Egg Protein Processed Egg Products Processed to fit foodservice and food industry ingredient specifications. Refrigerated (as liquid) Frozen (as liquid) Dried Specialty Products 3.1 Advantages of Processed Egg Products Reduced Risk of Contamination • All Liquid, Frozen and Dried egg products are pasteurized • No Salmonella • There has never been a food-borne illness associated with pasteurized egg products Extended shelf-life Refrigerated liquid egg products – 12 weeks at 4 C Frozen egg products- 1 year or more Dried egg products - 1 year or more with no refrigeration required Advantages of Processed Egg Products Convenience • Easy Storage • No extra labor for breaking shell eggs • Always ready to use Consistent Baking Performance • Uniform egg solid consistency • Ease of formulation • Product stability over time Frozen Egg Product Equivalency to Shell Eggs FROZEN SHELL PRODUCT (Kg) EGG* (No.) Whole 0.45 9 Yolks 0.45 22 White 0.45 14 Frozen Egg Products- up to 1-year shelf-life Whole eggs, whites or yolks Scrambled egg mix Salted whole egg or yolks Sugared egg yolks Whole eggs and yolks with corn syrup Whole eggs with citric acid Whole eggs with corn syrup 3.3 Frozen Egg Products Usage: As an ingredient for the food industry Availability: 4, 5, 8 and 10 lb. pouches or waxed plastic cartons, and 30 lb. containers Advantages: Long shelf life (1 year), functionality, variety blends Storage & Handling: Keep frozen at temperatures below 10°F (-12°C). Use as soon as possible 3.3 Made with liquid frozen whole egg Made with liquid frozen salted egg yolk Made with liquid frozen sugared egg yolk Refrigerated Liquid Egg Products - 12-week shelf-life Whole eggs, whites or yolks Sugared egg yolks Salted whole eggs or yolks Scrambled egg mix Cooked scrambled eggs Extended shelf life whole eggs, whites or scrambled egg mix 3.2 Foodservice and Commercial Food Industry Refrigerated Liquid Eggs Usage: Foodservice and the commercial food industry Availability: Bulk tank trucks, totes, metal or plastic containers, polyethylene coated fiber or laminated foil and paper cartons, and hermetically sealed polyethylene bags. Container size from small bags to cartons (8 oz. to 5 lb.) and lacquer coated tins and plastic pails up to 40 lb. Advantages:Pasteurized, quick and easy to use, 12 week shelf- life at 4 C (only when not opened) Storage & Handling: Store according to processor’s recommendations. Use within four to five days once opened except for extended shelf life products for which the supplier’srecommendations should be followed 3.2 Dried Egg Products Whole egg or yolk solids Dried egg or scrambled egg mix Various types of whole egg solids Free flowing whole egg or yolk solids Stabilized (glucose free) whole egg or yolk solids Blends of whole egg and/or yolk with carbohydrates 3.4 Egg Nutrients – Dried Source: Agricultural Research Service, USDA, 1994. Dried Whole (per 100g) Egg Yolk White Protein – g 47.35 34.25 81.1 Moisture – g 3.1 2.95 5.8 Fat (Total Lipid) – g 40.95 55.8 0 Ash – g 3.65 3.4 5.3 Carbohydrate – g 4.95 3.6 7.8 Calories – cal 594 666 382 Cholesterol – mg 1715 2335 0 2.6 Dried Egg Products Usage: As an ingredient especially for the food industry Availability: Foodservice – 6 oz. pouches, 3 and 25 lb. poly packs Commercial – 25 and 50 lb. boxes, 150, 175, and 200 lb. drums Advantages: Long shelf life (>1 yr), stable and mixable Storage & Handling: Keep in dry storage away from extreme temperatures and strong odors. Use pallets 3.4 Specialty Egg Products Marketed to institutional and consumer users. Diced hard-cooked, peeled eggs* Refrigerated whole hard-cooked, peeled eggs, plain or pickled* Frozen hard-cooked eggs* Frozen quiche mixes Frozen scrambled egg mix Dried scrambled egg mix Other frozen pre-cooked products* Ultra-pasteurized liquid egg products *Cooked egg products are not processed under USDA supervision. 3.5 FUNCTIONS COAGULATION EMULSIFICATION FOAMING RETARD CRYSTALLIZATION 4.0 Coagulation/ Gelation changes in structure of egg proteins (yolk and albumen) resulting in thickening or change from a fluid to solid or semi-solid state Thickening & Coagulation Whipping or heating allows products that contain eggs to thicken and/or coagulate, converting the mixture from a liquid state to a solid or semi-solid state. Can use both yolks and whites Binds products naturally Suspends other ingredients Gelling agents in custards Thickening agents in soft pie fillings when the egg custard is heated Creates texture and height When the egg foam is heated, creates structural stability 4.1 Coagulation/ Gelation induced by: Heat - protein denaturation Mechanical means - beating, chopping Sugar - raises temp. of coagulation Acids- decrease temperature of coagulation Alkali- high alkali can induce gelling of egg white Eggs For Coating And Binding With heat, egg coagulation imparts rigidity causing mixtures to gel and ingredients to adhere. Egg white is an excellent binding ingredient No essential differences are found in binding properties of dried whole egg and yolk and those of fresh liquid eggs 4.5 Emulsions/Surface activity- a stable mixture of two immiscible liquid phases, one which is dispersed in the other Mayonnaise Emulsification The phospholipids, lipoproteins and proteins found in egg yolks are surface active agents that enable the formation of emulsions from immiscible liquids such as oil and water. 4.6 Emulsions/Surface activity 3 Components necessary for an oil-in-water emulsion a) oil b) water c) interface, proteins, phospholipids, lipoproteins Water Oil Proteins, phospholipids, lipoproteins Factors Affecting Emulsification Freezing Temperature Acid Salt Drying 4.7 Eggs For Aeration When eggs are beaten, air is incorporated, creating a lighter, more air-filled product. Distinct cellular structure from eggs’ leavening action Structural framework helps to hold product together Increased volume for lighter foods Airy texture and smooth mouth-feel More integrated, sponge-like texture 4.8 Foaming/Surface activity- colloidial dispersion in which a gaseous phase is dispersed in a liquid phase air trapped during beating air bubbles decrease in size and increase in number as more air is incorporated the foam becomes stiff Factors Affecting Egg Foams Degree of beating Water Blending Manipulation Homogenizing Heat Temperature Copper pH Sugar Fat Acid Salt 4.9 Foaming/Surface activity- egg white foam ability (volume) due to ovalbumin foam stability due to ovomucin yolk contamination -”fat bullets” destroy foam Control Of Crystallization Eggs are used in confectionery products and ice creams to control crystallization of water molecules and create smooth texture and mouth- feel APPLICATIONS BAKING CATEGORIES EGG USAGE FLAVOR & COLOR HUMECTANCY & SHELF LIFE BENEFITS BREAD EFFECTS SWEET BAKED GOODS HEALTH BARS 5.0 Egg Baking Categories Industry Product Usage Functional Rationale Breads Used in standard breads and buns • Used as an egg wash to brown the crust and for flavor and structure in specialty breads and rolls Sweet Goods Used in egg custard fillings and tarts • Gels filling and adds color and richness to mass • Excellent emulsifier Cakes Eggs add volume and height to cakes • Works to aerate and build ingredients of all sorts into product matrix • Eggs provide structure Cookies & Specialty Items Used in meringues and other items • Eggs allow for aeration of baked goods where lighter texture is required • Eggs provide structural benefits Muffins & Popovers Creates unique pastry effect • Binds and produces desirable texture obtainable only through use of eggs and mouth-feel • Aeration of eggs build volume Frostings Used to thicken frosting and fillings • Coagulates and creates firm, smooth base Frozen Products Used in frozen dough and other items • Creates desirable characteristics in to control crystallization reheating and bake-off Healthy Snack Bars Adds protein and makes them a meal • Eggs are one of the highest quality replacement protein sources available 5.1 Egg Usage Industry Product Usage Functional Rationale Baking Breads, pastries, custards, cakes, cookies • Adds richness, increases volume and improves machine flexibility Dairy Ice cream, frozen desserts • Improves texture, decreases melting point, eliminates crystallization Confectionery Bars, fondants, fillings • Improves interior texture, stabilizes, adds richness and flavor Sauces Mayonnaise, salad dressings, dips and • Binds sauces and emulsifies mixtures of oil prepared foods and water Meal Replacements Energy bars for active and elderly • Provides excellent protein source as well as other functional benefits Beverages Pourable yogurts, dietary drinks and • Adds creamy texture and clarifies certain alcoholic beverages wines and juices Prepared Foods As an ingredient in frozen and prepared • Improves texture and freeze/thaw entrées and side dishes microwave capabilities Nutraceuticals Used as a protein supplement and as a • Used for the extraction of lysozyme and source for extraction of beneficial other substances such as yolk lecithin and substances sialic acid 5.1 Flavor And Color Eggs contain fats which carry and meld flavors in food products Eggs add flavor and enhance other flavors Egg yolks impart rich color and are used to fortify whole egg blends for a deeper color in baked products 5.2 Humectancy And Shelf Life Benefits Eggs improve cell structure and enable products to maintain structure during baking, thus reducing moisture loss from baked products Egg proteins also bind water, making it less available for microorganisms to grow and cause spoilage 5.3 Breads Functional Rationale: Browning qualities (e.g., golden brown crust) Structural desirability Egg white imparts crisper crust to hard rolls and hearth rolls Adds flavor benefits Adheres seeds and grains to the outside of bread Adds color to egg breads and varieties Adds nutritional benefits 5.4 Frostings And Glazes Functional Rationale: Structural desirability and binding benefits; create texture and height (volume) Adds rich flavor to mass Allows other ingredients to adhere Emulsifies Helps prevent crystallization in boiled frostings 5.5 Glaze Variations Glaze Result Egg + Salt Shiny surface Egg + Milk Medium shiny surface Egg + Water Less intense shine, golden surface Egg yolk + Water Shiny golden surface Egg yolk + Cream Shiny brown surface Egg white Light colored, crisp surface Egg white + Water and Sticky surface for adhering nuts and/or seeds nuts and/or seeds Egg white + Milk Transparent shiny surface 5.5 Sweet Baked Goods Functional Rationale: Browning qualities (e.g., golden brown crust) Structural desirability and binding benefits Aeration of baked goods Adds rich flavor to mass Adds color to yellow cakes, cookies and Danish pastry Gels fillings such as custards 5.6 Health Bars Functional Rationale: Structural desirability and binding benefits Binds other ingredients Improves nutritional value One of the highest protein sources available Flavor carrier Adds richness to mass 5.7 Egg Replacers Consumer research has shown that Americans know it is okay to eat eggs American Egg Board research indicates manufacturers’ aversion to egg replacers No replacer can adequately perform all the functions of real eggs 6.4 Liquid or Frozen Egg Products Specification Whole Yolk White Total <5,000 <5,000 <5,000 Microbial Count/g Yeast 10 max 10 max 10 max Mold 10 max 10 max 10 max Coliforms 10 max 10 max 10 max ALL MUST BE SALMONELLA NEGATIVE Dried Solids WHOLE YOLKS WHITES FREE (2) FREE (2) SPRAY PLAIN FLOW- PLAIN FLOW- SCRAM. EGG PAN DRIED DRIED ING ING Total <10,00 <10,000 <10,000 <10,000 <10,000 <10,000 <10,000 0 Yeast 10 max. 10 max. 10 max. 10 max. - 10 max. 10 max. Mold 10 max. 10 max. 10 max. 10 max. - 10 max. 10 max. Coliforms 10 max. 10 max. 10 max. 10 max. - 10 max. 10 max. Salmonella Neg. Neg. Neg. Neg. Neg. Neg. Neg.