Silly Mime - PowerPoint by fjwuxn

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									Unit 7
  Teaching Objectives
1. Enlarge vocabulary
2. Talk about love
3. Learn to identify the writer’s
  purpose
4. Learn to write an application
  letter for admission
            Sections
Section A     A Rose Is a Rose
Section B       The Chunnel
Section C   Suggested Technique to
              a Speedy Recovery
  Section A

A Rose Is a Rose
     Table of Contents
Background Information
Warming-up Activities
Text Analysis
Vocabulary and Structure
Vocabulary Test
Writing
             Valentine’s Day
Valentine was a priest in Rome at the time
Christianity was a new religion. The Emperor at that
time, Claudius II, ordered the Roman soldiers not to
marry or become engaged. Claudius believed that as
married men, his soldiers would want to stay home
with their families rather than fight his wars.
Valentine defied the Emperor’s decree and secretly
married the young couples. He was eventually
arrested, imprisoned, and put to death. Valentine
was beheaded on February 14th, the eve of the
Roman holiday Lupercalia (牧神节). After his death,
Valentine was named a saint. As Rome became more
Christian, the priests moved the spring holiday from
the 15th of February to the 14th—Valentine’s Day.
    The Andes Mountains
The Andes Mountains stretch
over 5,500 miles from the
southern tip of Argentina and
Chile to the northern part of
Columbia in south America.
With many peaks and active volcanoes over 20,000
feet, including the highest peak Cerro Aconcagua
(elevation 22,826, located on the Chile and
Argentina border), this majestic region is second
only to the Himalayas in size and average elevation.
         Colombia
Colombia was one of the three
countries that emerged from
the collapse of Gran Colombia
in 1830 (the others being
Ecuador and Venezuela). A 40-
year insurgent campaign to overthrow the
Colombian Government escalated during the 1990s,
undergirded in part by funds from the drug trade.
Although the violence is deadly and large swaths of
the countryside are under guerrilla influence, the
movement lacks the military strength or popular
support necessary to overthrow the government.
        What is love?
What is love? And what causes it? An American professor,
Charles Zastrow, offers an interesting answer, particularly
to the second question. He argues that there are many
kinds of love and that especially in one kind, which he
calls “romantic love”, we are strongly influenced not so
much by what we actually feel but what we tell ourselves
about the way we feel. He calls this “self-talk”(自我暗示).
Zastrow says that especially in romantic love, our self-talk
comes from “strong, unsatisfied desires and frustrations”,
and that this kind of love often requires distance. “The
more forbidden the love, the stronger it becomes.” He
points out that this kind of love often begins to die as
soon as the problem and obstacles which separated the
two people are cleared and a normal relationship begins.
Group Discussions (1)
1. Work in groups to tell your group
   members whom you love very much
   and explain why. The following words
   and phrases will help you.
   considerate, patient, generous,
   hard-working, encouraging, tender,
   honest, gentle, responsible, easy to
   get along with, caring, warm-
   hearted, a good listener, humorous,
   energetic
Group Discussions (2)
2. Work with your group members to
  make up a love story. Try to make
  your story coherent and well-
  organized. The following words and
  phrases are for your reference.
  eagerly, emotion, be fond of,
  attractive, pretty, graceful, cute,
  handsome, fall in love at first sight,
  generous, loyal, devoted, gaze,
  hesitate, unconditionally, adoring,
  interaction, heart-broken, stroke
Comprehension of the Text(1)
1. What message do red roses deliver
  according to Gerald Hager, executive
  director of a marketing research institute?
   “Red roses say ‘I love you’,” says
   Gerald Hager.

2. How do discount rose shops help those
   people who are hopelessly in love?
  They help those people save money.
 Comprehension of the Text(2)
3. How are the customers dressed when
  they move about among the counters and
  stare at shelf after shelf of roses in more
  than 50 colors?
  Some are dressed in work clothes, and
  some in expensive suits and overcoats.
4. How does Roses Only obtain success in
  the discount rose retailing field?
  By holding prices down through
  controlling every link in the rose chain.
 Comprehension of the Text(3)
5. Why are U.S. rose growers going
  bankrupt while discount rose retailers
  watch their business prosper?
  Because of severe foreign competition.
6. What is the trend that has hurt domestic
  rose growers such as Johnson Flowers of
  California?
  The trend is that imported roses are sold
  across the entire breadth of the industry,
  from big flower shops to street-corner
  stands.
Comprehension of the Text(4)
7. What are the Johnsons trying to do about their
   overseas competitors?
  They are trying to work with their overseas
  rivals instead of fighting them.
8. What happened recently to Colombia’s rose crop
   and to U.S. rose growers on this Valentine’s Day?
  A recent frost killed 25% of Colombia’s rose
  crop and consequently U.S. rose growers had
  the good luck to make a lot more money on this
  Valentine’s Day as there was less competition
  from overseas rivals.
     Text Analysis (1)
      Main idea of the text
    Rose industry, both selling and
growing in U.S., is faced with severe
challenges. Fortunately, some retailers
and growers have found their way out.
Roses Only, a retailer, made it by
holding prices down, and Johnson
Flowers survived the intense
competition through cooperation with
overseas rivals.
                Text Analysis (2)
               Main Ideas of Each Part
                 As long as the rose remains the most popular flower as a
   Part I        symbol of love, any changing conditions in the nation’s
 (Paras. 1)      rose industry mean much to rose growers, and to those
                 who distribute roses and those who sell.
                 When selling roses is no longer a beautiful experience
  Part II        for traditional flower shops, one rose retailer, Roses
(Paras. 2-6)
                 Only, made a success with some adjustments.

                 Severe foreign competition puts U.S. rose growers on the
   Part III      edge of bankruptcy. Johnson Flowers, a domestic rose
(Paras. 7-12)    grower, however, finds a way out.

                 When people in the rose business are trying to
   Part IV       adapt to changing conditions in the marketplace
(Paras.13-14)    in order to succeed, they long for the good old
                 days of steady profits for them.
Words and Expressions

 distribute   go out of style
 delivery     range from… to…
 via          look like/as if
 bankrupt
              be left over
 launch
              account for
 release
 chase        nothing but
 rival        on sb.’s side
Structures
1. Typical patterns for the exposition of
   sb.’s way of doing sth.

2. Typical patterns for comparisons and
   contrasts
     distribute vt.
1. supply (goods) esp. to shops 销售
   The company aims eventually to distribute its
   products throughout the European Union.
  该公司的最终目的是将产品销售到整个欧盟。
2. divide and give out 分发
   The manufacturers distribute free samples to
   customers who are willing to try their products.
   生产商给愿意试用他们产品的顾客们分发免费的样品。
3. spread out through an area 分布
   The world’s wealth is not fairly distributed
   between women and men.
   世界财富男女之间分配不均。
delivery n.
1. the act of taking or giving sth. to sb., or the
   things taken or given 投递,送交
   Since you fail to keep your promise of
   punctual delivery of the goods, we have to
   cancel our order and claim for compensation.
   由于你方未能如约准时交货,我方只好取消定单,
   并且要求索赔。
2. the process of giving birth 分娩
   To our great joy, she had an easy delivery in
   the hospital.
   令我们大为高兴的是,她在医院顺利生产。
via prep.
using, through 通过,经由
Thanks to the swift transmission of television
pictures via satellite, we are kept well-
informed of what is happening all over the
world.
 多亏电视画面通过卫星能够迅速传送,我们才能及
 时准确地了解发生在全世界各地的事情。
 As there is no direct flight available, we will
 have to/have no option but to fly to Athens
 via Paris.
 由于没有直达航班,我们不得不经由巴黎飞至雅典。
bankrupt a./n.
a. 1. unable to pay what one owns 破产
   The company went bankrupt because of its
   poor management.
  那家公司因管理经营不善而破产。
  2. lacking in some good quality 败坏
  The public views him as a morally and
  ethically bankrupt politician.
  公众把他看作是道德沦丧的政客。
n. a person who is bankrupt 破产者
   The bankrupt and the men to whom he owed
   money arranged an accommodation.
  破产者和他的债权人协议调解。
  launch vt.
1. begin (sth. such as a plan) or introduce (sth. new
   such as a product) 发起(运动),推出(产品)
   To beautify the environment and make the
   campus green, the student union launched a
   campaign to plant trees surrounding the
   university.
  为了美化环境,绿化校园,学生会发起一项在大学周边
  植树的运动。
2. send (a new ship, etc.) into the water or send (a
   rocket, satellite, etc.) into the sky or space 使(船)
  下水,发射(火箭、卫星等)
  Russia’s space industry has won a contract to
  launch its first western satellite.
  俄国的航天工业赢得了一份合同,发射它的第一枚西方
  卫星。
release vt./n. (1)
vt. 1. allow (news, film, etc.) to be made
  known or to be shown 发布、发行
  Don’t release this news to the public until
  we give you the go-ahead.
  请等我们给你许可后再公布这条新闻。
  2. give freedom or free movement to 释放、
  放开
  Under the pressure of international
  consensus, the hijackers released three of
  the hostages.
  迫于国际舆论,劫机犯释放了三名人质。
 release vt./n. (2)
n. 1. the act of setting free or being set free 解脱
  After the match the coach had a feeling of
  release.
  比赛结束后,教练有一种如释重负之感。
  2. a book, film, record, piece of news, etc. that
  has been made available to the public 发行的新
  书、电影
  Her latest release is a song about hopeless love.
  她的最新单曲是关于无望的爱情。
   chase vt./n.
vt. 1. force to run away; drive away 驱赶、驱逐
   The Johnsons’ cat likes to chase after the mice as
   if it were playing with them.
  约翰逊家的猫喜欢追逐老鼠,好像在跟它们闹着玩似的。
  2. run after in order to get 追赶、追逐
  Many a person sacrifices their health in the
  process of chasing after fame and wealth.
  许多人在追求名利和财富的过程中牺牲了健康。
n. an act of chasing sth. 追踪、追捕
   After the robbery, the police immediately gave
   chase to the criminals.
  劫案发生之后,警方立即开始追查罪犯。
  rival n./vt.
n. a person, group, etc. competing with others for
   the same thing or in the same area 竞争对手
  Clashes between rival football fans/supporters
   are commonplace in western football matches.
  相对立的两派足球球迷间的冲突在西方球赛中很常见。
vt. seem or be as good as sb./sth. 与……相匹敌
  As far as the old lady is concerned, of all the
   flowers in the garden, few can rival the lily.
  对那个老妇人来说,花园里所有的花卉当中,很少有
  能与百合花相媲美的。
go out of style/date 不再时兴,过时

这些老歌也许永远都不会过时,而且会越来越
受欢迎。
Maybe these old songs will never go out
of style and will become more and more
popular.
These models of
coats are no longer
in fashion now.
这种样式的外衣不再时兴了。
range from…to… 在一定范围内变化

那个贫穷的山村学校里只有二十五个年龄从6岁到13岁不
等的学生。
In that poor village school, there were only 25
          whose ages ranged from 6 to 13
students ___________________________.

Sentences range from 5 or 6 words to 70,
with the majority not far from 20.
句子的长度从5、6个字到70个字不等,不过大多数句
子的长度在20个字左右。
look like+N./clause; look as if+clause 看起
来像;好像要
From the results, (似乎我们当初做出了正确的选
   it looks as if we made the right choice.
择)_________________________________

The old lady was only skin and bones and
she looked as if she had been through
some terrible famine.
那个老妇人瘦得皮包骨,看上去就象经历了一场严重
的饥荒。
be left over 剩下来,留下来
今日事,今日毕。

Today’s work
should never be left
over till tomorrow.

这些苹果分完后还剩下两个。

After sharing out the apples, there
were two left over.
account for 占去;解释
Young people, university students in
particular, account for the vast majority of
our consumers
我们的绝大多数消费者是年轻人,尤其是大学生。

I want you to account for
each sum of the money you
spent.
我要你说明你所花掉的每一笔钱的
用途。
nothing but 只有; 除了……以外什么也不
Do not have him for a friend: he’s nothing
but a criminal.
不要把他当作朋友,他只是一个罪犯。
Compare:
anything but : not at all; far from
That little bridge is
anything but safe.
那座小桥一点也不安全。
    be on sb.’s side 对某人有利;赞同某人的
    意见
                    The champion is a more
                    experienced fighter, but
                    the challenger has got
                    youth on his side.
                    冠军更有经验,但他的挑战
                    者却有年轻这一优势。
             When it comes to studying
             abroad, I am on your side. I
             also    hold    that    the
在出国留学这一问题上,我
             advantages of going abroad
赞同你的意见。我也认为出
国留学利大于弊。     to study far outnumber its
             disadvantages.
      1. Typical patterns for the exposition
      of sb.’s way of doing sth.

 原句: The company’s formula for success is to
 hold prices down by controlling every link in
 the rose chain. (L. 32)
 该公司成功的秘诀是通过其销售链的每一个环节
 降低成本。
                  句型提炼
Sb.’s formula / recipe / prescription for (doing)
  sth. is sth. else / to do sth. else. 某人(做某
  事)的诀窍 / 秘诀是······
   应用:宽容、耐心和理解是她幸福婚姻的
   秘诀。


Tolerance,
patience and
understanding are
her formula for a
happy marriage.
  应用:他生意场上成功的秘诀是:诚信为
  本,顾客至上。




His recipe for
success in business
is to take honesty
as the fundamental
principle and put
the customers first.
      2. Typical patterns for comparisons
      and contrasts (1)
原句:For rose growers, those who distribute
roses, and those who sell, this year’s anticipated
7% increase in sales will be sweeter than a 5-
pound box of chocolate candy. (L. 3)
对玫瑰花种植商、分销商及零售商来说,预计今年
的销售量将增加7%,这个数字比一盒5磅重的巧克
力糖还要甜蜜。

                  句型提炼
1) For those who…, sth. is more…than sth. else.
   对那些······人来说,某事要比别的事更······
应用:对那些追求家庭生活温馨的人来说,配
偶的内在素质要比外表更可靠、更可取。


For those who go after
the warmth of family
life, the spouse’s
interiors are more
reliable and more
desirable than his / her
exteriors.
       2. Typical patterns for comparisons
       and contrasts (2)
原句:While discount rose retailers watch their
business bloom, U.S. rose growers are going
bankrupt amid severe foreign competition. (L. 38)
在折价玫瑰花零售店生意兴隆的同时,美国的玫瑰种植
商却在残酷的外来竞争中濒临破产。
                 句型提炼
 While sb. watches his business/career/study etc.
 bloom/thrive/boom/prosper etc., sb. else is
 undergoing sth. unfortunate/distressing etc. 在某
 人目睹其生意/事业/学业等兴旺发达的同时,别人正
 在经历不幸的事情。
应用:在我们看着沿海地区日益繁荣的同时,
贫困地区许多失学儿童却亟需我们的关爱。


While we watch the
coastal areas thrive with
each passing day, many
of the children unable to
go to school in the
poverty-stricken regions
are seriously in need of
our love and care.
  Vocabulary Test (1)
  Directions: For each sentence there are four
  choices marked A), B), C) and D). Choose the
  ONE answer that best completes the sentence.
1. They are two dollars each but if you buy ten,
you get a _____ of ten per cent.
A) discount                   B) recession
C) depression                 D) discharge

2. Money _____ as it goes from person to person.
A) speaks                     B) scatters
C) circulates                 D) distributes
 Vocabulary Test (2)
3. I bought a washing-machine and asked to have
  it sent to my house. The manager of the store
  promised to make a prompt _____.
  A) delivery                B) relay
  C) supply                  D) transport

4. His hope _____ when he heard that there were
  some survivors in the shipwreck.
  A) highlighted             B) soared
  C) inspired                D) flourished
 Vocabulary Test (3)
5. He _____ his rose bushes carefully with
  insecticide every evening.
  A) distributed               B) discharged
  C) spread                    D) sprayed
6. His company went _____ after he failed in the
  business.
  A) decent                    B) negative
  C) bankrupt
  C) bankrupt                  D) acute
 Vocabulary Test (4)
7. Although the two players are _____ in the
  tennis court, they are really good friends.
  A) partners                  B) enemies
  C) rivals                    D) companions


8. Don’t _____ this news to the public until we
   give you the go-ahead.

  A) relieve                  B) release
                              B) release
  C) relate                   D) retain
 Vocabulary Test (5)
9. A new spaceship was _____ at Cape Kennedy
   yesterday.
  A) motivated               B) released
  C) transmitted             D) launched

10. The noise was caused by a dog _____ a cat
  through the garden.
   A) chasing                B) following
   C) catching               D) fighting
Directions: Fill in the blanks with the phrases given
below. Change the form where necessary.
long for    account for     hold down      go out of style
look like   range from …to … on sb.’s side     anything but
nothing but get a break     be left over   devote …to …

                                  account for
1. Recent pressure at work may ___________ his
   strange behavior.
                   were left over
2. Problems that _____________ in history between
   different countries are now able to be solved by
   peaceful means.
                     nothing but
3. He was wearing __________ a pair swimming
   trunks.
                         longed for
4. Price reductions are _________, but unlikely.
                                    gone out of style
5. Such kind of furniture has long ______________.
long for    account for     hold down     go out of style
look like   range from …to … on sb.’s side    anything but
nothing but    get a break  be left over  devote…to…


 6. The increase in GDP in various provinces of the
                 ranged from              to
 coastal region ___________ several _____ several
 dozen times.
              looked/looks like
 7. The field ______________ a possible site for the
 competition.
                                    held down
 8. The rate of interest has been ___________.
 9. No matter what happens, just remember: justice is
  on our side
 ___________.
            got a break
 10. Anna __________ yesterday when the teacher
 failed to notice she was late for class.
Writing

             求学信
Application Letter for Admission

           写作方法
           参考范文
          Useful words and phrases
academic/professional training    fine tradition of scholarship
  专业培训                            学风好
admission 入学                      lay a firm foundation 打下坚实的
                                  基础
admit 接纳                          make contributions to 对…做出
apply for admission 申请入学          贡献
at your earliest convenience 尽快   offer courses in 开设…方面的课程
convenience 方便                    renowned 有名的
enjoy worldwide fame              tuition 学费
享有国际声誉                            well-equipped 设备精良
further one’s pursuit 进一步深造       well-staffed 师资好
                                  prestigious 享有盛誉的
previous experience 以往经历
                                  qualification 资格
reward scholarship 授予奖学金
                                  read for a degree 攻读学位
spring / fall semester 春/秋学期
                                  related /relevant information
inquire about 询问                  相关信息
   Useful sentence patterns
1. I'm writing this letter to inquire about the
   entrance to your university.
  我现写信询问有关就读贵校的事宜。
2. I wish to apply for admission to your department
   as a graduate student.
  我现申请攻读贵系研究生。
3. I am writing to request admission into the Dept
   of...at your University for the Spring semester. It
   is my long-cherished desire to pursue study at a
   university in Canada.
  我现写信申请春季就读贵校的……系。在加拿大读大学是我长久以来
  的愿望。
4. I should be grateful to know the conditions under
   which applicants are admitted.
  我想了解有关入学申请情况。
    Useful sentence patterns
5. If you need any additional information, please do not
   hesitate to contact me.
  如您需要我的其它材料, 请及时告知。
6.Your university is a well-staffed and well-equipped
   institute with a long history and a fine tradition of
   scholarship, enjoying a worldwide fame. I will certainly
   feel greatly honored if I am fortunate enough to be
   admitted into it.
  贵校师资好,设备精良,历史悠久,治学严谨,享有盛誉。如有幸成为贵校
  学生,我将感到很光荣。
7. Would you please let me know the procedures for
   admission at your earliest convenience?
  请您尽快告诉我入学的有关程序,好吗?
8. I shall be glad to furnish you with any further information
   concerning my education and professional experience.
  我很乐意为您提供有关我个人学习和工作经历的情况。
      Useful sentence patterns
9. I graduated from...University with a Bachelor's degree in….
  我毕业于……大学, 获得……学士学位。
10.I would be very grateful if you could tell me about the
   duration of the courses, facilities available and the cost for
   study and accommodation.
  如果您能告知我课程的有关信息,如课程的时间、设施、学费及住宿费等,我
  将很感激。
11.Would you allow me to register in spring 2006 and send me
   an application form?
  您能准许我在2006年的春季入学并寄给我一份申请表吗?
1 2 . I would be very obliged if you could give favorable
   consideration to my application for admission.
  如果您能妥善考虑我的入学申请,我将很感激。
13. I’m looking forward to hearing from you soon.
  希望尽快收到您的回复。
 Writing process
Opening
1. A brief self-introduction
  简单自我介绍
2. Reasons for your application
 为何写申请


Body
1. Elaborate background information (qualifications
   /education /working experience / hobby).
  详细的背景材料(资格、受教育情况、工作经历、兴趣等)。
2. Details of your request concerning the school, courses
   and so on.
  询问有关学校、课程等具体内容。
 Writing process
  Ending
1. Request some necessary information and
  application forms.
  要求得到相关信息和申请表格。
2. Express your appreciation to the recipient for
   his /her consideration of your application.
  感谢收信人考虑你的申请。
3. Request a favorable reply and consideration.
  希望得到满意的答复。
Writing practice
An Application Letter for Admission

1. 首先做简单的自我介绍,并说明所申请专业。
2. 详细阐述学业情况并询问学校情况。
3. 希望得到有关申请和入学程序的信息和申请
   表格。
Writing practice
如何写出国留学的申请信?

1. 首先,在引言部分,申请人需要进行简要的自我介绍,
   并表明写此信的原因是为了攻读某专业的某学位,还
   可表达申请人对目标大学的仰慕之情。
2. 接着,在正文部分,求学者应提供个人有关背景资料,
   详细阐述其学业情况和兴趣爱好 ,表达能够在海外顺
   利完成学业的决心。然后,申请人可询问有关学校、
   课程等具体内容,如课程的时间、设施、学费及住宿
   费等,并说明他所有生活费用和学费应由哪方负担。
3. 最后,在结尾部分,求学者可表示希望得到有关申请
   和入学程序的信息和申请表格,感谢对方妥善考虑其
   入学申请,并希望得到满意的答复。
      Reference Model (1)
Dear Sir or Madam,

   I am a Chinese senior student of Beijing University of
Technology. I wish to pursue my Master's degree in your
university upon my graduation. I m deeply interested in your
graduate program in the Dept of Management of Human
Resources. It is my long-cherished dream to further my
pursuit at such a prestigious university as yours in Britain.

   I am going to graduate with a major of Environmental
Engineering in my university. I have been the winner of First
Prize Scholarships several times because of my excellent
academic performance. I also have a wide range of hobbies,
such as reading, singing and swimming. I am an outstanding
football player on our university team.
      Reference Model (2)
   My English is very good. I took the IELTS exam last
month and got an average band of 7.5, so I don’t think I will
encounter any language problems in my studies overseas. I
would be very grateful if you could tell me about the
duration of the courses, facilities available and the cost for
study and accommodation. All my living expenses and
tuition will be covered by my parents, who have their own
businesses. Of course, if it is possible to take a part-time job
in your country, I would like to give it a try so that I could be
independent. By the way, is there a football club in your
university?
    Would you please let me know the application and
admission procedures and send me the application forms? I
would very much appreciate your favorable consideration of
my application and I am looking forward to your reply.
                                Yours sincerely
                                签名:_________
Section B

The Chunnel
     Table of Contents

Reading Comprehension

Vocabulary Study

Vocabulary Test
Comprehension of the Text (1)
1. How long is the Chunnel?
   It is 31miles.

2. How do people on both sides of the English
   Channel feel about the construction of the
   Chunnel?
   They are proud of the engineering
   achievement.

3. When will Britain improve its railway system?
   Britain won’t improve it until after the year
   2000.
 Comprehension of the Text (2)
4. Who first got the idea of linking England to the
   European mainland?
   An engineer suggested it to Napoleon in 1802.

5. Why are trains more punctual when compared
   with other means of transportation?
   Because they are not delayed by bad weather.

6. What did the company that operates the
   Chunnel do in response to the negative news
   reports?
   It issued press releases accusing the reports of
   being inaccurate.
 Comprehension of the Text (3)
7. Why does each train have two engines?
   It has two engines, in case one fails.

8. Why is a disaster unlikely to happen in the
   Chunnel according to the engineers?
   Because the Chunnel is far beneath the sea
   floor and it wouldn’t be flooded by a bomb.
 Vocabulary Study
exclude        behind schedule
bore
                 if not for
respective
conquer      have sth. in common
punctual           die out
equivalent
faulty             by far
accuse             in case
exclude vt.
keep out 不包括,把……排除在外
They excluded people under 18 from joining the
club.
他们拒绝接纳十八岁以下的人加入俱乐部。
We can’t exclude the possibility that some
warmongers will run the risk of starting a new
world war.
我们不能排除有些战争贩子会冒险发动一场新的世界大战的可能性。

It is common sense that the court excluded the
improperly obtained evidence.
众所周知, 法院不接受非正常渠道获得的证据。
  bore v./n.
v. 1. make a hole (in sth.) using a tool 钻孔,挖洞
  This new model drilling machine can bore
  through solid rock ten meters deep.
  这台新型钻机能钻透十米厚的坚固岩石。
 2. talk or act in a way that makes (sb.) lose
 interest and become tired 使厌烦
 Young children become quickly bored by adult
 conversation.
  年幼的孩子很快就会厌烦大人的谈话。
n. a person or thing that bores 令人厌烦的人或事
  It is a bore to have to pick up other people’s
  messes.
 收拾别人留下的烂摊子真烦人。
     respective a.
of or for or belonging to each as an individual 各自的
It was apparent they had disgraced themselves
and their respective parents.
很显然,他们让自己和各自的父母丢了脸。
To our joy, they all achieve great success in
their respective fields.
令我们高兴的是,他们都在各自领域取得了巨大成功。
Compare:
respectable: 可尊敬/重的;a respectable elderly man
respectful: 尊重人的;表示敬意的 be respectful to the elderly
      conquer vt.
1. take control of (foreign land or a group of people)
    by force 征服,攻克
   According to the textbook of history, the Normans
   conquered England in 1066 and this conquest was referred
   to as the Norman Conquest.
   据史书记载诺曼底人于一零六六年占领了英格兰,这在历史上被成
   为“诺曼征服”。
2. overcome; gain control over 克服,制伏
   Modern medical science has conquered many diseases,
   which, to a great extent, contributes to people’s longevity.
   现代医学攻克了许多疾病,这在很大程度上使人们越来越长寿。
3. succeed in gaining the favor, praise, love, etc. of 征
   服,赢得
  John went to Paris to conquer the whole artistic
  world.
   约翰去了巴黎,想要征服整个艺术界。
punctual a.
arriving, doing sth. or happening at the correct
time; not late 准时的,守时的
In most cases, punctuality is viewed as a virtue
and people who are punctual are highly
regarded.
在多数情况下,人们都认为守时是一种美德。守时的人
受人尊重。


To impress a future employer, a job
candidate/applicant should dress neatly, be
punctual and display interest in the job.
为给未来雇主留下良好印象,求职者应穿着整齐,严守
时刻,并且表现出对工作有兴趣。
 equivalent n./a.
n. a thing that is equal in value, amount, meaning,
   importance, etc. 相等物,等价物
   Some English words have no Chinese
   equivalents and vice versa. This poses great
   difficulty to translation.
  某些英文单词在汉语里没有对等词,反之亦然。这给
  翻译造成了很大的困难。
a. equal in value, amount, meaning, importance,
   etc. 相等的;等值的
   It is unfair that women are paid less than men
   doing equivalent work.
  妇女做和男人同样的工作而得到的报酬少,这是不公
  正的。
faulty a.
having a fault or faults 有缺点的;有错误的
If the product/commodity you bought in
a department store is faulty, you can
either send it back to the manufacturer
or complain to the Consumers’
Association.
如果你在商店所购买的商品有毛病,你或者可以把它
退回厂家,或者向消协投诉。
It turned out that the accident was caused
by faulty brakes.
结果证明这起车祸是刹车故障造成的。
 accuse vt. (1)
blame by saying that one has done sth.
morally wrong or against the law 谴责,
控告
Man often accuses nature for his own
misfortunes.
人类常把自身的不幸归罪于天。
Those young men were accused by the
police of causing a disturbance in the
neighborhood.
警察指控那些青年人在这一带犯了扰乱治安罪。
accuse vt. (2)
辨析: accuse       charge
 这两个词都含有指控或控告之意,但在用法上
 和搭配上是有区别的。accuse指当面谴责,但
 未必诉诸有关当局,语气比charge强,为正式
 用语,其表达式为accuse sb. of sth.。charge可
 指因小过错而受的责备,如违犯规则,但常指
 严重的罪过如犯法,并向当局正式控告,既可
 作一般用语,也可作法律用语,语气比accuse
 弱些,其表达式为charge sb. with sth.。
 The police accused him of murder.
 Critics charged the writer with a lack of
 originality. 评论家指责这位作家缺少独创性。
behind schedule 落后于计划或进度;迟于原定时间

These operations have been carried out
not according to schedule but behind
schedule.
这些手术不是按原计划进行的,而是迟于原定时间进
行的。

Owing to the recent bad weather, the
work is several weeks behind schedule.
由于近来天气不好,该项工作比预定时间晚了好几个
星期。
归纳记忆:schedule构成的短语
 according to schedule 按照原定进度
 ahead of schedule 提前
 on schedule 按时间表, 准时
 tight schedule 排得紧紧的时间表
 to schedule [美]按照预定时间
 bus schedule 公共汽车时刻表
 class schedule 功课表, 课表
 train schedule 列车明细表
 if not for 要不是
The earth would be a frozen ball if (it were)
not for the radiant heat of the sun.
要不是太阳放射出热量,地球可能已经成了一个冰球了。


If not for /If it hadn’t been for my
colleagues' generous help, I would not have
finished the task successfully.
如果没有我同事的慷慨帮助,我是无法成功完成那个任
务的。
have sth. in common   (与…)有共同之处

The couple have nothing in common: they
have no common interests, no common
friends, and no common goals in life. I
wonder why they tie the knot.
这对夫妻没有什么共同之处:他们没有共同的兴趣,没
有共同的朋友,也没有共同的生活目标。我真不知道他
们是如何结合在一起的。
His latest two novels have many things in
common.
他最新的两部小说有很多相似之处。
die out 逐渐消失;灭绝

Many animals and birds are now extinct
and many more are in danger of/on the
verge/brink of dying out soon.
许多鸟兽现已绝种,还有更多的正濒临灭绝。


We were very disappointed at the news
that this tribe and its customs had died
out centuries ago.
这个部落及其文化在几个世纪前就已经消失了的消息
使我们很失望。
by far 得多;尤其;显然

He is by far the best player on our team.
Therefore, it will be a great loss to us if
he transfers to another team.
他绝对是我们球队最好的队员,因此,如果他转会到
另一个球队,那无疑对我们来说是个巨大的损失。


Shanghai’s population is greater by far
than that of any other Chinese city.
上海市的人口比中国其他城市的人口要多得多。
归纳记忆:far构成的短语
as far as … be concerned 至于 ……
as (so) far as one can 尽力
as far as it goes 就其本身而言
far and wide 四面八方,到处
far from it 远非如此
so far 迄今为止
so far so good 到目前为止一切顺利
 in case 如果,万一;以防

 I will cook plenty of food just in case they
 decide to stay for dinner.
 我会做很多饭,以防他们决定留下来吃饭。
 In case he arrives before I get back,
 please ask him to wait.
 万一在我回来之前他到了,请叫他等一等。

in case of: if there should happen to be: 如果发生
 911 is a number to call in case of emergency.
 911是万一发生意外时拨打的号码。
   Vocabulary Test (1)
 Directions: Fill in the blanks with the phrases
 given below. Change the form where necessary.
for short   in case     a matter of time      drag through
die out     if not for have sth. in common    go back to
accuse sb. of behind schedule exclude sb. from by far

                                      exclude
   1. You are all responsible; I can _______ no
           from
      one _____ blame.
   2. Owing to the recent bad weather, the work
                       behind schedule
      is several weeks ______________.
                    by far
   3. It’s quicker ________ to go by train.
   4. Please remind me of the meeting on Friday
                in case
      in time __________ I forget.
  Vocabulary Test (2)
for short   in case     a matter of time   drag through
die out     if not for have sth. in common    go back to
accuse sb. of behind schedule exclude sb. from by far


                     a matter of time
 5. It would be only _______________ before he
 went through with it.

                            been accused of
 6. The middle-aged man has _____________
 murdering his wife.

 7. The conflicts between the two big families
  went back to
 ___________ 1935.
  Vocabulary Test (3)
for short   in case     a matter of time   drag through
die out     if not for have sth. in common    go back to
accuse sb. of behind schedule exclude sb. from by far


 8. Traditional grocers’ shops are fast
      dying out
    ___________ now that there are so many
    supermarkets.

 9. She might have forgotten that completely
       if not for
     ___________ the recurrent nightmares.

                                     have
 10. We are good friends because we ______
                    in common
    many interests __________.
Directions: Complete each of the following
sentences with the proper form of the word given
in brackets.

1. Your essays tend to concentrate on one theme
           exclusion
   to the ________ (exclude) of everything else.
2. It is necessary and polite to attach great
                    punctuality
   importance to _________. (punctual)
3. In English teaching and learning, teachers and
                         respective
   students have their _________ (respect) roles.
                                  invade
4. It’s totally wrong to ________ (invasion)
   another person's rights.
             pessimist
5. He is a _________ (pessimistic) because he sees
   everything in the negative way.
                 failed
6. His friends ________(failure) him when he
   most needed them.
                          fault
7. Don’t blame him; the ________ (faulty) lies
   with me, not with him.

8. I had expected the book to be fascinating, but
                            boring
   on the contrary it was ________ (bore).
                         Journal
9. The doctor reads the ________ (journalist) of
   Medical Science.
        conquerors
10. The _________ (conquer) marched into the
  defeated country.
     Section C

Suggested Technique to a
    Speedy Recovery
 Directions: Choose the best answer to each of the
 following questions:
                        C
1. Owing to the team, ______
A. the patients suffered no additional pain and the
   tube was removed quickly — sometime four
   hours after surgery.
B. the death rates have gone down dramatically.
C. the hospital stay of an open-heart surgery
   patient dropped from an average of nine days to
   seven days.
D. the hospital stay of an open-heart surgery
   patient dropped from an average of nine days to
   five days
2.Which of the following statements is true according to the
   passage? A
A. Insurance companies and HMOs increasingly are paying
   hospitals a fixed amount for each patient, no matter how
   long they stay.
B. By using pain-killing drugs that wear off quickly and a
   simple pain medicine, patients were put into a long sleep
   and couldn’t breathe on their own.
C. Although the tube assists breathing, patients say that it
   feels like a fire running through their throat and hurts no
   more than having a tooth pulled out.
D. The team studied the situation and cut down on
   improvements that once earned the team a special award
   for quality improvement.
  Directions: Read the text first and then provide short
  answers to the following questions.
3. What was a 15-member team supposed to do two years ago
    according to the passage?
    The team got a permission from authorities two years ago to
    find a way to get the tube taken away sooner so as to ease the
    pain and help the hospital move patients from the intensive
    care area sooner.
4 . Why did the members of the team borrow a seven-step
    problem-solving process from an electric company?
    Because in this way, they could find what was wrong with the
    process quickly and set a target for improvement immediately.
5. Who made resistance to reducing drugs to serve the purpose?
    How did the team members solve the problem?
    The team members faced resistance from those who were used
    to doing things in the traditional way. They spent six weeks
    educating everyone about the changes and winning the
    cooperation of doctors, nurses and breathing specialists.
Thanks

								
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