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23557129- The- Great- Pyramid

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					               Contents
1- Historical context
2- Construction theories
   2.A Materials and workforce
3- Layout
   3.A Measurements
   3.B Passages and chambers
4- Dating evidence
5- "Alternative" theories
6-Images
                1- Historical context



   The Great Pyramid of Giza is the main part of a complex setting of
    buildings that included two mortuary temples in honor of Khufu
    (one close to the pyramid and one near the Nile), three smaller
    pyramids for Khufu's wives, an even smaller "satellite" pyramid, a
    raised causeway connecting the two temples, and small mastaba
    tombs surrounding the pyramid for nobles. One of the small
    pyramids contains the tomb of queen Hetepheres (discovered in
    1925), sister and wife of Sneferu and the mother of Khufu. There
    was a town for the workers of Giza, including a cemetery, bakeries,
    a beer factory and a copper smelting complex. More buildings and
    complexes are being discovered by The Giza Mapping Project.
   A few hundred metres south-west of the Great Pyramid
    lies the slightly smaller Pyramid of Khafre, one of
    Khufu's successors who is also commonly considered the
    builder of the Great Sphinx, and a few hundred metres
    further south-west is the Pyramid of Menkaure, Khafre's
    successor, which is about half as tall.

   The generally accepted estimated date of its completion
    is c. 2560 BC.Although this date contradicts radiocarbon
    dating evidence, it is loosely supported by a lack of
    archaeological findings for the existence prior to the
    fourth dynasty of a civilization with sufficient population
    or technical ability in the area.

   Khufu's vizier, Hemon, or Hemiunu, is believed by some
    to be the architect of the Great Pyramid
               2- Construction theories
2-A Materials and workforce
 Many varied estimates have been made regarding the workforce needed to construct
   the Great Pyramid. Herodotus, the Greek historian in the 5th century BC, estimated
   that construction may have required 100,000 workers for 20 years. Recent evidence has
   been found that suggests the workforce was in fact paid[citation needed], which would
   require accounting and bureaucratic skills of a high order. Polish architect Wieslaw
   Kozinski believed that it took as many as 20 men to transport a 1.5-ton stone block
   from where it was extracted from the ground, to the building site. Based on this, he
   estimated the workforce to be 300,000 men on the construction site, with an additional
   60,000 off-site. 19th century Egyptologist William Flinders Petrie proposed that the
   workforce was largely composed not of slaves but of the rural Egyptian population,
   working during periods when the Nile river was flooded and agricultural activity
   suspended. Egyptologist Miroslav Verner posited that the labor was organized into a
   hierarchy, consisting of two gangs of 100,000 men, divided into five zaa or phyle of
   20,000 men each, which may have been further divided according to the skills of the
   workers. Some research suggests alternate estimates to the accepted workforce size.
   For instance, mathematician Kurt Mendelssohn calculated that the workforce may have
   been 50,000 men at most, while Ludwig Borchardt and placed the number at 36,000.
   According to Verner, a workforce of no more than 30,000 was needed in the Great
   Pyramid's construction.
   A construction management study (testing) carried out by the firm Daniel, Mann,
    Johnson, & Mendenhall in association with Mark Lehner and other Egyptologists,
    estimates that the total project required an average workforce of 14,567 people and a
    peak workforce of 40,000. Without the use of pulleys, wheels, or iron tools, they
    surmise the Great Pyramid was completed from start to finish in approximately 10
    years. Their critical path analysis study reveals estimates that the number of blocks used
    in construction was between 2-2.8 million (an average of 2.4 million), but settles on a
    reduced finished total of 2 million after subtracting the estimated area of the hollow
    spaces of the chambers and galleries. Most sources agree on this number of blocks
    somewhere above 2.3 million. The Egyptologists' calculations suggest the workforce
    could have sustained a rate of 180 blocks per hour (3 blocks/minute) with ten hour
    work days for putting each individual block in place. They derived these estimates from
    construction projects that did not use modern machinery.
   Average core blocks of the pyramid weigh about 1.5 tons each, and the granite blocks
    used to roof the burial chambers are estimated to weigh up to 80 tons each.[citation
    needed]
   The entire Giza Plateau is believed to have been constructed over the reign of five
    pharaohs in less than a hundred years. In the hundred years prior to Giza, beginning
    with Djoser who ruled from 2687-2667 BC, three other massive pyramids were built -
    the Step pyramid of Saqqara (believed to be the first Egyptian pyramid), the Bent
    Pyramid, and the Red Pyramid. Also during this period (between 2686 and 2498 BC)
    the Wadi Al-Garawi dam which used an estimated 100,000 cubic meters of rock and
    rubble was built.
3- Layout
   The above diagram is a cross section of the Great Pyramid showing the relative
    position of the major points of interest: There are two entrances. The first is the
    original entrance which is on the North face and opens to the Descending Passage.
    The second is the forced entrance created when the Pyramid was broken into and is
    shown by the darker tunnel. The descending passage continues beneath the blocks of
    the Pyramid and into the bedrock beneath and eventually leads to the horizontal shaft
    which connects to the Pit or also called the Room of Chaos .
   The Ascending Passage still has three major stone plugs blocking its upward journey
    where it connects with the Descending Passage but they have been tunneled around.
    Farther up the Ascending Passage are to be found the three girdle stones. Next comes
    both the horizontal passage to the Queen's Chamber and the entrance to the Grand
    Gallery. Here also is found a tunnelled passageway connecting the Ascending Passage
    to the Descending Passage through a very long, narrow, and twisty tunnel which
    appears to have been dug after the construction of the Great Pyramid and from the
    bottom up. Midway between is a larger cavity known as the Grotto .
   At the top of the Grand Gallery is a horizontal passageway into room called the
    Antechamber which appears to have had 3 rock portucullus slabs to block the entrance
    to the Kings Chamber which lies just beyond. Above the King's Chamber and
    connected from a small well shaft found at the top of the Grand Gallery is the first of
    5 chambers thought to have been engineered to relieve the weight of the stones the
    Great Pyramid above the Kings Chamber .
   Both the Queen's Chamber and the King's Chamber have two air shafts which make a
    number of minor turns and exit the faces of the Pyramids. They at one time appear to
    have pointed to specific stars. Curiously, the air shafts in the Queens Chamber stopped
    a few inches short of the Chamber and did not connect all of the
                        3.A Measurements
   Papyrus documents and existing cubit measuring rods give us the units of measure
    used to specify the plan of the pyramid and so it is thought that, at construction, the
    Great Pyramid was 280 Egyptian royal cubits tall (146.6 meters or 480.9 feet), but with
    erosion and the theft of its topmost stone (the pyramidion) its current height is
    138.8 m. Each base side was 440 royal cubits, with each royal cubit measuring 0.524 m
    (20.6 inches).[9] Thus, the base was originally almost 231 m on a side and covered
    approximately 53,000 square metres (13 acres) with a slope angle of 51°50'40" (seked =
    5½).
   In the 14th century (1301 AD), a massive earthquake loosened many of the outer
    casing stones, which were then carted away by Bahri Sultan An-Nasir Nasir-ad-Din al-
    Hasan in 1356 in order to build mosques and fortresses in nearby Cairo; the stones can
    still be seen as parts of these structures to this day. Later explorers reported massive
    piles of rubble at the base of the pyramids left over from the continuing collapse of the
    casing stones which were subsequently cleared away during continuing excavations of
    the site. Nevertheless, many of the casing stones around the base of the Great Pyramid
    can be seen to this day in situ displaying the same workmanship and precision as has
    been reported for centuries. Regarding this uncanny workmanship, Sir Flinders Petrie
    remarked; "Merely to place such stones in exact contact would be careful work, but to
    do so with cement in the joints seems almost impossible: it is to be compared with the
    finest opticians' work on a scale of acres"
   Today each side of the pyramid has an approximate length of about
    230.4 meters (755.8 feet). The reduction in size and area of the structure
    into its current rough-hewn appearance is due to the absence of its
    original polished casing stones, some of which measured up to two and a
    half metres thick and weighed more than 15 tonnes.
   The first precision measurements of the pyramid were done by Sir
    Flinders Petrie in 1880–82 and published as "The Pyramids and Temples
    of Gizeh".[11] Almost all reports are based on his measurements. Petrie
    found the pyramid is oriented 4' west of North and the second pyramid
    is similarly oriented. Petrie also found a different orientation in the core
    and in the casing (193 cm ± 25 cm ( – 5 ft 16 in ± 10")). Petrie suggested
    a redetermination of north was made after the construction of the core,
    but a mistake was made, and the casing was built with a different
    orientation. This deviation from the north in the core, corresponding to
    the position of the stars b-Ursae Minoris and z-Ursae Majoris about
    3,000 years ago, takes into account the precession of the axis of the
    Earth. A study by egyptologist Kate Spence shows how the changes in
    orientation of 8 pyramids corresponds with changes of position of those
    stars through time. This would date the start of the construction of the
    pyramid at 2467 BC.[12]
   For four millennia it was the world's tallest building, unsurpassed until the 160 metre
    tall spire of Lincoln Cathedral was completed c. 1300. The accuracy of the pyramid's
    workmanship is such that the four sides of the base have a mean error of only 58 mm
    in length, and 1 minute in angle from a perfect square. The base is horizontal and flat
    to within 15 mm. The sides of the square are closely aligned to the four cardinal
    compass points to within 3 minutes of arc and is based not on magnetic north, but true
    north. The design dimensions, as confirmed by Petrie's survey and all those following
    this, are assumed to have been 280 cubits in height by 4x440 cubits around originally,
    and as these proportions equate to 2 x Pi to an accuracy of better than 0.05%, this was
    and is considered to have been the deliberate design proportion, by Professors Flinders
    Petrie, I.E.S Edwards and Verner[13] amongst many other Egyptologists. Other
    proportions of the King's Chamber supported this conclusion, and discussion
    continues as to the probable methods of implementation, in light of information
    regarding 'seked' slope angle techniques and geometrical problems concerning
    pyramids from the Rhind Papyrus.[14].[15][dead link]
   The pyramid was constructed of cut and dressed blocks of limestone, basalt or granite.
    The core was made mainly of rough blocks of low quality limestone taken from a
    quarry at the south of Khufu’s Great Pyramid. These blocks weighed from two to four
    tonnes on average, with the heaviest used at the base of the pyramid. An estimated 2.4
    million blocks were used in the construction. High quality limestone was used for the
    outer casing, with some of the blocks weighing up to 15 tonnes. This limestone came
    from Tura, about 14 km away on the other side of the Nile. Granite quarried nearly 800
    km away in Aswan with blocks weighing as much as 60-80 tonnes, was used for the
    King's Chamber and relieving chambers.
   The total mass of the pyramid is estimated at 5.9 million
    tonnes with a volume (including an internal hillock) believed
    to be 2,600,000 cubic metres. The pyramid is the largest in
    Egypt and the tallest in the world. It is surpassed only by the
    Great Pyramid of Cholula in Puebla, Mexico, which, although
    much lower in height, occupies a greater volume.
   At completion, the Great Pyramid was surfaced by white
    'casing stones' – slant-faced, but flat-topped, blocks of highly
    polished white limestone. These caused the monument to
    shine brightly in the sun, making it visible from a considerable
    distance. Visibly all that remains is the underlying step-
    pyramid core structure seen today, but several of the casing
    stones can still be found around the base. The casing stones of
    the Great Pyramid and Khafre's Pyramid (constructed directly
    beside it) were cut to such optical precision as to be off true
    plane over their entire surface area by only 0.5 mm. They were
    fitted together so perfectly that the tip of a knife cannot be
    inserted between the joints even to this day.
            3.B Passages and chambers
   The passages inside the pyramid are all extremely straight and precise, such
    that the longest of them, referred to as the descending passage, which is 107 m
    long, deviates from being truly straight by less than 6 mm, while one of the
    shorter passages with a length of just over 15 m deviates from being truly
    straight by a mere 0.5 mm.
   Great Pyramid of Giza from a 19th century stereopticon card photo.
   The Great Pyramid differs in its internal arrangement from the other pyramids
    in the area. The greater number of passages and chambers, the high finish of
    parts of the work, and the accuracy of construction all distinguish it. The walls
    throughout the pyramid are totally bare and uninscribed, but there are
    inscriptions — or to be more precise, graffiti — believed to have been made by
    the workers on the stones before they were assembled. All the five relieving
    chambers are inscribed. The most famous inscription is one of the few that
    mentions the name of Khufu; it says "year 17 of Khufu's reign". Although
    alternative theorists have suggested otherwise, given its precarious location it is
    hard to believe it could have been inscribed after construction; even Graham
    Hancock accepted this, after Dr. Hawass let him examine the inscription.[16]
    Another inscription refers to "the friends of Khufu", and probably was the name
    of one of the gangs of workers.[17] Though this doesn't offer indisputable proof
    Khufu originated the construction of the Great Pyramid or when building
    began, it does appear however to clear any doubt he at least took part in some
    phase of its construction (or later repairs to an existing building) during his
    reign.
   There are three known chambers inside the Great Pyramid. These are arranged
    centrally, on the vertical axis of the pyramid. The lowest chamber (the
    "unfinished chamber") is cut into the bedrock upon which the pyramid was
    built. This chamber is the largest of the three, but totally unfinished, only
    rough-cut into the rock.
   The middle chamber, or Queen's Chamber, is the smallest, measuring
    approximately 5.74 by 5.23 metres, and 4.57 metres in height. Its eastern wall
    has a large angular doorway or niche, and two narrow shafts, about 20 cm wide,
    extending from the chamber towards the outer surface of the pyramid. These
    shafts were explored using a robot, Upuaut 2, created by the German engineer .
    Upuaut 2 discovered that these shafts were blocked by limestone "doors" with
    eroded copper "handles". During Pyramids Live: Secret Chambers Revealed,
    National Geographic filmed the drilling of a small hole in the southern door
    only to find another larger door behind it. The northern passage (which was
    harder to navigate due to twists and turns) was also found to have a door.
    Egyptologist Mark Lehner believes that the Queen's chamber was intended as a
    serdab—a structure found in several other Egyptian pyramids—and that the
    niche would have contained a statue of the interred. The Ancient Egyptians
    believed that the statue would serve as a "back up" vessel for the Ka of the
    Pharaoh, should the original mummified body be destroyed. The true purpose
    of the chamber, however, remains uncertain.
   Lithographic print from the 1840s depicting the Great Pyramid and
    neighbouring Khafre's Pyramid.
   At the end of the lengthy series of entrance ways leading into the pyramid
    interior is the structure's main chamber, the King's Chamber. This chamber
    was originally 10 x 20 x 11.2 cubits, or about 5.25 m x 10.5 m x 6 m, comprising a
    double 10x10 cubit square, and a height equal to half the double square's
    diagonal. This is consistent with then-available geometric methods for
    determining the Golden Ratio phi, which can be derived from other dimensions
    of the pyramid, such that if phi had been the design objective, then pi
    automatically follows to 'square the circle'. Given that pre-Hellenistic
    Egyptians did not have a similar geometric way to determine pi as accurately, it
    is unlikely that it was preferred over phi as a design objective, especially as phi
    has been found in other pre-Hellenistic Egyptian monuments. (Alexander
    Badawi. Ancient Egyptian Architectural Design. Berkeley: 1965)
   The other main features of the Great Pyramid consist of the Grand Gallery, the
    sarcophagus found in the King's Chamber, both ascending and descending
    passages, and the lowest part of the structure mentioned above, what is dubbed
    the "unfinished chamber".
   The Grand Gallery (49 m x 3 m x 11 m) features an ingenious corbel halloed
    design and several cut "sockets" spaced at regular intervals along the length of
    each side of its raised base with a "trench" running along its center length at
    floor level. What purpose these sockets served is unknown. The Red Pyramid of
    Dashur also exhibits grand galleries of similar design.
   The Giza pyramid complex at night.
   The sarcophagus of the King's chamber was hollowed out of a single piece of
    Red Aswan granite and has been found to be too large to fit through the
    passageway leading to the King's chamber. Whether the sarcophagus was ever
    intended to house a body is unknown, but it is too short to accommodate a
    medium height individual without the bending of the knees (a technique not
    practised in Egyptian burial) and no lid was ever found.
   The "unfinished chamber" lies 90 ft below ground level and is rough-hewn,
    lacking the precision of the other chambers. This chamber is dismissed by
    Egyptologists as being nothing more than a simple change in plans in that it
    was intended to be the original burial chamber but later King Khufu changed
    his mind wanting it to be higher up in the pyramid.
   Two French amateur Egyptologists, Gilles Dormion and Jean-Yves Verd'hurt,
    claimed in August 2004 that they had discovered a previously unknown chamber
    inside the pyramid underneath the Queen's Chamber using ground-penetrating
    radar and architectural analysis. They believe the chamber to be unviolated and
    could contain the king's remains. They believe the King's Chamber, the
    chamber generally assumed to be Khufu's original resting place, was not
    constructed to be a burial chamber.
   The King's Chamber contains two "air shafts" that ascend out of the Pyramid
    and point directly to the star Thuban, and the star Alnitak, in the Orion
    constellation. The "Queen's" chamber has two air shafts which align to stars as
    well. These air shafts were supposedly used for ventilation, but given the fact all
    four were found to be closed off at both ends and only discovered by accident,
    this idea was eventually abandoned leaving Egyptologists to now conclude they
    were instead used for ceremonial purposes allowing the Pharaoh's spirit to rise
    up and out into the stars. Each of these air shafts are about 13 cm in diameter.




Another view of the passages and chambers of the Great Pyramid. But unfortunately, the
size reductions result in much loss of clarity from the original .
                           4- Dating evidence
   Traditionally, the evidence for dating the Great Pyramid by Egyptologists has been
    based primarily on fragmented summaries of early Christian writings gleaned from the
    work of the Hellenistic Period Egyptian priest Manethô who compiled the now lost
    revisionist Egyptian history Aegyptika. These works, and to a lesser degree earlier
    Egyptian sources, mainly the Turin Canon and Table of Abydos among others,
    combine to form the main body of historical reference for Egyptologists giving a
    timeline by popular consensus of rulers known as the "King's List", found in the
    reference archive; the Cambridge Ancient History.[19][20] As a result, given Egyptologists
    have ascribed the pyramid to Khufu, establishing the time he reigned by default
    subsequently dates the monument as well as the confines for its completion of
    construction.
   The Edgar Cayce Foundation, researching claims that the pyramids were at least 10,000
    years old, funded the "David H. Koch Pyramids Radiocarbon Project" in 1984. The
    project took samples of organic material (such as ash and charcoal deposits) from
    several locations within the Great Pyramid, and other pyramids and monuments from
    the Old Kingdom period (ca. 3rd millennium BC). These samples were subjected to
    radiocarbon dating to produce calibrated date-equivalent estimates of their age. This
    yielded results averaging 374 years earlier than the estimated historical date accepted by
    Egyptologists (2589 – 2504 BC) but still more recent than 10,000 years ago.An
    astronomical study by Kate Spence suggests the pyramid dates to 2467 BC.
   A second dating in 1995 with new but similar material obtained dates ranging between
    100-400 years earlier than those indicated by the historic record. This raised questions
    concerning the origin and date of the wood. Massive quantities of wood were used and
    burned, so to reconcile the earlier dates the authors of the study theorized that possibly
    "old wood" was used, assuming that wood was harvested from any source available,
    including old construction material from all over Egypt. It is also known, given the
    poor quality and relative scarcity of native Egyptian woods, that King Sneferu (and
    later Egyptian pharohs) imported fine woods from Lebanon and other countries such
    as Nubia for the creation of decorative furniture, royal boats (as found buried around
    the Giza Plateau), or other luxuries generally reserved for royalty. But as Mark Lehner
    points out such efforts were not without "great cost". It is unknown, given the
    expense, effort, and value of such woods, if they were ever imported as an expendable
    source of industrial fuel, especially on such a large scale.
   Project scientists based their conclusions on the evidence that some of the material in
    the 3rd Dynasty pyramid of Pharaoh Djoser and other monuments had been recycled,
    concluding that the construction of the pyramids marked a major depletion of Egypt's
    exploitable wood. Dating of more short-lived material around the pyramid (cloth, small
    fires, etc) yielded dates nearer to those indicated by historical records. As of yet the full
    data of the study has yet to be released in which the authors insist more evidence is
    needed to settle this issue. In the absence of the "old wood" theory, the study admits
    "The 1984 results left us with too little data to conclude that the historical chronology
    of the Old Kingdom was in error by nearly 400 years, but we considered this at least a
    possibility."
   In his book Voyages of the Pyramid Builders,geologist Robert
    Schoch, Profssor of Natural Science at the College of General
    Studies at Boston University, details key anomalies in both
    radiocarbon studies; most notably that samples taken in 1984
    from the upper courses of the Great Pyramid gave upper
    dates of 3809 BC (± 160yrs), nearly 1400yrs before the time of
    Khufu, while the lower courses provided dates ranging from
    3090-2723 B.C (± 100-400yrs) which correspond much more
    closely to the time Khufu is believed to have reigned. Given
    that the data imply the pyramid was built (impossibly) from
    the top down, Dr. Schoch argues that if the information
    provided by the study is correct, it makes sense if it is assumed
    the pyramid was built and rebuilt in several stages suggesting
    later Pharaohs such as Khufu were only inheritors of an
    existing monument, not the original builders, and merely
    rebuilt or repaired previously constructed sections.
                   5- "Alternative" theories
   In common with many other monumental structures from antiquity, the Great Pyramid has over
    time been the subject of a great number of speculative or alternative theories, which put forward
    a variety of explanations about its origins, dating, construction and purpose. In support of these
    claims such accounts either rely upon novel reinterpretations of the available data from fields
    such as archaeology, history and astronomy, or appeal to biblical, mythological, mystical,
    numerological, astrological and other esoteric sources of knowledge, or some combination of
    these.
   Such ideas have been part of popular culture since at least the turn of the 20th century and can
    be traced back among others to such figures as the early-twentieth century American psychic
    Edgar Cayce, whose 'psychic channeling' of 'Ra Ta' purports to have conveyed that the pyramids
    were built by refugees from Atlantis, and even to his predecessor Ignatius L. Donnelly. In recent
    years, some of the more widely-publicized writers of alternative theories include Graham
    Hancock, Robert Bauval, , and Boston University geology professor Robert M. Schoch.
   A theme found in some of the alternative theories put forward concerning the Giza pyramids
    and many other megalithic sites around the world, is the suggestion that these are not the
    products of the civilizations and cultures known to conventional history, but are instead the
    much older remnants of some hitherto unknown advanced ancient culture. This progenitor
    civilization is supposed to have been destroyed in antiquity by some devastating catastrophe
    brought about by the end of the last ice age, according to most of these accounts sometime
    around 10,000 BC. For the Great Pyramid of Giza in particular, it is maintained (depending on
    the theorist) that either it was ordained and built by this now-vanished civilization, or else that its
    construction was somehow influenced by knowledge (now lost) acquired from this civilization.
    The latter point of view is more common among recent theorists such as Hancock and Bauval,
    who believe that the Great Pyramid incorporates star shafts 'locked in' to Orion's Belt and Sirius
    at around 2450 BC, though they argue the Giza ground-plan was laid out in 10,450 BC.[24]
   This remote date is supported also by writer and researcher, Scott Creighton, who
    argued that the relative placement of the two sets of "Queens' Pyramids" concord with
    the precessional motion of the Orion Belt stars across a period of some 13,000 years
    from c.10,500BC to 2,500AD. The placement of such 'precessional markers', Creighton
    argues, could have been made only by a civilization relatively advanced in mathematics
    and astronomy, stretching back into great antiquity.
   In 2007, Creighton presented an hypothesis which demonstrates how – using the
    asterism generated by the three Orion Belt stars - the actual base dimensions (length
    and breadth) of the main pyramids at Giza, including the Great Pyramid, is simply and
    easily determined.
   The a priori existence of such a civilization is postulated by such theorists who believe
    this is the only reasonable explanation for how advanced ancient cultures, such as
    Egypt and Sumer, were able to reach high levels of technological advancement with
    what they claim is little or no local precedent. This precedent they argue exists in the
    form of megalithic ruins found all over the globe that are claimed to be too complex to
    have been constructed by the cultures they are typically ascribed to. As one of these
    theorists, John Anthony West writes in reference to Egypt: "How does a complex
    civilization spring full blown into being? Look at a 1905 automobile and compare it to
    a modern one. There is no mistaking the process of 'development'. But in Egypt there
    are no parallels. Everything is right there from the start."
   A religious alternative theory known today as "pyramidology", first put forward by John Taylor
    in 1859 with the book The Great Pyramid: Why Was It Built and Who Built It ]26[?and championed
    by early Great Pyramid explorer Charles Piazzi Smyth ,)1900-1819( claims that the Pyramid is
    somehow the product of divine Christian revelation, planned by Hebrew prophets who
    influenced pharaoh Khufu at least 700 years before the birth of the Hebrew patriarch Abraham.
    Expanding on these ideas, 20th century believers, most notably Adam Rutherford, David
    Davidson, televangelist Dr. Gene Scott, Larry Pahl, and Peter Lemesurier, maintain that the
    Pyramid passage systems, largely based on Charles Piazzi Smyth's calculations, when measured
    with the arbitrary 'Pyramid inch', or 'Sacred Cubit', contain a prophetic timeline which reveals the
    date of creation by Yahweh the Hebrew God of the Bible, the building of the Pyramid, the
    Hebrew exodus from Egypt, and the birth, crucifixion and resurrection of Christ among other
    religious and world events.
   Beyond these writers and the devout followers of the concept, there is virtually no support for
    pyramidology in either the mainstream or alternative communities. The existence of the 'pyramid
    inch', of which pyramidology draws its sole support, was summarily discredited early on by
    Egyptologist Sir Flinders Petrie (1853-1942), who found the measurements and calculations of
    Smith and his use of the 'pyramid inch' to be inaccurate to such a degree as to categorically reject
    the theory altogether; a conclusion fully supported by the scientific community to this day.
    Initially a supporter of pyramidology, Petrie states: ""there is no authentic example, that will bear
    examination, of the use or existence of any such measure as a ‘Pyramid inch,’ or of a cubit of
    25.025 British inches ]27[".Despite the authoritative evidence to the contrary, pyramidologists
    then and now remain unwavered in their belief, a phenomenon which even in the late 1800s
    prompted Petrie to coin the term 'pyramidiot Petrie summarized his contention by concluding:
    "It is useless to state the real truth of the matter, as it has no effect on those who are subject to
    this type of hallucination. They can but be left with the flat earth believers and other such people
    to whom a theory is dearer than a fact
6-Images
                         CAST
   Mina Hanna Azmy
   Basim Naeem
   Michael Ezat
   Medhat Fayez Nagib
   Mikel latif
                    ‫المراجع‬
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posted:5/12/2010
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BRIJ SAKSENA BRIJ SAKSENA SPIRITUAL MASTER http://dhyan-samadhi.webs.com/
About TAOSHOBUDDHA IS BORN IN INDIA IN A FAMILY OF SUFI MASTERS. I am here for all that existence wants me to be. Therefore I go on allowing happening all that existence has sent me for. And whatsoever the existence does not want to happen I will not allow happening. My being is absorbed in God. This is totality. And this, the word ‘God’ means to me. This is flowing in God or cosmic harmony. And the moment this happened, I became suddenly all - infinite - OCEANIC... AND NOW SOUR IN INFINITE SKY EFFORTLESSLY.... SCORES OF HIS VIDEOS ARE AVAILABLE ON VARIOUS PATHS AND MASTERS ON YOU TUBE.COM /TAOSHOBUDDHA; AND MANY OTHER SITES. HE HAS WORLDWIDE MEDITATION IN TRINIDAD, FLORIDA, BOSTON, NEWYORK, SWEDEN AND MANY OTHER CITIES OF THE WORLD. SCORES OF HIS BOOKS CAN BE PURCHASED AT MAJOR SITES WORLDWIDE AND BOOK STORES. FOR COMPETE LIST LOG TAOSHOBUDDHA ON ANY SEARCH ENGINE. LIST OF BOOKS: FROM STERLING PUBLISHERS, NEW, DELHI, INDIA 1. MEDITATION THE WAY TO SELF REALIZATION 2. THE SECRETS OF BHAKTI 3. THE ESSENCE OF SUFISM BOOKS PUBLISHED FROM I.PROCLAIM BOOK STORE.COM PITTSBURG PA 1. HARIPATH-THE HIDDEN SPLENDOR 2. FRUITS THE ESSENCE OF LIFE VIGOR 3. MEDITATION THE ULTIMATE IN HEALING 4. LEAVES FROM A SUFI HEART VOL 1 5. LEAVES FROM A SUFI HEART VOL 2 6. SHAH BAHAUDDIN NAQSHBAND - LIFE AND WORKS 7. MARAQBA-I-NAQSHBANDI 8. MARAQBA-I-RUMI 9. JAPJI SAHIB SONGS OF NANAK 10. SRI RAMA GITS 11. OM GANESHYAH NAMAH 12. QUEST FOR BIRTH AND DEATH IN SAVITRY OF DRI AUROBINDO 13. SAVITRI - REVIEW BY TAOSHOBUDDHA 14. TASUWWARE SHEIKH 15. THE SECRETS OF SPIRITUAL LIFE (TALKS OF TAOSHOBUDDHA) BY LARS JENSEN 16. SRIMAD BHAGWAD PURANA INTRODUCTION AND MORE BOOKS ARE IN PUBLICATION. SCORE OF HIS FREE DOCUMENTS ARE AVAILABLE ON DOCSTOC.COM; SCRIBD.COM' ISSUU.COM E MAIL: mailtaoshobuddha@gmail.com mailtaoshobuddha@yahoo.com PHONE: 1-954-381-1227 WEB SITE: http://dhyan-samadhi.webs.com/ 65 titles of taoshobuddha are available both in print and digital format. www.https//amazon.com/taoshobuddha