Microsoft PowerPoint - McNamara by pengxiuhui

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									Egg Protein
 Processed Egg Products
Processed to fit foodservice and food industry
ingredient specifications.
 Refrigerated (as liquid)

 Frozen (as liquid)

 Dried

 Specialty Products



                                                 3.1
 Advantages of Processed
      Egg Products
Reduced Risk of Contamination
• All Liquid, Frozen and Dried egg products are pasteurized
• No Salmonella
• There has never been a food-borne illness associated with
  pasteurized egg products



Extended shelf-life
  Refrigerated liquid egg products – 12 weeks at 4 C
  Frozen egg products- 1 year or more
  Dried egg products - 1 year or more with no
  refrigeration required
Advantages of Processed
     Egg Products
Convenience
• Easy Storage
• No extra labor for breaking shell eggs
• Always ready to use
Consistent Baking Performance
• Uniform egg solid consistency
• Ease of formulation
• Product stability over time
  Frozen Egg Product
Equivalency to Shell Eggs

                 FROZEN         SHELL
               PRODUCT (Kg)   EGG* (No.)


      Whole        0.45           9



       Yolks       0.45          22

       White       0.45          14
Frozen Egg Products- up to
1-year shelf-life
 Whole eggs, whites or yolks
 Scrambled egg mix
 Salted whole egg or yolks
 Sugared egg yolks
 Whole eggs and yolks with corn syrup
 Whole eggs with citric acid
 Whole eggs with corn syrup

                                        3.3
Frozen Egg Products
Usage:        As an ingredient for the food industry
Availability: 4, 5, 8 and 10 lb. pouches or waxed
              plastic cartons, and 30 lb. containers
Advantages: Long shelf life (1 year), functionality,
            variety blends
Storage &
Handling:   Keep frozen at temperatures below
            10°F (-12°C). Use as soon as possible




                                                       3.3
                             Made with liquid frozen whole egg

Made with liquid frozen salted egg yolk




Made with liquid frozen sugared egg yolk
Refrigerated Liquid Egg
Products - 12-week shelf-life
     Whole eggs, whites or yolks
     Sugared egg yolks
     Salted whole eggs or yolks
     Scrambled egg mix
     Cooked scrambled eggs
     Extended shelf life whole eggs,
     whites or scrambled egg mix


                                       3.2
Foodservice and Commercial Food Industry
Refrigerated Liquid Eggs
Usage:        Foodservice and the commercial food industry
Availability: Bulk tank trucks, totes, metal or plastic containers,
              polyethylene coated fiber or laminated foil and
              paper cartons, and hermetically sealed polyethylene
              bags. Container size from small bags to cartons
              (8 oz. to 5 lb.) and lacquer coated tins and plastic
              pails up to 40 lb.
Advantages:Pasteurized, quick and easy to use, 12 week shelf-
           life at 4 C (only when not opened)
Storage
& Handling: Store according to processor’s recommendations.
            Use within four to five days once opened
  except           for extended shelf life products for which the
                   supplier’srecommendations should be
  followed
                                                                3.2
Dried Egg Products
  Whole egg or yolk solids
  Dried egg or scrambled egg mix
  Various types of whole egg solids
  Free flowing whole egg or yolk solids
  Stabilized (glucose free) whole egg
  or yolk solids
  Blends of whole egg and/or yolk with
  carbohydrates
                                          3.4
Egg Nutrients –                               Dried
                        Source: Agricultural Research Service, USDA, 1994.
Dried                     Whole
(per 100g)                Egg                 Yolk                White
Protein – g               47.35               34.25               81.1
Moisture – g              3.1                 2.95                5.8
Fat (Total Lipid) – g     40.95               55.8                0
Ash – g                   3.65                3.4                 5.3
Carbohydrate – g          4.95                3.6                 7.8
Calories – cal            594                 666                 382
Cholesterol – mg          1715                2335                0




                                                                             2.6
Dried Egg Products
Usage:        As an ingredient especially for the
               food industry
Availability: Foodservice – 6 oz. pouches,
              3 and 25 lb. poly packs
              Commercial – 25 and 50 lb. boxes,
                     150, 175, and 200 lb. drums
Advantages: Long shelf life (>1 yr), stable and
              mixable
Storage &
Handling:     Keep in dry storage away from
              extreme temperatures and strong
              odors. Use pallets

                                                3.4
Specialty Egg Products
  Marketed to institutional and consumer users.

     Diced hard-cooked, peeled eggs*
     Refrigerated whole hard-cooked, peeled eggs,
     plain or pickled*
     Frozen hard-cooked eggs*
     Frozen quiche mixes
     Frozen scrambled egg mix
     Dried scrambled egg mix
     Other frozen pre-cooked products*
     Ultra-pasteurized liquid egg products
  *Cooked egg products are not processed under USDA supervision.

                                                                   3.5
FUNCTIONS
 COAGULATION
 EMULSIFICATION
 FOAMING
 RETARD CRYSTALLIZATION




                          4.0
Coagulation/ Gelation


changes in structure of egg proteins (yolk and
albumen) resulting in thickening or change from a
fluid to solid or semi-solid state
 Thickening & Coagulation
Whipping or heating allows products that contain eggs
to thicken and/or coagulate, converting the mixture
from a liquid state to a solid or semi-solid state.
     Can use both yolks and whites
     Binds products naturally
     Suspends other ingredients
     Gelling agents in custards
     Thickening agents in soft pie fillings when
     the egg custard is heated
     Creates texture and height
     When the egg foam is heated, creates
     structural stability

                                                   4.1
Coagulation/ Gelation induced by:

     Heat - protein denaturation

     Mechanical means - beating, chopping

     Sugar - raises temp. of coagulation

     Acids- decrease temperature of coagulation

     Alkali- high alkali can induce gelling of egg
      white
Eggs For Coating And
Binding
 With heat, egg coagulation imparts rigidity causing
 mixtures to gel and ingredients to adhere.
    Egg white is an excellent binding
    ingredient
    No essential differences are found in
    binding properties of dried whole egg
    and yolk and those of fresh liquid eggs




                                                       4.5
Emulsions/Surface activity-
a stable mixture of two immiscible liquid phases, one
which is dispersed in the other




                                          Mayonnaise
Emulsification
The phospholipids, lipoproteins and proteins found
in egg yolks are surface active agents that enable
the formation of emulsions from immiscible liquids
such as oil and water.




                                                     4.6
Emulsions/Surface activity

            3 Components necessary for an
            oil-in-water emulsion
                   a) oil
                   b) water
                   c) interface, proteins,
            phospholipids, lipoproteins


                  Water

                          Oil
                                Proteins, phospholipids,
                                lipoproteins
Factors Affecting
Emulsification

 Freezing
 Temperature
 Acid
 Salt
 Drying




                    4.7
Eggs For Aeration
When eggs are beaten, air is incorporated,
creating a lighter, more air-filled product.
  Distinct cellular structure from eggs’
  leavening action
  Structural framework helps to hold
  product together
  Increased volume for lighter foods
  Airy texture and smooth mouth-feel
  More integrated, sponge-like texture

                                               4.8
Foaming/Surface activity-

colloidial dispersion in which a
gaseous phase is dispersed in a
liquid phase

   air trapped during beating

   air bubbles decrease in size
   and increase in number

   as more air is incorporated the
   foam becomes stiff
Factors Affecting Egg
Foams
 Degree of beating   Water
 Blending            Manipulation
 Homogenizing        Heat
 Temperature         Copper
 pH                  Sugar
 Fat                 Acid
 Salt



                                    4.9
Foaming/Surface activity- egg white

  foam ability (volume) due to ovalbumin

  foam stability due to ovomucin

  yolk contamination -”fat bullets” destroy
  foam
Control Of Crystallization
                Eggs are used in
                 confectionery
                 products and ice
                 creams to control
                 crystallization
                 of water molecules
                 and create smooth
                 texture and mouth-
                 feel
APPLICATIONS
 BAKING CATEGORIES
 EGG USAGE
 FLAVOR & COLOR
 HUMECTANCY & SHELF LIFE BENEFITS
 BREAD EFFECTS
 SWEET BAKED GOODS
 HEALTH BARS




                                    5.0
   Egg Baking Categories
Industry                    Product Usage                            Functional Rationale
Breads                      Used in standard breads and buns         • Used as an egg wash to brown the
                                                                       crust and for flavor and structure in
                                                                       specialty breads and rolls
Sweet Goods                 Used in egg custard fillings and tarts   • Gels filling and adds color and richness
                                                                       to mass
                                                                     • Excellent emulsifier
Cakes                       Eggs add volume and height to cakes      • Works to aerate and build ingredients
                            of all sorts                               into product matrix
                                                                     • Eggs provide structure
Cookies & Specialty Items   Used in meringues and other items        • Eggs allow for aeration of baked goods
                            where lighter texture is required        • Eggs provide structural benefits
Muffins & Popovers          Creates unique pastry effect             • Binds and produces desirable texture
                            obtainable only through use of eggs        and mouth-feel
                                                                     • Aeration of eggs build volume
Frostings                   Used to thicken frosting and fillings    • Coagulates and creates firm, smooth
                                                                       base
Frozen Products             Used in frozen dough and other items     • Creates desirable characteristics in
                            to control crystallization                 reheating and bake-off
Healthy Snack Bars          Adds protein and makes them a meal       • Eggs are one of the highest quality
                            replacement                                protein sources available




                                                                                                           5.1
    Egg Usage
Industry            Product Usage                                Functional Rationale
Baking              Breads, pastries, custards, cakes, cookies   • Adds richness, increases volume and
                                                                   improves machine flexibility

Dairy               Ice cream, frozen desserts                   • Improves texture, decreases melting point,
                                                                   eliminates crystallization

Confectionery       Bars, fondants, fillings                     • Improves interior texture, stabilizes, adds
                                                                   richness and flavor

Sauces              Mayonnaise, salad dressings, dips and        • Binds sauces and emulsifies mixtures of oil
                    prepared foods                                 and water

Meal Replacements   Energy bars for active and elderly           • Provides excellent protein source as well as
                                                                   other functional benefits

Beverages           Pourable yogurts, dietary drinks and         • Adds creamy texture and clarifies certain
                    alcoholic beverages                            wines and juices

Prepared Foods      As an ingredient in frozen and prepared      • Improves texture and freeze/thaw
                    entrées and side dishes                        microwave capabilities

Nutraceuticals      Used as a protein supplement and as a        • Used for the extraction of lysozyme and
                    source for extraction of beneficial            other substances such as yolk lecithin and
                    substances                                     sialic acid




                                                                                                           5.1
Flavor And Color
 Eggs contain fats which
 carry and meld flavors in
 food products
 Eggs add flavor and
 enhance other flavors
 Egg yolks impart rich color
 and are used to fortify
 whole egg blends for a
 deeper color
 in baked products




                               5.2
Humectancy And Shelf
Life Benefits
 Eggs improve cell structure and enable
 products to maintain structure during
 baking, thus reducing moisture loss from
 baked products
 Egg proteins also bind water, making it
 less available for microorganisms to grow
 and cause spoilage




                                             5.3
Breads
Functional Rationale:
  Browning qualities (e.g., golden brown crust)
  Structural desirability
  Egg white imparts crisper crust to hard rolls and
  hearth rolls
  Adds flavor benefits
  Adheres seeds and grains to the outside of bread
  Adds color to egg breads and varieties
  Adds nutritional benefits


                                                 5.4
Frostings And Glazes
Functional Rationale:
  Structural desirability and binding benefits;
  create texture and height (volume)
  Adds rich flavor to mass
  Allows other ingredients to adhere
  Emulsifies
  Helps prevent crystallization
  in boiled frostings




                                                  5.5
Glaze Variations
 Glaze                   Result
 Egg + Salt              Shiny surface
 Egg + Milk              Medium shiny surface
 Egg + Water             Less intense shine, golden
                         surface
 Egg yolk + Water        Shiny golden surface
 Egg yolk + Cream        Shiny brown surface
 Egg white               Light colored, crisp surface
 Egg white + Water and   Sticky surface for adhering
 nuts and/or seeds       nuts and/or seeds
 Egg white + Milk        Transparent shiny surface



                                                        5.5
Sweet Baked Goods

Functional Rationale:
  Browning qualities (e.g., golden brown crust)
  Structural desirability and binding benefits
  Aeration of baked goods
  Adds rich flavor to mass
  Adds color to yellow cakes, cookies and
  Danish pastry
  Gels fillings such as custards


                                                  5.6
Health Bars
Functional Rationale:
  Structural desirability and binding benefits
  Binds other ingredients
  Improves nutritional value
  One of the highest protein sources available
  Flavor carrier
  Adds richness to mass


                                                 5.7
Egg Replacers
 Consumer research has shown that
 Americans know it is okay to eat eggs
 American Egg Board research indicates
 manufacturers’ aversion to egg replacers
 No replacer can adequately perform
 all the functions of real eggs




                                            6.4
Liquid or Frozen Egg Products
Specification


                Whole    Yolk     White

Total           <5,000   <5,000   <5,000
Microbial
Count/g
Yeast           10 max   10 max   10 max

Mold            10 max   10 max   10 max

Coliforms       10 max   10 max   10 max



     ALL MUST BE SALMONELLA NEGATIVE
                                       Dried Solids

                      WHOLE                     YOLKS                           WHITES



                          FREE (2)             FREE (2)
                                                                        SPRAY
              PLAIN        FLOW-      PLAIN     FLOW-     SCRAM. EGG                PAN DRIED
                                                                        DRIED
                            ING                  ING



  Total      <10,00
                         <10,000 <10,000 <10,000 <10,000 <10,000 <10,000
               0

  Yeast
             10 max.     10 max.     10 max.   10 max.        -        10 max.      10 max.

  Mold       10 max.     10 max.     10 max.   10 max.        -        10 max.      10 max.

Coliforms    10 max.     10 max.     10 max.   10 max.        -        10 max.      10 max.

Salmonella    Neg.            Neg.    Neg.      Neg.        Neg.        Neg.             Neg.

								
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