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					OCN 109 TEST #1 (Crawford, Fall 2004) STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 1: KNOWING THE OCEAN WORLD

TERMINOLOGY: Be able to define/discuss the following (e.g., Define the term “hypothesis”; What branch of
oceanography deals with currents and waves? ): marine science, oceanography, physical oceanography; chemical
oceanography; biological oceanography; geological oceanography; hypothesis; theory; law; scientific method;
celestial navigation; latitude; longitude; Library of Alexandria; Eratosthenes; Ptolemy; Polynesian migrations;
Viking contributions; Chinese contributions; Prince Henry the Navigator; Christopher Columbus; Ferdinand
Magellan; John Harrison; Capt. James Cook; soundings; United States Exploring Expedition; Capt. Charles Wilkes;
Benjamin Franklin; Matthew Maury; Charles Darwin; Challenger Expedition; Fridtjof Nansen; echo sounders;
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution; Scripps Institution of Oceanography; Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory.

1.    Discuss the Scientific Method. How does it work?

2.    List and describe the four sub-branches of oceanography

3.    Discuss the relevance of the ocean. Why do we study it (why is it of interest to us)? (give and discuss several
      reasons).

4.    Which hemisphere contains the greatest percentage of ocean? Is most of Earth's water in the ocean?

5.    Who was Eratosthenes and what contributions did he make related to marine science?

6.    The Polynesian peoples migrated to new islands over incredible distances. Name three techniques or kinds of
      observations we think they might have used to help them navigate around the Pacific Ocean.

7.    What was the so-called “Age of Discovery” (or "Age of European Discovery")? What was the motivation
      for this era of exploration? What event ended the era (at least in historians’ eyes)?

8.    What was the "longitude problem"? How did John Harrison solve it?

9.    Discuss at least four of Captain Cook’s additions to scientific and geographic knowledge.

10.   What was the first large-scale U.S. study of the ocean called? How many vessels did they use? What is the
      reason, suggested by the textbook, that this major oceanographic study is less famous than Captain Cook's
      voyages or the Challenger expedition?

11.   What was Benjamin Franklin’s most famous contribution to oceanography?

12.   Who was Matthew Maury and what were his contributions to oceanography?

13.   Discuss the significance of the Challenger expedition. What was accomplished?

14.   What did Fridtjof Nansen prove during his 3-year cruise through the Arctic Ocean? What other insights about
      the ocean did he gain during those studies?

15.    What are the three major oceanographic institutions in the US today?

16.    What is the major advantage of satellites over ships for studying the ocean? Why don’t we do all our
      oceanography from satellites, then?
CHAPTER 2: ORIGINS

TERMINOLOGY: Be able to define/discuss the following: Big Bang Theory; galaxy; nebulae; hydrogen gas;
condensation theory; protostar; star; accretion; outgassing; density stratification; nopdumyjrdod



    1.   What element makes up most of the detectable mass in the universe?

    2.   How old is the Earth? On what are those estimates based?

    3.   What is density stratification? What does it have to do with the present structure of the Earth?

    4.   What is biosynthesis? Where do researchers think it might have occurred on our planet? Could it happen
         again today?



CHAPTER 3: PLATE TECTONICS

TERMINOLOGY: Be able to define/discuss the following: isostatic equilibrium; buoyancy, fault; Pangaea,
Panthalassa, continental crust; oceanic crust; granite; basalt; crust, mantle, core, lithosphere; asthenosphere; upper
mantle; lower mantle; inner core; outer core; radioactive decay; radiometric dating; Pacific Ring of Fire; conduction;
convection; faults; primary waves, secondary waves, Alfred Wegener; continental drift; seafloor spreading, plate
tectonics, paleomagnetism, hot spots,convergent/divergent/transform plate boundaries, magnetometers, subduction
zones, John Tuzo Wilson; Harry Hess; apparent polar wandering; atolls; guyots; terranes; Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

    1.   Explain how fossil distributions and the shape of coastlines suggested continental drift might be possible.

    2.   Draw and label the internal structure of the planet using the terms: lithosphere, asthenosphere, crust,
         mantle, core.

    3.   What is the difference between crust and lithosphere? Between lithosphere and asthenosphere?

    4.   Discuss how we have been able to probe the physical characteristics of the Earth’s interior.

    5.   Describe what isostasy means and its relationship to continental drift. Describe how a continent "sits" on
         the asthenosphere (draw and label a diagram to help with your explanation).

    6.   Discuss what happens at a divergent plate boundary in the ocean. (Draw and label a diagram to show the
         main features).

    7.   Discuss what happens at an ocean-continent convergent plate boundary. (Draw and label a diagram to show
         the main features). Identify which side of the boundary volcanoes might be expected to appear.

    8.   Discuss what happens at an ocean-ocean convergent plate boundary. (Draw and label a diagram to show the
         main features). Identify which side of the boundary seamounts and volcanic islands might be expected to
         appear.

    9.   Discuss how the development of seismographs, radiometric dating of sediments and rocks, and
         sophisticated echo sounders contributed to the development of the theory of plate tectonics.



CHAPTER 4: CONTINENTAL MARGINS AND OCEAN BASINS

TERMINOLOGY: Be able to define/discuss the following: the Trieste; the Challenger Deep; satellite altimetry;
continental margins, active/passive margins, continental shelf/slope/rise, submarine canyons, turbidity currents,
transform faults, fracture zones, abyssal hills, abyssal plains, mid-ocean ridges, hydrothermal vents, seamounts,
atolls, guyots, trenches, island arcs, black smokers.

    1. Draw and label a typical cross-section of the ocean basin using the terms: continental shelf, continental
    break, continental slope, continental rise, submarine canyon, abyssal plain, abyssal hills, oceanic ridge.

    2. Describe how (we think) submarine canyons are formed and maintained.

    3. Why does the ocean surface "bunch up" over submerged mountains and ridges? How can satellites be used
    to measure the ocean surface height? How can this information be used to create bathymetric maps of the ocean
    bottom? Include a simple diagram to help with your discussion.

    4. What happens to continental shelves during ice ages?




CHAPTER 5: SEDIMENTS

TERMINOLOGY: Be able to define/discuss the following: ,boulder-cobble-pebble-granule-sand-silt-clay; fine-
grained sediments; coarse-grained sediments; terrigenous sediment, biogenous/biogenic sediment, hydrogenous
sediment, cosmogenous sediment, neritic sediments; pelagic sediments; deposition, erosion, suspension,
transportation; turbidites, pelagic clays, biogenic oozes, calcareous ooze, CCD, siliceous ooze, manganese nodules,
grab sample, piston corer, relict sediments, poorly-sorted sediments, well-sorted sediments, lithogenic sediments.

    1. Contrast well-sorted sediments and poorly-sorted sediments. Discuss the impacts of particle size and the
    energy of the environment on sediment sorting.

    2. Explain why the deepest and the coldest regions of the ocean bottom are dominated by siliceous oozes
    instead of calcareous oozes.

    3. Explain how and why sedimentation is different along passive margins (such as those found in the Atlantic)
    is different from sedimentation along active margins (such as those found in the Pacific).

    4. Describe how, in well-sorted sediments, the grain size of a sediment deposit is related to energy.

    5. Explain why deposition rates over the continental shelf tend to be higher than in the deep ocean.

    6. Explain what turbidites are and how they form.



CHAPTER 6: WATER AND OCEAN STRUCTURE

TERMINOLOGY: Be able to define/discuss the following (e.g. Define the term "covalent bond"): bond, ionic bond,
covalent bond, hydrogen bond, heat, temperature, heat capacity, density, state, freezing point, latent heat of fusion,
latent heat of evaporation, thermal inertia, thermostatic properties.

CONCEPTS:

    1.   Discuss why water is able to dissolve salt; why does it have trouble dissolving oil?

    2.   Discuss why H2O is a liquid at room temperature and pressure, but H 2S (a chemically similar compound) is
         a gas under similar conditions.

    3.   Explain why water is sometimes called the "Universal Solvent".

    4.   Discuss how density depends on salinity and temperature. Draw a curve that shows how the density of
         freshwater depends on temperature. What is the temperature of maximum density for pure water?
    5.   Discuss why lakes and oceans freeze from the top down instead of from the bottom up (like most other
         substances).

    6.   Consider a glass of pure water at 2°C. Imagine we remove heat from that water at a fixed rate. Describe
         what happens to the temperature and density of that water as a function of time, until the resulting ice
         reaches -2°C.

    7.   Why is the latent heat of evaporation for water so high compared to other compounds?

    8.   Explain the role of the oceans in moderating the consequences of large increases and losses of heat on the
         Earth.

    9.   If the heat budget of the Earth, as a whole, is balanced, then why are the tropics much warmer than the
         poles? Then why don't the poles freeze solid and the equatorial ocean boil away?



FROM THE LABS:

TERMINOLOGY: Be able to define/discuss the following (e.g., define the term “knot”): knot, nautical mile,
statute mile, kilometer, meter, centimeter, millimeter, bathymetry, depth sounding, chart scale.



SAMPLE QUESTIONS

Multiple Choice:
1. The mid-ocean ridges are recognized as
    a. subduction zones.
    b. transform or lateral plate boundaries.
    c. divergent plate boundaries.
    d. convergent plate boundaries.

2. He discovered a current across the Arctic Ocean and found there was no Arctic continent
   a. Fridtjof Nansen
   b. Wilfrid Ekman
   c. Harald Sverdrup
   d. Ingmar Bergman

Short Answer:
1. When two ocean plates collide, the more dense plate is subducted under the less dense plate. A deep valley,
known as a ________________ is formed.
2. A _________________ refers to a relatively small, localized area on the ocean bottom where, just below, there
is a stationary source of heat in the mantle. Underwater volcanoes, also known as __________________, may form
at these locations, then be transported away by the movement of lithospheric plates.

Short Essay/Paragraph:

I will select 3-5 of the essay-type questions from above.

				
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