Effect of Implant Regimen and Vitamin D

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					     Effect of Implant Regimen and Vitamin D3 on Fresh Beef Color
                             and Quality

                                             benefits have been well documented, the       and 5.2% commercial supplement on a
            Bryan Reiling                    effect of TBA implant programs on             dry matter basis. After steers had been on
           Dwain Johnson1                    carcass quality traits and muscle             full feed for 90 d, they were individually
                                             characteristics have not been thoroughly      evaluated by ultrasonography using an
                                             studied.                                      Aloka® SSD-500V with a UST-5044
                                                                                           transducer, between the 12th/13th rib.
   Implanted cattle had higher average            It has been demonstrated that carcass    When individual animals reached a
     daily gains, less KPH fat, larger       quality may be compromised due to             compositional endpoint of .45-in fat
  ribeye areas, but more advanced bone       reduced marbling scores and greater           thickness opposite the longissimus muscle
   maturity and higher WBS values for        incidence of dark cutters potentially         at three-quarters the distance from the
  steaks at 5-d postmortem. Vitamin D3       caused by anabolic growth promotants. It      dorsal aspect of the muscle, they were
      did not significantly influence        has also been suggested that implant          selected for harvest. One-half of the steers
                tenderness.                  programs that included TBA might              within each implant treatment and breed
                                             negatively influence skeletal maturity and    type group selected for harvest were
                                             shear force values.                           segregated. Each of those steers were then
                                                                                           fed 5 million IU/d of Vitamin D3 from
                                                  Recent research has indicated that       Rovimix® D3 500 DLC for seven
              Summary                        supra-nutritional levels of Vitamin D3        consecutive days. A Vitamin D3 premix
                                             supplemented approximately 7 to 10 d          that used ground corn as the carrier was
     In a trial conducted over a 2-yr        pre-harvest may improve tenderness of         substituted for whole corn in the final diet
period, 166 steers fed as yearlings were     fresh beef, but effects on fresh beef color   on a 1:1 basis and was thoroughly mixed
allotted to one of two implant treatments    or physiological maturity have not been       using a large horizontal mixer. The
and one of two Vitamin D3 pre-harvest        reported.                                     balance of cattle selected for harvest
supplementation treatments. Implanted                                                      continued to consume the base finishing
steers had heavier final body weights and         Thus, the purpose of these studies       diet.
higher average daily gain (ADG), less        was to objectively evaluate the effect of
kidney, pelvic, and heart (KPH) fat and      TBA implants and Vitamin D3                   Carcass and sample treatment
larger ribeye area. Also, implanted steers   supplementation on fresh beef quality,
had more advanced bone maturity scores,      color, and physiological maturity.                  Steers were harvested at a
higher ash content of the 9th to 11th                                                      commercial        packing      plant      and
thoracic buttons, and higher Warner-                                                       subsequently chilled for 24 h prior to
Bratzler Shear (WBS) values on 5-d                                                         grading. After chilling, carcasses were
                                                           Procedure
postmortem loin steaks. Vitamin D3                                                         evaluated for USDA yield and quality
feeding decreased final live weight, ADG,                                                  grade factors by experienced university
                                             Feeding and Implant Management.
and ribeye area, but did not significantly                                                 personnel. Once carcass characteristics
improve      WBS       values.    Neither                                                  were determined, a section of the beef
                                                   Over a 2-yr period, 166 yearling
implant treatment nor Vitamin D3                                                           shortloin was removed from one side and
                                             steers that initially averaged 711+9 lb
supplementation had significant effects on                                                 transported under refrigeration to the
                                             were randomly allotted within breed type
CIE color measurements L*, a*, or b*                                                       University of Florida Meats Laboratory
                                             to one of two implant treatments and one
values of muscles in steaks before or                                                      for subsequent packaging and analysis.
                                             of two Vitamin D3 pre-harvest
during simulated retail display.                                                           Three 1-in thick steaks were removed
                                             supplementation treatments. Breed types
                                             included purebred Angus, purebred             from the loin and vacuum packaged. Two
                                             Brahman, and crosses of the two breeds        steaks were aged for either 5 or 14 d
             Introduction                    (25% Angus, 75% Brahman; 50% Angus,           postmortem and subsequently used for
                                             50% Brahman; and 75% Angus, 25%               WBS shear force analyses. The third steak
     Growth promotants are commonly          Brahman). One-half of the steers were         available from the loin section was used
used in the beef feedlot industry. It has    implanted with Component® TE-S on day         for the retail display evaluation, after 14 d
been consistently demonstrated that          1 of the trial, and steers were not re-       postmortem aging.
growth implants increase ADG, improve        implanted during the finishing phase. The
feed efficiency, and produce leaner, more    active ingredients of Component® TE-S         Retail display evaluation
muscular carcasses. Because of the strong    include 120 mg trenbolone acetate and 24
economic impact of these measures on         mg estradiol (TBA). Control steers were            Steaks used for retail display
feeding profitability, many feeders use      never implanted. Throughout the finishing     evaluation were placed in a styrofoam
implant programs that incorporate            phase, steers were fed a diet that            tray and over-wrapped with a polyvinyl
trenbolone acetate (TBA) to maximize         contained 77.5% whole, shelled corn,          chloride film. Steaks were displayed
performance, and although performance        10.4% cottonseed hulls, 6.9% molasses,        under GE® “cool white” fluorescent

                                                                                                2003 FLORIDA BEEF REPORT              3
lamps          for       a         12-h-on,    served as the experimental unit for the       WBS values at 14 d postmortem but were
12-h-off cycle in an open top retail case at   study.                                        not significantly different from controls
35±4EF. A four-member experienced                                                            after 3, 7, or 21 d of aging. In other
panel evaluated each steak for muscle                                                        studies, researchers observed reduced
color (8=very light cherry red; 1=very                         Results                       WBS values at 7 d postmortem when
dark red) and surface discoloration (0-                                                      cattle were supplemented with 5x106 IU
100%). Steaks were initially evaluated 45            The main effects of implant             of Vitamin D3 daily for 7 d prior to
min after removal from vacuum (day 0)          treatment and Vitamin D3 feeding on           harvest, or at 7 and 14 d postmortem
and then at 1, 2, and 3 d after retail         ADG, carcass traits, and WBS values are       when supplemented with 7.5x106 IU of
packaging. Loin steaks were also               presented in Table 1. Implanted steers        Vitamin D3 daily for 7 d. However,
objectively evaluated for color using a        gained     approximately     19%     faster   supplemental Vitamin D3 did not improve
Minolta® CR-100 Chroma Meter with a            (P<0.01) than non-implanted steers and        tenderness, juiciness, flavor, or overall
.3-in measuring aperture utilizing             produced heavier (P<0.01) carcasses with      palatability scores of strip loins aged for
illuminant C. On each day of retail            less (P<0.01) KPH, and larger (P<0.01)        14 d enough that differences could be
display, color measurements were taken at      ribeye area. These results compare            detected by a 10-member trained sensory
three separate locations on each steak and     favorably to other studies that used the      panel in those studies.
recorded. Objective color measures were        same basic implant regimen as was used
expressed as L*, a*, and b* color space        in the current study. Carcasses from               Tables 2 and 3 represent chromaticity
values (also referred to as the CIELAB         implanted steers also had more advanced       and panel evaluations of meat color and
color space). L* values depict brightness      (P<0.01) bone maturity scores, and higher     discoloration. Implant treatment did not
where larger values are brighter; a* values    (P<0.01) ash content of the cartilaginous     affect L*, a*, or b* values for meat color
depict red and green colors where higher       tips of the dorsal processes of the 9th to    in this study. These animals did not
values have more red; and b* values            11th thoracic vertebrae. Warner-Bratzler      receive growth promotants prior to the
depict yellow and blue colors where            shear values for loin steaks aged for five    feeding phase of this project, and those
higher values have more yellow. As             days were approximately 9% higher             animals that were implanted received only
values for a* and b* move further from         (P<0.05) for implanted steers than non-       one implant prior to harvest. This implies
zero, colors become “brighter”.                implanted steers, although no significant     that implant regimens that are less
                                               difference for shear values were identified   aggressive or are administered prior to
Shear force analysis                           for ribeye steaks aged 14 d.                  100 d before harvest have little effect on
                                                                                             meat color. Work by other researchers
     One loin steak from each animal was             Steers fed 5 million IU/d of Vitamin    found that Revalor-S® administered to
cooked on a Farberware® Open-Hearth            D3 for 7-d pre-harvest gained less            Holstein steers 245 d prior to harvest had
broiler.    Internal   temperature     was     (P<0.01) and produced carcasses with          no effect on carcass traits including
monitored by placing a copper-constantan       lighter (P<0.05) hot carcass weights and      marbling, percentage of choice carcasses,
thermocouple in the geometric center of        slightly smaller ribeye areas. On-test        and subjective lean color scores.
each steak and thermocouples were              weights of Vitamin D3 supplemented and
attached to a recording potentiometer.         non-supplemented cattle were similar              Two, 2-way interactions (Table 3)
Steaks were cooked to an internal              (P=0.83), and all cattle were fed together    were noted between implant treatment and
temperature of 95EF, turned, and cooked        except during the 7-d Vitamin D3              Vitamin D3 feeding for panel evaluations
to a final internal temperature of 160EF.      supplementation period. Although feed         of muscle color and surface discoloration.
Steaks were cooled 18 h at 36±4EF and a        intake was not specifically monitored in      Loin steaks from implanted steers that
minimum of six .5-in cores were removed        this trial, supra-nutritional levels of       were fed Vitamin D3 were darker
from each steak parallel to the orientation    Vitamin D3 have been reported to cause        (P<0.05) in lean color on day 3 of
of the fibers. Shear force was determined      cattle to reduce feed consumption as          evaluation than were steaks from
on an Instron Universal Testing machine        observed, but not measured in the current     implanted steers that were not fed
equipped with a WBS attachment.                trial. This could have accounted for the 42   Vitamin D3 (data not presented in tabular
                                               lb difference in final live body weight       form). Implanted steers that were either
Statistical design and analysis                between treatments in the present study.      supplemented or not with Vitamin D3
                                                                                             produced loin steaks with lean color that
     Data were analyzed as a randomized             Other carcass traits and shear values    was intermediate and not different from
complete block design with treatments          were not significantly affected by vitamin    each other for day 3 color evaluation.
arranged in a 2x2 factorial design using       D3 feeding. Some researchers have also
the GLM procedures of SAS® (SAS Inst.          reported supplementation of cattle with 1          Interaction means (not presented in
Inc., Cary, NC). Breed type served as the      to 5 million IU of Vitamin D3/d for 8 d       tabular form) for the significant
block, and variation due to differences in     pre-harvest did not improve WBS force         interaction between implant treatment and
the six breed types (100% Angus, 75%           values of cooked steaks after 2, 7, 14, or    Vitamin D3 feeding for surface muscle
Angus - 25% Brahman, 50% Angus -               21 d of postmortem aging compared to          discoloration for day 1 of display revealed
50% Brahman, 25% Angus - 75%                   steaks from cattle not supplemented with      that loin steaks from non-implanted/non-
Brahman, 100% Brahman, and Brangus)            Vitamin D3. In contrast, other studies        Vitamin D3 supplemented animals and
was removed in the model. For data             have shown strip loin and top loin steaks     implanted/Vitamin D3 fed steers had
analyzed, information was collected on         from cattle administered 5 or 7.5x106 IU      significantly more (P<0.01) discoloration
the individual animal or carcass, which        of Vitamin D3 through a bolus for nine        than did steaks from the implanted/non-
                                               consecutive days pre-harvest had lower        Vitamin D3 supplemented animals. Loin
4       2003 FLORIDA BEEF REPORT
steaks from non-implanted/Vitamin D3           can reduce marbling scores and the             important selection factor for most
fed steers were intermediate and not           percentage of choice carcasses while           consumers, and although instrumental
statistically   different    in     muscle     increasing shear force values. Pre-harvest     evaluation of fresh beef color indicated
discoloration on day 1 of display from the     supplementation of Vitamin D3 was              that implants slightly affect color
other treatment combinations. The              thought to improve tenderness, but those       attributes, human observers were unable
discoloration differences found on day 1       effects were not observed in this study.       to detect major differences due to implant
of display did not hold true through the       Implants also advanced the physiological       treatments.
remaining portion of the display period.       maturity of carcasses. However, carcasses
                                               evaluated within this study were all easily
                                                                                              1
     In summary, as the beef industry          within the “A” maturity range, and this         Bryan Reiling, Assistant Professor,
strives to meet consumer demands, it must      effect poses minimal quality grade             Department of Animal Sciences, University
closely evaluate effects of managerial         implications for carcasses from implanted      of Nebraska; Dwain Johnson, Professor,
practices on meat quality. Although            steers given current USDA standards.           Department of Animal Sciences, University
growth promotant programs effectively          Quality grades could be affected if            of Florida, Gainesville.
improve growth rates, some quality traits      animals were more mature upon start of
may be detrimentally affected. Implants        the finishing phase. Fresh beef color is an




Table 1. Effect of Revalor® implants and Vitamin D3 on performance and carcass traits.
                                              Implanta            Vitamin D3b                               P-Values

                                                                                                                        Implant *
                    Trait                No          Yes         No         Yes        SEM        Implant     Vit D3      Vit D3

    Initial live weight, lb             706          713        713         708         9.5        0.63       0.83         0.94

    Final live weight, lb               1142        1232        1208       1166        11.2       <0.01       0.01         0.94

    ADG, lb/d                            3.3         3.9         3.7        3.4        0.07       <0.01       <0.01        0.50

    Fat, in                             0.41         0.43       0.43       0.42        0.01        0.23       0.46         0.84

    KPH, %                               2.1         2.0         2.1        2.1        0.04       <0.01       0.88         0.42

    Hot carcass weight, lb              671          724        708         686        6.6        <0.01       0.02         0.33

    Ribeye area, in2                    11.5         12.2       12.1       11.6        0.12       <0.01       0.01         0.96

    Marbling scorec                     964          951        961         954         6.0        0.11       0.37         0.54

    Percentage of Choice carcasses      25.5         15.1       24.8       15.8        4.3         0.08       0.13         0.47
                    d
    Bone maturity                       138          146        141         142         0.8       <0.01       0.40         0.33

    % ash of cartilaginous buttons       1.8         2.3         2.0        2.1        0.11       <0.01       0.50         0.07

    Lean maturityd                      146          149        147         148         1.4        0.16       0.47         0.24

    Warner-Bratzler Shear, lb (5-d)      8.3         9.0         8.6        8.6        0.24        0.03       0.77         0.99

    Warner-Bratzler Shear, lb (14-d)     7.8         8.2         8.1        7.9        0.18        0.12       0.46         0.41
  No=Cattle not implanted; Yes=Cattle implanted with Component TE-S on day 1 of the feeding trial.
a
b
  No=Cattle did not receive any pre-harvest Vitamin D3 supplementation; Yes=Cattle were fed 5 million IU/d of Vitamin D3 for
seven consecutive days pre-harvest.
c
  800=Practically devoido; 900=Slighto; 1000=Smallo; 1100=Modesto; 1200=Moderateo.
d
  100=Ao; 200=Bo.




                                                                                                   2003 FLORIDA BEEF REPORT           5
Table 2. Effect of implant treatments and Vitamin D3 on objective retail color display values.
                                                       a
                                             Implant                     Vitamin D3b                                   P-Values

                                                                                                                                   Implant *
    Trait     Day            N          No             Yes          No              Yes          SEM       Implant     Vit D3        Vit D3

     L*         0            163        44.9           44.4         44.9            44.5         0.22       0.09       0.25          0.12

     L*         1            155        45.0           44.8         45.1            44.7         0.22       0.71       0.26          0.19

     L*         2            162        44.7           44.5         44.7            44.5         0.21       0.64       0.51          0.38

     L*         3            161        44.8           44.5         44.8            44.5         0.24       0.37       0.37          0.32

     a*         0            163        17.0           16.7         17.0            16.7         0.15       0.13       0.25          0.14

     a*         1            155        16.6           16.3         16.5            16.3         0.15       0.15       0.17          0.15

     a*         2            162        15.6           15.5         15.7            15.4         0.16       0.69       0.12          0.22

     a*         3            161        14.8           14.8         15.0            14.6         0.18       0.90       0.10          0.06

     b*         0            163        9.9            9.7          9.9             9.7          0.11       0.14       0.22          0.57

     b*         1            154        9.8            9.6          9.8             9.6          0.12       0.27       0.19          0.72

     b*         2            162        9.4            9.3          9.5             9.3          0.12       0.54       0.30          0.49

     b*         3            161        8.9            8.8          9.0             8.8          0.14       0.56       0.39          0.44
a                                                                               
 No=Cattle not implanted; Yes=Cattle implanted with Component TE-S on day 1 of the feeding trial.
b
 No=Cattle did not receive any pre-harvest Vitamin D3 supplementation; Yes=cattle were fed 5 million IU/d of Vitamin D3
for seven consecutive days pre-harvest.



Table 3. Effect of implant treatments and Vitamin D3 on panel evaluation of muscle color and surface discoloration scores in
the retail display case.
                                                              Implanta          Vitamin D3b                             P-Values

                                                                                                                                    Implant *
              Trait                Day         N           No       Yes        No          Yes     SEM       Implant     Vit D3       Vit D3

          Muscle Colorc             0          163         6.1      5.9        6.1         5.8      0.09      0.07        0.04         0.27
                         c
          Muscle Color              1          163         5.8      5.8        5.9         5.7      0.09      0.83        0.11         0.12
                         c
          Muscle Color              2          163         5.7      5.5        5.7         5.4      0.10      0.20        0.03         0.26

          Muscle Colorc             3          163         5.3      5.3        5.5         5.2      0.11      0.86        0.06         0.03

    Surface Discolorationd          0          163         8.0      8.0        8.0         8.0      0.01      0.49        0.08         0.56

    Surface Discolorationd          1          163         7.9      7.9        7.9         7.9      0.02      0.59        0.72         0.01
                              d
    Surface Discoloration           2          163         7.2      7.3        7.3         7.2      0.07      0.57        0.29         0.09
                              d
    Surface Discoloration           3          163         6.3      6.3        6.4         6.2      0.14      0.74        0.23         0.92
a                                                                               
  No=Cattle not implanted; Yes=Cattle implanted with Component TE-S on day 1 of the feeding trial.
b
  No=Cattle did not receive any pre-harvest Vitamin D3 supplementation; Yes=Cattle were fed 5 million IU/d of Vitamin D3 for
seven consecutive days pre-harvest.
c
  Muscle color assigned individually by four members of an experienced panel using a 1 (extremely dark red) to 8 (bright cherry
red) scale.
d
  Percentage of muscle discoloration subjectively determined individually by four members of an experienced panel (7=5%
discolored; 8=no discoloration).




6           2003 FLORIDA BEEF REPORT

				
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