Infancy and Childhood
How do brain and motor skills
• While in the womb, you produce almost ¼
million brain cells per minute.
• That is basically all you are ever going to
The Brain and Infancy
• Although the brain
does not develop
many new cells,
the existing cells
begin to work more
• Biological growth
processes that enable
orderly changes in
• To a certain extent we
all maturate similarly,
but the time can vary
depending on the
• Sequence is the same- but once again
• First learn to roll over, sit up unsupported,
crawl, walk etc…
• Walking- in US 25% learn by 11 months,
50% within a week of 1st birthday, 90% by
• Varies by culture- if the culture
emphasizes walking then babies can walk
at younger ages (NURTURE).
• But identical twins tend to learn to walk on
the same day (NATURE).
• NO MATTER WHAT,
THE BABY NEEDS THE
HOLD HIS OR HER
BLADDER OR BOWEL
• NO TRAINING WILL
WORK IF THE CHILD IS
• This field is Dominated by
a man named Jean Piaget.
• He was developing IQ
tests and noticed that
many children got the
same answers wrong.
• Thought to himself,
“maybe these kids are not
stupid, but instead think
differently than adults.”
Piaget’s important concepts
• Children are active thinkers, always trying
to make sense of the world.
• To make sense of the world, they develop
• Schema- a concept or framework that
organizes and interprets information.
Piaget’s important concepts
• Assimilation- interpreting one’s new
experiences into one’s existing schemas.
•Accommodation- adapting one’s
current understandings (schemas) to
incorporate new information.
All mental activities associated
with thinking, knowing and
Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive
• Concrete Operational
• Formal Operational
• The Sensorimotor
Stage is from
approximately birth to
2 years of age.
• Babies take in the
world purely through
their senses- looking,
tasting and grasping.
• At 4 to 8 months of
age, your child will
learn that she can
make things move by
banging them and
rattle, banging on
toys, banging on tray
of high chair)
• Between 12 and 18 months your
child will be able to represent hidden
objects in her mind (Object
Permanence). In other words, she
will be able to “see” objects even
when they are out of sight.
• Before Object Permanence- what is
out of sight, is gone from the universe
• At 18 to 24 months of age, a child
will begin to use images to stand for
objects. In other words, a physical
object can represent something else.
Symbols represent objects or events
in one’s own environment.
• This ability is called mediation and is
very important in a child’s development
because it means the child can think
about more than just the objects that are
around her; she can think about the
• The Preoperational Stage is
from approximately 2 to 7
years of age.
• At the early
part of this
stage, a child
the ability to
• Between the ages of 3 and 4,
your child will be able to apply this
ability to symbolize with objects,
to people (names represent
• By the end of this stage, the child
will understand the concept of
• Children in the
inability to take on
another’s point of
Concrete Operational Stage
• 7-11 years old
• Understand concept of
• Can think logically, use analogies,
and perform mathematical
transformations (5+9 is the same
as 9-5) also known as reversibility.
Formal Operational Stage
• We can reason abstractly.
If John is in school, then Mary is in school. John is in school. What can you
say about Mary?
Stevie Wonder is
God is love. Love is Blind Stevie Wonder is Blind.