ESH Manual, Chapter 39, Machine Safeguarding by lrh21314

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									         Chapter 39
         Machine Safeguarding
         Chapter Outline
         1        Overview                                                      2
                  1.1     Hazards/Impacts                                       2
         2        Scope                                                         2
                  2.1     Exemptions                                            2
         3        Standards                                                     3
         4        Definitions                                                   3
         5        Requirements                                                  4
                  5.1     General                                               4
                          5.1.1   Safeguards                                    4
                          5.1.2   Authorization                                 5
                          5.1.3   Roles and Responsibilities                    5
                  5.2     Procedures and Specific Requirements                  6
                          5.2.1   Machine Safeguarding Evaluation and Design    7
                          5.2.2   General Safeguarding Methods and Options      7
                          5.2.3   Equipment-specific Techniques                 7
                          5.2.4   Equipment Maintenance                         7
                          5.2.5   Other Requirements                            8
                  5.3     Training                                              9
                          5.3.1    Required                                     9
                          5.3.2    On-the-Job Training                          9
                          5.3.3    Recommended Training                        10
         6        Exhibits                                                     10
         7        References                                                   11
         8        Ownership                                                    12




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1       Overview
        The federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires that machine guarding and
        other safeguards be provided and maintained in a manner sufficient to protect machine operators and other
        persons present in machine areas from hazards associated with the operation of machines. The purpose of
        the machine safeguarding program at SLAC is to provide minimum safety requirements for areas where
        machining tools are used and to assist machine operators, custodians, and supervisors in carrying out their
        responsibilities for ensuring machine safety through hazard identification and evaluation, safeguarding,
        training, and safe operation.


1.1 Hazards/Impacts
        Hazards include those created by points of operation, in-going nip points, rotating parts, flying chips,
        sparks, moving belts, meshing gears, cutting teeth, or by any parts that impact or shear or have
        reciprocating, transverse, cutting, punching, shearing, boring, or bending actions.

        A partial list of possible machinery-related injuries includes crushed hands and arms, severed fingers, skin
        lacerations, scalping, hot metal burns, eye injuries, and blindness.




2       Scope
        The requirements of this chapter apply to machine tools, mechanical equipment, and any areas of SLAC
        where machining or working on metal, plastic, or wood occurs. (For a list of machine shops, see Section 6,
        “Exhibits”, Machine Shops.)

        Note     The scope of this chapter is not limited to machine shops, but extends to all machine tools and the
                 locations where they are used.

        The requirements of this chapter apply to all personnel who operate machine tools, including SLAC
        employees, users, students, and subcontractors.


2.1 Exemptions
        The use of powered and non-powered portable hand-held tools (such as sanders, drills, sawzalls, staple
        guns, impact wrenches, powder actuated tools, screw drivers, wrenches, files, hammers, scissors, etc.) is
        not addressed in this chapter. Refer to ES&H Manual, Chapter 25, “Tools – Power and Hand Operated”. 1




        1    SLAC Environment, Safety, and Health Manual (SLAC-I-720-0A29Z-001), Chapter 25, “Tools –
             Power and Hand Operated”, http://www-
             group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/hazardous_activities/tools_powerhand/policies.htm




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3        Standards
         SLAC adheres to the following standards for machine safeguarding:
             Title 29, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1910, Subpart O, “Machinery and Machine Guarding” 2
             –    Part 1910.211, “Machinery and Machine Guarding – Definitions” (29 CFR 1910.211)
             –    Part 1910.212, “General Requirements for All Machines“ (29 CFR 1910.212)
             –    Part 1910.213, “Woodworking Machinery Requirements“ (29 CFR 1910.213)
             –    Part 1910.215, “Abrasive Wheel Machinery“ (29 CFR 1910.215)
             –    Part 1910.217, “Mechanical Power Presses“ (29 CFR 1910.217)
             –    Part 1910.219, “Mechanical Power-Transmission Apparatus“ (29 CFR 1910.219)
             Title 29, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1926, Subpart I, “Tools – Hand and Power” 3
             –    Part 1926.300, “Hand and Power Tools General Requirements“ (29 CFR 1926.300)
             –    Part 1926.303, “Abrasive Wheels and Tools“ (29 CFR 1926.303)
             –    Part 1926.304, “Woodworking Tools“ (29 CFR 1926.304)
             –    Part 1926.307, “Mechanical Power-Transmission Apparatus“ (29 CFR 1926.307)
             National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 79-2002, “Electrical Standard for Industrial Machinery” 4




4        Definitions
         Custodian (machine). A person who is responsible for a machine or piece of equipment, and who ensures
         that it is safely operated and properly maintained. May include machine shop supervisors.

         Danger zone. Any place in or about a machine or piece of equipment where a person may be struck by or
         caught between moving parts, caught between moving and stationary objects or parts of the machine,
         caught between the material and a moving part of the machine, burned by hot surfaces or exposed to
         electric shock

         Guard. A barrier that prevents entry of the operator's hands or fingers into the point of operation, pinch or
         nip point, or moving parts. Can be fixed, interlocked, adjustable, or self-adjusting.

         Guarded. Shielded, fenced, enclosed or otherwise protected by means of suitable enclosure guards, covers
         or casing guards, trough or “U” guards, shield guards, standard railings or by the nature of the location, so
         as to remove the hazard of accidental contact


         2   http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=STANDARDS&p_id=10131
         3   http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=STANDARDS&p_id=10913
         4   See the SLAC Library, http://www.slac.stanford.edu/library/, for available standards. NFPA standards
             are available online from a SLAC login (see http://www.slac.stanford.edu/library/eresources/slac.htm
             for the link and instructions); some hard copies are also available.




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        Interlock. A device that operates to prevent the operation of a machine while the cover or door of the
        machine is open or unlocked, and which will also hold the cover or door closed and locked while the
        machine is in motion

        Machine custodian. See custodian, machine

        Machine shop. An area where multiple types of machine tools may be used, generally in one designated
        location within a building. May be under the supervision of a machine shop supervisor. May have
        dedicated staff or walk-in users. A carpentry shop is included in this definition.

        Machine tool. Machining equipment that cuts, shears, punches, presses, drills, rolls, grinds, sands, or forms
        metal, plastic, or wood stock. Not included in this definition are hand-held, portable power, or manual
        tools.

        Mechanical power transmission apparatus. Mechanical component or prime mover that transfers power to
        a machine tool. May include shafting, flywheels, pulleys, belts, couplings, chain drives, cranks, gears.

        Pinch point. Any point other than the point of operation at which it is possible for a part of the body to be
        caught between moving parts, between moving and stationary parts, or between the material and moving
        parts of a machine tool

        Point of operation. The point(s) where material is positioned, inserted, or manipulated, or where work such
        as shearing, punching, shaping, cutting, boring, forming, or assembling is being performed on the stock

        Positive disconnecting means. A device, or group of devices, or other means by which the conductors of a
        circuit can be physically disconnected from their source of supply

        Prime mover. An engine or motor the main function of which is to drive or operate other mechanical
        equipment

        See Section 6, “Exhibits”, Machine Safeguarding Terms, for additional definitions.




5       Requirements
5.1 General
        5.1.1    Safeguards

        Safeguards must be provided at three basic locations:
        1.   At the point of operation
        2.   At mechanical power transmission apparatus
        3.   At other moving parts which could potentially create a hazard

        Machinery containing moving parts with rotating, transverse, or reciprocating action will be effectively
        guarded according to OSHA regulations. One or more methods of machine safeguarding must be provided




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         to protect from hazards such as those created by point of operation, nip points, rotating parts, flying chips,
         sparks and so on. Safeguards must conform to OSHA standards and are recommended to be designed in
         conformance with the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) B11 standard series (see Section 7,
         “References”).

         Neither OSHA nor ANSI standards offer guarding requirements for every possible machine configuration;
         therefore each machine must be evaluated by a knowledgeable, trained person and compared to the
         appropriate machine safeguarding standard. (See Section 6, “Exhibits”, for general recommendations on
         ensuring the safety of the operator and other employees.)

         Note     OSHA does not grant a grandfather clause for old equipment. All equipment must be safeguarded.
                  Equipment must also be installed in conformance to applicable facility standards, such as
                  electrical and seismic.

5.1.2    Authorization

         No person will operate machine tools without proper authorization from their supervisor and the machine
         custodian.

5.1.3    Roles and Responsibilities

         5.1.3.1 Machine Safeguarding Program Manager

         The machine safeguarding program manager will, when requested by environment, safety, and health
         (ES&H) coordinators, machine operators, or machine custodians, assist in the interpretation of standards in
         support of compliance and safety improvement efforts and identify and develop appropriate training.

         5.1.3.2 Managers and Supervisors

         Managers and supervisors of personnel who operate machine tools will
             Authorize personnel to use only the machine tools that they are qualified to operate
             Provide personal protective equipment (PPE) as needed to employees
             Exercise disciplinary action or restrict access to machines when personnel fail to follow safety
             requirements

         5.1.3.3 Building, Area, and Facility Managers

         Building, area, and facility managers will
             Ensure machines and moving parts of mechanical equipment within their facility are properly
             safeguarded

         5.1.3.4 Conventional and Experimental Facilities Department

         The Conventional and Experimental Facilities (CEF) Department will
             Ensure moving parts of mechanical equipment that is part of the conventional facility (HVAC, pumps)
             are properly safeguarded




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        5.1.3.5 Machine Custodians

        Machine custodians will
             Ensure machines are properly safeguarded, guards remain in place and are functional by conducting
             thorough, machine-specific safeguarding evaluations, either through knowledgeable internal SLAC
             personnel or a qualified third party
             Ensure machine tool users are trained, qualified, and competent in the proper and safe operation of
             machine tools before authorizing machine access
             Communicate machining safety practices and rules to authorized personnel
             Develop, implement, and enforce machine use authorization procedures, rules, and training
             requirements as they apply to safe machine tool use
             Immediately correct machine safeguard deficiencies or prevent access to the machine until repaired
             Secure machining areas and equipment to prevent unauthorized use of machine tools
             Ensure authorized machine tool users fulfill their responsibilities
             Contact the machine tool user’s supervisor, and restrict access when personnel fail to follow safety
             requirements

        5.1.3.6 Authorized Machine Tool Users

        Authorized machine tool users will
             Demonstrate proficiency in safe machine tool operation prior to using equipment
             Understand and practice approved machine safeguarding methods
             Not defeat or remove safety devices or guards or operate machines without safeguards in place and in
             proper working order
             Be knowledgeable of safety requirements and machining guidelines and adhere to them
             Complete required training or a demonstration of proficiency and obtain authorization prior to
             operating machine tools
             Wear personal protective equipment (PPE) as required
             Practice good housekeeping
             Report machine safeguarding malfunctions or problems to supervisor immediately
             Report unauthorized or unsafe use of machine tools if observed


5.2      Procedures and Specific Requirements
        Accident risks can be reduced with adequate machine safeguarding. Identifying obvious and hidden
        hazards should be the first step in planning and reviewing the need for machine tool safeguarding. The
        information presented in this chapter should be considered as a starting point.

        Most incidents leading to injury are the result of inadvertent or unwise contact with moving machine parts.
        Because of the great diversity of machine designs and functions, appropriate safeguarding to protect




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         workers from such hazards may also have numerous forms. Certain principles, however, are basic to any
         effective safeguarding design.

         5.2.1    Machine Safeguarding Evaluation and Design

         A uniform process should be applied and used to evaluate each of the hazards on the machine to develop
         the required level of safeguarding. The evaluation can be performed by a knowledgeable and experienced
         person internal to SLAC, or for more complicated machine designs and safeguarding issues, the evaluation
         can be conducted by a qualified third party.

         The OSHA/ANSI hierarchy for controlling machine hazards is as follows:
         1.   Eliminate the hazard by design
         2.   Control the hazard by guarding or devices
         3.   Warnings
         4.   Personal protective equipment
         5.   Training

         If the results of the hazard evaluation show the equipment to be safe (that is, poses no hazard to the
         employee), changes to the equipment may not be necessary. This may be true for manually-powered
         equipment.

         See Section 6, “Exhibits”, Machine Safeguarding Design Considerations, for further explanations and
         information.

         5.2.2    General Safeguarding Methods and Options

         See Section 6, “Exhibits”, Machine Safeguarding General Methods and Options, for general ideas and
         approved types of guards and devices.

         5.2.3    Equipment-specific Techniques

         See Section 6, “Exhibits”, Machine Guarding Equipment-specific Techniques, for information on the
         recommended techniques for the guarding of specific types of machines.

         5.2.4    Equipment Maintenance

         Machine custodians will establish and follow a program of periodic and regular inspections and
         maintenance of their equipment to ensure that machines, parts, and auxiliary equipment are in a safe
         operating condition and necessary safeguards are present. Records of these inspections should be
         maintained and made available for inspection upon request.

         Only authorized personnel will be permitted to maintain or repair machine tools. When service occurs that
         requires entry of any body part into a danger zone within the equipment, or unexpected startup or




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        energizing of the machine could cause injury, maintenance personnel will first isolate hazardous energies as
        required by the SLAC Lock and Tag Program for the Control of Hazardous Energy. 5

        5.2.5    Other Requirements

        5.2.5.1 Positive Disconnecting Means

        To enable proper isolation of hazardous energies before and during equipment maintenance and repair,
        machines and equipment operated by electric motors or other hazardous energy will be provided with a
        positive disconnecting means. Examples of positive disconnecting means include quick disconnect knife
        switches, circuit breakers, valves, and power cords and plugs. Push buttons, selector switches, software
        interlocks, control circuit type devices, and computer controlled software cannot be used to isolate
        hazardous energy.

        5.2.5.2 Stop Buttons and Power Controls

        Machines should have an emergency power off (EPO) or stop button or other readily-accessible and clearly
        designated power switch within easy reach of the operator to cut off the power to each machine. The power
        controls must be located so as to make it unnecessary to reach over or near the hazard to make adjustments.
        For larger machines, power switches should be located in multiple locations on various sides so that power
        can be easily deactivated by bystanders in case of emergency.

        5.2.5.3 Machine Anchoring

        Machines designed for a fixed location will be securely anchored to prevent walking or moving due to
        vibration, rotation, or seismic activity.

        5.2.5.4 Manual Reset

        Proper restart systems must be installed on all powered equipment and tools so that manual reset is required
        to restart the tool after it has been stopped by any safety device or mechanism. For example, if an
        interlocked guard stops tool operation when the guard is removed, manual reset is required to restart the
        tool after the guard is replaced. Replacing the guard alone must not allow the tool to restart. Manual reset is
        typically achieved by requiring the tool operator to press a reset button in order to restart the tool.

        5.2.5.5 Anti-Restart Devices

        Anti-restart devices (ARDs) or other effective provisions must be present on all woodworking machines
        and mechanical power presses which could create hazardous conditions to employees if motors were to
        suddenly restart after a restoration of voltage conditions following a power failure. It is strongly
        recommended that any machine that could pose a hazard to employees upon restoration of power also be
        provided with an ARD. Although there is no explicit regulatory requirement for metal working or other
        machines to have ARDs, the machines should at a minimum be listed and labeled by a Nationally
        Recognized Testing Laboratory (NRTL) and conform to the applicable standard in the American National
        Standards Institute B11 series (see Section 7, “References”)




        5    SLAC Lock and Tag Program for the Control of Hazardous Energy (SLAC-I-730-0A10Z-001),
             http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/hazardous_activities/lockout_tagout/locktag.pdf




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         In addition, the machine should be evaluated (see Section 5.2.1, “Machine Safeguarding Evaluation and
         Design”) to determine the risk to employees if an ARD is not present. A sudden restoration of power
         following an interruption should not create hazardous conditions to employees. (See Section 6, “Exhibits”,
         Machine Safeguarding Anti-restart Devices, for more information and detailed requirements.)

         5.2.5.6 Malfunctioning Machinery or Safeguards

         Malfunctioning machinery or safeguards must be reported immediately to the area supervisor or machine
         custodian. If the malfunction presents a safety hazard, the machine must be taken out of service by
         disconnecting and locking out the power source(s). A warning sign indicating the problem should be placed
         on the machine to communicate its status to affected personnel.

         5.2.5.7 Safe Operating Procedures

         Machine users will follow safe operating procedures as developed and enforced by the machine custodian
         or supervisor in charge. An example of a written program containing acceptable safe operating procedures
         is available (see Section 6, “Exhibits”, Machine Safeguarding Safe Operating Procedure Topics).


5.3 Training
5.3.1    Required

         Training is a necessary part of any effort to provide protection against machine-related hazards. The
         following two courses
             ES&H Course 136, Lock and Tag – Affected Employee 6
             ES&H Course 198, Machine Guarding 7

         are required for personnel meeting any of these conditions:
             Any person becoming qualified in machine operation if required by a supervisor or machine custodian
             Persons new to machine shops or machine operation
             Those involved in machine design or maintenance
             Personnel who service machine safeguards

5.3.2    On-the-Job Training

         All personnel who operate machines should be trained by machine custodians or supervisors in the
         following subject areas through hands-on training:
             Identification and description of hazards associated with each machine
             List of actions that promote good safety practices (safe operating procedures)
             Procedures to follow in the event of accident or injury



         6   https://www-internal.slac.stanford.edu/esh-db/training/slaconly/bin/catalog_item.asp?course=136
         7   https://www-internal.slac.stanford.edu/esh-db/training/slaconly/bin/catalog_item.asp?course=198




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             Procedures for safe use, cleaning, routine maintenance and repair activities
             Instruction on tool-specific PPE and clothing requirements for each machine

        Training must also be provided to machine operators and maintenance personnel when safeguards are used.
        Safeguard training should involve instruction or hands-on training in the following areas as a minimum:
             A description and identification of the hazards associated with the machine(s)
             A description of the safeguards and their functions
             Instruction on how to use the safeguards
             Instruction on how, and under what circumstances safeguards may be removed, and by whom
             Instruction on what to do if a safeguard is missing, damaged, or inadequate

        It is strongly recommended that verification of effective training and competency involve a machine-
        specific demonstration of proficiency by the student, written test, and continued supervisor observation
        during a probationary period.

5.3.3   Recommended Training
             ES&H Course 222, Hearing Conservation 8
             ES&H Course 222ME, Hearing Conservation Medical Evaluation
             ES&H Course 255, Personal Protective Equipment 9




6       Exhibits
             Machine Shop Locations (SLAC-I-730-0A21S-002) 10
             Machine Safeguarding Terms (SLAC-I-730-0A21S-003) 11
             Machine Safeguarding Design Considerations (SLAC-I-730-0A21S-004) 12
             Machine Safeguarding General Methods and Options (SLAC-I-730-0A21L-001) 13
             Machine Safeguarding Equipment-specific Requirements (SLAC-I-730-0A21S-005) 14
             Machine Safeguarding Anti-restart Devices (SLAC-I-730-0A21S-006) 15


        8    https://www-internal.slac.stanford.edu/esh-db/training/slaconly/bin/catalog_item.asp?course=222
        9    https://www-internal.slac.stanford.edu/esh-db/training/slaconly/bin/catalog_item.asp?course=255
        10 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/machineShops.pdf
        11 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/machineGlossary.pdf
        12 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/machineDesign.pdf
        13 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/machineGeneralOptions.pdf
        14 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/machineEquipment.pdf
        15 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/machineAntirestart.pdf




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             Machine Safeguarding Safe Operating Procedure Topics (SLAC-I-730-0A21S-007) 16




7        References
         SLAC Environment, Safety, and Health Manual (SLAC-I-720-0A29Z-001) 17
             Chapter 19, “Personal Protective Equipment” 18
             Chapter 25, “Tools – Power and Hand Operated” 19
             Chapter 37, “Emergencies” 20

         SLAC Lock and Tag Program for the Control of Hazardous Energy (SLAC-I-730-0A10Z-001) 21

         OSHA Publication 3067, “Concepts and Techniques of Machine Safeguarding” (revised 1992)

         American National Standards Institute 22
             ANSI B11.1, “Safety Requirements for the Construction, Care, and Use of Mechanical Power Presses”
             ANSI B11.2, “Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use of Hydraulic Power Presses”
             ANSI B11.3, “Safety Requirements for the Construction, Care, and Use of Mechanical Power Press
             Brakes”
             ANSI B11.4, “Safety Requirements for the Construction, Care, and Use of Shears”
             ANSI B11.6, “Safety Requirements for the Construction, Care, and Use of Lathes”
             ANSI B11.7, “Safety Requirements for the Construction, Care, and Use of Cold Headers and Cold
             Formers”
             ANSI B11.8, “Safety Requirements for the Construction, Care, and Use of Drilling, Milling, and
             Boring Machines”
             ANSI B11.9, “Safety Requirements for the Construction, Care, and Use of Grinding Machines”
             ANSI B11.10, “Safety Requirements for the Construction, Care, and Use of Metal Sawing Machines”
             ANSI B11.11, “Safety Requirements for Gear and Spline Cutting Machines”
             ANSI B11.12, “Safety Requirements for Roll-forming and Roll-bending Machines”


         16 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/references/machineTopics.pdf
         17 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/eshmanual/
         18 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/general/ppe/policies.htm
         19 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/hazardous_activities/tools_powerhand/policies.htm
         20 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/emergency/chapter/policies.htm
         21 http://www-group.slac.stanford.edu/esh/hazardous_activities/lockout_tagout/locktag.pdf
         22 See the SLAC Library, http://www.slac.stanford.edu/library/, for available standards. For a list of
            ANSI standards, see the American National Standards Institute “Standards Search”,
            http://webstore.ansi.org/ansidocstore/find.asp




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             ANSI B11.13, “Safety Requirements for the Construction, Care, and Use of Single- and Multiple
             Spindle Automatic Screw/Bar and Chucking Machines”
             ANSI B11.14, “Coil Slitting Machines – Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use”
             ANSI B11.15, “Safety Requirements for Pipe, Tube, and Shape Bending Machines”
             ANSI B11.16, “Safety Requirements for Powder / Metal Compacting Presses”
             ANSI B11.17, “Safety Requirements for Horizontal Hydraulic Extrusion Presses”
             ANSI B11.18, “Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use of Machines and Machinery
             Systems for Processing Strip, Sheet, or Plate from Coiled Configuration”
             ANSI B11.19, “Performance Criteria for Safeguarding”
             ANSI B11.20, “Safety Requirements for Integrated Manufacturing Systems”
             ANSI B11.21, “Safety Requirements for Design, Construction, Care, and Use of Lasers for Processing
             Materials”
             ANSI B11.22, “Safety Requirements for Turning Centers and Automatic, Numerically Controlled
             Turning Machines”
             ANSI B11.23, “Safety Requirements for Machining Centers and Automatic, Numerically Controlled
             Milling, Drilling and Boring Machines”
             ANSI B11.24, “Safety Requirements for Transfer Machines”




8       Ownership
        Department: Chemical and General Safety

        Program: Machine Safeguarding

        Owner: Program Manager, Linda Knudsen




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