People's Republic of China (PRC)

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					   Arab Academy for Science, Technology &
            Maritime Transport




International Business

People's Republic of China (PRC)


TO DR. Mohamed Dadr

Mis. Hala Mohamed

BY: Ali Mohamed Abdullah ALshalali 06103666



                                              International Business PRC   1
Abstract


For centuries China stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world in
the arts and sciences, but in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the country was beset
by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World
War II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established an autocratic socialist
system that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over
everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, MAO's
successor DENG Xiaoping and other leaders focused on market-oriented economic
development and by 2000 output had quadrupled. For much of the population, living
standards have improved dramatically and the room for personal choice has
expanded, yet political controls remain tight. China since the early 1990s has
increased its global outreach and participation in international organizations.




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Abstract ………………………………………...…………………………………………….                                                           2
1. Introduction …………………………...………………………………………………..                                                       4
2. The history ………………………………...…………………………………………..                                                        5
    2.1. The history of China's ………...……………………………………………..                                               5
   2.2. Modern History.....................................................................             5
3. Population ………………………...……………………………………………………..                                                        6
4. Geographic ……………………………………………………………………….........                                                      6
5. Culture ………………………...…………………………………………………………..                                                         6
   5.1. Religious beliefs ………………...……………………………………………...                                                 7
   5.2. Great Wall of China ………...…………………………………………………                                                   7
      5.2.1. History …………...…………………………………………………………..                                                    8
6. Economy......................................................................................        8
   6.1. Stages of development..........................................................                 9
   6.2. The stage of socialist construction........................................                     9
   6.3. The period of openness to capital.........................................                      9
7. Politics..........................................................................................   10
   7.1. Government...........................................................................           10
8. Science and technology...............................................................                11
Conclusion........................................................................................      12
References........................................................................................      13




                                                                            International Business PRC       3
1. Introduction

The People's Republic of China (PRC), commonly known as China, is a country in
East Asia. It is the most populous state in the world with over 1.3 billion people.
China is ruled by the Communist Party of China under a single-party system, and has
jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four directly administered
municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing), and two highly
autonomous special administrative regions (SARs) (Hong Kong and Macau). The
PRC's capital is Beijing.

At about 9.6 million square kilometers (3.7 million square miles), the PRC is the
world's third- or fourth-largest country by total area, and the second largest by land
area.

China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies (also known as
dynasties). The first of these dynasties was the Xia (approx 2000BC) but it was the
later Qin Dynasty that first unified China in 221 BC. The last dynasty, the Qing, ended
in 1911 with the founding of the Republic of China (ROC) by the Kuomintang (KMT),
the Chinese Nationalist Party.

Since the introduction of market-based economic reforms in 1978, China has
become the world's fastest growing major economy, the world's largest exporter and
second largest importer of goods.

China is a major power and the world's third largest economy nominally (or second
largest by PPP) and a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, as
well as being a member of multilateral organizations including the WTO, APEC, G-20
and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. China is a recognized nuclear weapons
state and has the world's largest standing army with the second-largest defense
budget.

China has been characterized as a potential superpower by a number of academics
military analysts, and public policy and economics analysts.




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2. The history
2.1. The history of China's
 China is one of the oldest continuous civilizations in world history. Sdvat turtles
found with the writings of China from the Shang Dynasty Shang Dynasty dating by
radiocarbon age determination to 1500 BC. M. Chinese civilization originated from
the states - cities in the valley of the Yellow River. The year 221 BC. M is the year
generally accepted of the Union of China under the rule of one king or emperor. Able
strains of Chinese history that the successive development of bureaucratic systems
enabled the Emperor of China to control the vast territory of China.

The founder of China as a unified nation was descended from Ken Qin Dynasty (秦)
emperor of China, where you enter your time and a general system of writing in the
third century BC. M able way for the development of state ideology (ideology) the
State based on Confucianism in the second century BC. M. China fluctuated between
periods of unity and divisions, and sometimes the control of foreign peoples, but
most of them have merged with the Chinese people. There were also many
Altotherat many parts of Asia as a result of migrations and expansions and mergers
ethnic groups, have all contributed in the end, the development of the distinctive
culture of China

2.2. Modern History
The first full session of the Political Consultative Conference of the Chinese people in
the 21 to 30 September 1949 in Hall Hoairntang Zhongnanhai in Beiping (the former
name of Beijing), to exercise the powers of the National People's Congress on behalf
of. And passed in the session ((the common platform of Political Consultative
Conference of the Chinese people)); elected Mao Zedong, Chairman of the Central
People's Government; decided that the national flag, red flag The five-star, and that
the City will be Beiping (not in this name to Beijing), the capital of New China, and to
take China's new Gregorian calendar, and to be "March of the Volunteers" the
national anthem before the national anthem, officially. Session and passed ((the first
full session of the Declaration of the Political Consultative Conference of the Chinese
people)), announcing the establishment of the People's Republic of China.

After Zhou Enlai issued in October 1, 1949 announcement by the Government of the Central
People's Republic of China in an official letter to the Governments of various States, the
Soviet government decided to establish diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of
China on October 2, The two countries exchanged ambassadors scholarship. The Soviet
Union became the first country to establish diplomatic relations with the People's Republic
of Chia.




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3. Population

China is the world's most populous nation. Until the end of 2007, the total
population of 1,321,851,888 people in China (except for residents of the Hong Kong
Special Administrative Region and Macao Special Administrative Region and Taiwan),
and this number represents almost a fifth of the world.

The ratio of population density in China, the highest in the world, with an average
population density of 134 inhabitants / km ². But the distribution of the population is
not balanced: high population density in the eastern coastal areas, with more than
400 people / square kilometer In the central regions of China with more than 200
people / square kilometer. The population in the highlands of western regions, very
few - less than 10 individuals / sq km.

 Consists of the Chinese people from 56 different national largest Han Khan or the
last word, ten nationalities, religion is Islam, the Hui, Uygur, Kazak, Kirgiz, Tatar,
Uzbek, Tajik, Dongxiang and Salar Bao'an and other nationalities



4. Geographic

The Republic of China in the eastern part of the continent of Asia, and on the west
coast of the Pacific Ocean. An area of 6. 9 million square kilometers, which is the
third country in the world space.

The land boundary extends 800 . 22 km and the length of the coast of China, about
18 thousand kilometers. The territory of the coasts and on this flat coastal ports of
many excellent, mostly open throughout the year. Chinese mainland is flanked to the
Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea and East China Sea and South China Sea in the east and
south. The area of the Chinese Navy 73 . 4 million square kilometers. The Bohai Sea
is China, and the Yellow Sea and East China Sea and South China Sea is on the edge
of the Pacific Ocean.

5. Culture
For centuries, opportunity for economic and social advancement in China could be
provided by high performance on Imperial examinations. The literary emphasis of
the exams affected the general perception of cultural refinement in China, such as
the belief that calligraphy and literati painting were higher forms of art than dancing
or drama. China's traditional values were derived from various versions of
Confucianism and conservatism. A number of more authoritarian and rational strains



                                                           International Business PRC     6
of thought have also been influential, such as Legalism. There was often conflict
between the philosophies, such as the individualistic Song Dynasty neo-Confucians,
who believed Legalism departed from the original spirit of Confucianism.
Examinations and a culture of merit remain greatly valued in China today. In recent
years, a number of New Confucians have advocated that democratic ideals and
human rights are quite compatible with traditional Confucian "Asian values .

Today, the Chinese government has accepted a great deal of traditional Chinese
culture as an integral part of Chinese society, lauding it as an important achievement
of the Chinese civilization and emphasizing it as vital to a Chinese national identity.
Since the Cultural Revolution ended, various forms of traditional Chinese art,
literature, music, film, fashion and architecture have seen a vigorous revival, and folk
and variety art in particular have gained a new found respectability, and sparked
interest nationally and even worldwide.


5.1. Religious beliefs


Buddhism entered China in the first century AD, almost started to spread since the
fourth century, and became gradually wider impact of religion in China. Buddhism,
Tibetan Buddhism is part of, and spread in Tibet and Inner Mongolia mainly. At the
present time, the number of Buddhist temples throughout China more than 13
thousand temple.

Both Buddhism and Islam Roman Catholic Protestant followers in China. In addition,
China's own religions such as Taoism, Shamanism, Orthodox and Dongba. There are
ten nationalities, religion is Islam, the Hui, Uygur, Kazak, Kirgiz, Tatar, Uzbek, Tajik,
Dongxiang and Salar and Bao'an condemns Tibetan and Mongolia, Luba, Moinba and
Tu Yugur Tibetan Buddhism (also called Lamaism). And condemns the Dai and Bolang
and Dang Bbovep Hinayana (Little Vehicle). Most of the people of Miao and Yao Wei
condemn Catholicism and Protestantism. Some of Han Buddhism and condemn
others Balbrocstantip, Catholicism, Taoism.



5.2. Great Wall of China
 Is a fence running along the northern and north-western China (PRC), from
Chnhuangtao on the Gulf of Bohai Sea (Yellow Sea) in the east to the area Gautay in
Gansu province in the west. Another wall was built to the south, and extended from
the area of Beijing to Handen.




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5.2.1. History


Built the first parts of the fence during the reign of rulers "Trkio Slakeo - Chango" The
new construction allows them to protect their kingdom from the attacks of Northern
Peoples (Turkish: from left, Mogul, and Tonguz = Mencrien), and in particular
"Hieongeno = Hyong - Nu = Hun," one of the tribes of the people of the Turkish Huns
(see: Attila). One of the rulers of the Family "Qin", a "Shi Huangdi" to build most
parts of the fence, he was also the fear campaigns that were waged by Bedouin
tribes of the steppes north.


After the unification of China by "Qin Shi Huang" (221 BC). Accelerated the pace of
building the fence, the work was completed in 204 BC., And after that in which more
than 300,000 people. Families continued to "Han" (206 BC). Then "normal" (589-618
AD) construction work. Contributed to the Family "Meng" (1368-1644 m) in the D-
fence-building, and has been replaced by parts that were built with mud, Bbinaat of
bricks. Construction reached the final length (6,700 km) and extended parallel to the
neighboring river formed Anhinaath terrain with mountains and hills, which were
experiencing. Add Great Wall of China to the World Heritage List established by
UNESCO in 1987.



6. Economy
Economy of the Republic of China is the third largest economy in the world after the
U.S. economy and Japan's economy (2008) output of a local simple estimated at 4.91
trillion U.S. dollars (2009) [3] as a measure of exchange rate and the second largest
economy after the United States economy output estimated total of 8.8 trillion
dollars (2009) as a measure of purchasing power parity. China is the fastest-growing
major economy and the fastest in the last thirty years an annual growth rate beyond
10%. Reduced GDP growth per capita poverty rate of 8% annually in the last three
decades, but the rapid growth accompanied by variation in per capita.

 Included China in the category of lower middle in the world in per capita gross
domestic product simple and the amount of $ 3,180 and ranks 104 out of 178
countries and ranked 97 out of 178 countries according to per capita GDP of 5943 in
2008, according to the classification of the International Monetary Fund. Therefore,
China is the largest trading nation and the largest exporter and second largest
importer in the world




                                                            International Business PRC      8
6.1. Stages of development


China has witnessed rapid economic growth since the establishment of the People's
Republic of China in 1949. Especially since the introduction of the policy of reform
and opening-up in 1978, where China's economy has been growing, stable and
sound, with an average annual growth of more than 9%. In 2003, China's GDP to 1.4
trillion U.S. dollars, ranking the sixth valuable world after the United States, Japan,
Germany, Britain and France. Until the end of 2003, the per capita Chinese GDP of
the country's 1000 U.S. dollars

The Chinese economy in the last thirty years enable to achieve sustained economic
growth and was able to shift from central to local becomes more open to the world
and depends on international trade. When the end of 2007 the volume of foreign
investments in China, 84 billion dollars. While the value of China's overseas
investments 118 billion dollars. Can be divided into the evolution of the Chinese
economy to the important phases:



6.2. The stage of socialist construction (1949-1976)
Characterized by the construction phase socialist reorganization of agriculture and
dependence on key industry and processing, in addition to the elimination of the
feudal system.

6.3. The period of openness to capital
Since 1978, the stages were characterized by openness to capital introduction of
radical reform on the economy by allowing the establishment of a private enterprise
and modernization of industry and allow private ownership of land and bring
Western technology.



In 2003, the total value of Chinese investments in valuable fixed assets of more than
5.5 trillion yuan, and sales volume of consumer retail nearly 4.6 trillion yuan, and
China's foreign trade has more than 850 billion U.S. dollars, ranking the fourth
largest after the United States, Germany and Japan and ahead of Britain and France.
At the end of 2003, exceeding China's reserves of foreign currencies 400 billion U.S.
dollars, ranking second after Japan only.

China's economy now stands at 18% of the size of the U.S. economy in dollar terms,
but it is 76% of the U.S. economy in relation to purchasing power.




                                                           International Business PRC     9
.

7. Politics
The PRC is regarded by several political scientists as one of the last five Communist
states (along with Vietnam, North Korea, Laos, and Cuba), but simple
characterizations of PRC's political structure since the 1980s are no longer possible

The PRC government has been variously described as communist and socialist, but
also as authoritarian, with heavy restrictions remaining in many areas, most notably
on the Internet, the press, freedom of assembly, reproductive rights, and freedom of
religion.

The country is run by the Communist Party of China (CPC), which is guaranteed
power by the Constitution. The political system is very decentralized with limited
democratic processes internal to the party and at local village levels, although these
experiments have been marred by corruption. There are other political parties in the
PRC, referred to in China as democratic parties, which participate in the People's
Political Consultative Conference and the National People's Congress. There have
been some moves toward political liberalization, in that open contested elections are
now held at the village and town levels, and that legislatures have shown some
assertiveness from time to time. However, the Party retains effective control over
government appointments: in the absence of meaningful opposition, the CPC wins
by default most of the time. Political concerns in the PRC include lessening the
growing gap between rich and poor and fighting corruption within the government
leadership.



7.1. Government
The People's Republic of China is a socialist republic ruled by a single party, the
Communist Party of China. Power in the People's Republic is divided between the
National People's Congress (NPC), the President, and the State Council.

The NPC is the single legislative body, whose members are selected by the
Communist Party. The State Council, headed by the Premier, is the administrative
branch. The People's Liberation Army also wields considerable political power. The
current President of China and General Secretary of the Communist Party is Hu
Jintao. The Premier is Wen Jiabao.




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8. Science and technology


China has the world's second largest research and development budget, and is
expected to invest over $136 billion in 2006 after growing more than 20% in 2005
the past year. The Chinese government continues to place heavy emphasis on
research and development by creating greater public awareness of innovation, and
reforming financial and tax systems to promote growth in cutting-edge industries.

China is also actively developing its software, semiconductor and energy industries,
including renewable energies such as hydro, wind and solar power. In an effort to
reduce pollution from coal-burning power plants, China has been pioneering the
deployment of pebble bed nuclear reactors, which run cooler and safer, and have
potential applications for the hydrogen economy.

China currently has the most cell phone users in the world with over 700 million
users in July 2009 It also has the largest number of internet and broadband users in
the world




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Conclusion
The researcher: ali Mohamed


The People's Republic of China (PRC) now is one of the biggest exporter country for
various production and become global according to hard work and since of people to
their country to become the one of the top countries and China continues to have
some of the highest piracy rates in the world, while and representing one of the
largest and most rapidly growing market

China a technology-oriented industrialized developed economy and modernized the
agriculture, industry, technology and defense, eventually making the PRC one of the
major powers China is viewed as the source of many major inventions


The Chinese product become known in all the Middle East the economic and
industrial development in China led to the country's recovery and China made remarkable
progress in recent years, I hope that the Arab countries take China as an example in
perseverance and hard work in the interest and progress in the country and learn from
them how to become developed countries.




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References

1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/People%27s_Republic_of_China

2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China

3. http://www-chaos.umd.edu/history/toc.html

4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/China

5. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ch.html

6. http://asianhistory.about.com/od/china/p/ChinaProfile.htm




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