Developmental Psychology Infancy and Childhood How do brain and motor skills develop? Good News • While in the womb, you produce almost ¼ million brain cells per minute. Bad News • That is basically all you are ever going to develop. The Brain and Infancy • Although the brain does not develop many new cells, the existing cells begin to work more efficiently- forming more complex neural networks. Maturation • Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience. • To a certain extent we all maturate similarly, but the time can vary depending on the person. Motor Development • Sequence is the same- but once again timing varies. • First learn to roll over, sit up unsupported, crawl, walk etc… Walking • Walking- in US 25% learn by 11 months, 50% within a week of 1st birthday, 90% by 15 months. • Varies by culture- if the culture emphasizes walking then babies can walk at younger ages (NURTURE). • But identical twins tend to learn to walk on the same day (NATURE). Toilet Training • NO MATTER WHAT, THE BABY NEEDS THE PHYSICAL MATURATION TO HOLD HIS OR HER BLADDER OR BOWEL MOVEMENTS BEFORE TOILET TRAINING. • NO TRAINING WILL WORK IF THE CHILD IS NOT PHYSICALLY READY. Cognitive Development • This field is Dominated by a man named Jean Piaget. • He was developing IQ tests and noticed that many children got the same answers wrong. • Thought to himself, “maybe these kids are not stupid, but instead think differently than adults.” Piaget’s important concepts • Children are active thinkers, always trying to make sense of the world. • To make sense of the world, they develop schemas. • Schema- a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information. Piaget’s important concepts • Assimilation- interpreting one’s new experiences into one’s existing schemas. •Accommodation- adapting one’s current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information. Cognition All mental activities associated with thinking, knowing and remembering. Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development • Sensorimotor • Preoperational • Concrete Operational • Formal Operational Sensorimotor Stage • The Sensorimotor Stage is from approximately birth to 2 years of age. • Babies take in the world purely through their senses- looking, hearing, touching, tasting and grasping. Sensorimotor Stage • At 4 to 8 months of age, your child will learn that she can make things move by banging them and shaking them. (Example--shaking a rattle, banging on toys, banging on tray of high chair) Sensorimotor Stage • Between 12 and 18 months your child will be able to represent hidden objects in her mind (Object Permanence). In other words, she will be able to “see” objects even when they are out of sight. • Before Object Permanence- what is out of sight, is gone from the universe forever. Sensorimotor Stage • At 18 to 24 months of age, a child will begin to use images to stand for objects. In other words, a physical object can represent something else. Symbols represent objects or events in one’s own environment. Sensorimotor Stage • This ability is called mediation and is very important in a child’s development because it means the child can think about more than just the objects that are around her; she can think about the whole world. Preoperational Stage • The Preoperational Stage is from approximately 2 to 7 years of age. Preoperational Stage • At the early part of this stage, a child will develop the ability to use symbols. Preoperational Stage • Between the ages of 3 and 4, your child will be able to apply this ability to symbolize with objects, to people (names represent people). Preoperational Stage • By the end of this stage, the child will understand the concept of conservation. Preoperational Stage • Children in the preoperational stage are egocentric (the inability to take on another’s point of view). Concrete Operational Stage • 7-11 years old • Understand concept of conservation. • Can think logically, use analogies, and perform mathematical transformations (5+9 is the same as 9-5) also known as reversibility. Formal Operational Stage • We can reason abstractly. If John is in school, then Mary is in school. John is in school. What can you say about Mary? Stevie Wonder is God is love. Love is Blind Stevie Wonder is Blind. god.
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