Application of Ubiquitous computing Technology to the Steel-Plate

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					Application of Ubiquitous computing
Technology to the Steel-Plate Piling
Process of Ship Construction

             University of Ulsan
                  Hoon Oh
         Ubiquitous Computing Lab.
 Research Background
   Ship Building Process
   Steel-Plate Piling Process and Problems
 Ubiquitous Steel-Plate Process System (u-SPPS)
   Ubiquitous Computing Space for Steel-Plate Piling Process
   Context-Aware System Model
   Compilation, Management, and Use of Context Information

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Ship Building Process

   Unloading         Moving to                Piling        Preprocessing
                    T-Pile Space

   Assembly of      Moving blocks           Manufacturing      Cutting
 Blocks into Ship     to Dock                Ship Block

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Ship Building Process
 Place an order with the steel companies such as POSCO, Nippon Steel, etc for
 the steel-plates to be used for manufacturing ship blocks.

 Upon ordering the steel-plates, the information for the steel-plates is stored
 in the database in company.
     Product number,
     Ship number,
     Pile space number to be piled upon acquisition,

 The steel-plates unloaded from cargo ship are moved to the temporary pile
 spaces (t-space) by forklift, waiting for being sorted into the pile spaces.

 Sort the steel-plates according to their piling place number

 The sorted pile-plates in a particular pile space are moved out for
 manufacturing a specific ship block

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View of Still-Plate Piling Process Bay

                                               Width         37m

                                               Length        230m

                                           # of Temp Piling
                                             # of Piling
                                                             > 60
                                            # of Conveyor
                                             Number of

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   MARKER STENCIL On Steel-Plate

Steel plate

   Weight: About up to 3000kg
   Size: Up to 20m x 5m

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Old Steel-Plate Piling Process and Problems
         Pile-In                          Piling                              Pile-Out

                                            Pile-In (by Pile-In manager)
           PN: 2A2348JF1330
                                             ① Enter PN in PDA
                                             ② Receives Pile-Space No and SN

     1                                       ③ Write them on Steel-Plate

              2     WLAN                    Problems
                                                   Old-age workers may not be
                                                   comfortable with entering PN
                                                       Input Error or Low work efficiency
                                                   Writing error of Pile-Space No and SN
                                                       Result in lost steel-plate

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Old Steel-Plate Piling Process and Problems
     Pile-in              Piling                             Pile-Out

                            Piling (by crane driver)
                             ① Lift steel-plate after identifying it
                               by eyes
                             ② Piling after carrying to the pile
                                   Difficulty of identification by eyes
                                       Piling error/Low efficiency
                                   Safety weakness of workers by the
                                   movement of the crane that carries
                                   a huge and heavy steel-plate

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Old Steel-Plate Piling Process (3)
    Pile-In              Piling                           Pile-Out

                           Pile-Out (by Pile-Out Manager)
                            ①     Send pile-space list to crane driver
                            ②     Crane driver moves the steel-plates
                                  in the selected space to conveyor
                                  belt one by one
                            ③     Pile-Out manager input the pile
                                  space no and SN into PDA to finish
                                  the delivery of every steel-plate
                                  Waste of manpower

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Simulator for Steel-Plate Piling Process

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Ubiquitous Computing Space on Simulator

                                               Tag for
                                             pile space


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Context-Aware System Model
                                         Service Knowledge

                                                             Context Library
                Service Provider
               Context Manager
      Operation-aware           Situation-aware                Operation
          Engine                     Engine                    knowledge

                Context Integrator                             knowledge

                                         Context Information

                                          LoadCell               Wireless
       PDA               RTLS
                                           Sensor                Camera

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Context Information Compilation
 PDA or tag
    Get information of the steel-plates that are ready to be piled into pile
 RTLS Exciters and Tags
    Track the locations of workers
    Get the pile space addresses of moving cranes
    Get the moving direction of a crane
 Loadcell Sensor
    Get the status of crane (lift, put-down, weight)
 Wireless Camera
    Get the image of the steel-plate that is being carried

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Key Contexts
 Context                Definition                     Context Information
                                                Pile-In manager,
           Registered   users   that   generate Pile-Out manger
           events                               Crane Driver
                                                Worker1, Worker2, ...
           Objects on which users want to do
  What                                       103-1, 103-2, ... (ObjectNum)
                                                 T-Pile_No1, T-pile_No2
  Where    Current location of user              Pile_No104, Pile_No105, ...

  When     The time that user take action        System-time

  How      User’s behavior                       Lift, Put-down

                                                 Pile-In, Piling, Piled,
  Why      User’s intention from his action
                                                 Delivery, Pile-out, ...

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Context Library: Operation Knowledge
 Define some knowledge that causes a particular operation
 We infer “Why” out of “5W1H” from this operation knowledge
 + user context
  ex) If a pile-in manager have entered steel-plate information (103-1, …), we
     can infer that he wants to pile-in the corresponding steel-plate.

                 Who       When       Where            What     How           Why

                 Pile-In    *        T-Pile_No*    ObjectNum      *          Pile-in
                 Crane      *        T-Pile_No *   ObjectNum     Lift         Piling
                 crane      *         Pile_No*     ObjectNum   Put-down       Piled
    Knowledge    crane      *         Pile_No*     ObjectNum     Lift       Delivery
                 crane      *         Conv_Belt    ObjectNum   put-down     Pile-out

                                                                          * : Any Value
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Context Library: Situation Knowledge
 Define situations subject to relationship between objects
 We infer current situation from this situation knowledge +
 object context
  ex) If a worker enters the zone of crane’s 2m diameter, he is in a dangerous

             Who      When            Where              What           How              Why

             worker     *     (x, y) within (a±2, b±2)    *               *                  *
Knowledge                                       Alert

                                                                (x, y) : Worker’s Location
                                                                (a, b) : Crane’s Location
                                                                          * : Any Value

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Context Library: Service Knowledge
 Define services according to the integrated context
 We get the related services from this service knowledge +
 user context
  ex) If a pile-in manager has entered a steel-plate information, guide a crane
     driver to take the following action by 3-D graphic and sound
                                            into                104”
    “Move the steel-plate in t-pile space 3 What the pile space Why
             Who     When       Where                 How

               Pile-in mgr   *        T-pile No*   ObjectNum       *        Pile-In

                 InputGuideSound(ObjectNum), DisplayUpdate(T-pile_No*, ObjectNum)

                 crane       *        T-pile No*   ObjectNum      lift      piling
                 PilingGuideSound(ObjectNum), DisplayUpdate(T-pile_No*, ObjectNum))
                 crane       *        Conv_Belt    ObjectNum   Put-down    Pile-out

                PileOutGuideSound(ObjectNum), DisplayUpdate(), SendMsg(SPPS* msg)

                                               ‥‥                                     * : Any Value
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Context Manager: Context Integrator
 Integrate contexts from various sensors or tags into 5WIH format
 Deliver the integrated contexts to operation or situation-aware

   RTLS      Who     When      Where

 LoadCell    Who     When                          How

 DBServer            When      Where        What

             Who     When      Where        What   How     Why

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Context Manager: Operation-Aware Engine
 If “Who” context is pile-in manager or crane, this engine is used.
 Create the complete context by inferring “Why” context: The “Why”
 context is obtained from the mapping of input context and operation
 The complete context of 5W1H is delivered to the Service Provider
                                Operation Knowledge

  Integrated Context              Context Info #1     Why Info #1
                                  Context Info #2     Why Info #2
                                  Context Info #n     Why Info #n


                                  Context Info #i     Why Info #i

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Context Manager: Situation-Aware Engine
 If the “Who” context of the complete context is worker, this engine is
 Aware the situation by comparing the integrated context and
 Situation Knowledge
 Deliver the recognized situation information to Service Provider

                                Situation Knowledge

  Integrated Context              Context Info #1     Situation Info #1
                                  Context Info #2     Situation Info #2
                                  Context Info #n     Situation Info #n


                                  Context Info #i     Situation Info #i

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Service Provider
 Invoke service functions by comparing the complete context made
 from Operation-Aware Engine and the contexts of Service Knowledge
 Invoke service function corresponding to the situation information
 (Ex> ALERT) from Situation-Aware Engine

                                Service Knowledge

  Integrated Context              Context Info #1   Service Info #1
                                  Context Info #2   Service Info #2
                                  Context Info #n   Service Info #n


                                  Context Info #i   Service Info #i

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Context Process: Example
                      U-Space Information
RTLS Tag ID                  1                       Crane
System Timer                 16:31                   SYSTEMTIME
RTLS Location Info           (12, 15)                T-Pile space No.1
ObjectNum                    103-1                   Steel-Plate Info
LoadCell                     25.23                   Steel-Plate Weight

                                        Context Integrator
  Who          When       Where          What         How        Why

 Crane        16:31      (12, 15)       103-1         lift                                 Operation Knowledge
                                                                          Who       When      Where    What     How       Why
                                        Operation-aware Engine
                                                                          Crane       *       T-Pile   ObNum     lift     Piling

  Who          When       Where          What         How        Why

 Crane        16:31      (12, 15)       103-1         lift      piling                      Service Knowledge
                                                                          Who       When      Where    What     How       Why
                                         Service Provider
                                                                          Crane       *       T-Pile   ObNum     lift     Piling

                             U-Service                                              PilingGuideSound(ObjectNum),
                                                                                DisplayUpdate(T-pile_No*, ObjectNum))
  3D-Graphic              Voice                 Integrated information
   Guidance              Guidance                   management

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Key Improvements
  Real-time information tracking for steel-plates which are being piled

  Prevent erroneous piling of steel-plates by using the address tracking
  of pile spaces

  Safety management using real-time tracking of moving objects in the

  Intelligent steel-plate piling guidance using 3D graphics and voice

  As a result, we provide pleasant working environment as well as
  improve productivity

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 Key accomplishments
   Reduction of human resources
   Reduce the delay of steel-plate piling process by removing erroneous
   piling and intelligent work guidance
   Improve work environment by relieving the mental overhead of long-time
   field workers
   Improve productivity
   We made a case study for the application of the ubiquitous computing
   technology to production field
   We suggested development process in applying IT technologies to a busy
   production field
      Problem analysis -> simulator construction -> system building -> system
      refinement -> application to real field -> adaptation of the system to the

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Further Researches

                                               Remote Control Unmanned
          Field Application                            System

  The application of this system to             Development of unmanned system
                                                Remote monitoring system that
  Analyze the effect for the                    monitors and operates the works
  application of the system                     in the pile space remotely

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Thank you!

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