offer infoimation for free
     Demonstrating understaltding ot' a dialogue                    n'riting ancl speaking. 'Free, in the sense of the teacher
                                                                    otfering no Ianguage guidance or restrictions
     Most pictures in the book
     If_you want to test the students' understanding of parts
                                                                    Mechanical     and communicative         use of language
     of a dialogue vou can ask them to complete a ircture or
                                            -appliej
     to dran' one. In principle this idea            to most        Pictures can be used in activities which offer little more
     pictures in the book.                                          than nec.hnrricnl         in
                                                                                      Ttrnctice the use of the language or may
                                                                    be used in comnntnicntiue nctirtities r,vhiiir would b'e
     Example: The students listen to a dialogue describing          meaningful to the students even if they did them in their
     someone's appearance (on cassette or between two               o\,!'n langua€le.
     students in the class). Thev draw the information they         It is important to note that communicative activities mav
     hear onto a simple drawing of a box person, for example,      demand an objective response or a subjectiv" ,"rponr6.
     beard, moustache, lonp; hair, a bror,r,n hat, jacket, short   For example, if you make a big simpie drawing of a
     trousers,etc. See page 18.                                    person jumping and then slon,ly pull it out of an
                                                                   envelope, the students can be asked [o guess what it is.
                                                                   Their guesseswiil be as objective as the1,"can   make them;
                                                                   there is a right or_$rrong ans\\,er. If you show the picture
                                                                   of the seaside and ask the students io say whethei or not
                                                                   it reminds them of their holidays by the sea, the answers
                                                                   must be subjective and cannot be
                                                                                                            fudged as right or
                                                                   \vrong as far as the content of what they siy is concerned.
                                                                   In the caseof the partiallv-hidden drai,r.ingthe students
                                                                   arebeing motivated bv being challe     nged.Inlhe caseof the
                                                                               of feelings and e.xperienies, the students are
                                                                   3rghange
                                                                   belng /i l?'rfdd
                                                                                  and crrctrrirngcd.
                                                                   The idea of challenge inuitntion and encortagementcanbe
                                                                                          ,
                                                                   used by the teacher to help him or her to'minimise the
                                                                   amount of purelv mechanical lr,,ork the students are
                                                                   asked to do.

                                                                   Some ways of challenging          and encouraging
                                                                   students
                                                                   The idea of challengeand inoitntion can be adapted to the
                                                                   needs of students at the highest and at the most basic of
                                                                   proficiency levels. The activities arising include
    Demonstrating
               understandinga story
                          of                                       controlled, guided and free activities, ai well as
                                                                   subjective or objective responses.
    Beauty and the Beast page 126
    Students can be asked to put muddled pictures into the
                                                                   Identit'ying
t   correct sequence for the story you have told. you would
    have.to photocopy the page iiist, cut up the pictures and   Challenge the students to identify a picture which is
I
    hand them out in a muddled sequence.                        difficult to identifv. You may show them the picture at
                                                                great speed or shon' them only a small unchaiacteristic
    Cappedexercises,     multiple clnice, truelfalse,qLtestions part of it. In the case of these two examples the students
t                                                               call out and attempt to describe what they see. Other
    a n da n s l r c r s
                                                                types of challenge to identify depend on ihe students
a
    Most picturesin the book                                    ask-ing questions. For example, you think of one prcture
    The information neededto do thesetraditional activities and they ask you questions to find
                                                                                                      out which one it is.
    can be taken from a varietv of pictures.
                                                                   Descrihing
                                                                   Challenge the students to describe a picture so well that
                                                                   other students can do something. Foiexample, the other
                                                                   students mig;ht draw a picture based on th-edescription
                                                                   or they might just name what has been described.
                                                                   The student can describe by speaking or by writing and,




                                                                                                                             129
                                                                                                                                                    -_R


depending on the activity, the student can describe the        You might, on the other hand, invite the learners to Iook
                                                               at the pictures of young chiidren on Page 55 and
                                                                                                                                                    ]
picture objectively or subjectivelv. For example, if the
student thinks about one of the scenesin the first part of     remember their own childhood.         Alternatively, the
the book (for example, the official and the r.r'aitingpeople   students could look at the pages of expressions, pick out                            l,_

on page 51) and recounts a personai experience reiating        one of them and tell their neighbours when they last felt
to the picture so that the other studeni can say which         the same and what happened.                                                          f,_
picture it is. This would be a subjective description.
                                                               Pictures as cues in mini-dialogues
                                                                                                                                                    I--
Matching                                                       Most pages with individual pictures
Challenge the students to find a relationship betu'een         Pictures have been used for many years to cue
                                                                                                                                                    a
tn'o bits of information, for example, between two             substitutions within dialogues in which the basic
pictures or a picture and a text. Many of the best-known       sentence patterns are determined by the teacher. Such
language games belong to this kind of challenge, for           dialogue work, after an initial demonstration, would                                 =.-
example, true,/false games (in which the student has to        normally be done in pairs or group work. The pictures
match what is said against what he or she knows to be          would either be printed on a single sheet and taken in                               f

true or false); Bingo (Lotto) games; picture/text              turn or each picture would be on a single piece of paper
matchine activities.                                           or card and then turned over or taken by a student. The
Once more, the matching could be objective or                  advantage of the latter lies partly in the element of                                =-
subjective. For exampie, a subjective matching could be        surprise and interesi; more importantly, however, the
                                                                                                       'information gap'
between two pictures with no obvious connection except         advantage lies in the creation of an
                                                                                                                                                    =-
to an individual who feels there is one and is willing to      between the students. If only studeni B sees the picture
tell the others what it is.                                    there is some reason for student A asking the question.
                                                                                                  'opinion                                          f-_
                                                               The idea of information gap' and             gap' has been
Grouping                                                       central to language teaching in the last twenty years.
                                                               However, it is not enough; a'gap' is no use if the student                               l-_
Challenge the students to find a relationship between          is not motivated to cross the gap - and that is where the
three or more bits of inforrnation. The bits of information    idea of chnllenge,inuitation and encouragementcome tn.                                   L-..-
might be all pictures or could be pictures, n'ritten texts,    The follon'ing example of a mini-dialogue, prompted bv
objects, tape recordings, etc. The grouping could be           pictures, hovers on the edge of being of sufficient interest
objective or subjective. For erample, an objective             to make the students want to know what the other is                                      :__
                                        'n'hich are usuallv
grouping could be all those objects                            saying and want to respond.
associatedwith a particular job.
                                                                                                                                                    =
                                                               Exnmple: photocopy the two pages of jobs on pages 58
Sequencing                                                     and 59. Cut them up and distribute approximately ten to
                                                               each group of four students. Place the pictures upside                                   =
Challenge the students to place various bits of
information into a sequence. For example, a number of          down. Students iake it in turns to turn a picture over and                                -
individual pictures or a number of pictures and texts. If      then, referring to that picture, they ask another student                                !--
you cut up one of the storv sequences, for example,            Would you like to be a (t'armer)?            The other student replies
Benfty antl the Benstit would be an objective challenge to     t r u t h f u l l y Y e s , I w o u l d ./ N o , I u t o u l d n ' / I d o t t ' t
                                                                                                                                  t
                                                                                            !
                                                               knou/ Dcfin it cly rrot , etc.                                                           =-
place them into the correct sequence. If you give the
students one page of objects and ask them to wrlte a                Many of the pages of objects or of actions can be used
story which involves at least ten of the objects it would      as cues for mini-dialogues. I suggest that you photocopy                                 ^r-
                                          'correct'            the page of pictures you need, stick the page onto card,
be a subjective challenge, as there is no           sequence
for this.                                                      cut up the card into the individual pictures, put them
                                                                                                                                                        l--
                                                               into an envelope, write the instructions and sample
                                                               dialogue on the outside of the envelope as follows:
Ordering                                                                                                                                                _l_-
Challenge the students to place various bits of                Pictures: Jobs
information into an order of value. For example, various       How to play: Place the pictures upside down on the                                        f--
pictures or pictures and texts. You could photocopy the        table. Take it in turns to pick up a picture and to ask
pages of foods and ask the students to put them into their     someone else a question.
order of appropriacy for a school dav outing b1' coach. A      Student A: (picking up a picture of a farmer) Would you                                   =-
more subjective invitation would be to place the foods in      like to bea farmer?
a oersonal order of preference and then to find someone        StudentB: (telling the truth) Yes,I ruould.lNo,Iutouldn't.                                _t-_
in the class with the same order of preference'                Optional language: Yes,it rt'ouldbe great!lNo,it u,ould be
                                                               horriltle!ICtrtainltl not!Ilt itottld be uenl boringlhardIfunnyI                          l--
Remembering                                                    e a s v. . .

Challenge the students to remember what is shown in a                                                                                                    F
                                                               Extension into unguided oral fluency:
picture or in a sequence of pictures. You might make that
                                                               Student A: Why?
part of a preparation for dealing with everyday life
                                                               Student B: Becnuse loueanimals and I lotteworkitrg outside
                                                                                       I
situations ('training the visual memory'!) Copy the street                                                                                               -L-
                                                               irt tlrc clennnir, etc.
scene (page 37) onto a transparencv, show it to the
students for three minutes and then ask them who was in                                                                                                  -L-
the street and rt'hat they were doing. Another well
known picture memory game is sometimes called
'Pelmanism', in n'hich about twentY small pictures are                                                                                                   _\--:
laid upside down and then students try to remember
which is which. If they are correct thev take the picture                                                                                                 \-:
and have another go. Both these examples are chnllertges.
                                                                                                                                                         F..

                                                                                                                                                          -\-


130
                                                                                                                                                         t
           Examplesof ways of using the pictures                                           make the same facial erpression. His or her partner tries
           pageby page                                                                     t ( ) g u e s sh ( ) \ v 5 / h e f e e l s .

           In the followingsection, to limitationof space, have How to
                                   due                      I                draw faces (page 18) caricatures (pages
           only beenable to suggesta fen, rvavsof using the manv
                                                                   19 to 24)
           pictures in the book. For more ideis on usin"gpictures,
           seeFurtlrcrrentlittg page 139.
                              on                                   Actittittl9

           How to draw (pages 3 to 35)                                                      The pictures on these pages provide the basis of a rvhole
                                                                                            'soap
                                                                                                   opera/ set of characters r,r.hich can be used as a
           Actirtitv 1                                                                      small element in a language programme or as the chief
                                                                                            vehicle of it.
          This sectionis primarily for vou. However,a drawing                               Teachers rt,ho have made soap opera characters a central
          lessonbasedon the_se              pageswould be interestingfor thE                part of their teaching have told me that student ase and
          studentsand rvould contextualise,                     very naturallvla lot of     proficiencv level make no difference; everyone enjJvs the
          basic vocabularvfor the body, plus cbmparativeforms.                              experience,businesspeople as well as children:
          Considergiving a drawing lbsson... then the students                             The advantage of sbap opera characters is that the
          c a nl r e l pv o u d r a r vp i c t u r e ii n t h e f u t u r e l              students create everything about them and thev can be
                                                                                           made to do anything at all. Information about the
          How to draw faces (pages 11 to 14)                                               characters_can   grow as the students, proficiency grows.
                                                                                           In the earl1, stages the characters can be given names,
          Actiaity 2                                                                       ages and hobbies. In the later stages theri can cliscuss
          The studentsrtould probablv enjov learning to make                               what they ivould do if thev *on i million dollars and
          these expressions and it u,ould be a good way of                                 they can write to each othei about it.
          becomingfamiliar with the r,r'ords the imotions. The
                                           for                                             The students are responsible for establishing the
          comparative forms are also well contertualised vr..ith                           information since it is thelr creation. Dialogues, titters,
          thesedrar^"'ings.                                                                newspapers,radio and videos can be made.-

          How to draw faces (page 1.4)                                                     How   to draw fantasy creatures      (page 2G)

          ActirtitV3                                                                      Actiuittl 10

          Shor,r' studentshow to draw vounger and younger
                  the                                                                     It is often much easier to use the artificiality of a very
          people.  Cive eachstudentser.eral pieces paperso tiat                           limited amount of language about a fantasv creature
                                                  of
          they canproduceseveral     faces
                                         each. Ask gioups of four                         than about normal, real people whom one knows to be
          to arrangetheir faces termsof how old thev-look
                                in                                                        infinitelv complex! The students can be asked to suggesr
                                                             and
          to use the phrases: Sllrc's
                                    olderlyLtungcr he'rlhin.Hotu                          crazv names, ages, hobbies, likes and dislikes for ihese
                                                than
          old is slhe?Sllrc's
                            about(3).                                                     creatures.
                                                                                          Make a character profile of one of these crearures.
          Actiuity 4                                                                      Interview him or her for one of the jobs illustrated on
                                                                                          pages 58 to 5u.
         Someof the peopleare lookingat differentangles.                 Show
         the students     horvto do this and ask themto suggest          what Actiuity11
         they think the peopleare looking at. Which siudentcan
         p r o d u c e h e m o s tu n e x p e c t es u g g e s t i o n ?
                     t                             d                          Imagine one of these creaturcs arriving in one of the
                                                                                          sceneson pages 36 to 52. What would happen? Write a
         How to draw faces (pages 15 to 18)                                               story or a dialogue about it.

         Actiaittl 5                                                                      Settings(pages to 53)
                                                                                                        37
         Which of these drawings is a clear, unambiguous The complexity of these pictures is one of their strengths.
         illustration the rvord? Which is the mostambieuous?
                    of
         Copy the ones vou lvant the students to learn and ask Actirtity (Arrysetting)
                                                                        12
         them to rank them in order of their ambiguity.        Ask the students to call out or to list dor.r,n as manv
     t                                                                                    words as thev can about the picture in three minutes. if
         Actirtity 6                                                                      this is done.in g-roupsthere c.rn be a grtrup competrtion.
_l       Ask the studentsto imaginewhv the personfeelsas he or                            Following this the words can be put into a! many groups
         she does,what has just happenbdand what r,r,ill                                  as the students can devise or into alphabetical oraer.
                                                       happen
     I   "                                                                                Word treescan be made (e.g.for Siifjrrr roornon page,l5):


 a
          1,',,,o,,,,                                                                     Actirritll (Ant| sctting)
                                                                                                   13
         The students, working in pairs, imagine a conversatlon                       Pairwork. One. student pretends to be blind. The other
         bletween any two of these people. They act out the                           describes the scene to him or her. The first stuclent
         conversation. The other students must guess which were                       guesseswhere it is.
         the two facesand words providing the starting point for
         the dialogue.                                                                Actiuittl 11 (Ant1 sctting)
                                                                                      Pairwork. F,ach pair writes ten sentences lvith gaps.
         Actiztity 8                                                                  These are given to another pair of students u,,ho inust
         Each student chooses one of the expressions and tries to                     complete the sentences referring to the picture. (you
                                                                                                             by
                                                                                      must decide whether to allow the questionjto be passed




                                                                                                                                                 131
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                            6""r+"tl'able
                                                                                                                            >

 to the other pair before you correct them.                 to repeat what everybody else saw, trying to remember it
                                                            all in the correct order:                                       L._

Actiuity 75 (Most settirtgs)                                This afternoonI saw a girl sunbathingand a ship sailing and
                                                            a lrclicopterflyiirg, etc.
 Pairwork. Each pair writes ten sentences rvhich are true                                                                   \-_,
                                                            Alternatively: This afternoon I saw a girl. She was
 or false. These are given to another pair who must read    sunbathing.I saw a ship. It was sailing. I saw a helicopter.
                                                                                                                       It
 them and decide which are true and which are false.        zoas flying.                                                    >-
Actiuity16 (Mostsettings)                                   Actiuity 20 (Most settings)
                                                                                                                            -
 The teacherremains silent but gesturesat a projected       Ask the students to look at a setting for three minutes
 image or wall chart of the picture.The gesturesindicate
 what the students should describeand sav about the
                                                            and then to turn the picture over and to describe the
                                                            picture from memory. After fifteen minutes (or whatever
                                                                                                                            >.
 picture.                                                   time you judge to be appropriate) ask the students to
 Example:6treet page37)                                     compare their descriptions with their neighbours and to         >-
 A street.                                                  write together as good a description as ihey can.
 A busystreet.                                              Alternatively, you or a student stand with your back to         -
 There a lot of cars.
      are                                                   the projected scene and try to describe it to the class.
                  out
 A woman coming of a shop.
          is                                                Alternatively: each student studies one of four pictures.       b-_
 She's       out
      comirtg of thebaker's.                                S,/he then leaves the picture on the desk and circulates
                                                            trying to find which other students had the same picture.
 Actiuity L7 (Most settings)
 The studentslook at the picture and decide rt'here the     Actiuity21 (Antt settirtg)
 place is, who the people might be, what they might be      In pairs, the students take it in turns to describe someone     >
 doing/thinking/feeling, n.hy they might be doing/          or something in the picture so well that their partner can
 thinking/feeling this wav, how well they know each         identify him/her/it.                                            _L-
 other.
                                                            Actiuity 22 (Any setting)                                       :-.
 Actiaity 18 (Most settittgs)
                                                            A student pretends that s/he is a mouse and is hiding in
 The studentschoosewhere they would like to be in the       the picture. The other students must try to find where          L.'
 picture. They say why and what they wouid be doing,        the mouse is by asking questions: Are you in the man's
 saying,thinking and feeling.They could add what thev       hat? etc.
 can see,hear,smell,touch, taste.
                                                            Actiuity23 (Any setting)
 Actiaity 79 (Beachpage40)                                                                                                  \-_
                                                            In pairs the students write ten sentences about the
 Eachstudentsayswhat s/he saw this afternoonand tries
                                                                                                                            \-_



                                                                                                                                L_
1aa
IJL



                                                                                                                            D
          picture which mav be true or false. The students give           over the hole and challenge the students to identify what
          their sentences to other pairs who must read them lnd           they carr see from ihese tiny glimpses and to prediit what
          decide whether or not they are true or false.                   other things they might see and to remember what they
                                                                          have seen. Then show them the whole picture rather
         Actirrit!/21 (Any setting)                                       than the hole picture! This is known as the holistic
         The students write a list of twenty things which might           method! (strange English humour ...)
         have just happened before the situation depicted in t"he
         picture. Alternatively, thev write twentv things n,hich          Actiuity29 (Mostsettirtgs)
         might happen next. Display the students, ideai and ask           Photocopv various scenes. Cut them in half. Give each
         them to decide who has the most interestins ideas. you           student a half picture. S/he writes four sentences
         might like to-h_elpthem to get the idea bv practising            describing their picture. Display these descriptions.
         orallv with a different prcrure.                                 Students read the descriptions and decide who has the
         Example: (Terracepog" :O)                                        other half of their picture.
         Wut might hnue just happened   lteforcthe Tticture?
         The man zttltLt reading nright hntte goneinto the houseand
                       is                                                 Actiaity30 (Mostsettitlgs)
         asked n drink.
               for
                                                                          Photocopy some scenes. Cut them into six or eight
         Actiaitrl 25 (Any setting)                                       pieces. Cive each student one piece. The students m"ust
                                                                                                           -and
                                                                          studv their piece of picture          then talk to other
         Students write a letter or a postcard as if thev \\rere a        students and find out wh_ohas pieces of the same picture.
         person in the picture. Thev can inclucle several things          Finally thel' should put a11
                                                                                                     theii pieces of picture tbgether
         which are untrue. Another student readsthe letterarid            to make the whole picture.
         decides if anv of it is untrue.
                                                                          Topics, behaviour      and notions (pages 54 to g3)
         Actiaity26 (Any setting)
         Croupwork. Give each €jroup a copir of the same picture.         Actitity 31 (Most pages)
         Each group lr'rites ten questions about the picture. Take       Many of these pages can be used as picture cues for the
         the pictures from them. Each group then talies it in turns      mini-dialogues described. on-page 130. particularly
         to ask a question of the other groups who must write            useful: profersiorr:  pages 5tr to j9; rtttitnalspages b5 to b6;
         down their answer from memorv. When everv group                             pages 6lt to 70; trnrcl page 7l : ltt'altfipage 75 to
                                                                         t'rtt t.tnt.c
         has asked five questions find trut nhrch groups have the        76; clothespages 77 to 78; foodpiges 7o to 82; triatier page
         most correct ans\.vers.                                         83.

         Actioity27 (Any setting)                                        Erample: u,enther
        Cive each pair one photocopv of a scene. (Errlarge the           Student A: Wtnt's the u,entherlike today?
        picture to fill an .A4 sheet if possible.) Ask them t; hold                B: (-student, picking up a card) k's raitting.
                                                                         flu{ent
        the paper to ihe light but to view the scene from the back       Student A: Wnt are Lloltgoittgto do, then?
        of the.paper. They will see the picture through the paper.       Student B: I tltink I'll ... (go fishing).
        Ask them to write on the back of the sheet ill the words         Student A: Good idea!/ You ntust lte mad!/ I zuill ns
        thev can which describe the picture on the other side.           uell! / Oh, I u,on'tl/Ridiculous!, etc.
        Thev should r,r,rite each r.rlord eractlv i,r-here the
        object/person shows through from the otlr-er     side. This is
                                                                         Actiuity 32 (Mostpoges)
        more easiiy done if the picture is held against a window.        Pairs look at a page for three minutes and then wrrte
                                                                         down all the pictures thev remember.
                                                                         Alternativelv:_cutup the page inttr twentv pictures. Turn
                  11..^"'dl,lj"
                   ihu P'"
                                                                         them over and try to remember which is which. point at
                                                                         the back of each picture and try to name it. Turn it over.
                                                                         If you are right you can keep it.

                                                                         Actiaity 33 (Most pages)
                                                                         Croupwork. One student thinks of one picture shown on
    I                                                                    one page and the others ask questions [o find out which
                                                                         it is.

    I
                                                                         Actittity34 (Most pnges)
        This paper can then be used as a vocabularv test bv the
                                                                         Pairs studv one page and try to find ten different wavs of
t       students. Student A sits with his or her back to theiieht
                                                                         g r o t r p i n gt h e o b j e c t s .
        and looks at the picture. S/he points to each part of ihe
I       picture naming whatever s/he can. StudeniB, on the
                                                                         Actiuittl 35 (Most pages)
        other side o{ the paper, can see the picture showing
        through and the written vocabuiary, as well as thE               Cive any two of the pictures to a student and ask him or
        shadow of the other student's finger. Student B can then         her to say_what the relationship between them might be.
        confirm or reject what Student A is saying.                      Example: The postman slnuld ent this beef to makeii, Irg,
                                                                         strotryer.
        Actiuity 28 (Most settings)                                      When I'm hot I don't uant to utenra heauVsuit.
        Photocopy g scene onto a transparency. place a piece of
        a paper with a hole in it on the OHp glass. pass tiie scene




                                                                                                                                    _tJ--)
                                                                                                                                    -
Actiuity36 (MostTtictures objects)
                       of                                                                   as         See
                                                                   to find as many examples possible. which group of
                                                                   four has made the most examples. Examine each                    =
Students are given a picture of an object and have to try          exampleof the winning group with the classas a whole
                              'buy' it.
to persuade other students to                                      to checkthat they really have won! This enablesyou to            L,_
Alternativelv, the student has to complain about the
                                                                   do someintensivegrammar practice!
object s/he has'bought'. The class consider the
complaintand decidc if it is convincing.
                                                                   Pictures for Composition. (Pages 119 to 127)
Alternatively, the student has to think of five different
things that s/he could do with the object he or she has            Thereare four types of picture in this section:
been given.                                                        1 Individual speculative pictureswhich are intended for
Groups could compete to see hon' many different things             useas singlepictures.        119
                                                                                          Pages to 120.
could be done with the object.                                                                    in
                                                                   2 Ambiguous story sequences which there is no final              L-

Alternatively, the students try to say i.t'hy one of the
                                                                   'correct'story. Pages721to 723.
       represented on pages 14 to 22 would love to have            3 A flowchartof random pictures,abstract   marks,words,
[i"tt"                                                             symbols,numbers which act as cues for a story. Pages
                                                                                                                                    >-
                                                                   724 and 1.25.
Actiaitrt (Mostpictures objects.)
        37            of                                           4 Picturestrips of well known stories. Page726 and 127.          =:-
Give each group pictures of tn'entv objects and ask them
                                                                   Individual speculative pictures. (Pages119 to                    L
to decide which five objects they rvould take if they were:
on a desert island/staving in hospital/camping on
                                                                   1201
holiday/on a train journev                                                                                                          =-
                                                                   Actiuity 41 (Any speculatiue
                                                                                              picttrres)
Actiitittl 38 (Most pages.)                                        Using one of these pictures a possible sequenceof                L
                                                                   activitiesis as follows:
Cive the student one of the pictures and ask him or her
to sav n'hv it could be a metaphor for something else, for                                                                          D
exarnple, their friend/a student/a teacher/a teenager/a
                                                                   Description
prime minister/1ove.                                               First of all, the studentsdescribein very simple terms           L-
                                                                   what thev can see.  How manrl      are
                                                                                                people there?  Wat's this?
Actiuity39 (Professions 58 snd 59)
                     plges                                         etc.
                                                                                                                                    L-
Stuclents choose one of the jobs, write four good things
about it and four bad things about it. Read their eight
                                                                   Interpretntion
                                                                                                                                    L
lines to another student and see if s/he can identifv the          Conflicting individual interpretations of what is
job referrecl to.                                                  represented   becomeapparentvery quickly, and should
                                                                   be encouragedas they lead to genuine exchangesof                 L.


Actittity 40 (House atd honrc Ttages to 63)
                                      60                           views. It is advisablefor the teacherhim/herself not to
                                                                   allow anvone'sinterpretationto 'crush' another's.                L.-
Give selectedindividual pictures to each student. S/he
                                                                   Here are someusefui ouesnons:
writes three lines clescribins its use. S/he snows the
                                                                   W'nt is ha1tpening?
descriptions to five other students who try to identify the                                                                         L-:
                                                                   Do you agree?
object referred to. If most of the students identifv the
                                                                   Wut hashawened?
object correctlv then s /he          has communicated
successfullv!
                                                                   Whntzttillhappen  next?
                                                                   Wttl tlorlouthirtkthisis a roornirta houselhutlfactorylschool,
                                                                                                                                    >:
                                              (pages 84 to
                                                                   ctc.?
Illustrated    vocabulary     and grammar                                                                                           ::
                                                                   Wy tlo you thir* it is a backdoornnd not a front doctr?
1171
                                                                   Personnlexperiences                                              L=
Illustrations of grammatical features and vocabulary do
nof   le:clr   lhp.rrn.enf\   renrpcpntpd    li   ir   onlU   hv
                   """   r'-                                       Sometimes discussion what might be happeningin the
                                                                                        of
'lrandling'                                      its
             the grammar and cxlteriertcltl,q meanings                                                                              _t-
                                                                   picture leads to personal experiences,  for example,
that the student can learn. With this in mind, it is a most
                                                                   accidentsof various kinds. Let studentstell each other
useiul activitv to ask the students to think of alternative        these associated             ...
                                                                                   experiences possiblysome can be                   L
ways of drawing pictures to illustrate the conceptsin this
                                                                   sharedwith the classas a whole.
section.In the act of doing this work the student's feeling
for the grammar w'ill take a step forward.                                                                                           L--
                                                                          isstres
                                                                   Broctder
The manl' acti"'ities r,r'hich focus on grammatical points
or specific areas of lexis r,r'hichare possible with the other     Sometimes broaderissuemight emergeand be
                                                                               a                                                    :-
pictures in the book are just as likeiy to help the students       highlightedbv the teacher. For example,the questionof
to internalise and grasp the grammar as a specific section         punishmentfor peoplewho are seenas responsible   for
on grammar.                                                        the 'accident' Hout sltould person putished?
                                                                                 .           the     be          tAhatis            >-
On pages 100 and 101 there are eight strips of pictures            theroleof ptuishment society?
                                                                                        in        How haoeyou been
illustratins various tense forms. Cive the students a              punished?                                                         L.

selection of ten verbs frorn pages 87 to 98. Either n'rite
the r.erbs on the board or photocopy the pictures and
                                                                   Written and actedconT)ersations                                  5-
gir.e each pair of students an identical set. Select the
strips of tenses lr.hich vou wish the str,rdentsto practise.       Ask the studentsto imagine a conversation   betweenthe
Each pair attempts to make as many alternative                     people (or other people not depicted,e.g. a neighbour)           :-
examples as possible using the ten verbs. After five               before, during or after the incident depicted. They
minutes ask each pair to join another pair and to add              should write the conversationdown, perhaps with
their sentences  toeether.Cive'them another five mtnutes           anotherstudent,and then act or read it out.



                                                                                                                                    5

                                                                                                                                         L

134
    Moking tlrc Tticture less antbigrrotrs                                                         it
                                                                                          pickeLl .forhcr.
                                                                                         10 StrLldt:rrly lugc rnttrtster
                                                                                                             n                                            'You
                                                                                                                                 nTtpenred   nnd snid,          haue
    Agree on an interpretation of the pictures. Ask the
                                                                                          entertnrtl food ttrttl slept in nty ltetl,nou you hnue tnken my
    students to suggest hor,l' to make the picture less
                                                                                         rosc!' Tht rnerchnrrt       told the moilster thnt tfu roseu,nslor l.is
    ambiguous bv modifving the drau'ing: by adding to it or
                                                                                         tlnuslier.
    bv changing parts of its. This activity is very useful for
                                                                                         17'Ciz,t:nE ttour dnuglrtertttltertt,isezaillent you!' snid the
                                                                                                                                          I
    contextualising the follor,r'inglanguage:
                                                                                         tttottstcT.
                                                                                         72T|rcrrrcrclntrt       u,errt ltortte tlmt lrccould snqgoodbrlc his
                                                                                                                              so                               to
    L . r n t r t y l(tP a g e l 2 U b o t t t r m r i g h t p i c t u r e )
                                                                                         cltiltlran l:e.ittrtretttrrritrgttt tlu: ntonsterto bc r:nten.    H()lL1erer,
    I.f tlttu iunrtttd ttt rtnke thc .LticttLre t't sittirtg rtttnn rntlu,r
                                                              into
                                                                                         Btntttrlittsisfcd rcturttirtgit,ithhin.
                                                                                                               ort
    thntt n clnssrtttutt         itlnt sltoultlrlttudtt?
                                                                                         13 So Benttttl     rtturtrctl iuith lrcr ftttherto tha cnstle.
    Ytttt sltottld      plrt sonta                     ttrt
                                       curtLtirts tlrc it,irtdoia.
                                                                                         11 Ercrll ti,crtitrg thc tnttustercatilc to it,ntchBenuty eat nntl
    LIou csrt Vor s/ror{'tlnt it is t1 irittl(tu,? Wlnt shttultl qou
                                                                                          llrtrtl,tlkt,l firtr'i/rr'r.
    tlrsiL,?
                                                                                         15 fftis cr-trttittucd selernl rnotttls rrtttil BeatLttlsnitl htnu
                                                                                                                    for
    Yctucould dToit, itintltta' /crl.gc
                                 Lt                        nrtd sotrtt'reflectiLttts tlt
                                                                                   ort
                                                                                         trrucltshe nisscd hcr fntlur. Tht: nrttnstergnt,e n ring andlrcr
    g/nss.
                                                                                         told her thnt it tuouldcnrry her horne         nnd ltLtck  ngaininstatly.
    Ytttt cottltltlrnu, sonretlurtg              tltrough tlr itirtdott. etc.
                                                                                         L!c rrttttle ngrecto rctirrt itt onc u,eek.
                                                                                                       hcr
                                                                                         16 Her intlrcr rt,ns7,ervpleasetlto seeher nrul slrcstaycdt'or
    Ambiguous story sequences                                  (pages121to 122)
                                                                                         tnoretlntt n u,t:ek.
                                                                                         77 SudLlettlrl,      otte triglt, she u,okc ul1. Sfu felt sonethirrg
    Actiuitrt         42                                                                 terrible luttl lmp1terted.
    These stories mav be copied as thev are or cut up ir-rto l8 Slic tcrrrft ritts Ltrui                  tl:r             tuntetl it on lrcr t'inger.
    their different frames. There is ,-rc,                       c,n.-correct storyr     19 Irtstnrrtlrl,s/tt,it'as bnck iuith tlte rnorrcter.      She fttuntl hint
    Pairs of students invent a storv. Each makes sure that It1 rtg in tht cttrdcilns if lrc tt'rc dt'n11. tt tt'ri-i -so/rt thnt she
                                                                                            i                                           5l         sd
    s/he knorvs their storl' and then lloes hr other students to                         kisseti  hirn.
    take it in turns to tell ihe storv, referring to the pictures. 20 He ttltt:ttctl rqcs ntttl slretold hint tlnt sheloud hin.
                                                                                                            li-s
                                                                                         27 T'lis rcns tht trntgic lrc trct:tled!LIe turtted bnck irto a
    A flowchart of random pictures, etc. (Page 125)                                      bcautiful Ttrirtct:.
                                                                                         22Tltcr1     nnrritd Lttd sll tlrcfnnily cnnrcto their iaedditrg.
    Actititrl13
                                                                                     Media
    If the stuclents ha'"'enever seen such a thing in their li','es
    before it lvould be better to invent a story together,
                                                                                     Chalkboard         and whiteboard
    orally, based on tiris page. You could .rsk the students tct
    take a soap opera character through this rnaze of                         Whenever possible do vour drawinp;s on paper, card or
    informationl Once the.vhave the idea thev can be asked                    on OHP transparenciesso that vou can use them ag.tin.
    to make their on'n flolvchart and then to \,\'rite their wav              (Preparing piitures at horne alro m"arls that vou can
    through it. Essentiallv,the studer.rts are asked to write a               drau'in peace and produce them the instant vou need
    storv in r,r'hrcheverv piece of information is taken into                 thcm.)
    accLrunt.The reac'lerof the storv should be able to follolv                  If you do r,r.ish to dran on the board, it is of
    the route throtrgh the inftrrmatirrrrn'hich the storv n'riter             tremendous help if vou have at least tried out the
    took.                                                                     dralr'ing beforehand, perhaps copving it from this book
    Note: three tvpes of line and their possibleinterpretation                or from a photograph.
    l.rave been clrar,r,nat the bottom of page 125. These                        Manv teachers sav that the r.ery inaclequacvof their
    emr:rtions can add 'flavour' to the storv.                                drarvings catchesthe students' attention. However, er.'en
                                                                              a good joke begins to lose its attraction u'hen relentlessly
    Story sequence:         Beautyand the Beast.(Page                 126) repeated! Even professional illustrators n,ould find it
                                                                              difficult to drar,r, an_v action, animal or object on the
    Actiuity14                                                                board if thev had not prer.iouslv str-rdied So, if you find
                                                                                                                         it.
                                                                              it difficult to drar,v on the board rvithout sLrnle
    The students can be asked to studv the strips, imagine preparation you are quite normal!
    the storv and to tell it or r,r'rite it before vou tell it. One wav of retaining interest and class clisciplineu'hile
    Alternativelv, copv the strips, cut tlrenr up anti give them vou drar,t is to ask the studerrts to guess n'hat vou are
    to a group of stude.nts.      Then ask the students ttr put the d ra r,r'ing.
I
    strips into the correct sequenceas vou tell them the story.                  Making the picture develop or rnodifying the picture is
       The gist of Bcnuttl tttrtltlr Bcnslis as follolvs:                     possible on the boarcl;this is impossible if the picture is
I   1 A riclt nu:rclnttt hoLltltree sonsnrrtl tlrret, tlnttghtcrs.            prepared beforeh;rnd. This factor, plus the interest of
    2Tltc tlotrrrgt,st  tlnuqlter itns cnllt,tl
                                              Bt:nutt1.                       :ecing strrnething being made is the board's great
t
    3 Tlrc merclnrtt it,oslnr,irtg,n diificult titrtcttnd hntl rromtttrt:r1 attraction.
    lcft.
    4 Llis cltildrcn lL1erc u(nl ztttrrit:d.                                  Magnet board, flannel board and'Blu-tack'
I
    5 Orrt tlnrl tltr: rnerclnrtt sct ofl to n tlistnttt tottrr tct tlctsonr
    lrrisircss.Tlte oltlcr sistcrsu,nrttt't/linr to ltrinc thtwt dresscs Solid people rather than stick people are essential for
    front thc citq: thc ltrofhus uwnteLlsnsrt hnts; Bttttrty just thesemedia. People,animals and objectscan be stuck on
    osked n rost'.
            for                                                               the board and movecl around on a setting, providing
    6 Tlrc fnthcr cnrneto thc cttstlt,.                                       reference for the practice of specific language or for less
    7 Tltrc iLlos (nk' ttbcwtso ht: iacttt ittsidenttd fcttttd n ntanl controlled oral and lr,ritten composition. They can also
                   n()
    ttttitirrg. ntc it.
                He                                                            be used as a support for listening comprehension.
                                                                                'Blu-tack'
    B Thcrc a{rr?-s o,lr' nbout sttk slapt ttrt ortt of tltc bcds.
                   nr)                                                                     is a brand name for a substancerather like
    9 Nc.t/ nrcrnirtqlt snu n roscnrtd retnt,tnltering          Benrrttl  ht: plasticine. Small balis of it can be stuck onto the back of
                                                                              pictures ancl then stuck to most hard surfaces. it can be




                                                                                                                                                             135
                                                                                                                                                      E-
used many times and doesn't usuallv darnagethe picture                                  The overhead projector
                                          'Blu-tack'                                                                                                  IL
or the rvall, although it does sometimes!            or
                                                                                        Pictures can be shown on the OHP with ease. They can
equivalent  products are very much more convenient
                                                                                        be prepared beforehand, either by hand or copied on a
than magnet board or flannel graph and offer more or                                                                                                  L-
                                                                                        photocopying machine. They can be produced at the
less the same versatilitv.
                                                                                        right moment, moved around on the screen, have text
                                                                                        added to them and then be stored away to be used again        E--
Wall pictures                                                                           ... and again. The great flexibility of the OHP in terms of
The scenes in this book rvill prove invaluable in making                                the wav in which pictures and text can be used means          L__
rvall pictures. As n'ith all pictures it is essentialthat the                           that all the skills at ail levels can be catered for.
vital details are big enough and clear enough. Solid                                                                                                  L
figures rt'ould normallv be clearer tl-ranstick figures in .l                           Computerprogrammes
'rvall picture-.
                                                                                        Simple drawing packages are readilv available. The            \_
                                                                                        technologv to combine lr,'ords, pictures, interactive
Picture cards for class use: flashcards                                                 screens, animation and voice simulation is here. The
                                                                                                                                                      L,_
Such cards must be one of the most flexible of the media,                               stickmen and stickwomen in this book have no fear of
                          'Blu-tack' and its equir.'alents
                                                         allow                          alternative media and are ready to hop into anv
particularlv nou,'that
the teacher to stick the cards onto the board or onto                                   programme vou may like to write.
                                                                                                                                                      =
cupboards, etc. Their chief role is in intense oral r'r'ork,
bolh controlled and open. The ease with l'r'hich a picture                              Further reading
can be product-d, shorvn to the class or to an individual                                                                                              =
                                                                                        Bvrne D TenchingOral ErtglishLongman
and then pu_tawav helps the teacher to create a stlnse ()f
                                                                                                                    Nelson
                                                                                        Fletcher and Birt Nezssflns/r
urgency ano drama.
   A picture card can, of course,simply cue a responseas                                Granger C. Play GamesWitlt English Heinemann
                                  there are more challenging                            Hadfield I Elenrcntnru Communication Games  Nelson
described abo"'e. Hort e'u'er,
                                                                                        Hadfield I Intermediate CttmmunicationCamesNelson              =-
or inviting activities possible rvith picture cards which
make the students want to sPeakl                                                        Hadfield 1 AdttancedCotnnunication Cnmes Nelson
   For example, a series of action cards are' shovr'n to the                            Hadfield J and C Writirtg CanresNelson                         =*
                                                                                        Hill D Visirnllrtpncl Longman
students. When thev are familiar u'ith the ones in vour
hancl (about six or seven of them) shou' one card to half                               Maley and Duff Drnma Techniquesin LanguageLearning             l!-_

the class (Group A). Then tell evervone to concentrate                                  Cambridge University Press
and feel the telepathic u'a','es! Croup B then has three                                Maiey, Duff and Grellet Thc Mind's Eye Cambridge
            'ls                                                                         Universitv Press                                               D-.
guesses:        irc sztimmlrrg?Is lrc juntpirtg? Is he plnrlirtg
                                                                                        Palim and Power lttnrboree Nelson
ftxttball?'See if telepathv rtorks: trv the erperiment
t\\'entv times anti record t'ach time a 8r()up tuesses                                  Palim, Por.verand Vannuffel,Tonfuola Nelson
                                                                                                                                                          =
correctll' u'ithin three guesses. This sirnple sentence                                 Mcrrgan and Rinvolucri Ortce Uport a Tine Cambridge
pattern is an intrinsic part of the activity. Furthermore, it                           Universitv Press
is used as a genuine question. The students really r'r'ant                              Ur and Wright Fit,e-Minute Actiaities Cambridge
to knor'r'. Er''e'n drili can be communicativel
                   a                                                                    University Press
   Here is another erample of the use of a picture card, in                             Wingate I Fun With PicturesThe Friendly Press                      ::-
this case for open, unguic-ledcommunication. Take anv                                   Wingate J Fun With Fnces  Pilgrims and the Friendly Press
                                                                                        Wcxrlcott I TakeYour Plck Nelson
picture carcl shorving J ferv objects or people on it. Hold                                                                                                L-_
lt so that the class sc-e   the reverse side of the card, then                          Wright, Betteridge and Buckby Cnmes for Language
                                                                                        LearningCambrid ge University Press
spin it r''erv rapidll'l Thei' rvill onlv see a flash of the
picture and u'i1l protest! Horvever, experienceof plaving                               Wright and Haleem Visuols for the LnnguageClassroom                ts-
this game shor,r.s that people do see something.                                        Longman
Graduallv, as vou spin the card again and c-ncourage                                    Wright A Pictures for Language Lennting Cambridge
discussion the content of the ptcture is established.                                   Universitv Press
                                                                                        Wright A Storynaking nnd Storytelling With Children
                                                                                        Oxford Universitv Press                                            :-
Picture cards for group use
                                                                                        Wright and Dudas Son2t     Oyteras:Class Created Fictional
The cards can obviouslv be smaller tht-rnfor class use.                                 ComntutitiesNelson                                                 =-
Their main purpose ls to cue language in controlled
practice. A single sentencePattern or a mini-dialogue is
set bv the teacherand u,ritten on the board or on a piece                                                                                                  -
of caid u,'hich all the group can see. The picture cards are
usuallv placed face don'n. lVhen it is a student's turn tcr                                                                                                :-
speak, s/he picks r"rpa card and refers to it in his or her
sentence.
                                                                                                                                                            -
Ernnryle: picturesof t'tttttls
Student A: (picking up a card) Do t1t'tu (chips)?                 likc                                                                                      -.
Student B: (answ'ering truthfullv)                                  Yes, I tlo.lNo, I
d o n ' t . f Y e s ,lIo t , e h e m . l N t t , l a t et h t m .
                              t                  h                                                                                                          -
 Ertensiott into unguidetl oral fltrurcy
                                                                                                                                                            -
Student A: Hotu often do you ent tlrcm?
Do you cooktlrcm or butl then?                                                                                                                              L
Wrcn did tlou Inst ent thcm?
Are chioshnd for uou?
                                                                                                                                                            \-

                                                                                                                                                               l-

                                                                                                                                                               \-
136
          Index


         above (prep), 86                         bacon (n), 80                    blissful(adj),15
         a b s e n t( a d j ) , 1 0 4             bad (ady),104                    blond(e)(adj),10a
         accident (n), 76                         bake (v), 87                     b l o o d y( a d j ) , 1 0 a
         across(prep), 86                         baker (n), 46, 58                blouse(n),77
         acting (n), 68                           bald (adj), 55, 104              blow (r'),87
         actor (n), 68                            b a l l( n ) , 1 1 3             blunt (ad;),104
         adjectives, 101-172                      ballerina (n), 68                boat (n),40,71
         a d u l t ( n ) ,5 5                     ballet (n), 68                   body(n),75
         a e r o p l a n e6 ) , 3 0 , 4 2 , 7 1   balloon(n),113                   boil(v),80
         afraid (adj),104                         b a n a n a( n ) , 8 2 , 1 1 3   b o m b ( n ) ,1 1 3
         after (prep), 85                         band (n),113                     book (n),32,52
         against (prep), tt6                      bandage n), 50                   bookshelves           6),52,61
         aggressive(adj), 1{-}a                   bank (n), 73                     boot (n),77,102
         a g o n i s e d( a d j ) , 1 5           barbecue (v), 80                 bored(adj),15
         agree (v), E7                            bare (adj),104                   b o r r o w( v ) , 8 7
         alive (adj), 10'1                        bark (v), 87                     b o t t l e( n ) , 8 1
         allow (v), 87                            baseball (n), 68                 bowl (n),63
         alone (adj), 10,1                        basement (n), 60                 box (n), 102,115
         along (prep), 86                         basketball (n), 68               box people(n),8-1()
         a m b u l a n c e( n ) , 7 6             bat (n), 65                      boy (n),55,56
         among (prep),86                          batlr (n), 43,61 (v) , 87        bra(n),77
         ancient (ad;), 104                       bathe (v), 87                    b r a c e l e(tn ) , 7 8 , 1 3
                                                                                                            1
         angrv (adj),15,125                       bathroom (n), 43, 60             brake(v), 87
         animal (n), 28 30, 65-66                 beach (n), 40                    branch(n),67
         ankle (n), 75                            beans (n), 81                    b r a v e( a d j ) , 1 0 4
         answer (v), 87                           bear (n), 65                     b r e a d( n ) , 4 6 , 7 9
         anxious (adj), 15, 33                    beard (n), 55, 75                break(v), 87
         apart (adj), 104                         b e a s t( n ) , 1 2 6           breast(n),75
         apartment - US (n), 60                   beautiful (ady),10a              b r i c k( n ) , 1 1 3
         apologise (v), 87                        beauty (n), 126                  b r i d g e( n ) , 7 2
         apple (n), 82                            bed (n), 45, 61, 102, 103        bright (adj),104
         architect (n), 58                        bedroom (n), 45, 60              bring (v), 74,88
         arm (n),75,76,102                        bee (n), 65                      broad (adj),105
         armchair (n), 45, 61                     beef (n), 80                     broad-faced          (adj),55
         around (prep), 86                        beer (n), 79                     broccoli(n),81
         arrive (v), 87                           before (prep), 85                broken(adfl,3a,76
         arrogant (adj), 15                       begin (v), 87                    brooch(n),78
         art gallery (n), 53                      behind (prep),85                 brother(n),57
         artist(n),58                             below (prep),86                  browse(v), 52
         ask (v), 87                              belt (n),78                      bruise(n),76
 _t,     a s l e e p( a d j ) ,3 4 , 1 0 4        bend (n),72                      brush (n),63
         asparagus(n), 81                         beneath (prep), 85               brussel      sprouts(n),81
-l       assistant(shop) (n), 59                  between (prep),86                build(v),88
         at (prep), 85, 92                        b i c y c l e( n ) , 3 0 , 7 1   bun (n),79
         attack (v), 87                           big (adj), 10a                   bungalow(n),60
J
         attic (n), 60                            bikini (n),77                    burn (v), 88
         aubergine (n), 81                        bird (n), 30, 65                 burned (partic),         88
     a   aunt (n),57                              bird watching (n), 68            b u s( n ) , 4 1 , 7 7 , 1 1 3
         autumn (n),83                            biscuit (n), 79                  bus station(n),41
         avocado (n), U2                          bite (v), 87                     bus stop (n),47, 73
         away (prep), 86, 94                      bitter (adj), 15                 bush (n),67
         away from (prep), 85                     blackboard (n), 51               business       man/woman (n),
         a x e( n ) , 1 1 3                       blame (v),87                     busy (adj),105
                                                  blanket (n), 61                  butcher(n),58
         baby(n),113                              bleed (v), 87                    butter(n),80
         back (n), 75 (adj), 104                  blind (adj),104                  butterfly (n), 65




                                                                                                                    137
                                                                                                                             F-
button (n),113                            cock (n), 65                              deer (n), 65
buv (r'),'16,88                           cocktail party (n), 74                    d e l i c a t e( a d j ) , 1 0 6         F

by (prep), 71, 85                         coconut (n), 82                           delighted (adj), 106
                                          c o f f e e6 ) , 7 4 , 7 9                delivered (partic), 99                   +
cabbage(n), 81                            cold (n), 76 (adj), 15, 83, 1 0 5         demand (v), 89
cactus (n), 67                            collect (r'), 68                          dentist (n), 76                          tl
caf6 (n), 47, 73                          collectecl (partic), 99                   denv (r'), 89
cake (n), 81                              comb (n),113                              descend (v), 89
cail (v), 88                              come dorvn (r.), 88                       d e s k ( n ) ,5 1 ,6 1
calm (adj), 1{J5                          come on (r'), 88                          detached (adj), 60
camel (n), 65, 71                         comfortable (adj), 105                    determined (adj), 15                     a
c a m e r a( n ) , 1 1 3                  c o m p a s s( n ) , 1 1 3                devil (n),114
camplng (n), 68                           .!rnrnrrfpr        l/n)     Al      6R    different (adj),106
                                                                                                                             f_
canal (n), 6;l                            concentrating (adj), 15                   dig (r'), 89
candy - US 6),79                          concentrationn),11       (                dining room (n), 44, 60
cap6),77                                  concerts (n), 68                          dinner (n), 74                           L
car (n),30,68,71                          confident (adj), 15                       diphthongs, 102
r:r   r:rino   lrr)   nR                  consonants,l03                            dirty (ad;), 106
                                                                                                                             it
caravan (n), 60                           content (adj), 105                        disagree (v), 89
c a r e f u l( a d j ) , 1 0 5            cook (r.), 88 (n), 58                     disappear (r,), 89
careless(adj), 105                        cooker (n) 32, 43, 61                     d i s a p p o i n t e d( a d j ) , 1 5    f_

caricatures(rr), 19-2,1                   cookie - US (n), 79                       disapproving (adj), 15
carrot (n), u1                            cooking (n), 68                           disco-dancing (n), 68                    L
6311y(r'), 8[3                            c o o l( a d j ) , 1 0 5                  disgusted (adj), 15
c a r t( n ) , 1 1 3                      copv (r'), 88                             dishwasher (n), 61
cat(n),29,65,103                          cork(n),114                               dismayed (ad;), 16                        =
catch (v), 88                             corn (n), 67                              display (n), 35
cauliflon,e-r         (n), 81             correct (adj), 105                        dive (v), 89                              It_
c a u t i o u s( a d j ) ,1 5 , 1 0 5     costly (adi), 105                         divide (v), 89
c a v e( n ) , 1 1 3                      cottage (n), 60                           dtzz.y (adl,33
                                                                                                                              n_
cedar (n), 67                             couch (n), 62                             do (v), 99
celerv (n), El                            cough (n), 76 (r'), 88                    doctor (n), 58, 76
cellar (n), 60                            count (r.,),       88                     doctor's surgery (n), 73                  L

central heating (n), 62                   countrvside (n), 39                       doctor's waiting room (n), 50
cereal (n), 80                            courgette (n), 81                         dog (n), 29, 65
chain (n),113                             cousin (n), 57                            d o l 1( n ) , 1 0 3 , 1 1 4
chair (n), 32, 61                         con'(n),29,65                             done (partic), 99                         :::-
cheap (adj), 105                          crab (n), 65                              down (prep),85,90,94
check (in), .18                           c r a r v l( v ) , 8 8                    d r a p e s- U 5 ( n ) , 1 1 4
cheek (n), 75                             crearn (n), 79                            drar,r'(v), 89                            f

cheerfr.rl      (adj), 105                cricket (n), 68                           dream (v), 34
cheese(n), 80                             crisps (n), 79                            d r e s s( v ) , 8 9 ( n ) , 7 7
                                                                                                                              l-
chemist (n), 58                           crocodile (n), 65                         dressing table (n), 61
chess(n), 6E                              c r o o k e d( a d j ) , 1 0 5            clrink (r'), 10,17,74,79, 89
cirest (n), 75                                      (
                                          61ss51,),89                               drive (v), 34,68,89                       L--

chest of 4v61a,g1s 61          (n),       crossrvalk- US (n), 72                    clriver (n), 58
chick,/chicken(n), 30, 66, 80, 1 0 3      c r o r v d( n ) , 1 1 4                  driving (n), 68                           I

child (n), 55                             c r u s h e d( a d j ) , 1 0 6            drop (r'), 89
chimnel' (n), 113                         crv (r'), 88                              ,-lrrrooict   - I l(   in)   5R

chirr (n), 75                             cucumber (n), 81                          d r u m ( n ) ,1 1 4                          =-
chips (n), 80                             cup (n), 32, 63                           drunk (adj),16
chocolate(n), 79                          cupboard(n),61                            d r y ( a d j ) ,0 6
                                                                                                    i                             l,-_
choose (v), 88                            curious (adj), 15, 106                                   (
                                                                                    d u s t m a n n ) ,1 1 4
c h r v s a n t h e m u m( n ) , 6 7      c u r l v ( a d j ) ,5 5 , 1 0 2                                                        L-
c h u r c h( n ) , 1 1 3                  curtain(n),11't                           e a r( n ) , 7 5 , 1 0 2
cinema(n),53,6t3                          cushion (n), 11:l                                     (
                                                                                    e a r r i n gn ) , 7 8 , 1 1 4
c i r c u s( n ) , 1 1 3                  cut (n), 75 (r') 89                       eas,v   (adj),106                             =-
citv (n), 64                              cvcling (n), 68                           eat (v),44,89
classroom (n), 51                                                                   ecstatic    (ad;),  16
                                                                                                                                  =-
clarv (n), 102                            daffodil (n),67                           e g g( n ) , 8 0
ciean (r'), 88 (adj), 105                 dance-(r,), 68, 89                        eggplant- US (n), 81
                                                                                                                                  l--
clear (adj), 105                          dancing (n), 68                           elborv(n),75
clever (adj), 105                         d a n g e r o u s( a d j ) , 1 0 6        eldest(adj),106
climb (v), 70, 88                         d a r k ( a d j ) ,1 0 6                  electric    (adi),106                         l-_
clock (n), 61                             UdI   N-llclllEu          \(ruJr,   J-'   electric (n),61
                                                                                                fire
c l o s e( r ' ) , 8 8 ( a d j ) ,1 0 5   dead (adj), 106                           electricheater- US (n), 61                    L.
clothes 6), 68,77-7E                      deaf (ac-li),      106                    elephant , 65,71
                                                                                                   6)
c l o u d y ( a d j ) , 8 3 ,1 0 5        d e a r ( a d j ) ,1 0 6                                -
                                                                                    eievator US (n), 115
coat (n), 77                              deckchair (n), 38                         empty (adj),106                               L-,

coathooks (n), 61                         deep (ad;), 106                           endless     (adj),106
                                                                                                                                  l-



                                                                                                                                  L-



                                                                                                                                  L

138
                                                                                                                                  -
        en()r[I()Lrs(act I 06    j),                         tootball stadir-rm          (n), 73         h..rng(r,), 91
        enrage.cl        (adj), 16                            footb;rller(rr),5E                         harrg glide (r'), 69
        ente.r(r'), 89                                        for (prep), 86                             hang glicling (n), 69
        entertainment (rr),68-70                             forehcacl(n), 75                           lrappv (aclj),13, 107,125
        e.rrvelope. 11-l  (n),                               iorest (n), 6'l                            lrat (n), 77, 102
        e n v i o u s ( a d j ) ,1 6                         torgetful (aclj),107                       have ('r'),99
        eclual(aclj),106                                     fork (n), 32, 63                           head (rr),75
        eramirre (r'), 89                                    forr.r.r..rl (ad1),107                     heaclache         (n), 76
        exasperated(aclj),l6                                 fre.e.   time (n), 6E-70                   health (n), 75-76
        excited (aclj),125                                   freeze.r      (n), 114                     heart (n), 75
        exhausted (aclj),16                                  French fries - LIS (rr),B0                 heat(n),33
        e x h i b i t i o n( n ) , 5 3                       fresh (acli),107                           he.rvv (adj), 107
                           (
        e r p e n s i r , e a d j ) ,1 0 7                   friencls (n), 7-l                          he.dge(n), 67
        eve (n), 75                                          frighten (r'), 90                          h e d g e h o g( n ) , 6 6
        evebrou' (n), 75                                     frightenecl(adj), 16                       help(r.),91
                                                             fringe (n), 55                             helpful (ad1),107
       f a c e( n ) , 1 1 - 1 8 , 7 5                        frog (n),65,103                            h e n ( n ) , 3 0 , 6 6 ,1 0 3
       factorv (rr), 6.1                                     from (prep), 85                            h i d e ( r ' ) ,9 1
       factorv r'r'orker (n), 58                             fruit (n), 82                              h i g h ( a d j ) ,1 0 E
       fail (r'), 90                                         fruit juice (n), 79                        hike (r'), 69
       fair-hairecl(adj),55                                  frr-rstratecl       (acl;),16              hiking (n),69
       f a l l - 1 1 5( n ) , 8 3                            frv (r'), 80                               hill (n),64
       fall off (r'), 90                                     f u l l ( a d j ) ,1 0 7                   hips(n),75
       false (adj), 107                                      f u n n v ( a d j ) ,1 0 7                 Iiit (r,'),  91
       farnilv(n),57,114                                     furniture (n),61-62                        hitch-hike (r'), 91
       fantasv creature (n), 26                                                                         hockev (n), 69
       farm (n),6.1                                          garage (n), 60                             hold (v),9]
       farmer (n), 5E                                        garbage.n.ran L.lS     -        (n), 114   hollor'r,(ad;),1Oti
             m '
       f a r _ ' "i 'nb"   rrer   (n) aJ                                    (rr),
                                                             garc'ler.r 38, 60 (r') 69
       ""                                                                                               honest (ad1),108
        fast (adj), 1{J7                                     g ; r r d e n i n g( n ) , 6 9             horrified (ad;), 16
        fat (;idj), 55, 107                                  g a r l i c ( n ) ,8 1                     h o r s e( n ) , 2 9 , 6 6 , 7 1
        father (n), 57                                       gate(n), 11-i                              horseback (n), 71
        f a u c e t- U S ( n ) , 1 1 7                       gather (r'), 90                            hospital (n), 50
        favourite (adj), 107                                 g e n e r o u s( a d j ) , 1 0 7           hot (adi), 16, 83, 108
       feather (n), I03, 11;l                                g e n t l e ( a d j ) ,1 0 7               hot and cold n'ater (n), 61
        feet (n), 75                                         get (v),90                                 hotel (n), 48
       fence (.,,),69                                        ghost (rr),33                              house (rr),60
       fencing (n), 69                                       gift (n),7-l                               household article (n), 63
       fetch (r.),90                                         giraffe (n), 66                            n o v e r c r a r t( n ) , / 1
       fields (n), 64                                        g i r l ( n ) , 5 5 ,5 6 , 1 0 3           Iiuge (adj), 108
       figltt (v), 90                                        give (r'), 74, 91                          Itumorous (adj), 108
       fill (up) (r.'),     et)                              glor.'e(n), 32                             h u n g o v e r ( a d j ) ,1 6
       film (n),53,69                                        go (r'), 6E,69                             hunt (r,'),69,91
       finger (n), 75                                        goat (n), 66                               hunting (n),69
       finish (r'), 90                                       goose (n), 66                              hurt (adj), 16
        fir (n),67                                           grain - US (n), 61                         hystcrical (adj), 16
       f i r e ( n ) , 1 1 4( v ) , 9 0                      grandfather / motl.rer (n), 57
       fireman (n),5E                                        grapefruit (n), 82                         i c e c r e a m( n ) , 1 1 5
       fireplace (n), 11'l                                   grapes (n), 82                             icy (adj), 83
       first (adj), 107                                      grass (n), 67                              i l l ( a d j ) ,1 0 8
       first floor (n), 60                                   greedy (ad;), 107                          imitate (r'), 91
       first floor - U-S(n), 60                              greengrocer (n), 5E                        important (adj), 108
       f i : h ( n ) ,b - , n 0 ( \ ' ) ,l q , 6 ! , 1 0 2   grill (v), E0                              impossible (adj), 108
       fishing (n), 69                                       grim (adj),13                              improve (r.'),91
,l
       f i s t( n ) , 1 1 4                                  grocer (n), 58, 73                         in (prep), 85, 86, 90
       flag (n), 11,1                                        ground floor (n), 60                       in front of (prep), 35
_, 1   flame (n),114                                         grorv (v), 91                              indifferent (adj), 16
       flashlight - US (n), 63                               guide (r'), 91                             industrial area (n), 6,1
  I
       flat (n), 60 (adj), 64,707                            guitar (n), 32, 114                        information desk (rr),41
       flat country (n), 64                                                                             information service (n), 73
       float (v), 90                                         lrair (n), 75,702                          ink (n),115
  I    flower (n), 67,102                                    hairdrier(n), l15                          innoccnt (adj), 16
       fly (v), e0                                           half (adj), 107                            irrside (prep), 85, U6 (adj), 108
       flying saucer (n), 53                                 h a m m e r ( n ) , 3 2 ,6 3               instant (adj), 108
       foggy (adj),83                                        hand (n),75                                insult (v),91
       follor,r' (v), 90                                     hand basirr (n), 61                        inteiligent (adj), 108
       fond (adj), i07                                       handbag(n),115                             interested 6dj),17
       food (n),79-81                                        handkerchief (n), 115                      into (prep), 85
       foot (n), 71,75, 102                                  h a n c l l e( n ) , 1 1 5                 introduce (r'), 91
       football (n), 69                                      handout (n), 35                            [nvffs (v), !]




                                                                                                                                            139
                                                                                                                    E_-
iron (n),63                     l i o n( n ) , 6 6                            near(prep),86
island(n),64                                  (
                                l i p s t i c k n ) ,1 1 5                    neck(n),75                            &-
                                tisten(v), 70,92                              necklace 78    (n),
jacket(n),77                    little (adj),108                              nervous(adj),109,125                  i---
                                                                                                                    L-
l a i l( n ) , 1 1 5            live (v), 92                                  n e s t( n ) ,1 1 6
jam(n),80                       l o a f( n ) , 1 1 5                          new (adj),109
l a r ( n ) ,1 1 5              lock (v), 92,99 (t't),11.5                    next (prep),86 (adj),109              t=--
javelin(n),69                   l o n e l y( a d j ) , 7 , 7 0 9
                                                      1                       nightdress 77    (n),
jealous      (adj),17,108       tong(adj),109                                 noisv (adj),109                       {.\-
jeans(n),77                     took (v),92                                   noodles       (n),80
jelly - US (n),80               look after ft), 69, 92                        nose(n),75
j o gf t ) , 6 9 , 9 1          look for (v), 93                              nouns,173- 717                        d:- -
jogging n),69  (                loose(adj),109                                nurse(n), 50,59,76
j o i n( v ) , 9 1              torrv (n),71                                  n u t ( n ) ,1 1 6                    F_-
joiner(n),58                    tose(v), 93
j u g( n ) , 1 1 5              loud (adj),109                                oak (n),67                            F.-
juggler(n), i03                 love (r,),3'1,       93                       obey (v),93
juice(n),79                     lo'"'ers 74  (n),                             object(n),27,37-32
j u m p( v ) , 6 9 , 9 1        lovestruck         (adl, 17                   obstinate       (adj),17              [,_-1



j u m p e r( n ) , 7 7          luggag(n),115   e                             off (prep),85,97
j u m p i n g( n ) , 6 9        lvchee       (n),82                           offer (v), 74,93                       l*

junction n),72  (                                                             office (n), 59, 73
                                r n a i l- U S ( v ) , 9 4 , 9 9              office worker (n), 59                  lL-
kangaroo 66      (n),           m a i l b o y U S( n ) , 3 2                  o i l ( n ) ,1 0 2
keep(v), 91                                  -
                                m a i l m a n U S( n ) , 5 9 , 9 9            o l d ( a d j ) , 5 5 , 5 6 ,0 9
                                                                                                         1
                                make(v), 70,93                                olive (n),81                           ;a_
keepquiet (v),91
kettle(n),32,63                 m a n g o( n ) , 8 2                                         (
                                                                              o m e l e t t en ) , 8 0
k e y( n ) , 1 1 5              m .r -r .q r r. i. n.e . - . . .( /n )
                                .^        .b       . .              /    RO
                                                                         ""   on (prep),86,90,94,97                  5--_
kick (v), 92                    marry (n), 93                                 one-waystreet(n), 72
kind (adj),17,108               marsh (n), 67                                 onion (n),81
                                                                                                                     n-
k i n g ( n ) ,i 1 5            mask (n), 103                                 onto (prep),85
kiss(v), 92                     matches (n), 115                              o p e n( v ) , 9 3( a d j ) , 1 0 9
kitchen(n),43,60                meal (having a) 6),37, 44,47                  opera(n),69                            L.


k i t e ( n ) ,1 1 5            meat (n), 80                                  opposite       (adj),109
kiwifruit (n), 82               mechanic (n), 58                              optimistic(adf,17                      --
                 -
knapsack US (n),40              meet(v),93                                    orange(n),82
knee(n), 103                    melon (n),82                                  out (prep),85
kneel(v), 92                    msnd (r'), 93                                 outside(prep),85                       f_

knife (n),32,63                 microphone (n), 115                           over (prep),86
knock (v),33,92                 middle (ad;), 109                             overcoat 116   (n),                    L
k n o t( n ) , 1 1 5            middle-aged (adj), 55, 56,109                 owl (n),66,102
                                milk (n),79
                                                                                                                                :
labourer(n),58                  milkman (n),58                                pack (v), 93                           -ar

lake (n),64                     miner (n),58                                  p a i n( n ) ,1 1 , 3 3
l a m p( n ) , 6 1              mirror (n), 61                                painful (adj),109                       L
large(ady),        108          mischievous (adl,17                           paint (v), 69,93
last (adj),108                  miserable Gdj),17                             painted (partic),99                     l-
                                                                                          (n) r'9
late (adj),108                  mistrustful (adj),17                          nrinfino
                                                                              r-'-""'b    ".,, "-
laugh (v), 92                   mix (v),93                                    p a l m( n ) , 6 7
lavatory(n),60                  mixer (n), 63                                 pan (n),63                              l-

lawnmower(n),38                 model making (n),69                           pancake(n), 79
leaf(n),67                      monkev (n),66                                 panda(n), 102                           L*
lean(v),92                      moon (n), 83                                  panties    (n),77
learn(v),92                     m o s q u e( n ) , 1 1 6                      p a n t s- U S ( n ) ,7 8 , 7 7 6
                                                                                              -
                                                                              pantvhose US (n),78
                                                                                                                      ]--
leave(v),92                     mosquito(n), 116
left (adj),108                  mother (n),57                                 parcel(n),-i9
l e g ( n ) ,7 5 , 1 . 0 3      motor scooter (n), 71                         park (n),38,73                          l--
l e m o n( n ) , 8 2            motorcycle (n), 30, 71                        parsnip(n),81
l e n d( v ) , 9 2              mountain (n), 40,64                           part (v), 93
letter(n),74,99                 mouse(n),66                                   party (n), 74                           _l-=

letterbox(n), 32                moustache (n), 55, 75,776                     pass(v), 93
lettuce(n),81                   mouth (n),75,116                              passives,    99                         =--
library (n), 52                 move (v), 93                                  past (prep),86
lie (v), 92                     movies - US (n), 53, 69                       pastry(n),79                            ]=
lift (n), 715ft),92             museum (n),52,73                              patient(n),50
light (v), 92 (adj),108         mushroom (n),81                               p a w p a w( n ) , 8 2
                                                                                                                      l-
lightning (n), 83               musician (n), 59                              pay (v), 46,93
like (v), 92                                                                  peaceful(adj),125
l i m e( n ) , 8 2              narrow (adj), 109                             peach(n),82                                 \=
line (get in) - US (r,),49,50   nauseous- US (adj), 111                       pear(n),82
                                                                                                                          L



                                                                                                                          l|-



                                                                                                                          l_-
140
                                                                                                                          -
     peas(n),81                                  queue(r'),49,50
     pedesirian         crossing 22   (n),                                                    sandwichn),79     (
                                                 cluiet(aclj),
                                                             1i0                              sauce 80   (n),
     p e n( n ) ,1 0 3 , 1 1 6
     p e n c i l( n ) ,1 1 6                                                                  saucepan 32,63   (n),
                                                    rabbit(n),30,66                           s a u c e r(/n ) , 3 2 , 6 3
     pepper(n),81                                   race(r'),68
     perplexed         (adj),17                                                              sausage 80     (n),
                                                    radiabr(n),62                            save(v), 95
     pets(n),69                                     radio (n), 32,70,102
    phone(v),49,97                                                                           s a w( n ) , 6 3
                                                    radish(rr),81                                      (
                                                                                             s c a r f n ) ,/ 6
    photographer 59         (n),                    railroadstation- US (n),73
    photography 69         (n),                                                              scenes 25,3l (n),
                                                    raih.,r'ay    station(n), 73             school(n), 73
    pianist(n),59                                   rain (v),83,103
    p i a n o( n ) ,1 1 6                                                                                    n
                                                                                             s c i s s o r(s ) , 6 3
                                                    raincoat      (n),ZZ                    scooter 71     (n),
    pick (v), 93                                   r a i n y( a d j ) , 8 3 , 1 1 0
    p i c k u p ( v ) ,6 , 9 3                                                              screwdriver 63        (n),
                                                   raise(v),94                              seaman 59      (n),
    picnic(n),69                                   r a p i d( a d j ) , 1 1 0
    picture (n), 53, 62                                                                     search 95    (v),
                                                   raspberry 82     (n),                    seasitle 64   (n),
    p i e ( n ) ,7 9 , 1 0 2 , 1 1 6               r a t ( n ) ,1 1 6
   pig(n),30,66                                                                             secondfloor - US (n), 60
                                                   r a z o r( n ) , 1 1 6                   s e e o( n ) ,b , /
   p i g e o n( n ) ,1 1 6                        r e a d( v ) , 3 9 , 7 0 , 9 4 ,
   pillow (n),62                                                                            serze(r'), 95
                                                  reading(n),Z0                             self-service 42      (n),
   pilot (n),59                                                 (
                                                  r e c e i v ev ) , 7 4 , 9 0 , 9 4
   pineapple          (n),82                                                                selfish(adj),110
                                                  record (n), 70                            sell (v), 95
   p i p e ( n ) ,1 1 6                           record player (rt),32,62, 70
   plait (n),55                                                                            semi-detached             (adi),60
                                                  redridinghood ),127      6               send(v), 95
   plane(n), 71                                   refrigerator        (n),62
   plant (n),62,67                                                                                       (
                                                                                           s e r i o u sa d j ) , 1 1 0
                                                 refuse(v), 94                             serve(v), 95
   plate(n),32,63                                region(n),64
   p l a y ( v ) , 6 8 ,6 9 , 7 0 , 9 4                                                    settee(n), 62
                                                 relax(v), 38                              shake(v),33,95
   pliers(n),63                                  relieved(adj),1T
  plum (n),82                                                                              s h a l l o w( a d j ) , 1 0
                                                                                                                   1
                                                 remain(v), 94                             share(v), 95
  poetrv(n),69                                   r e m i n d( v ) , 9 4
  point (v), 94                                                                            s h a r k( n ) ,6 6 , 1 0 3
                                                 repair(v), 94                                        (
                                                                                           sharp adj),110
  policeman/woman, 59               51,          respectful        (adj),110
  police-station 51,73    (n),                                                             shave(v), 95
                                                responsible          (adj),110                        (
                                                                                          s h e e p n ) ,3 0 , 6 6 , 1 0 2
  p o l i s h( v ) , 9 4                        rest(v), 94
  polite (adj),109                                                                        sheet(n),62
                                                restaurant 47      (n),                   s h i p( n ) , 7 1
  p o n d ( n ) ,1 1 6                          return (\/),95
  ponvtail(n),55                                                                          s h i r t( n ) ,7 7 , 1 1 7
                                                rice (n),80                               shoe(n),32,77
  poor (adj),109                                r i c h( a d j ) , 1 1 0
  poplar (n),62                                                                           s h o p( n ) , 7 0
                                                r i d e( v ) ,7 , 7 0 , 9 5               shopassistant 46,59      (n),
  porter (n), 4ti                              n o l n g ( n) , , / t )
  p o s t( v ) , 9 4 , 9 9                                                               shopping(go)(v), 46,70
                                               right (adj),110                           s h o r t( a d j ) , 5 5 , 1 1 0
                    (
 p o s to f f i c e n ) , 4 9 , 7 3            ring (n),78
 postboxn),32  (                                                                         shorts(n),ZZ
                                               r i p e( a d j ) , 1 0
                                                                  1                      shoulders 75       (n),
 posted (partic),99                            rise (r,),95
 poster(n),35                                                                            shout(v), 95
                                               risky (adj),110                           s h o w( v ) , 9 5
 postman(n), 59,99                             river (n),64
 p o t a t o( n ) , 8 1                                                                  shower(n, v), 43,62
                                               road (n), 102                             shut (v), 95
 potatochips- US (n),79                        roast(v),80
 pottedplants(n),62                                                                     s h y( a d j ) , 1 i 1
                                              rock climbing(n),Z0                       sick(adj),111
 pour (v), 94                                 rollerskates 71        (n),
 powerful (adj),109                                                                     sick- US (adj),108
                                              r o o m( n ) , 6 0                        signal (traffic) (n), 72
 precious      (adj),109                      root (n),67
 prefer (v), 94                                                                         s i l l y( a d j ) , 1 1 1
                                              rose(n),67                                s i m i l a r( a d j ) , 1 1
 prepositions         85-86                                                                                     1
                                              r o u g h( a d j ) , 1 1 0                s i n g( v ) , 3 4 , 7 0 , 9 5
present(n), 74                                r o u n d( a d j ) , 1 0
                                                                    1                   singing n),20 (
prison(n), 116                               roundabout             (n),72
proud (adj),109                                                                         sink (n),62
                                             rucksack 40       (n),                     sister(n),57
prudish (adj),17                             r u d e( a d j ) , 1 1 0                   sit (v), 38,39,47, 95
Pub(lichouse)(n), 73                         rug (n),43
pull (v),94                                                                            s i t t i n gr o o m ( n ) , 4 5 , 6 0
                                             run(v),21,34,70,95                        skate(v),96
pullover (n), 77                             runnrng(n), 70
pupil (n),51                                                                           ski (v), 70
                                             r u s t y( a d j ) , 1 1 0                s k i i n g( n ) , 7 0
purse (n), 78
p u s h( v ) , 9 4                                                                     s k i l f u l( a d j ) , 1 1
                                                                                                              1
                                                   (
                                             sack n),117                               skirt (n),78
P u t ( v ) ,9 0 , 9 4 , 9 9                 sad (adj),72,110
pyjamas(n), 77 116                                                                     sleep(v), 39,96
                        ,                            (
                                             saddle n),177                                          (
                                                                                       sleepyadj),111
                                             sail (v), 70,95                                       (
                                                                                       s l e e v en ) ,1 1 7
quarrel (v), 94                              sailing(n),70
q u e e n( n ) ,1 1 6                                                                  slide(v), 96
                                             sandal(n),77                              slip (v), 96




                                                                                                                                741
                                                                                                                                   S:
slipper(n),78                          s u n n y ( a dj ) , 8 3 , I l 1                 t o e( n ) , 7 5
                                                                                                                                   >
slorv(adj),111                         supermarket (n), 46                              toilet(n),60,62
sly(adj), 7       1                    support (r'), 96                                 t o m a t o( n ) , 8 1
s m a l l( a d j ) , i 1
                      1                s u r p r i s e( n ) , 1 1                       tongue n),75 (                             L-

smell(v), 96                           s u r p r i s e d( a d j ) , 1 2                 tool (n),63
smile(v), 96                           suspicious (ad;), 17                             t o o t h( n ) , 7 5                       \-
                                                                                                                                        1

smooth adj), 11 (        1             srvan (n), 66                                    toothache 76     (n),
snake(n),66                                           -
                                       sr,r.eater US 6),77                                                          tn
                                                                                        t o o t h b r u s h / p a s ( e ) ,1 1 7
snorkel(v), 70                         sr'veep(r'), 96                                  torch(n),63                                =:
snorkelling 70        (n),             srveet (n), 79                                   tortoise      (n),66
snowing(n),83                          swim (r.),70                                     touch(v), 97                               L=.
s n o w y( a d j ) , 1 11              srvimming(n),70                                  tour (r,),70
soccerball - US (n), 69                srvimming costume (n), 78                        t o u r i n g( n ) , 7 0
soccer       player- US (n),58         s'"vimming pool (n),73                           tor,r'ards     (prep),B5                   L-

soccer       stadium- US (n), 73       swimming trunks (n),78                           t o w e l( n ) ,1 1 7
socket        (n),62                   sr'vimsuit - U5 (n), 7u                          town (n),64,73                             \_=:
socks(n),79,103,                       sn ing (n), 32, 38                               tractor(n), 117
sofa(n),45                             su'itch (n), 62, 99                              trafficlights/signals 72        (n),
                                                                                                                                   \-
soldier(n),59                          srvorcl(n), 117                                  trailer- US (n),60
s o r e( a d j ) , 6 , 7 1 1
                    7                                                                   train (n),42,71
sorted(partic),99                      t-shirt (n), 78                                  transistor       radio (n),32              \:
soup (n),.80                           table (n), 62                                    travel (n), 71-72
spaden),117  (                         table tennls (n), 70                             travelagent(n),48
spaghetti B0       (n),                tablecloth (n), 62                               trav (n),47
                                                                                                                                   >-
spanner          (n),63                tablets (n), 76                                  treasure 103   (n),
sparkle(v), 34                         take (r'), 97                                    tree(n),38                                 =-
speak(v), 96                           taken (partic), 99                               trolley(n),46
specialeffect(n), 33-3,1               talk (r,), 97                                    trousers 78    (n),                        D*-_
speed n),34  (                         t a l l ( a d j ) , 5 5 ,1 1 1                   truck - US (n),77
spill (v), 96                          t a m e ( a d y )1 1 1,                          trunk (n),67                               l.-:
splash(v), 96                          tap(n),117                                       trv (v),97
spoon(n),63                            tart (n), 79                                     tulip(n),67
sprain(n),76                           16s1(r'),97s                                     turn (r'),97,99                            >-

spring(n),83                           taxi (n), 71                                     t u r n i p( n ) , 8 1
squash         (n),70                  t e a6 ) , 7 4 , 7 9                             turtle (n),66                              D-*
stampcollecting 68            (n),     teacher (n), 51, 59                              type (r'), 59
s t a n d( v ) , 9 6                   teapot (n), 32, 63                               typewriter(n),59
                                                                                                                                   b-
star (n),83                            t e l e p h o n e( n ) , 5 1 , 6 2 , 7 4 , 9 7   tvpist (n),59
start(v), 96                           telephone booth (n), 49                          t y r e ( n ) ,1 1 7
stay (v), 96                           teler.isicrn        (n), 32, 45, 62,70
                                                                                                                                   =:
steal(r'),96                           tell (r'),97                                     umbrella(n),83
steam n),33  (                         temperature (n),76                               uncle(n),57
s t i c k( n ) , 1 1 7                 tennis (n), 70                                   unconscious (adj),112                      !-
stickpeople           6), 4-7          t e n s e( a d j ) , 1 1 1                       under (prep),86
sting (v), 96                          t e n s e s 1 0 0- 1 0 1
                                                     ,                                  rrnrJoror,rrrn,-l          (rr)    7l
                                                                                                                                   =:
stir (v), 96                           tent (n), 60                                     underwear (n), 78
stclmach          (n),75               t e r r a c e( n ) , 3 9                         unemploved (adj), 59
stomachache 76          (n),           terraced (adj), 6t)                                               i r,li\     11)           !-
                                                                                        "nh;nn-,
stool(n),62                            thank (v),97                                     unicycie (n), 71
stooped          (adj),55              theatre (n), 70                                  untidv (adj), 112                          _r:
storm (n),83                           thick (adj),111                                  u n r v i l l i n g ( a d j ) ,1 1 2
s t o r m v( a d ) , 1 1 1
                    j                  thigh (n),75                                     up (prep), 85, 90, 96                      L-_
           -
s t o v e U S ( n ) ,3 2 , 4 3 , 6 1   thin (adi), 55,172                                                        ,
                                                                                        u s c . f u l( a c l j ) 1 1 2
                               ,
s t r a i g h ( a d j ) , 5 51 1 1
                t                      thin-faced (aclj),55
                                                                                                                                   b-
strawberry            (n),82           think (r,), 97                                   vacuum clearrer(n), 63
s t r e e(tn ) , 3 1 , 3 7 , 7 2       t h i r s t v( a d j ) , 1 1 2                   valler' (n),'10,6'l
s t r e e c l e a n e( n ) , 5 9
            t            r             thoughtful {adj), 17, 112                        v a n ( n ) ,7 1 , 1 7 7                   :-
stretcher 76      (n),                 three (adj), 103                                 v a s e( n ) , 1 1 7
s t r i c t( a d j ) , 1 1 1           throat (n), 76                                   vegetable(n), 81
stroke(v),96                           thrrrrroh (nren)           R6                    verbs, 87-98
                                                                                                                                   =-
s t r o n g( a d j ) , 5 51 1 1
                             ,         tlrron (v), 6, 69,97                             vest - US (n), 78
study (v),96                           t h r o w i n g( n ) , 6 9                       video (n),70,103                           ::
suit (n),79                            thr,rmb       (n),75                             village (n), 64
suitcase 45,,18  (n),                                           (
                                       t h u n d e r s t o r mn ) , 8 3                 violent Gdj),112
                                                                                                                                   :-
summer(n),83                           tte (v), 97, 103,117                             violin (n),117
sun (n),83,102                         tiger (n),66                                     visit (v), 97
sunbathe(v), ,10,             7t)      tights(n),78                                     v o l c a n o( n ) , 1 1 7
s u n b a t h i n gn ) , 7 0
                      (                t 1 l l( n ) , 4 6 , 4 7                         vowels, 102
sunburn(n), 76                         t i n y( a d j ) , 1 1 2                                                                    L



sunglasses 78        (n),              to (prep),85                                     wagon (n),71
                                                                                                                                   L _




                                                                                                                                    -

142
                                                                                                                                    :
      \,\'aist(n), 75
                                                    n'eather (n), 83
      \vatstcoat(n), 78                                                                   n,orrv (r.), 98
                                                    r,r.'elfare    (n), 7S-76
      \ \ . a i t( v ) , 4 7 , 5 0 , 9 7                                                  u.ounded (partic), 76
                                                                                    ,
                                                    r v e t ( a d i ) , 8 3 , 9 01 1 2
      rvatter (n), ,17,59                                                                 n'rap (r'), 98
                                                    u,'hale(n),66
      rvaiting (n), 72                                                                    r,r'rench- US (n), 63
                                                    n'icked (adj), 112
     r.r.aitirrg       room (n), 50                                                       vr.rist (n), 25
                                                   n i d e ( a d j ) ,1 1 2
     rvalk (r'), 70, 97                                                                  wnte (v),69,74,9E
                                                   n ' i l d ( a d j ) ,1 1 2
     u'alking (n), 70                                                                    r,r.nter(n), 59
                                                   win (r'),98
     rvardrobe (n), 62                                                                   i,r.riting (n), 69
                                                   r v i n c l m i l l( n ) , 1 1 7
     n'ash (r.),43, 98                                                                   ivrong (adj), i 12
                                                   r,r'indon'(n),34
     rvashing n"rachine                (n), 62
                                                   n.indv (adj),83
    r v a t c h( y ) , 6 9 , 9 8 ( n ) , 1 1 7                                           vacht (n), 103
                                                   n'rne (n),79
    water (n), 61, 29                                                                    yan,n (r.),96
                                                  u'ing (n), 103
    lvater skiing (n), 70
                                                  \,r'lnter (n), 83                      )'oga (n), 70
    rt,ater-ski(r'),70                                                                   voga teacher(n),59
                                                  rvipe (v), 98
    lvatercress(n),81                                                                    vourrg (adj), 55,56, 112
                                                  r,r'ise(acij), 112
   n'ave (r'), 9fl
                                                  r,r'ish(r'), 98
   n'avv (adj), 55                                                                       zebra (n), 103
                                                  n'itch (n), 103
   WC (n),62                                                                             ztp \n),117
                                                 n ith (prep), 85
   rveak (adj), 55,112                                                                   zrpper- US (n), 117
                                                 n.ithout (prep), g5
   wealthy (adj), 112                                                                    zucchini - US (n), g1
                                                 n ' o o l l e n ( a d j ) ,l l 2
   tvear (v), 98
                                                 lr,ork (v), 98




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