# Bounding Theory

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```					      Bounding Theory

Constraints on Wh-movement
NP islands                            can get out of a CP

Whati did Bill claim             [CP that he read ti?]
*What did Bill make [NP the claim [CP that he read ti ?]]

can’t get out of an NP

Islands are surrounded by water: you
can’t get off of (out of) them. Wh-
movement can’t get out of an island
NPs are islands
Wh-islands
I wonder [CP whati [TP John bought ti with the \$20 bill]]

[CP Howi do [TP you think [CP John bought the sweater ti ? ]]]

*[CP Howk do [TP you wonder [CP whati [TP John bought ti tk]]]]
Wh-islands
I wonder [CP whati [TP John kissed ti?]]

Whoj did you think [CP [TP tj kissed the gorilla?]]

*Whok did you wonder [CP whati [TP tk kissed ti ?]]
Wh-islands
A CP with a wh-word in its specifier is
an island for the movement of another
wh-word.
How do we account for the
island phenomena?
 Thetheory that constrains Wh-
movement is called Bounding Theory
 Bounding theory ≠ Binding Theory
Subjacency
 Bounding  Node: NP or TP
 The Subjacency Condition:
 Don’t cross TWO bounding nodes
   (Only nodes that dominate the wh-word count!)
Subjacency: You can’t cross TWO
Cycles              bounding nodes.

[CP What do [IP you think    [CP [IP    Bill loves ti]]]]

[CP What do [IP you think     [CP [IP    Bill loves ti]]]]

If you do the movement in two hops (first to
the intermediate CP specifier, then to the
higher CP specifier) then you don’t violate
the subjacency condition.
NP islands
two bounding nodes

[CP Whati did [TP Bill claim              [CP that [TP he read ti?]]
*[CP What did [TP Bill make [NP the claim [CP that [TP he read ti ?]]]

three bounding nodes
Remember: ONLY NPs that dominate the wh-word count as
bounding nodes
Can’t cross TWO bounding
nodes
[CP What did [TP Bill claim   [CP   that [TP      he read ti]]]]

*[CP What did [TP Bill make [NP the claim [CP that [TP he read ti]]]]

*
This move crosses two
This move is ok
bounding nodes, so this move
Wh-islands: Try 1
[CP ____ did[+wh] [IP you wonder [CP _____ Ø[+wh] [IP who kissed what ?]]

[CP ____ did[+wh] [IP you wonder [CP whati Ø[+wh] [IP who kissed ti ?]]

[CP ____ did[+wh] [IP you wonder [CP whati Ø[+wh] [IP who kissed ti ?]]

*
Can’t do this. The specifier
of this CP is already filled
by “what”
Wh-islands: Try 2
[CP ____ did[+wh] [TP you wonder [CP _____ Ø[+wh] [TP who kissed what ?]]

[CP ____ did[+wh] [TP you wonder [CP whati Ø[+wh] [TP who kissed ti ?]]

[CP ____ did[+wh] [TP you wonder [CP whati Ø[+wh] [TP who kissed ti ?]]

*
Can’t do this! It violates the subjacency
condition!!
Wh-islands: Try 3
[CP ____ did[+wh] [TP you wonder [CP _____ Ø[+wh] [TP who kissed what ?]]

[CP ____ did[+wh] [TP you wonder [CP whok Ø[+wh] [TP      tk kissed whati ?]]

[CP whok did[+wh] [TP you wonder [CP tk    Ø[+wh]   [TP   tk kissed whati ?]]

[CP whok did[+wh] [TP you wonder [CP tk Ø[+wh]       [TP   tk kissed whati ?]]
*

can’t do this! Specifier of lower
CP is occupied by trace of who
No way to do it!
 Thereis no way to derive a wh-island
sentence like:
*Who do you think what read?
Summary
 Bounding theory restricts how far you
move with Wh-movement.
 Subjacency condition:
cross 2 or more bounding nodes
 don’t
 Bounding nodes: NP/TP

 Accounts   for island phenomena:
 NPislands
 Wh islands

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 views: 34 posted: 5/12/2010 language: English pages: 15