Designing and Building a World-Class POP Utilizing Advanced Optical Technology by peterzhangonline

VIEWS: 16 PAGES: 44

									                     OPT-103
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                     1




                                    Designing and Building a
                                   World-Class POP Utilizing
                                  Advanced Optical Technology
                                                                                          Session OPT–220



                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                     2




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                                             1
                           Agenda


                             • Introduction
                             • Optical Technologies Applied in a POP
                             • Design Requirements and Alternatives
                             • Routing in the POP
                             • Case Studies


                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.           3




                                                                                   Introduction



                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.           4




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                                   2
                           Internet Service Provider “Overview”
                                                                                      Tier 1 Transit Backbone —UUNET, Cable and Wireless, Sprint,
                                                                                          Global Crossing, Qwest, Level 3, PAIX, Pacific Bell, NAPs
                          Content
                         Aggregation                                                          Transit
                                                                                              Transit

                         Data Center
                                                                                             Private and
                                                                                             Private and
                            Peering                                                       Public Peering
                                                                                          Public Peering


                                                                                          Tier 1/2/3 Data Center Backbone —Exodus, Abovenet,
                                                                                               Digex, Concentric, AOL, Qwest, Level 3, UUNET
                            Transit
                                                                                           Data Center
                                                                                           Data Center


                             Peering                                                Content
                                                                                     Content
                                                                                 Aggregation
                                                                                 Aggregation
                          Data Center

                          Content
                         Aggregation
                                                                                 Content Aggregation —Portal Companies Such as Yahoo, Geocities,
                                                                                    LYCOS, Excite, Hotmail, Amazon, Ebay, AOL, DOT-COM Companies
                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                                               5




                           What Is a POP?



                                            “An ISP Point-of-Presence is the
                                             point of intersection between an
                                             ISP backbone and its external
                                             customer connections”




                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                                               6




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                                                                                       3
                           Transport Network Architecture

                                                      Control Planes and Network Management Integration




                                                                                                     Service POP




                                                                                                                 Edge Routing

                                                                                                                                Core Routing
                                                                                                                 Edge Routing

                                                                                                                                Core Routing
                                                                                                      Grooming
                                                                                                      Grooming
                                       Access                           Metro Network
                                                                         Metro Network                                                           Core Transport
                                                                      Connects Customers
                                                                      Connects Customers                                                       Interconnects PoPs
                                                                          to Services
                                                                          to Services
                                                                                                  Service Adaptation
                                                                                                  Service Adaptation
                                           •    DSL                                              and Packet Switching
                                                                                                 and Packet Switching
                                           •    Wireless
                                                                                                   Packet Services:
                                           •    Frame Relay
                                           •    ATM          •                SONET/SDH
                                                                                             •   VPNs          • Web Hosting
                                           •    Leased Lines •                Ethernet                                                                   • SONET/SDH
                                                                                             •   QoS           • Voice over Packet
                                           •    Cable        •                Metro DWDM                                                                 • DWDM Mesh
                                                                                             •   App Hosting • Packet Transport
                                           •    Ethernet     •                Metro IP/DPT
                     OPT-220                                                                 •   Content Hosting
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                                                             7




                           Common Issues Faced by ISPs

                                                        • Scalability
                                                        • Carrier-class availability
                                                        • Security
                                                        • Services
                                                        • Manageability
                                                        • Cost

                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                                                             8




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                                                                                                     4
                           Why Use Fiber Optics?


                                • Ability to support higher bit rates
                                • Ability to use longer link lengths
                                • Operational familiarity
                                • EMI/RFI problems eliminated
                                • Flexibility with newer technologies


                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.   9




                                                         Optical Technologies
                                                          Applied in a POP



                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.   10




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                            5
                           Optical Technologies Applied in a POP


                             • Typically all devices reside in the
                               same location
                             • Optical Technologies:
                                       Point-to-Point
                                                Packet over SONET/SDH or Gigabit Ethernet
                                       Ring
                                                Spatial Reuse Protocol


                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.     11




                           What Is Packet-over-SONET/SDH ?




                                            “The serial transmission of IP
                                             packets in SONET/SDH frames”




                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.     12




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                              6
                           Packet-over-SONET/SDH (PoS)

                                                                 Datagrams                      IP         Network Layer

                                       Protocol Encapsulation
                                                                                             PPP in Byte
                                             Link Initialization
                                                                                            Synchronous    Data Link Layer
                                       PPP Packet Delineation
                                                                                           HDLC Framing
                                                 Error Control


                                                    Byte Delineation                       SONET/SDH       Physical Layer


                                         • Point-to-Point Protocol, IETF RFC 1661
                                         • Framing defined in IETF RFC 1662
                                         • PPP over SONET/SDH, IETF RFC 1619/2615
                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1    © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                     13




                           Point-to-Point Protocol


                                                                Protocol                   Information     Padding
                                                                 16 Bits




                            • Standard method for transporting multi-protocol
                              datagrams over point-to-point links
                                        Datagram Encapsulation
                                        Link Control Protocol (LCP)
                                        Network Control Protocol (NCP)


                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1    © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                     14




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                                                               7
                            Framing


                                  Flag                      Address                        Control       PPP Packet          FCS        Flag
                                   8                           8                             8                               16/32       8


                              • Framing for octet-oriented synchronous links
                                          Flag insertion to delineate packets
                                          32 bit frame check sequence (FCS) for
                                          error detection
                                          Byte-stuffing for transparent transmission
                                          of control data

                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1    © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                                       15




                           POS Standards

                                            Bellcore GR -253
                                            Bellcore GR -253
                                            ITU-T G.957
                                            ITU-T G.957
                                            ITU-T G.958
                                            ITU-T G.958

                                       Section +                                                          Concatenated
                                                                  Path OH
                                       Line OH                                                              Payload


                                                                Flag
                                                                Flag              Address
                                                                                  Address     Control
                                                                                              Control        PPP
                                                                                                             PPP         FCS
                                                                                                                          FCS    Flag
                                                                                                                                 Flag
                                                                  8
                                                                  8                  8
                                                                                     8          88          Packet
                                                                                                            Packet       16/32
                                                                                                                         16/32     8
                                                                                                                                   8
                                                                                                        Point-to-Point
                                                                                                        Point-to-Point
                                                                                                        Protocol, IETF
                                                                                                        Protocol, IETF
                                                                                                          RFC 1661
                                                                                                          RFC 1661

                                                                                           PPP in IETF RFC 1662 Framing
                                                                                           PPP in IETF RFC 1662 Framing

                                                                                              Packet over SONET/SDH,
                                                                                              Packet over SONET/SDH,
                                                                                                  IETF RFC 2615
                                                                                                  IETF RFC 2615




                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1    © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                                       16




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                                                                                 8
                           Packet over SONET/SDH
                           Basic Configuration
                      • Clear channel:
                                                                                          • Channelized
                                Interface pos 6/0                                           (OC-12–>OC-3):
                                       ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
                                       no keepalive                                          Controller SONET
                                       encapsulation hdlc*
                                       pos framing sonet
                                                                                             1/0
                                       crc 32
                                                                                                clock source line
                                       clock source internal
                                       pos scramble-atm                                      Interface pos 1/0:1
                                       pos flag c2 22 **                                        ip address 10.1.2.1 255.255.255.0
                                For SDH:                                                        pos scramble-atm
                                                                                                crc 32
                                       pos framing sdh
                                                                                                !

                                                                                             Interface pos 1/0:2
                                       *default value is cisco hdlc.                            ip address 10.1.3.1 255.255.255.0
                                       Can be changed to ppp                                    pos scramble-atm
                                       ** automatically configured with                         crc 32
                     OPT-220            pos scramble-atm
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                        17




                           Packet-over-SONET/SDH Summary

                                   • Point-to-point designs
                                   • Preferred option for Inter-POP connectivity
                                   • SR/IR/LR/XLR serial optics
                                                Established standard
                                   • Very Short Reach (VSR) parallel optics
                                                In standardization with OIF (OC-192/STM-64 only)
                                                OIF- VSR4-01.0



                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                        18




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                                                                 9
                           DPT Overview
                            • Ring-based topology
                                                                                                                    A
                            • Spatial reuse
                            • Multicast support                                                                                       Outer
                                                                                                                                      Ring
                            • Priority—high and low
                                                                                                                         Inner
                            • Topology discovery                                                                          Ring

                            • Restoration                                                           D                                  B
                                 Pass-through
                                 <50ms
                            • SRP-fairness algorithm
                            • Same IP subnet
                            • Standardization in process                                                            C
                              (informational RFC 2892)
                              submitted to IEEE 802.17

                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                                       19




                           SRP Framing


                                        TOH                        POH                             SPE                      125µsec




                                           Flag
                                           Flag                                                                 FCS
                                                                                                                FCS         Flag
                                                                                                                            Flag
                           SRP                                      SRP Header
                                                                    SRP Header                     Data
                                                                                                   Data
                                           0x7e
                                           0x7e                                                                32 Bits
                                                                                                               32 Bits      0x7e
                                                                                                                            0x7e




                                  TTL
                                  TTL             RI
                                                  RI       MODE
                                                           MODE              PRI
                                                                             PRI          P
                                                                                          P   DA
                                                                                              DA          SA
                                                                                                          SA              PT
                                                                                                                          PT       SRP
                                   8
                                   8              1
                                                  1         33                3
                                                                              3           1
                                                                                          1   48
                                                                                              48          48
                                                                                                          48              16
                                                                                                                          16       Header


                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                                       20




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                                                                                10
                           Spatial Reuse


                             • Spatial reuse capability
                                                                                          A
                             • Increases overall                                                  B
                               aggregate bandwidth
                             • Supports Unicast and
                               multicast packets
                                       Unicast —destination
                                       stripping
                                                                                          D
                                       Multicast—source
                                       stripping al                                           C



                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.               21




                           Priority Handling


                               • Motivation—provide support for real
                                 time, mission critical applications and
                                 control traffic
                                          Which requires expedited handling and stricter delay
                                          bounds and jitter constraints
                               • SRP provides support for packet prioritization
                                 and expedited priority packet handling for the
                                 transmit queue and transit buffer



                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.               22




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                                        11
                           Priority Handling


                             • The priority field is set by the node
                               sourcing a packet onto the ring
                             • The node utilizes a mapping between
                               the IP precedence bits in the ToS
                               field into the SRP MAC header
                               priority field


                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.   23




                           Priority Handling



                              • A configured priority threshold is used to
                                determine if the packet should be placed
                                in the high or low priority queues
                                         Mapping 8 levels of priority to 2 levels

                              • This is the same for both locally sourced
                                packets and transit packets


                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.   24




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                            12
                           Node Packet Flow




                                                                                          Lo Priority
                                                                                          Hi Priority
                                                                                          Lo Priority




                                                                                                                            Lo Priority
                                                                                          Hi Priority




                                                                                                                            Lo Priority
                                                                                                                            Hi Priority
                                                                                                                            Hi Priority
                                       Rx Queue                                                                                                  Tx Queue
                                                                                                        L3 Switching


                                                 CAM
                                                                                                          Transit Buffer
                                                                                                              Hi Priority
                                                                                                              Hi Priority
                                                                            O-Rx                              Lo Priority
                                                                                                              Lo Priority
                                                                                                                                      O-Tx
                                                                                                        Hi Priority
                                                                                                        Hi Priority
                                                                             I-Tx                                                         I-Rx
                                                                                                        Lo Priority
                                                                                                        Lo Priority
                                                                       SRP MAC                           Transit                 SRP MAC
                                                                                                         Buffer                                   CAM



                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                                                     25




                           Transmit Decision Algorithm



                                  • The following hierarchy is enforced for
                                    packet scheduling
                                               1. High priority transit packets
                                               2. High priority transmit packets
                                               3. Low priority transmit packets
                                               4. Low priority transit packets


                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                                                     26




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                                                                                              13
                           SRP Fairness Algorithm


                             • SRP-fa is the mechanism that ensures
                                       Global Fairness—each node gets a fair share
                                       of the ring bandwidth
                                       Local Optimization—node maximally leverage
                                       the spatial reuse properties of the ring
                                       Scalability—the ability to build large rings with
                                       many nodes that spans across large
                                       geographically distributed area


                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                           27




                           SRP-fa Operation Example


                                                                                                 200Mbps


                                                                                            B               A
                                                                                                Source     Sink

                                                                                          200Mbps




                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                           28




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                                                    14
                           SRP-fa Operation Example


                                                                                                          400Mbps


                                                                                            C         B              A
                                                                                                                    Sink

                                                                                          200Mbps   200Mbps




                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                    29




                           SRP-fa Operation Example


                                                                                                          600Mbps


                                                                                    D       C         B              A
                                                                                                                    Sink

                                                                            200Mbps       200Mbps   200Mbps




                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                    30




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                                                             15
                           SRP-fa Operation Example


                                                                                                                   622Mbps


                                                     E                              D       C                B                A
                                                                                                                             Sink

                                            200Mbps                         200Mbps       200Mbps      200Mbps




                                            155Mbps                         155Mbps       155Mbps      155Mbps




                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                                          31




                           Intelligent Protection Switching

                                                                                                             GSR                 Fiber Cut
                            • IPS provides SRP with a
                              powerful self healing feature
                              which automatically recovers
                              from fiber facility or node                                       Cisco 75XX
                                                                                                                                    Cisco 75XX
                                                                                                                                    Cisco 75XX
                                                                                                Cisco 75XX
                              failure, or signal degradation
                            • IPS is analogous to the self
                              healing properties of
                              SONET/SDH rings                                                       Cisco 75XX
                                                                                                    Cisco 75XX                               GSR

                                       But without the need to allocate
                                                                                                                    Cisco 75XX
                                                                                                                    Cisco 75XX
                                       protection bandwidth
                                                                                                      Detects Alarms and Events
                                                                                                       and Wraps Ring ~50 ms

                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                                          32




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                                                                                   16
                           IPS


                            • Proactive fault and performance monitoring
                            • Event detection and reporting
                            • Signal processing and propagation
                              to communicate faults detected
                              or clearances
                                       Allow for rapid recovery and restoration



                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.    33




                           IPS


                                • Topology knowledge independence
                                • Ring wrapping to bypass failed fiber
                                  or node
                                            Transparent to the layer 3 routing protocols

                                • Protection switching event hierarchy
                                • Ring restores in < 50 msecs


                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.    34




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                             17
                           SRP over Dark Fiber


                                   • Can be wired as star or ring
                                   • Clocking must be configured as
                                     “Internal clock”
                                                Similar to doing PoS back-to-back
                                   • IGP (e.g. OSPF and IS-IS) views SRP as a
                                     broadcast media
                                   • High volume traffic nodes should be placed
                                     close to each other


                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                         35




                           SRP Basic Configuration
                                                                                          • Some optional QoS
                        • OC-48 Only:                                                       commands:
                                  Hw -module slot 4 srp                                       srp tx-traffic-rate high 622
                                  (4 is leftmost slot)                                        srp tx-traffic-rate low 1866
                        • Both OC-12 and OC-48:                                               srp priority-map transmit 5
                                  Interface srp 0/0
                                                                                          • Some optional commands:
                                        ip address 10.1.4.1 255.255.255.0
                                        srp framing sonet*                                    srp ips request manual-switch a
                                        srp clock source internal                             srp ips request forced-switch a
                                  For SDH:                                                    srp ips wtr-timer 60
                                        srp framing sdh                                       srp topology-timer 1
                                        * default value




                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                         36




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                                                                  18
                           DPT Summary



                                                                             • Ring topology
                                                                             • QoS on Mac layer
                                                                             • Fairness
                                                                             • Protection
                                                                             • Same IP subnet


                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.           37




                           Gigabit Ethernet



                              • Point to point and full duplex
                              • Uses existing Ethernet technology
                                         Familiar (802.3z)
                              • Can implement switch in POP or run
                                back to back


                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.           38




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                                    19
                           Gigabit Ethernet


                                   • Familiar
                                   • Good for data centers
                                   • Metro area
                                                 70km GBIC (GBIC-ZX-SM)
                                                 no APS on LCs if transporting over
                                                 ADMs; no maintenance signals


                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.   39




                                                              Design Alternatives



                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.   40




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                            20
                           Designing and Building an IP+Optical POP

                                                • Design/migration considerations
                                                               Number of customers/peering router
                                                               Scaling requirements
                                                                    Interconnect, backbone speed, routing
                                                               Required speed and technologies
                                                               Services
                                                               Security
                                                               Internet peering
                                                               Hierarchical network design
                                                               Network management & out of band access
                                                               SLAs
                                                               Cost and time limitations

                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                     41




                           Considerations for Building a POP

                               • Physical
                                           Rack space
                                           Power
                                           A/C
                                           Distance to other devices
                               • Design
                                           Routing platform capabilities
                                           Scaling for future capacity/over subscription
                                           Number of routers


                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                     42




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                                              21
                           Equipment Issues



                                       • Where to apply edge features
                                       • Number of needed logical and
                                         physical interfaces per edge and
                                         core box
                                       • QoS features


                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.   43




                           Scalability Options



                            • Router Capacity—What capacity is required?
                            • Line card Capacity—How many interfaces per
                              Linecard?
                            • Distribution layer between Edge aggregation and
                              backbone to scale the number of aggregation
                              routers—L2 switching or L3 distribution to scale
                              POP interconnect




                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.   44




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                            22
                           Migration Issues



                                                                  • Change windows
                                                                  • Additional routers
                                                                  • Space in POP
                                                                  • Use of extra slots


                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.   45




                           Service Provider “Terminology”

                            • Backbone routers—core network facing
                              routers with high speed trunk connections
                            • Peering/border routers—Interconnect two
                              or more Service Providers
                            • Distribution routers and access routers—
                              high port density
                            • Service/Edge/Host routers—hosting
                              and servers

                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.   46




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                            23
                           Basic POP Design
                                        Customer
                                       Aggregation                                                                      • DWDM for POP
                                                                                                                          Interconnects
                                      T1 DS3
                                      E1 E3
                                   OC-3/STM -1
                                 OC-12c/STM-4c
                                    GigE FastE

                                   Typical over-
                             Subscription Rate
                              Access to Uplink
                                                                                                                        DWDM
                            1:1 for OC-3/STM-1
                               3:1 for DS3/DS1

                                                                                     OC-48c/STM-16c   OC-192c/STM-64c


                                                        IP Edge Aggregation                       IP Core          Optical Core
                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                               47




                           POP Configuration Using POS

                                   Transport                                                       Internet
                                    Network                                                       Backbone




                                           2.5G–10G
                                          POS Links



                                  POINT OF
                                    POLICY




                                                                                           OC-3/12c/48c POS
                     OPT-220
                                                                                            (STM -1/4c/16c)
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                               48




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                                                                        24
                           POS-Based POP


                             • Pros                                                       • Cons
                                        Dedicated BW                                          Limited scalability
                                        Mix and match speeds                                  Rely on IP layer for
                                        Wide platform option                                  redundancy
                                        support                                                   (no APS over dark fiber)

                                        VSR Technology for                                    High port/slot count
                                        OC-192                                                High cost
                                        Currently standardized



                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                      49




                           Ethernet Intra-POP


                                                                 Internet Backbone         Internet Backbone



                                                                   OC-48c/STM-16c
                                                                        POS                 OC-48c/STM-16c
                                                                                                 POS

                               Gigabit Ethernet

                                                                                                               GE/FE Links
                           Fast Ethernet Links




                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                      50




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                                                               25
                           Ethernet Data Center Intra-POP


                                                                                              Internet Backbone


                                                                                          OC-48c/STM-16c




                                                                                                                    Gigabit Ethernet Links
                                   Fast Ethernet Links




                                                                                                   Servers
                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                                      51




                           Ethernet-Based POP


                              • Pros                                                                       • Cons
                                          Simplistic                                                              Scalable only if
                                                                                                                  use switch
                                          Proven technology                                                       Switch can cause
                                          Good for data centers                                                   possible congestion
                                                                                                                  issues
                                          Cheaper than PoS
                                                                                                                  Another os to learn if
                                          Ability to support                                                      use switch
                                          VLANS- on edge                                                          Another point of failure
                                          Can be more scalable                                                    if use switch
                                          with switch                                                             Management

                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                                      52




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                                                                               26
                           Another POP Design

                                                        “Super POP”                                 Internet Backbone

                                          High Density/Speed Access                                     OC-192c
                                                                                                         POS




                                                                                                          OC-48c
                                                                                                           DPT




                                                   Edge Routers

                                                                                          PoS/ATM/DS3/GigE to Customer Sites
                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                                     53




                           Another POP Design using DPT

                                                                                             Internet Backbone
                                                                                            OC-192c/STM-64c POS




                                                                                                 OC-48c                 POS/ATM/DS3/GigE
                                  Edge Routers                                                    DPT
                                                                                                                        to Customer Sites




                                                                                               Internet Backbone
                                                                                             OC-192c/STM-64c POS

                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                                     54




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                                                                              27
                           Scalability...

                                                                                           Internet Backbone




                                                                                          OC-192c
                                                                                           POS




                                                                                             OC-12c/48c
                                                                                                DPT




                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                               55




                           DPT-Based POP


                             • Pros                                                                        • Cons
                                       One subnet
                                                                                                               Bandwidth not
                                       Scalable bandwidth                                                      dedicated
                                       Simple-low port count                                                   All nodes must be
                                       Transparent node bypass                                                 same speed
                                       <50ms failover                                                          Not as wide spread
                                       Very scalable                                                           as PoS
                                       Layer 2 QoS                                                             Not standardized yet



                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                               56




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                                                                        28
                           Connecting the Core with POS

                                                          ADM



                                                                                          Connectivity to SONET/SDH ADMs Utilizing APS




                                                                                          Connectivity to Transponders in a WDM System
                                                                   DWDM
                                                                Transponder



                                                                                          Dark Fiber Connectivity
                                                Optical Regenerator




                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                                  57




                                                               Routing in the POP



                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                                  58




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                                                                           29
                           Routing Architecture

                             • Internal Routing—Interior Gateway Protocol
                                        Within an Autonomous System
                                        Carries information about internal infrastructure prefixes
                                        Ex: IS-IS, EIGRP, OSPF, etc
                                        Hierarchical, back-bone scaling, modular, easy to
                                        detect/isolate failures
                             • External Routing—Exterior Gateway Protocol
                                        Typically based on Border Gateway Protocol (BGP4) to
                                        exchange network layer reachability information (NLRI)
                                        between Autonomous Systems (AS)
                                        Policy control and scaling


                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                                                  59




                           Routing Protocol Relationships
                            Peer with Tier 1                                      Peer                              Transit
                          ISP’s at Each POP                                         ISP                               ISP
                                                                                                                              Transit
                                                                     Peer




                                                                                                                                            IBGP Peers
                                                                                 EBGP                               EBGP

                                                                                                                                            Route Reflector

                             iBGP on All                                                        Backbone
                                Routers                                                   (OSPF or ISIS and IBGP)

                                                 Static
                                                 Route                                                                         EBGP
                                                                                            Transit




                                               Cust Y                                                 EBGP
                                                                                                                                   Cust X



                              OC-3/12c/48c/192c POS                                       OC-3/12c/48c/192c POS             BGP Customer
                                (STM -1/4c/16c/64c)                                         (STM -1/4c/16c/64c)        ( Usually for dual-homing)

                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                                                  60




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                                                                                           30
                                                                                Case Studies



                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.        61




                           Case Studies



                                                     • Tier 1 ISP—U.S. ISP
                                                     • Tier 2/3 IDC
                                                     • Eastern Cable MSO Operator
                                                     • PTT—European ISP
                                                     • Tier 1—U.S. ISP with MPLS


                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.        62




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                                 31
                           Tier 1 ISP Requirements and Considerations

                               • Already have designed and implemented POPs
                                 based on POS
                               • Traffic doubles every six months
                               • Limited Space and power in POP
                               • Add customers/scalability
                               • Migration design
                                          Chose SRP solution for scalability without adding
                                          many more routers!


                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                                     63




                           Tier 1 ISP New POP Topology

                                               OC-48c                                     OC-48c Backbone                OC-48c

                                                    OC-48c                       East                         West      OC-48c

                                                                                             OC-192c

                                                                               OC-192c                  OC-192c




                                                                       OC-48c SRP                                      OC-12c SRP




                                                                     Customers High Speed
                                                                                                                  DS0 Aggregation Routers
                                                                      Aggregation Routers
                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                                     64




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                                                                              32
                           Case Studies


                                             • Tier 1 ISP—U.S. ISP
                                             • Tier 2/3 IDC
                                             • Eastern Cable MSO Operator
                                             • PTT—European ISP
                                             • Tier 1—U.S. ISP with MPLS


                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.   65




                           Tier 2/3 ISP Data Center
                           Requirements and Considerations




                                  • Scalable—Traffic doubles
                                    every six months
                                  •    Reliable network—Require proven box
                                  • Security—DOS attack



                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.   66




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                            33
                           Tier 2/3 ISP Strategy and Deployment
                           High-Availability Network Architecture
                                                                                                Backbone
                        SONET/SDH Protection                                              OC-12 to OC-48/STM-16
                                 (APS/MSP)

                               Peering                                                                                           Peering
                           DS3-OC-12/STM -4                                                                                  DS3-OC-12/STM -4


                                                                                     GE
                            EBGP                                                                                  GE
                         Multipath

                                       IP Load Sharing
                                                                                                                       Edge Router
                                           Edge Router
                                Routing Protocol Timer
                               Tuning Allows for Quick
                              Reroute (Layer 3) (4 Sec.)

                                HSRP Moves Gateway to
                                   Alternative Gateway
                                      (Layer 3) (2 Sec.)
                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                                     67




                           Tier 2 DC
                           Requirements and Considerations

                              • Reliability—high redundancy is a must
                              • Security—target of several attacks such as
                                DOS attack, IP spoofing, ping of death…etc.
                              • Scalable bandwidth—outgrew their old ATM
                                network architecture
                              • Mission statement:
                                   “To deliver robust Web hosting, application server hosting,
                                    and E-commerce solutions over a scalable, nationwide
                                    IP backbone ”


                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                                     68




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                                                                              34
                           Tier 2 DC Strategy and
                           Deployment Data-Center Architecture
                                                                                                  Backbone
                                                                                          OC-12c to OC -48c/STM- 16c



                                                                                                                                     Peering
                            Peering
                                                                                                                                DS3-OC-12c/STM-4 c
                       DS3-OC-12c/STM-4 c


                                                                             POS

                                                                                                                   Access Layer
                                                                                                                   Switch

                                                                                           GE




                                                                                                                                 Customer
                                                                                                                                 Racks

                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                                              69




                           Tier 2 DC Strategy and
                           Deployment Data Center Architecture
                                                                                                  Backbone
                                                                                          OC-12c to OC -48c/STM- 16c



                               Peering                                                                                               Peering
                          DS3-OC-12c/STM-4 c                                                                                    DS3-OC-12c/STM-4 c


                                                                             PoS
                                                                                                                       Edge Router


                                                                                          GE
                                                                                                                   Access Layer
                                                                                                                   Switch


                                                                                                                                 Customer
                                                                                                                        Racks    Racks
                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                                              70




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                                                                                       35
                            Case Studies


                                       • Tier 1 ISP—U.S. ISP
                                       • Tier 2 IDC
                                       • Eastern Cable MSO Operator
                                       • PTT-European ISP
                                       • Greenfield—U.S. ISP with MPLS

                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.   71




                           Eastern Cable MSO Operator
                           Requirements and Considerations

                            • Provide TV programs on demand and TV
                              on-line financial transactions
                            • Utilize current infrastructure
                            • Add more services like e-commerce, music
                              on demand, Internet Telephony, video
                              conferencing and Internet games
                            • Need scalable solution, simplified installation
                              and management and optimized for multicast

                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.   72




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                            36
                           Eastern Cable MSO
                           Operator Taiwan, Asia Pacific

                                       HFC                                          HFC
                                                                                                                 Web/Media
                                                                                                                 Web/Media
                                                                                            Internet Backbone
                                                                                                                Cache Server
                                                                                                                Cache Server



                                                          OC-12c
                                                                                                                          12000
                                                      IP Access Ring
                                                                                                   12000


                                   7200 ubr                                                        OC-48c/STM -16c
                                                                                                      Regional
                                                                                                  IP Transport Ring
                                                                                    12000

                                                                                                                                  12000




                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                                   73




                            Case Studies


                                             • Tier 1 ISP—U.S. ISP
                                             • Tier 2 IDC
                                             • Eastern Cable MSO Operator
                                             • PTT-European ISP
                                             • Tier 1—U.S. ISP with MPLS

                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                                   74




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                                                                            37
                           European ISP
                           Requirements and Considerations

                                          • Provide DSL services to home
                                          • Provide frame relay ATM services
                                            to business
                                          • Provide POS Internet connections
                                          • Easy management
                                          • Economize on interfaces
                                          • MPLS VPN

                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                         75




                           Optical Access
                                                                                          STM-1/STM-4 c
                                                                                          POS (Optical Links)
                                                               Optical
                                                               Optical
                                                               or SDH
                                                               or SDH                                           STM-16c
                                                                                                                          IP Core
                                                                                                                          IP Core
                                                                                                                           MPLS
                                                                                                                           MPLS




                                                                                                                          IP Core
                                                                                                                          IP Core
                                                                                                                           MPLS
                                                                                                                           MPLS
                                                                                                                STM-16c



                                                                                                       STM-4c    ATM
                                                                                                                 ATM
                                                                                                                 Core
                                                                                                                 Core
                                                                                          ATM Switch


                                                                                            ATM Switch




                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                         76




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                                                                  38
                           European ISP
                                                                                                 E-3      Provider Edge
                                                               Public
                                                               Public
                                                            Frame Relay
                                                            Frame Relay                                                                        STM-16c/64c POS
                                                                                                                                               to GSR -Based
                                                                                                                                               Backbone


                                                        Public ATM
                                                        Public ATM
                                                         Network
                                                          Network
                                                                                          STM-1/STM-4 c




                                                                                                                                       ….
                                                                                                                                       ….
                                                                                                            CT3 or
                                                                        ATM STM -1
                                                                        ATM STM -1                                                                ST
                                                                                                                                                PO M
                                                                                                                                                  S -1/S
                                                                                                                                                        TM




                                                                                                                   D S–3 Fra
                                              DSLAM
                                              DSLAM                                                                                                          -4
                                                                                                                                                               c
                                                            ATM Switch
                                                            ATM Switch                                                                    SDH
                                                                                                                                          SDH
                                                                                                                                       Aggregation




                                                                                                                            me Relay
                                                                                                                                       Aggregation
                                                                                    STM-1 or STM-4 c
                                                                                    STM-1 or STM-4 c




                                           DSLAM
                                           DSLAM                                                                                             CHOC -12
                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                                                        77




                            Case Studies


                                       • Tier 1 ISP—U.S. ISP
                                       • Tier 2 IDC
                                       • Eastern Cable MSO Operator
                                       • PTT-European ISP
                                       • Greenfield—U.S. ISP with MPLS

                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                                                        78




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                                                                                                 39
                           US ISP with MPLS
                           Requirements and Considerations

                             • Tier 1 transit and data center
                               Service Provider
                             • Emphasizes “digital distribution” for web
                               customers, with mirrored sites and software
                               and hardware to determine the best paths
                             • Well positioned to provide high bandwidth IP
                               transit services for all TCP/IP applications,
                               handles 4.5 billion page views every month,
                               500 million Internet requests and approx;
                               250,000 software downloads per day
                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                   79




                           Current IP Infrastructure in USA
                       • Transport
                         infrastructure                                                   Macro Capacity Fiber Network
                         based on:
                                 DWDM
                                 SONET/SDH
                                 rings
                                 Point to
                                 point POS
                                 connections
                       • IP infrastructure
                         supports
                                 IP access
                                 Services from
                                 existing                                                                   OC-192c POS
                                 FR/ATM network                                     20,000 Miles of Fiber   OC-48c POS
                                 (currently being                                                           OC-12c POS
                                                                                               150 Cities
                                 migrated and                                                               TeraPoP
                                 designed)
                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                   80




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                                                            40
                           U.S. ISP with MPLS Transit and Data
                           Center Networking Architecture
                                                                              POP–4
                                                                                                                  POP–3
                                                                             Small Hub
                                                                                                                 Large Hub
                                                          WAN Router
                                                            OC-48c/
                                                            STM-16c



                                                          Core
                                                          Router
                                                          OC-3–OC-12c/                                         OC-3–OC-12c/
                                                             STM-4                                                STM-4




                                                                                                       Hosting                   Access
                                                                                                        Router
                                                                                                                              GE Server
                                 Access           Border/Peer                   Hosting   Access S
                                 Router             Router                      Router      Dial
                                                                                           Router      POP-2
                                                                           POP-1
                                                                         Large Hub                   Mid Hub     Web Server
                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                                   81




                           Summary

                              • Define business requirements
                              • Scope physical environment data
                              • Determine optical technologies
                              • Consider various architectures
                              • Choose design based on technology
                                and business requirements

                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                                   82




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                                                                            41
                                    Designing and Building a
                                   World-Class POP Utilizing
                                  Advanced Optical Technology
                                                                                          Session OPT–220




                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                     83




                                                      Please Complete Your
                                                         Evaluation Form
                                                                                          Session OPT–220




                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                     84




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                                              42
                           Addendum - Optical Power Levels



                                                                         GigE                     distance             Power Budget
                                                               GBIC-SX-MM                                550m             7.5dB
                                                               GBIC-LH-SM                                10km            10.5dB
                                                               GBIC-ZX-SM                                70km            21.5dB




                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                                                85




                           Addendum - Optical Power Levels
                                 LineCards                                 tx power (dB)                rx power(dB)    power budget(dB) Penalty(dB)
                                                                     max             min           max          min


                                 OC-48
                                 OC-48/POS -SR-xx 1                  -3                   -10      0            -18            8              1
                                 OC-48/POS -1550-xx 1                +3                   -2       -9           -28           26              2

                                 OC-12
                                 OC-12/POS -MM 2                     -14                  -20      -14          -26            6              -
                                 OC-12/POS -SM                       -8                   -15      -8           -28           13              1

                                 CHOC-12/STS3-IR-SC                  -8                   -15      -8           -28           13              1
                                 CHOC-12/DS3-IR-SC                   -8                   -15      -8           -28           13              1

                                          -MM
                                 OC-12/ATM 2                         -14                  -20      -14          -26            6              -
                                 OC-12/ATM-SM                        -8                   -15      -8           -28           13              1

                                 OC-3
                                 4OC-3/POS -MM 2                     -14                  -18.5    -14          -30          11.5             1
                                 4OC-3/POS -SM                       -8                   -15      -8           -31           16              1

                                 4OC-3/POS -LR                       0                    -5       -8           -34           29              1


                                 4OC-3/ATM-MM-SC2                    -14                  -18.5    -14          -30          11.5             -
                                 4OC-3/ATM-IR-SC                     -8                   -15      -8           -31          16               1
                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.                                                                86




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                                                                                         43
                     OPT-220
                     2895_05_2001_c1   © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.




Copyright © 1998, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Presentation_ID.scr                                                                       44

								
To top