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					Challenging The Frontiers of Poverty
Reduction : Targeting the Ultra poor
         A BRAC INITIATIVE




                                       1
            Targeting the ultra poor




    Ultra Poverty : Bangladesh
    Scenario

• Total Population : 130 million
• Ultra Poverty : 26% of the population
    (World Bank 1995)
•   The Ultra Poor spend 80% of their income
    on food
•   Still fail to reach 80% of their
    recommended calorie intake.

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           Targeting the ultra poor


     BRAC’s two major programs for
     addressing ultra poverty are :

1. Income Generation for Vulnerable Groups
     Development Program (IGVGD) since 1987
2.   Special Investment Program for the
     Specially Targeted Ultra Poor (STUP) since
     2002



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                  Targeting the ultra poor

• IGVGD Program Model : Special features
• Partnership program
• Selection of beneficiaries done by the Government
• Program implementation model developed jointly by all
    partners
•   Group approach
•   Food support in terms of monthly wheat ration for
    24months
•   Enterprise development Training
•   Social Awareness raising education
•   Credit support
•   Savings
•   Close Follow-up and supervision for 24 months




                                                          4
                Targeting the ultra poor

• Major Lessons from IGVGD :
• Most often the conventional microfinance
    program look at the ultra poor as high risk group
•   Disciplines of microfinance do not suit the
    livelihood pattern of the ultra poor
•   Ultra poor members do not feel confident about
    repayment of the loan
•   Absence of adequate social protection measures
    in existing MF interventions
•   60%-65% of IGVGD members can benefit from
    the IGVGD program model. The rest - drop out
• Something else needs to be done for
    those category of ultra poor who
    cannot make use of Food+credit
    model.                                          5
      Targeting the ultra poor




THEREFORE , BRAC’S NEW TAILOR
MADE APPROACH FOR THE ULTRA
POOR SINCE 2002 :

Special Investment Program for the
Specially Targeted Ultra Poor



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             Targeting the ultra poor




          Objective of the program

Creating solid economic and social capital base for
   the ultra poor population in rural Bangladesh




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              Targeting the ultra poor



    Definition of the Ultra
    Poor
• households with < 10
    decimals of land
•   earns livelihood as beggar,
    day laborer, domestic aid
•   no productive assets
•   children of school-going age
    taking up paid work
•   no adult male active
    member in the household

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          Targeting the ultra poor



                  Identification process
   Districts and Sub-districts with severe food
    insecurity , and very high poverty level ,
    identified
   NGO Survey carried out to see the volume and
    types of NGO interventions addressing the ultra
    poor in those districts and sub-districts
   More specific villages identified which had severe
    concentration of ultra poverty
   Participatory Rural Appraisal meeting held with
    the villagers, Primary list of Ultra poor produced
    by the villagers through Social Mapping and
    wealth ranking
   Door to door survey by BRAC's Staff / preliminary
    selection
   Final Selection after Verification
                                                         9
                  Targeting the ultra poor


    Some Base line information : sample
    size 5000
• Only 2.6% of the ultra poor household reported ever
    participation in NGOs
•   53.7% completely landless
•   70% depends on day labourer for income source
•   5.7% earns from begging
•   16.9% households reported always food deficit
•   48% of household cannot afford two meals a day
•   only 6.8% pregnant mothers had their Blood pressure
    checked as ANC
•   Death rate of <1year children - 49.3%
•   32.6% ultra poor member dies without accessing any sort of
    treatment
•   95% ultra poor have no fixed place for sanitation
•   45.1% do not use delivery kit for child delivery
•   96.2%do not take iodized salt                                10
          Challenging The Frontiers of Poverty Reduction
                     Targeting the Ultra Poor




              Programme Coverage

Year      : 2002 2003      2004       2005        2006     Total




Members
served    : 5000 5000      10,000 25,000          25,000   70,000




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      Challenging The Frontiers of Poverty Reduction
                 Targeting the Ultra Poor




    Support provided to the ultra poor
•   Enterprise Development Training
•   Assets Transfer to start an enterprise
•   Stipend
•   Social awareness raising education and
    community mobilization
•   Essential Health care , health education ,
    financial assistance .



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          Targeting the ultra poor




    Enterprise Development Training

• Class-room Training on Enterprise
    Development : 3-day basic ; 11 refresher
    courses in the following 11 months.
•   Hands on Training in terms of weekly
    individual follow-up
•   Ensuring technical support to run the
    enterprise
•   Create market link for different enterprises


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                Targeting the ultra poor



       Asset Transfer to the enterprise

•   Livestock rearing
•   Poultry Rearing
•   Vegetable Cultivation
•   Non-farm Activities
•   Horticulture Nursery
•   Wage employment ( shoe factory , bakery ,
    napkin centres)


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              Targeting the ultra poor




     Some Exclusive Features of the Special
            Investment Component
•   Value of asset : Average US$ 100
•   Support in kind
•   Weekly stipend for short term income support
•   Close supervision for 24 months




                                                   15
Pattern of Enterprise choice




                         Nursery
             No n-farm              P o ultry
                           4%
                9%                    20%
 Vegetable
    5%




Go at
21%


                                   Co w
                                   41%




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              Targeting the ultra poor



    Tailor made Social Development
    program for the Ultra poor

• Weekly informal discussion session on
    paralegal issues
•   Confidence Building Training after 18 months.
•   Local Community Leaders Workshop to
    activate and enhance the commitments of the
    local authorities.
•   Legal support from BRAC’s Legal Aid Clinic .
•   Popular Theatre
•   Advocacy workshops , seminars
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                 Targeting the ultra poor


    Community Mobilization Through
    Village Poverty alleviation Committee
• 7-9 member Village Poverty alleviation committee
    formed
-   Social security ensured , social conflicts resolved
    by this committee
-   tube well , sanitary latrines installed through
    locally mobilized funds and resources.
-   houses repaired/ rebuilt through locally mobilized
-   funds and resources.
-   children of ultra poor families enrolled in schools
    by the committee


                                                          18
             Targeting the ultra poor



    Tailor made Health Interventions for
    the ultra Poor

• First strategy: Social Mobilization , Health
    Awareness raising , Basic Health Care.
•   Second Strategy : Financial Assistance For
    Mild and Severe morbidity
- Health ID Card for the Ultra Poor
- Create Strong Linkage with other Health
  Service providers
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             Targeting the Ultra Poor

         Some findings from External
          Evaluation 2004 and 2005
• The program is assisting the ultra poor
    members to move out of extreme poverty
    on a sustainable basis.
•   Ultra Poor members are making solid
    progress in growing their asset base
•   75% of members have built the foundation
    for a sustainable livelihood.



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             Targeting the Ultra Poor


• An indicator of improvement is
    diversification of IGAs. Over 90% members
    have more than two sources of income.
•   The dominant plan among STUP women
    looking to future investment is to acquire
    their own land
•   84.5% now eats three meals a day (54% at
    base line)
•   89.4% of school aged children are enrolled
    in school ( 65% at base line)


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               Targeting the Ultra Poor


    Lessons Learned
• Close supervision model
  is a must for any
  program for the ultra
  poor
• supervision must
  address assessing the
  current needs and
  counseling on how to
  graduate beyond ultra
  poverty
• Educating the ultra poor
  members about their
  future planning is crucial
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                Targeting the Ultra Poor


       Lessons Learned
• Special efforts needed to
  change the mind set of the
  participants who might
  consider the assets transfered
  to them as a “relief” item.
• Community mobilization effort
  is necessary in order to
  ensure social security and to
  create enabling environment
  within the community.

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             Wider Learning
• Products
         Assets and Access
         Grants and Targeting
         Broad-based Intervention
         Village Institutions

• Management
         Supervision

• Training
         Empathy and Commitment     24
            Targeting the ultra poor




For more information about BRAC’s Ultra
     Poor Program Pls. see our website :
               www.bracresearch.org

               THANKYOU




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