Agenda: Week 5

*Nonverbal communication
    1. Defined
    2. Some cultural examples of the relativity of NV comm.

    1. Defined
    2. Types of lies (2)
    3. Deceptive behavior
    4. Deception detection & situational variables
    5. Deceptive behavior revisited
          -The four factor model
          -The sending capacity hypothesis
          -The gender variable & more!

*Some final distinctions regarding NV Comm.


Verbal Communication consists solely of the words that make up a

All other aspects of message can be defined as nonverbal communication.

So nonverbal communication doesn’t consist only of nonvocal
communication like gesture or facial expressions…

It also consists of non-linguistic but vocal communications such as voice
tone, loudness, and pitch.

First of all…we must remember that all communication is symbolic &

Therefore…we shouldn’t be surprised that nonverbal behavior varies form
culture to culture.
First off, “gestures” often have different meaning in different cultures.

Ex. We all know what giving or getting “The finger” means in United

But people in most other countries would have no idea what we meant if we
flashed them “The finger.”

Ex. The “O.K.” gesture we use in U.S. to indicate approval or well being…
    Means “You are worth nothing” in France & Belgium…
    Represents sexual insult in Greece & Turkey.

-The meaning behind eye contact also varies across cultures.

Ex. Asian cultures tend avoid eye contact when speaking & listening more
    than members of European, Australian, or United States cultures in

   …But especially when person of low status communicating w/ member
   of high status.

   For instance…if Chinese student misbehaves…being corrected by
   teacher…if student avoids eye contact: indication of respect & remorse!

   If student makes eye contact: indication or disrespect & defiance.

   Exactly opposite true in United States or Europe.

   And meaning behind eye contact varies even in United States.

   Ex. Caucasians Americans taught to look authority figures in eye…

        Traditionally, African Americans are taught to avoid eye contact w/

-Sensory Involvement also varies across cultures.

Sensory involvement refers to how touching & smelling behaviors are
interpreted in different cultures.
I’m going read you passage from book Communicating With Arabs that
illustrates this point well.

“To the Arab, to be able to smell a friend is reassuring. Smelling is a way of
being involved with another, and to deny a friend his breath would be to act
ashamed. In some rural Middle Eastern areas, when Arab intermediaries call
to inspect a prospective bride for a relative, they sometimes ask to smell her.
Their purpose is not to make sure she is freshly scrubbed; apparently what
they’re looking for is any lingering odor of anger or discontent.
 In contrast, United States Americans seem to maintain their distance and
suppress their sense of smell.”

-What is considered appropriate touching also varies across cultures.

Ex. Latin Americans & Middle Easterners engage more touching activity
    than United States Americans & Europeans…

   But U.S. Americans & Europeans touch far more than people in Asian

Obviously…point here is that skilled intercultural communicator is
knowledgeable about communication patterns of other cultures…

…Adapts his or her behavior to host culture.

**Now of course…there are examples of universal non-verbal behaviors.

For example, facial expressions people use express emotions are very
similar across cultures.

Smiling and laughing seem to indicate happiness no matter what culture
you’re in.

So people everywhere experience happiness, sadness, anger, & regret…
…& facial expressions people use to express these emotions very similar
regardless of culture…

But what differs across cultures is how appropriate emotional expression is.

Ex. In Asian cultures, people are expected to suppress their emotions as
   much as possible…

   In African cultures, emotional expression is considered appropriate or
   even admirable.

   United States…mainstream European-American culture falls between
   Asian & African cultures on appropriateness emotional expression.

   Ex. NFL & NBA…Joe Horn, Terrel Owens, Kevin Garnett…
       Judged as too emotional by mainstream Caucasian media…

       LPGA…Many Asian Ladies…too unemotional by mainstream
       Caucasian media.

So while all people feel same emotion…how much they express emotions
varies from culture to culture…

My recommendation is “Do what host culture does.”

If you’re in Japan…playing golf w/business client…make great shot…
DON’T thump your chest or howl like werewolf.

OK: Before we get into some definitions & concepts that are important to
know when attempting to understand our own & others nonverbal behavior..

…I’d like spend some time on my favorite area of non verbal study:

****Paul: Do Gass’ Activity Now: Embarrasing Story****

Deception involves verbal behavior & nonverbal behavior…but since we
won’t get chance talk about deception again…I’m going to talk about both
types deception now.

Deception can be defined as “A general persuasive strategy that aims at
influencing the beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors of others.”

There are two types of lies: Benign Fabrications & Exploitive Fabrications.
“Benign Fabrications” are engineered in the interest of the receiver.

“White lies” are best example of benign fabrications.

Of course, most famous white lie example is the “Do I look fat” routine all
couples go through.

It should be obvious that in case of benign fabrications…deceptive
communication can be good thing.

In fact, ability to send deceptive messages can be sign communication

So…we tell benign fabrications for sake of others…

…We tell exploitive fabrications to benefit ourselves.

Obviously, since majority of us are mostly concerned w/ our own well
being…majority of lies we tell are exploitive fabrications.

The reasons why people lie are pretty obvious…

What’s not so obvious is:
(a) How people behave when they lie.
(b) What situations are most difficult & easy to lie in.
(c) Why people behave differently when they’re lying then telling truth.

*Let’s first talk about how liars behave.

Remember, we like to think we’re very perceptive…but scientific
research…which is 100 times more objective than our regular perceptions…
consistently shows that our perceptions are flawed.

Our perceptions regarding deceptive activity particularly flawed.

Ex. What is # 1 way to tell if somebody lying?
    (“Eye Contact…”)

    Not only has research shown that people do not engage in less eye
    contact when lying than telling truth…
    Some studies have shown that people may actually engage in more eye-
    contact when lying.

In addition to falsely believing lack of eye contact indicates deception, most
people believe that liars:

(a) Smile less than people telling truth
(b) Shift posture more than people telling truth
(c) Take longer to answer questions than people telling truth.

However…liars don’t do any of these things more than truth tellers.

But, studies have shown that liars do…
(1) Blink more than truth tellers…
(2) Scratched & Rubbed themselves more than truth tellers…
(3) Made more speech errors…
(4) Gave shorter responses…
(5) Told more irrelevant information…
(6) Made more negative statements…
(7) Shrugged more…
(8) Had higher vocal pitch…
(9) Make overgeneralized statements.

At this point…you might be wondering…how do communicologists &
social psychologists come up w/ this stuff?

EX: Students…Intelligence Test…Cheating…Didn’t Cheat…Two Way
Mirror…Record Deceptive Behavior…Record Truthful Behavior.

Now let’s talk about what types of situations communicators are most
likely to leak deception cues in.

Senders are most likely to offer deception cues when they:
(1) Strongly want to hide their emotional states.
(2) Feel strongly about information their hiding.
(3) Feel apprehensive about deception.
(4) Feel guilty about deception
(5) Do not enjoy deceiving others
(6) Need to develop a complex fabrication to successfully deceive.
Senders are least likely to leak deception cues when:
(1) The deception is unrelated to their emotional states.
(2) They do not have strong feeling about deceptive information.
(3) They feel confident about the deception.
(4) Experience little guilt regarding deception.
(5) Enjoy deceiving others.
(6) Has rehearsed deceptive message or is knowledgeable about deceptive

So…to summarize…

*When we are experiencing strong emotions…but don’t want others to
know we’re feeling those emotions…we often leak deception cues.

Ex. Teenager lies… “Friends house movies”…Raging party…
    Parent: “So what did you really do last night…”

*Similar phenomenon occurs when we lie about information we feel
strongly about.

Ex. Strongly favor limited gov’t…finally go out person liked…They favor
    big government…You agree…

*We’re likely leak deception cues when we feel apprehensive about being

Ex. You’re Boss really sharp/perceptive…Call in sick…Nervous…Worried
“See right through me…” No confidence…

*We’re likely leak deception cues when we feel guilty about deception.

Ex. Teenager lied about party…Loves parents…Betrayed Trust…Guilt.

*We’re likely leak deception cues if we don’t enjoy lying.

Ex. Some people like lie…Game to them…Other hand, People w/
consciences…Poor liers.
*Finally…(this is pretty obvious)…More complex lie…more chance getting

…More information we have to tell…greater chance we’re going to make

-OK…so we’ve talked about situations where liars most likely to get caught;
-We’ve talked about what behaviors most likely indicate deception…

-Now let’s talk about (a) Why liars behave differently than truth tellers
(b) Why liars tend to leak certain deceptive cues but not others.

-According to Four-Factor Model of deceptive behavior…
… four reasons why liars behave differently when lying… when telling

The four behavioral factors are: Arousal, Attempted Control, Felt
Emotions, & Cognitive Effort.

-First assumption Four-Factor Model Makes that liars more aroused and
emotional than truth tellers.

Obviously…there are consequences for lying…

Ex. Lie to professor…fail course
    Lie to police…go to jail
    Lie to friend…may never talk you again.

As result of these consequences…liars = anxious & emotional.

Four Factor hypothesis that liars more anxious/aroused/emotional people
telling truth is supported by fact that liars more likely to:

(a) Make speech errors
(b) Blink
(c) Scratch or Rub themselves
(d) Make leg movements
(e) Contradict themselves
(f) Hesitate more often during speech, etc.
-Second…Four Factor model assumes people who lie don’t want get

…As result…Liars try to control their nonverbal behaviors when lying.

According to Sending Capacity Hypothesis…

It is physical impossibility for most of us to monitor all our nonverbal
behavior…especially when we’re lying.

As result…we are able to control some nonverbal behaviors…but not others.

Because we tend be aware of deception stereotypes…eye contact, facial
expressions, etc…

We use our mental energy to monitor our upper body…not very conscious
lower body.

As result…research has shown best way to detect deception is watch
speaker’s lower body movements.

Finally, Four-Factor Model argues because lying mentally taxes individual
more than telling truth…this over expenditure of mental energy causes liars
behave differently people telling truth.

Bottom line…lying takes more cognitive effort than truth telling.

Ex. When you lie…you have to “make things up as you go along…”

    You also have to remember not contradict yourself.

As result… Liars more likely people telling truth to:

Make speech errors, Make overgeneralized statements, and Include
irrelevant information when lying.

**In addition to studying liars behavior…

Deception researchers have also examined whether personality or gender
makes difference in deception skill.
Here’s what they found:

Niccolo Machiavelli was Florentine politician who believed humans, in
general, were stupid, selfish, & animalistic species.

Because he believed average person too stupid to govern him/herself…

Thought politicians should use deception to achieve goals people too stupid
to see as important.

Because of Machiavelli’s somewhat cynical view of human nature &
manipulative personality…

Social psychologists refer to as “Machiavellian” when they
(a) Have little sense social morality
(b) Feel no guilt manipulating others
(c) Not interested in personal relationship

…Not surprisingly, people w/ Machiavellian personalities are very good

Ex. Very interesting study showed that not only are Machiavellian children
more skilled at deceiving than normal children…

But parents involved in study judged deceptive Machiavellian children as
more innocent & honest than non-deceptive non-machiavellian children.

Ex. Erica & Leanna.

-Also (as would be expected):
(a) High self monitors…
(b) Emotional…
(c) Socially popular…
(d) Intelligent…

…more successful deceiving others than people who do not possess those
personality traits or skills.
But what about gender?

Two meta-analyses found that men are better liars than women.

Reason being, when people try to detect deception…we focus on nonverbal
behavioral cues.

When men lie…they tend to restrict their nonverbal behavior…

When women lie…they tend to over exaggerate their verbal behavior…
…more smiling, nodding, gestures, questions, etc…

(So means whenever women nice to you…they’re lying.)

Finally, here are some random…but interesting facts about deception…

*Prepared lies are easier tell than spontaneous lies.

 Surprise-party for friend…you need tell story get them out house…
 Might think “Prepared lie might sound fake…I better not practice…

*Lies about neutral information harder tell than personally relevant lies.

-Neutral Example: Business meeting…didn’t prepare…tough time lying
about statistics, raw data, profit margins…

-Personally Relevant: Business meeting…late… “I was because
volunteering local orphanage…”

*Higher stakes…harder it is to lie…

Easier to lie to police officer about running stop sign than robbing bank.

*This really interesting…

Research shown that people who paid detect lies for living are no better
detectors of deception than average college student.
College students detect deception as well as:
(a) Customs inspectors
(b) Police officers
(c) Lawyers & Judges
(d) Polygraphers

Only Secret Service Employees better lie detectors than college students.

Police officers & Judges, other professional lie detectors…
Trained by outdated deception detection method -Reid Method- that doesn’t
use scientific research as basis for teaching material

Another important factor how well we detect deception is if we have
Truth bias or Lie bias toward particular person or group.

Truth bias- Perception that certain person is usually honest.
Lie bias- Perception that certain person is usually liar.

Ex. Often times parents have “truth bias” toward their own children…
    “Lie bias” towards children not their own.

Ex. Sheila =Always got benefit of doubt…Her friends=Always lying
      …Grades…Curfew…Trouble in class…

Lastly, contrary popular belief…probing or quizzing liar about topic you
think they’re lying about…

…Not only does not increase deception detection accuracy…It also causes
third parties watching & listening to questioning perceive suspect as more

One explanation for this “probing effect” is that aggressively questioning
person makes them aware their being indirectly accused of lying…

…As result, liars start monitoring their nonverbal behavior more carefully
(1) Makes it difficult for witnesses tell if telling truth or not
(2) Makes witnesses dislike questioner…have sympathy for interviewee.
*There are several characteristics of nonverbal communication.

First characteristic… nonverbal communication is equally if not more
important in creation and manipulation of meaning than verbal

Anyone who has traveled to country where you didn’t know native language
knows that…

You can do lot of productive communicating using only nonverbal

Ex. I’ve learned from my many trips to Baja California that when Federale
Pulls you over…puts out his hand…he’s not asking for Driver’s License &

Second characteristic…Nonverbal communication is valuable because it
helps others accurately decode our messages.

Anybody who has ever sent an email knows this is true.

Ex. Don’t deal w/ conflict over email.

Another thing remember about nonverbal communication…
is that we cannot help sending some type message to others by our nonverbal

If we make eye contact we communicate interest or dominance.

If we don’t make eye contact we communicate disinterest or insecurity (at
least in individualistic cultures)

Remember competent communicators tend to self-monitor their behavior…

In other words…they’re aware that we “cannot not communicate” and are
careful about nonverbal messages they send.

Remember also that competent communicators adapt to their audience…
To adapt correctly…we need be able to interpret others behavior correctly…
& if we ignore others nonverbal messages…we won’t adapt effectively.

Third characteristic…Nonverbal communication is primarily relational.
Without doubt…some nonverbal communication serves practical

But, usually nonverbal communication used to achieve social ends.

For instance…nonverbal communication helps us to:

(a) Manage our social identities…
    It allows us to send messages about who we are or want to be.

Ex. Instead of saying… “Hi. I’m cool…I really am cool…And I want to fit

…You can just get couple of tattoos.

Ex. Or…instead walking up to your classmates & saying:

   “I have lots of friends & really exciting social life…”

   … Just make sure you always have your cell phone glued to you’re ear.

*Nonverbal communication also helps us to:

(b) Negotiate our relationships…

   In other words…99% of time…we use nonverbal communication to
   regulate nature of our social relationships w/others.

   Ex. Research has shown that # 1 way women let guys know they’re
   romantically interested is through eye contact.

   So if you’re guy…have you’re eye on certain gal at work or class…she
   may be friendly…she may be polite…

   …but if you don’t catch her looking at you…you’re out of luck.
   -Another example how we use nonverbal communication to regulate
   nature our relationships is how we use space to communicate…

   Ex. One way we try to exert dominance or gain independence in
   relationship is by taking steps maintain or establish large personal buffer

   For instance…In prison, violent prisoners have 22 sq. ft of buffer zone…

   …Nonviolent prisoners have only 7 sq. ft. of buffer zone.

   *Nonverbal communication also helps us to…

(c) Express emotions that may be difficult or impossible to put into words.

Ex. 10, 11, 12, year old boys…it they like girl…find that easiest way to let
    her know is by pulling her hair or putting spiders in her lunch box…

Ex. Or… lot of parents find it easier let son or daughter know they’re
    misbehaving by giving them The Look then by saying…

   “ Timmy, Janey…You’re making mommy very angry…”

So nonverbal communication is really most effective when we need to
express our attitudes & feelings.

In addition to being primarily relational, Nonverbal Communication is
“Ambiguous” as well.

Ex. If somebody is silent…they could be communicating number of things:

   -Silence can be used to show thoughtfulness…If somebody asks you
   question & you quietly think before answering…

    -But silence can also indicate ignorance

     But silence can also indicate coldness or emotional detachment…

     It can show submission or boredom…
     But silence can also used to get attention…or show disagreement.

*So meaning behind nonverbal behavior is often difficult to interpret.

But some people are better than others at decoding nonverbal

-People who tend to rely on nonverbal communication are more accurate
interpreters of it than those who rely more on verbal communication.

-High self-monitors interpret nonverbal communication better than low self-

-Extroverts decode nonverbal communication better than introverts.

-Women are more skilled than men decoding nonverbal messages.

But…even best nonverbal communication decoders don’t even come close
to 100% interpretation accuracy.

So the competent communicator:

(1) Seeks verbal clarification for others nonverbal behavior…

…Instead of: “You look pissed off…”

…Try: “You’re folding your arms…does that mean you’re angry?”

(2) Competent Communicator…Never assumes that others understand his /
her nonverbal messages.

Which means you should try, whenever possible:

…to accompany your nonverbal messages w/ some type verbal follow up
that reiterates or emphasizes your nonverbal message.

Finally, its important remember that person’s Cultural background plays
huge role in:

*Nonverbal messages they send…
*How they interpret nonverbal messages.