Table 1. Chronological Table of Studies Adults with Mild by fpy78125

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									  Table 1. Chronological Table of Studies: Adults with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) and Their Outcomes (continued)
                                                                         Time Since           MTBI
Authors               Design          Location       Participants          Injury          Determinants                                    Outcomes                                  Results

                                                                                                                Health and Psychological
                                                                                                                Functioning and Spiritual Socioeconomic Family
1992
Alexander,        Descriptive;    USA              23 MTBI (61%         Up to 5 years GCS 13–15,               Y                 Y                   Y                   Y           43% of participants reported
1992              cross sectional                  male)                              LOC < 15 min,                                                                                  dizziness, 30% depression,
                                                                                      PTA < 24 hr                                                                                    87% headaches; 48% needed
                                                                                                                                                                                     work compensation.
Englander,    Descriptive            USA           77 MTBI (68%         3 months          GCS 13–15,           Y                 Y            Y              N/A                     At 3 months, 26% reported
Hall,                                              male)                                  LOC (any),           PCS 3             PCS 3 months Return to work                         symptoms, 88% returned to
Stimpson, &                                                                               admitted             months                                                                work (average at 8 weeks),
Chaffin, 1992                                                                             < 3 days to                                                                                and 16% desired to see doc-
                                                                                          hospital                                                                                   tors because of their symp-
                                                                                                                                                                                     toms.
Kay,              Descriptive;   USA               808 mild head        1 week,           GCS, LOC, and Y                        Y                   Y              Y                At 3 months, 84% returned
Newman,           longitudinal                     injury; number       3 months,         PTA not reported PCS                   PCS                 Return to work                  to work. At 1 year, 11%
Cavallo,          (summarized                      of MTBI not          6 months,                                                                                                    were unable to return to
Ezrachi, &        from 4 stud-                     reported             and 1 year                                                                                                   work and reported head-
Resnick, 1992     ies; originals                                                                                                                                                     ache, fatigue, forgetfulness,
                  not published)                                                                                                                                                     and sleep disturbance.
                                                                                                                                                                                     The authors concluded
                                                                                                                                                                                     that MTBI was a subset of
                                                                                                                                                                                     MHI. MHI patients might
                                                                                                                                                                                     or might not have injuries
                                                                                                                                                                                     to their brain, but MTBI
                                                                                                                                                                                     patients must have injuries
                                                                                                                                                                                     to the brain.
1993
Alves,        Interventional USA                   587 MTBI (67% 3, 6, 12                 GCS 13–15,           Y                 Y                   N/A                 N/A         50% of all participants
Macciocchi,                                        male) were       months                LOC and PTA          PCS               PCS                                                 reported headaches and 15%
& Barth, 1993                                      randomly                               not reported,                                                                              dizziness. There were no
                                                   assigned into 3                        admitted to                                                                                differences in the number of
                                                   groups                                 hospital                                                                                   complaints among
                                                   (routine, infor-                       < 2 days                                                                                   3 groups, although the num-
                                                   mation, and                                                                                                                       ber of symptoms increased at
                                                   information +                                                                                                                     6 and 12 months, compared
                                                   reassurance)                                                                                                                      to 3 months.
Arcia &           Descriptive        USA           32 MTBI (39%         > 3 years         GCS and PTA          Y                 Y                   N/A                 N/A         Participants who reported
Gualtieri,                                         male)                                  not reported                                                                               subjective complaints
1993                                                                                      LOC < 1 hr                                                                                 tended to have lower perfor-
                                                                                                                                                                                     mance in all tests. Subjective
                                                                                                                                                                                     complaints were reliable to
                                                                                                                                                                                     objective test performance.



Note. This table is part of the following article: Petchprapai, N. & Winkelman, C. (2007). Mild traumatic brain injury: Determinants and subsequent quality of life. A review of the literature. Journal of Neuroscience
Nursing, 39(5), 260–272.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        continued

                                                                                                           1
  Table 1. Chronological Table of Studies: Adults with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) and Their Outcomes (continued)
                                                                         Time Since           MTBI
Authors               Design          Location       Participants          Injury          Determinants                                    Outcomes                                  Results

                                                                                                                Health and Psychological
                                                                                                                Functioning and Spiritual Socioeconomic Family
1994
Bohnen et al., Descriptive;          USA           231 MTBI (66% 5 years                  GCS not              Y                 Y                   N/A                 N/A         Age, gender, and neurologi-
1994           comparison                          male)                                  reported,                                                                                  cal and emotional complica-
               study with                                                                 LOC < 20 min,                                                                              tions were related to low
               healthy                                                                                                                                                               cognitive performance,
               subjects                                                                   PTA < 60 min                                                                               MTBI. At 1 to 5 years after
                                                                                                                                                                                     injury, MTBI participants
                                                                                                                                                                                     reported more severe com-
                                                                                                                                                                                     plaints than control.
1995
Bigler &          Descriptive        Europe        4 MTBI (50%          5–12 months       GCS > 13,            Y              Y              N/A                         N/A         There was no difference in
Snyder, 1995                                       male)                                  LOC 0–brief,         Ventricular- Neuropsycho-                                             ventricular-to-brain measure
                                                                                                               to-brain ratio logical scores                                         among MTBI patients who
                                                                                          PTA 5–15 min                                                                               demonstrated different neu-
                                                                                                                                                                                     ropsychological scores.
Bohnen,           Descriptive; USA                 22 MTBI (54%         > 1 year          GCS 15,              Y                 Y                   N/A                 N/A         MTBI and PCS reported
Jolles,           comparison                       male), 11 with                         LOC < 15 min,                                                                              lower in sustained attention,
Twijnstra,        between MTBI                     PCS, 11 w/o                                                                                                                       depression was correlated
Mellink, &                                         PCS                                    PTA < 1 hr                                                                                 with PCS emotional scale; at
Wijnen, 1995                                                                                                                                                                         12 to 34 months after injury,
                                                                                                                                                                                     both MTBI with or w/o PCS
                                                                                                                                                                                     performed the same level of
                                                                                                                                                                                     their neurobehaviors.
Cicerone &   Descriptive             USA           50 MTBI (38%         3–52 months       GCS 13–15,           Y                 Y                   N/A                 N/A         LOC had an inverse rela-
Kalmar, 1995                                       male)                                  LOC < 30 min,                                                                              tionship with severity of
                                                                                                                                                                                     symptoms. Frequently
                                                                                          PTA < 24 hr                                                                                reported symptoms were
                                                                                                                                                                                     headache, sleep disturbance,
                                                                                                                                                                                     numbness, hearing loss,
                                                                                                                                                                                     change in taste or smell,
                                                                                                                                                                                     anxiety, depression, prob-
                                                                                                                                                                                     lems in memory or concen-
                                                                                                                                                                                     tration, dizziness, imbal-
                                                                                                                                                                                     ance, and sensitivity to noise
                                                                                                                                                                                     and light.
Note. This table is part of the following article: Petchprapai, N. & Winkelman, C. (2007). Mild traumatic brain injury: Determinants and subsequent quality of life. A review of the literature. Journal of Neuroscience
Nursing, 39(5), 260–272.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        continued




                                                                                                           2
  Table 1. Chronological Table of Studies: Adults with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) and Their Outcomes (continued)
                                                                         Time Since           MTBI
Authors               Design          Location       Participants          Injury          Determinants                                    Outcomes                                  Results

                                                                                                                Health and Psychological
                                                                                                                Functioning and Spiritual Socioeconomic Family
1996
Cattelani,        Descriptive        Italy         53 MTBI (62% 2–60 months               GCS > 13,            Y                 Y                   N/A                 N/A         Longer PTA and LOC, as
Gugliotta,                                         male) with PCS                         LOC < 20 min,        PCS               PCS                                                 well as higher mean score
Maravita, &                                                                                                                                                                          of MMPI, were related to
Mazzucchi,                                                                                PTA < 7 hr,                                                                                abnormal findings in radiol-
1996                                                                                      admit < 7 days                                                                             ogy readings.

Cicerone et       Descriptive; USA                 20 MTBI with   > 3 months              GCS not              Y                 Y                   Y              N/A              Participants who received
al., 1996         comparison                       PCS (10 in                             reported,                                                  Return to work                  neurorehabilitation program
                  between MTBI                     good outcome                           LOC < 30 min,                                                                              with good outcome group
                                                   or resume                                                                                                                         reported improved cognitive
                                                   work and 10 in                         PTA < 24 hr                                                                                functioning for 46%, PCS for
                                                   poor outcome)                                                                                                                     75%, improved attention,
                                                                                                                                                                                     decreased cognitive dys-
                                                                                                                                                                                     function and severity. Other
                                                                                                                                                                                     10 participants received the
                                                                                                                                                                                     same intervention but had
                                                                                                                                                                                     poor outcomes.
Mittenberg,       Experimental       USA           58 MTBI (69%         6 months          GCS 13–15,           Y                 Y                   N/A                 N/A         Brief early psychological
Tremont,          study (2                         male), 29 in                           PTA < 24 hr                                                                                intervention could reduce
Zielinski,        groups of                        control, 29 in                                                                                                                    PCS symptoms. Participants
Fichera, &        MTBI)                            experiment                                                                                                                        in intervention group
Rayls, 1996                                                                                                                                                                          reported fewer symptomatic
                                                                                                                                                                                     days (0.5 vs. 1.3) and lower
                                                                                                                                                                                     mean severity of symptoms.
1997
No studies
from 1997
met criteria


1998
Deb,              Descriptive        USA           134 MTBI (68% 1 year                   GCS > 13,            Y                 Y                   Y                   Y           25% met the requirement for
Lyons, &                                           male)                                  LOC (any)                                                                                  moderate disability. More
Koutzoukis,                                                                                                                                                                          than half (55.2%) reported
1998                                                                                                                                                                                 PCS, and 17.2% met the
                                                                                                                                                                                     assumption of
                                                                                                                                                                                     psychotic problems.

Note. This table is part of the following article: Petchprapai, N. & Winkelman, C. (2007). Mild traumatic brain injury: Determinants and subsequent quality of life. A review of the literature. Journal of Neuroscience
Nursing, 39(5), 260–272.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        continued



                                                                                                           3
  Table 1. Chronological Table of Studies: Adults with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) and Their Outcomes (continued)
                                                                         Time Since           MTBI
Authors               Design          Location       Participants          Injury          Determinants                                    Outcomes                                  Results

                                                                                                             Health and Psychological
                                                                                                            Functioning and Spiritual Socioeconomic Family
Ingebrigtsen, Descriptive            Norway        100 MTBI (66% 3 months                 GCS > 13,         Y           Y             Y              Y                               Mean PCS was 3.1 symp-
Waterloo,                            &             male)                                  PTA: the                                    Sick leave/                                    toms; 40% reported 3 or
Marup-                               Sweden                                               authors consid-                                                                            more symptoms, and 62%
Jensen,                                                                                                                               return to work                                 reported at least 1 symptom
                                                                                          ered all partici-
Attner, &                                                                                 pants with PTA                                                                             at 3 months. Participants
Romner, 1998                                                                              as also having                                                                             who were off work or who
                                                                                          LOC                                                                                        had higher PCS reported
                                                                                                                                                                                     higher RPQ score. PTA,
                                                                                          (<1, 1–5, 6–15,                                                                            GCS, HISS, alcohol abuse,
                                                                                          > 15 min)                                                                                  and duration of sick leave
                                                                                                                                                                                     were not significantly corre-
                                                                                                                                                                                     lated with PCS or RPQ.
1999
Bell,             Descriptive;       USA           20 MTBI              > 1 year          GCS 13–15,           Y                 Y                   N/A                 N/A         MTBI group reported higher
Primeau,          comparison                       (45% male)                             LOC < 30 min                                                                               depression and cognitive
Sweet, &          study (to                        compared to                                                                                                                       disability than participants
Lofland, 1999     migraine)                        migraines and                                                                                                                     in migraine and chronic
                                                   chronic non-                                                                                                                      nonheadache pain groups.
                                                   headache pain
Ruffolo,          Descriptive        USA           50 MTBI (62%         6–9 months        Participants     Y                     Y                   Y              N/A              42% returned to work at
Friedland,                                         male)                                  with GCS                                                   Return to work                  6–9 months after injury;
Dawson,                                                                                   13–15, LOC                                                                                 12% went to the same level,
Colantonio,                                                                               < 20 min, PTA                                                                              while 30% needed to modify
& Lindsay,                                                                                < 24 hr were                                                                               their job. Social interaction,
1999                                                                                      included, but                                                                              difficulty of job (decision
                                                                                          there was no                                                                               making), and discharge to
                                                                                          report about all                                                                           home were related to return
                                                                                          three variables                                                                            to work, while cognitive
                                                                                          among the                                                                                  impairment at 1 month after
                                                                                          participants                                                                               injury could not predict
                                                                                                                                                                                     return to work.
2000
Levine,           Descriptive        USA           12 MTBI (58%         3–4 years         GCS 13–15,           Y                 Y                   N/A                 N/A         At 6 hr after injury, 11 MTBI
Dawson,                                            male)                                  LOC not                                                                                    gained GOAT > 74, R-SAT
Boutet,                                                                                   reported,                                                                                  negatively correlated with
Schwartz, &                                                                                                                                                                          physical SIP (50%) and psy-
Stuss, 2000                                                                               PTA < 6 hr                                                                                 chological SIP (34%). There
                                                                                                                                                                                     was no correlation between
                                                                                                                                                                                     CT results and R-SAT score.
Note. This table is part of the following article: Petchprapai, N. & Winkelman, C. (2007). Mild traumatic brain injury: Determinants and subsequent quality of life. A review of the literature. Journal of Neuroscience
Nursing, 39(5), 260–272.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        continued




                                                                                                           4
  Table 1. Chronological Table of Studies: Adults with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) and Their Outcomes (continued)
                                                                         Time Since           MTBI
Authors               Design          Location       Participants          Injury          Determinants                                    Outcomes                                  Results

                                                                                                                Health and Psychological
                                                                                                               Functioning and Spiritual Socioeconomic Family
Ponsford et       Descriptive;       Australia 84 MTBI (62%             1 week and        GCS 13–15,           Y           Y             N/A           N/A    WAIS-R score was very
al., 2000         comparison                   male) com-               3 months          LOC < 30 min,                                                       low at 1 week after TBI,
                  study (to                    pared to 53                                                                                                    but it was improved after
                  other minor                  other minor                                PTA < 24 hr                                                         3 months, though 24% still
                  trauma)                      injuries                                                                                                       suffered from at least 1 PCS.
                                                                                                                                                              PTA did not correlate with
                                                                                                                                                              PCS. Student status, female
                                                                                                                                                              gender, history of head inju-
                                                                                                                                                              ry/neurological/ psycho-
                                                                                                                                                              logical problem, and having
                                                                                                                                                              motor-vehicle crashes were
                                                                                                                                                              factors related to poor out-
                                                                                                                                                              comes at 3 months.
2001
Echemendia,       Descriptive;       USA           29 MTBI (90%         2 hr, 2 days,     GCS, LOC,            Y                 Y                   N/A                 N/A         MTBI reported lower per-
Putukian,         comparison                       male) com-           1 week, and       and PTA not                                                                                formance in all measures at
Mackin,           study to nor-                    pared to 20          1 month           reported                                                                                   2 hr, improved from time to
Julian, &         mal controls                     control                                                                                                                           time, and reported the same
Shoss, 2001                                                                                                                                                                          performance as control at 1
                                                                                                                                                                                     month.
Haboubi,     Descriptive             UK            639 MTBI (74% 2 and 6                  GCS 13–15,           Y                 Y                   Y              Y                Of 391 employed MTBI, 219
Long, Koshy,                                       male)         weeks                    LOC < 15 min                                               Return to work                  were unable to return to
& Ward, 2001                                                                                                                                                                         work at 2 weeks after the
                                                                                                                                                                                     injury, 49 were still off sick
                                                                                                                                                                                     after 6 weeks. Common PCS
                                                                                                                                                                                     complaints were fatigue,
                                                                                                                                                                                     headache, dizziness, irri-
                                                                                                                                                                                     tability, sleep disturbance,
                                                                                                                                                                                     poor concentration, and
                                                                                                                                                                                     poor memory.
Hanna-            Descriptive; USA                 44 MTBI (45%         35% < 1 year, GCS 13–15,               Y                 Y                   N/A                 N/A         PCS groups reported more
Pladdy,           comparison                       male), 22 with       65% 1–15      LOC < 11 hr                                                                                    subjective symptoms than
Berry,            study (among                     PCS, 22 with-        years         (37.4% = none,                                                                                 non-PCS. MTBI reported
Bennett,          MTBI)                            out PCS                            9% > 1 hr),                                                                                    more symptoms than non-
Phillips, &                                                                                                                                                                          MTBI. PCS + MTBI + stress
Gouvier,                                                                              PTA < 24 hr                                                                                    reported higher PCS and
2001                                                                                  (57.5% = none)                                                                                 lower performance in all
                                                                                                                                                                                     cognitive functions.
Note. This table is part of the following article: Petchprapai, N. & Winkelman, C. (2007). Mild traumatic brain injury: Determinants and subsequent quality of life. A review of the literature. Journal of Neuroscience
Nursing, 39(5), 260–272.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        continued




                                                                                                           5
  Table 1. Chronological Table of Studies: Adults with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) and Their Outcomes (continued)
                                                                         Time Since           MTBI
Authors               Design          Location       Participants          Injury          Determinants                                    Outcomes                                  Results

                                                                                                                Health and Psychological
                                                                                                               Functioning and Spiritual Socioeconomic Family
Hartlage,         Descriptive;       USA           70 MTBI (45% 6–12 months               GCS, PTA,            Y           Y             N/A           N/A    Within 6 months after injury,
Durant-           comparison                       male) with per-                        and LOC not                                                         39 behaviors were reported
Wilson, &         study (to                        sistent neuro-                         reported                                                            by MTBI more than normal
Patch, 2001       healthy par-                     behavioral                                                                                                 control. Of those 39, MTBI
                  ticipants)                       problems                                                                                                   still reported 36 more behav-
                                                   compared to 40                                                                                             iors than normal control at
                                                   normal control                                                                                             12 months.
Lees-Haley,       Descriptive;       USA           24 MTBI (58% Not reported              GCS 13–15,           Y           Y             N/A           N/A    MTBI reported more fre-
Fox, &            comparison                       male) com-                             LOC < 60 min,                                                       quent short-term memory
Courtney,         study (to                        pared to par-                                                                                              loss, reading problems, and
2001              other trauma)                    ticipants with                         PTA < 24 hr                                                         partial LOC, but there was
                                                   other                                                                                                      no difference in total num-
                                                   injuries                                                                                                   ber of items endorsed by
                                                                                                                                                              both groups.
Levin et al.,     Descriptive;   USA               60 MTBI (82% > 3 months                GCS 13–15,           Y           Y             Y             Y      At 3 months, MTBI devel-
2001              comparison                       male), com-                            LOC < 20 min                                   Community            oped depression more than
                  study (to gen-                   pared to 52                                                                           integration          GT (11:3). Mean CES-D score
                  eral trauma)                     general trauma                                                                                             of those MTBI was 22.14.
                                                                                                                                                              MTBI also reported higher
                                                                                                                                                              VASD and PTSD but lower
                                                                                                                                                              social support and commu-
                                                                                                                                                              nity reintegration. Among
                                                                                                                                                              those MTBI with depression,
                                                                                                                                                              social support and commu-
                                                                                                                                                              nity reintegration score was
                                                                                                                                                              also lower than for MTBI
                                                                                                                                                              without depression.

McCauley,         Descriptive;   USA               95 MTBI (21% 3 months                  GCS 13–15,           Y                 Y                   Y                   Y           At 3 months, 3.30% of MTBI
Boake, Levin,     comparison                       male), com-                            LOC < 20 min                                                                               reported PCD compared to
Contant, &        study (to gen-                   pared to 85                                                                                                                       15.3% among GT and 30.8%
Song, 2001        eral trauma)                     general trauma                                                                                                                    among moderate TBI. For
                                                                                                                                                                                     past MDD, 7.9% MTBI met
                                                                                                                                                                                     the criteria, while 21.4% met
                                                                                                                                                                                     current MDD criteria (both
                                                                                                                                                                                     MDD were lower than mod-
                                                                                                                                                                                     erate TBI and GT). MTBI
                                                                                                                                                                                     with PCD reported poorer
                                                                                                                                                                                     GOS, higher anxiety, higher
                                                                                                                                                                                     depression, and lower social
                                                                                                                                                                                     support and social reintegra-
                                                                                                                                                                                     tion.
Note. This table is part of the following article: Petchprapai, N. & Winkelman, C. (2007). Mild traumatic brain injury: Determinants and subsequent quality of life. A review of the literature. Journal of Neuroscience
Nursing, 39(5), 260–272.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        continued

                                                                                                           6
  Table 1. Chronological Table of Studies: Adults with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) and Their Outcomes (continued)
                                                                         Time Since           MTBI
Authors               Design          Location       Participants          Injury          Determinants                                    Outcomes                                  Results

                                                                                                                Health and Psychological
                                                                                                                Functioning and Spiritual Socioeconomic Family
McCullagh,        Descriptive; Canada              57 MTBI (56% 6 months                  GCS 13–15,           Y                 Y                   Y              N/A              MTBI with GCS 13–14 had
Oucherlony,       comparison                       male); compari-                        LOC < 20 min,                                              Return to work                  longer PTA duration and
Protzner,         study (among                     son between                                                                                                                       higher rate of CT abnormal-
Blair, &          MTBI)                            GCS 15 and                             PTA < 24 hr                                                                                ity than those with GCS 15.
Feinstein,                                         GCS 13–14                                                                                                                         There was no significant
2001                                                                                                                                                                                 difference of any neurobe-
                                                                                                                                                                                     havioral, somatic, or psycho-
                                                                                                                                                                                     logical outcomes between
                                                                                                                                                                                     MTBI with GCS 15 and with
                                                                                                                                                                                     GCS 13–14.
Santa Maria,      Descriptive        USA           50 MTBI with         3 months–10       GCS not              Y                 Y                   N/A                 N/A         MTBI was not associated
Pinkston,                                          PCS (gender          years             reported,                                                                                  with PCS reported. In low
Miller, &                                          not reported)                          LOC < 20 min                                                                               symptom group, gender
Gouvier,                                                                                                                                                                             was not a revealed dif-
2001                                                                                                                                                                                 ference, but MTBI had a
                                                                                                                                                                                     higher symptom count than
                                                                                                                                                                                     control. In high symptom
                                                                                                                                                                                     group, males had more sta-
                                                                                                                                                                                     ble scores than females did,
                                                                                                                                                                                     but MTBI was not different
                                                                                                                                                                                     from control.
Trahan, Ross, Descriptive;           USA           40 MTBI (50%         Not reported GCS 13–15,                Y                 Y                   N/A                 N/A         Gender, race, and education
& Trahan,     compared                             male)                             LOC < 30 min                                                                                    were not associated with
2001          depressed                                                                                                                                                              PCS in MTBI. PCS among
              participants,                                                                                                                                                          MTBI and normal control
              normal                                                                                                                                                                 was not different. PCS was
              controls                                                                                                                                                               highly related to depression,
                                                                                                                                                                                     anxiety, and physical and
                                                                                                                                                                                     cognitive symptoms.
2002
McHugh,           Descriptive        Canada        26 MTBI              1 week; 4 and GCS 13–15,               Y                 Y                   N/A                 N/A         At 4 months, 19.2% of
2002                                                                    7 months      PTA < 24 hr                                                                                    MTBI met PCS criteria.
                                                                                                                                                                                     Neurological profiles of
                                                                                                                                                                                     MTBI with PCS significantly
                                                                                                                                                                                     differed from MTBI with
                                                                                                                                                                                     PCS and matching normal
                                                                                                                                                                                     control.
Note. This table is part of the following article: Petchprapai, N. & Winkelman, C. (2007). Mild traumatic brain injury: Determinants and subsequent quality of life. A review of the literature. Journal of Neuroscience
Nursing, 39(5), 260–272.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        continued




                                                                                                           7
  Table 1. Chronological Table of Studies: Adults with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) and Their Outcomes (continued)
                                                                         Time Since           MTBI
Authors               Design          Location       Participants          Injury          Determinants                                    Outcomes                                  Results

                                                                                                                Health and Psychological
                                                                                                                Functioning and Spiritual Socioeconomic Family
Cicerone &        Descriptive;       USA           32 MTBI (gen- > 3 months               GCS 13–15,           Y                 Y                   N/A                 N/A         PCS group had more atten-
Azulay, 2002      comparison                       der not report-                        LOC < 30 min,                                                                              tion disturbance than con-
                  study (to                        ed) with PCS                                                                                                                      trol. There was no difference
                  healthy                          compared to 32                         PTA < 24 hr                                                                                of any measures between
                  participants)                    normal control                                                                                                                    participants > 12 months
                                                                                                                                                                                     and < 12 months after injury.
                                                                                                                                                                                     There was no difference in
                                                                                                                                                                                     any measure between par-
                                                                                                                                                                                     ticipants with different PTA
                                                                                                                                                                                     and LOC.
De Kruijk et      Descriptive        The           79 MTBI (56%         Initial admis- GCS 14–15,              Y                 Y                   N/A                 N/A         Headaches 61%, dizziness
al., 2002                            Nether-       male)                sion, 2        LOC < 15 min,                                                                                 18%, neck pain 17%.
                                     lands                              weeks, and 6                                                                                                 Participants who reported
                                                                        months         PTA < 1 hr
                                                                                                                                                                                     headaches, dizziness, or
                                                                                                                                                                                     pain at admission also
                                                                                                                                                                                     reported those symptoms at
                                                                                                                                                                                     6 months after injury. Rate
                                                                                                                                                                                     of full recovery increased
                                                                                                                                                                                     from 50% to 78% when the
                                                                                                                                                                                     initial symptoms decreased
                                                                                                                                                                                     from 3 to 0.
Sparrow,          Descriptive        USA           38 MTBI (45%         3 weeks and       GCS 13–15,           Y                 Y                   N/A                 N/A         There was no relationship
2002                                               male)                3 months          LOC < 30 min,                                                                              between coping resources
                                                                                                                                                                                     and PCS. Stress was a sig-
                                                                                          PTA < 24 hr                                                                                nificant predictor for PCS.

Ponsford et       Experimental       Australia 202 MTBI                 5–7 days and GCS 13–15,                Y                 Y                   N/A                 N/A         Experiment group received
al., 2002         design (2                    (gender not              3 months     LOC < 30 min,                                                                                   an information booklet
                  groups of                    reported), 79                                                                                                                         about common symptoms,
                  MTBI)                        in experiment,                        PTA < 24 hr                                                                                     time course, and coping
                                               123 in control                                                                                                                        strategies. Experiment
                                                                                                                                                                                     group reported less PCS at 3
                                                                                                                                                                                     months, and less frequency
                                                                                                                                                                                     of symptoms listed in the
                                                                                                                                                                                     Checklist-90-Revised score.
Note. This table is part of the following article: Petchprapai, N. & Winkelman, C. (2007). Mild traumatic brain injury: Determinants and subsequent quality of life. A review of the literature. Journal of Neuroscience
Nursing, 39(5), 260–272.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        continued




                                                                                                           8
  Table 1. Chronological Table of Studies: Adults with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) and Their Outcomes (continued)
                                                                         Time Since           MTBI
Authors               Design          Location       Participants          Injury          Determinants                                    Outcomes                                  Results

                                                                                                                Health and Psychological
                                                                                                                Functioning and Spiritual Socioeconomic Family
Suhr &            Descriptive;  USA                63 MTBI (38% > 6 months                GCS 13–15,           Y                 Y                   N/A                 N/A         Participants were young
Gunstad,          compari-                         male), 31 w/o                          LOC < 30 min                                                                               (undergraduate students,
2002              son study                        and 32 with                                                                                                                       more female than male).
                  (between                         depression,                                                                                                                       Depression was associated
                  MTBI, to                         compared to 25                                                                                                                    with PCS, while MTBI was
                  depressed and                    depressed and                                                                                                                     not. PCS reported for MTBI
                  healthy par-                     50 control                                                                                                                        and control was not differ-
                  ticipants)                                                                                                                                                         ent.
2003
Bryant,           Descriptive:       USA           24 MTBI with         6 months          GCS 13–15,           N/A               Y                   N/A                 N/A         After 5 weeks of interven-
Moulds,           MTBI with                        stress (33%                            PTA < 24 hr                            Depression,                                         tion, 8% of participants in
Guthrie, &        known PTSD                       male)                                                                         stress                                              cognitive behavioral therapy
Nixon, 2003                                                                                                                                                                          group reported PTSD, com-
                                                                                                                                                                                     pared to 58% of control
                                                                                                                                                                                     group. Six months after
                                                                                                                                                                                     injury, 17% of intervention
                                                                                                                                                                                     group met PTSD criteria,
                                                                                                                                                                                     compared to 58% of normal
                                                                                                                                                                                     control group.
Emanuelson, Descriptive              Sweden        101 MTBI (65% 3 weeks,                 GCS 13–15,           Y                 Y                   N/A                 N/A         MTBI reported different
Andersson,                                         male)         3 months,                LOC < 30 min                                                                               score of SF-36 at 3 weeks
Bjorklund, &                                                     and 1 year                                                                                                          and 3 months, but the scores
Stalhammar,                                                                                                                                                                          were not different at 3
2003                                                                                                                                                                                 months and 1 year.

Evered,           Descriptive;       USA           129 MTBI with        > 3 months        GCS 13–15,           Y                 Y                   N/A                 N/A         63.5% had emotional pathol-
Ruff, Baldo,      MTBI with                        PCS (54%                               LOC < 30 min,                                                                              ogies that led to impairment
& Isomura,        known PCS                        male)                                                                                                                             following MTBI.
2003                                                                                      PTA < 24 hr


Rapoport,         Descriptive;       USA           210 MTBI (40% 49 days                  GCS 13–15,           Y                 Y                   N/A                 N/A         MTBI older than 60 years of
McCullagh,        comparison                       male); 30%                             PTA < 24 hr                                                                                age reported a lower rate of
Streiner, &       study (of                        were older                                                                                                                        depression when compared
Feinstein,        depression                       than 60 years                                                                                                                     to those who were younger.
2003a             between dif-                     old
                  ferent age
                  groups)
Note. This table is part of the following article: Petchprapai, N. & Winkelman, C. (2007). Mild traumatic brain injury: Determinants and subsequent quality of life. A review of the literature. Journal of Neuroscience
Nursing, 39(5), 260–272.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        continued




                                                                                                           9
  Table 1. Chronological Table of Studies: Adults with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) and Their Outcomes (continued)
                                                                         Time Since           MTBI
Authors               Design          Location       Participants          Injury          Determinants                                    Outcomes                                  Results

                                                                                                                Health and Psychological
                                                                                                                Functioning and Spiritual Socioeconomic Family
Rapoport,         Descriptive        USA           170 MTBI             49 days           GCS 13–15,           Y                 Y                   Y              N/A              15.3% met criteria for major
McCullagh,                                         (gender not                            LOC < 30 min,                                              Return to work                  depression. MTBI with
Streiner, &                                        reported)                                                                                                                         depression reported more
Feinstein,                                                                                PTA < 24 hr                                                                                dysfunction, distress, and
2003b                                                                                                                                                                                neurobehavioral distur-
                                                                                                                                                                                     bance. GOS and return to
                                                                                                                                                                                     work were not different
                                                                                                                                                                                     among those with and w/o
                                                                                                                                                                                     depression.
Ruttan &          Descriptive        Canada        122 MTBI (38% > 3 years                GCS 13–15,           Y                 Y                   N/A                 N/A         Depression and anxiety
Heinrichs,                                         male)                                  LOC < 30 min,                          Depression                                          measured through
2003                                                                                                                                                                                 MCMI-II; no correlation
                                                                                          PTA < 24 hr                                                                                of depression and cognitive
                                                                                                                                                                                     performance.
Smith-            Descriptive;       USA           32 MTBI (59%         > 1 year          GCS 13–15,           Y                 Y                   N/A                 N/A         There was no difference of
Seemiller,        comparison                       male), com-                            PTA < 24 hr                                                                                the endorsed PCS symptoms
Fow, Kant,        study (to                        pared to 63                                                                                                                       between MTBI and chronic
& Franzen,        chronic pain)                    chronic pain                                                                                                                      pain participants.
2003

Savola &          Descriptive        Europe        224 MTBI (76% 2–6 weeks                GCS 13–15,           Y                 Y                   N/A                 N/A         22% had PCS; 81% of those
Hillbom,                                           male)         and 8–30                 LOC < 30 min                                                                               with PCS had at least 2
2003                                                             months                                                                                                              symptoms at 1 month after
                                                                                                                                                                                     injury. Age was not associ-
                                                                                                                                                                                     ated with PCS (16–49 years).
                                                                                                                                                                                     LOC, PTA, dizziness, and
                                                                                                                                                                                     headache at emergency
                                                                                                                                                                                     department were predictors
                                                                                                                                                                                     of PCS.

Note. This table is part of the following article: Petchprapai, N. & Winkelman, C. (2007). Mild traumatic brain injury: Determinants and subsequent quality of life. A review of the literature. Journal of Neuroscience
Nursing, 39(5), 260–272.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        continued




                                                                                                          10
  Table 1. Chronological Table of Studies: Adults with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) and Their Outcomes (continued)
                                                                         Time Since           MTBI
Authors               Design          Location       Participants          Injury          Determinants                                    Outcomes                                  Results

                                                                                                                Health and Psychological
                                                                                                                Functioning and Spiritual Socioeconomic Family
2004
Kashluba et       Descriptive;       Canada        110 MTBI (67% 1 month and              GCS 13–15,           Y                 Y                   Y                   Y           Compared symptoms at 1
al., 2004         comparison                       male) com-     3–4 months              LOC < 30 min,                                                                              and 3 months, and between
                  study (to                        pared to 118                                                                                                                      MTBI and control group.
                  healthy                          normal control                         PTA < 24 hr                                                                                Number of symptoms
                  participants)                                                                                                                                                      between MTBI and control
                                                                                                                                                                                     was not significant, but
                                                                                                                                                                                     MTBI rated symptoms as
                                                                                                                                                                                     more severe. Symptoms
                                                                                                                                                                                     decreased after 3 months.
Stranjalis et     Descriptive        Greece        100 MTBI             3 hr and          GCS 15,              Y                 N/A                 Y              N/A              32% of the participants had an
al., 2004                                          (gender not          1 week            LOC and PTA          S-100B level                          Return to work                  elevated level of S-100B.
                                                   reported)                              not reported         only                                                                  Among those, 37.5% failed
                                                                                                                                                                                     to return to work, compared
                                                                                                                                                                                     to 4.7% of those who had a
                                                                                                                                                                                     normal level of S-100B.

Note. CES-D = Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale; CT = computed tomography; GCS = Glasgow Coma Scale; GOAT = Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test; GOS = Glasgow Outcome
Scale; GT = general trauma; HISS = Head Injury Severity Score; LOC = loss of consciousness; MCMI-II = Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory II; MDD = major depressive dissorder; MHI = mild head injury;
MMPI = Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory; PCS = postconcussion symptoms; PTA = posttraumatic amnesia; PTSD = posttraumatic stress disorder; RPQ = Rivermead Postconcussion Symptoms
Questionnaire; R-SAT = Revised Strategy Application Test; S-100B = protein S-100B; SF-36 = Short Form 36 Health Survey; SIP = Sickness Impact Profile; VASD = Visual Analogue Scale of Depression; WAIS-
R = Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised; Y = yes.
Note. This table is part of the following article: Petchprapai, N. & Winkelman, C. (2007). Mild traumatic brain injury: Determinants and subsequent quality of life. A review of the literature. Journal of Neuroscience
Nursing, 39(5), 260–272.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        continued




                                                                                                          11
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