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Developmental Psychology - PowerPoint

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					Developmental Psychology
   Infancy and Childhood
   How do brain and motor skills
            develop?
Good News
• While in the womb, you produce almost ¼
  million brain cells per minute.
Bad News
• That is basically all you are ever going to
  develop.
         The Brain and Infancy
• Although the brain
  does not develop
  many new cells,
  the existing cells
  begin to work more
  efficiently- forming
  more complex
  neural networks.
                  Maturation
• Biological growth
  processes that enable
  orderly changes in
  behavior, relatively
  uninfluenced by
  experience.
• To a certain extent we
  all maturate similarly,
  but the time can vary
  depending on the
  person.
         Motor Development
• Sequence is the same- but once again
  timing varies.
• First learn to roll over, sit up unsupported,
  crawl, walk etc…
                 Walking
• Walking- in US 25% learn by 11 months,
  50% within a week of 1st birthday, 90% by
  15 months.
• Varies by culture- if the culture
  emphasizes walking then babies can walk
  at younger ages (NURTURE).
• But identical twins tend to learn to walk on
  the same day (NATURE).
          Toilet Training
• NO MATTER WHAT,
  THE BABY NEEDS THE
  PHYSICAL
  MATURATION TO
  HOLD HIS OR HER
  BLADDER OR BOWEL
  MOVEMENTS BEFORE
  TOILET TRAINING.

• NO TRAINING WILL
  WORK IF THE CHILD IS
  NOT PHYSICALLY
  READY.
        Cognitive Development
• This field is Dominated by
  a man named Jean Piaget.
• He was developing IQ
  tests and noticed that
  many children got the
  same answers wrong.
• Thought to himself,
  “maybe these kids are not
  stupid, but instead think
  differently than adults.”
   Piaget’s important concepts
• Children are active thinkers, always trying
  to make sense of the world.
• To make sense of the world, they develop
  schemas.
• Schema- a concept or framework that
  organizes and interprets information.
   Piaget’s important concepts
• Assimilation- interpreting one’s new
  experiences into one’s existing schemas.




•Accommodation- adapting one’s
current understandings (schemas) to
incorporate new information.
           Cognition
All mental activities associated
   with thinking, knowing and
          remembering.
 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive
         Development
• Sensorimotor
• Preoperational
• Concrete Operational
• Formal Operational
        Sensorimotor Stage
• The Sensorimotor
  Stage is from
  approximately birth to
  2 years of age.
• Babies take in the
  world purely through
  their senses- looking,
  hearing, touching,
  tasting and grasping.
       Sensorimotor Stage
• At 4 to 8 months of
  age, your child will
  learn that she can
  make things move by
  banging them and
  shaking them.
  (Example--shaking a
  rattle, banging on
  toys, banging on tray
  of high chair)
       Sensorimotor Stage
• Between 12 and 18 months your
  child will be able to represent hidden
  objects in her mind (Object
  Permanence). In other words, she
  will be able to “see” objects even
  when they are out of sight.
• Before Object Permanence- what is
  out of sight, is gone from the universe
  forever.
      Sensorimotor Stage
• At 18 to 24 months of age, a child
  will begin to use images to stand for
  objects. In other words, a physical
  object can represent something else.
  Symbols represent objects or events
  in one’s own environment.
        Sensorimotor Stage
• This ability is called mediation and is
  very important in a child’s development
  because it means the child can think
  about more than just the objects that are
  around her; she can think about the
  whole world.
   Preoperational Stage
• The Preoperational Stage is
  from approximately 2 to 7
  years of age.
     Preoperational Stage
• At the early
  part of this
  stage, a child
  will develop
  the ability to
  use symbols.
     Preoperational Stage
• Between the ages of 3 and 4,
  your child will be able to apply this
  ability to symbolize with objects,
  to people (names represent
  people).
      Preoperational Stage
• By the end of this stage, the child
  will understand the concept of
  conservation.
      Preoperational Stage
• Children in the
  preoperational
  stage are
  egocentric (the
  inability to take on
  another’s point of
  view).
 Concrete Operational Stage
• 7-11 years old
• Understand concept of
  conservation.
• Can think logically, use analogies,
  and perform mathematical
  transformations (5+9 is the same
  as 9-5) also known as reversibility.
        Formal Operational Stage
  • We can reason abstractly.

 If John is in school, then Mary is in school. John is in school. What can you
 say about Mary?

                                                            Stevie Wonder is
God is love.   Love is Blind   Stevie Wonder is Blind.
                                                            god.

				
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