Unit 319 Prepare_ Cook and Finish Complex Sauces and Cold Dressings

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					       Unit 319
Prepare, Cook and Finish
Complex Sauces and Cold
 Revision of Level 2 Sauces.
Basic sauces and dressings.
Complex Sauces Introduction.
• The modern kitchen has produced a wide range of
  variations to the old classical methods of roux based
  sauces. Nowadays crème fraiche, fromage frais and
  yogurt are used as alternatives to cream, egg yolks and
  butter making today's sauces lighter, less fatty with less
  rich textures.

• Many modern chefs will use a reduced purée of vegetable
  or fruit base preparation as the sauce without any
  thickening agent.

• It is worth noting that very small amounts of a starch
  can be added to act as a stabilizer.
    Cream Thickened Sauce.
• Many sauces are ‘enriched’ with the addition of
  cream. Most sauces will have been made in the
  traditional way before the cream is added,
  therefore their thickening agent will already
  be present.

• Some dishes will have their cooking liquid
  reduced to concentrate the flavour and
  consistency and then the cream is added. It is
  then necessary to cook and reduce again to
  thicken the sauce.
• Only a good quality double cream is suitable
  for this method of sauce making as single
  and whipping cream do not have the viscosity
  to ensure a suitably thickened sauce.

• It is worth noting that when cooked for any
  length of time thin cream or one with
  insufficient butter fat content, will result in
  the protein overcooked and shrunk, giving it
  a curdled appearance.

• It is also important to note that many chefs
  prefer not to over use cream in their dishes
  as many customers today prefer the lighter
  less rich sauces.
       Thickened Sauces.
• This type of sauce is the process of
  cooking down the main ingredient until it
  is soft enough to be puréed in a blender
  (or similar).

• The concentration is achieved by the
  evaporation of the water content until
  the desired thickness occurs. Sometimes
  a starch can be added in the form of
  cornflour or potato starch.
           Reduction Sauce.
• Many different sauces develop from this basic
  technique. In classical cookery a reduction
  sauce was based on the addition of wine,
  vinegar or a quality stock added to a pan in
  which meat, poultry, game or fish had been

• The item is removed, the fat tipped off and
  the wine, vinegar or stock added. The liquid is
  reduced and concentrated before other
  ingredients are added. A spirit like brandy can
  be added and ‘ignited’ that is to ‘flambé’ the
• Other ingredients added could be a white or
  brown sauce, garnish, cream, herbs etc. This
  is only a brief explanation of a very
  extensive and varied selection of sauces and
  it is not within the requirements of this unit
  to identify them all.

• The term ‘reduction sauce’ can include sauces
  whose base starts with the main ingredient
  or ‘body’ of the sauce being concentrated by
  simmering away the water content in order
  to concentrate the flavour and thicken the
          Egg Based Sauce.
• The combining of egg yolks and melted butter
  to form an emulsified sauce, is known as a
  hollandaise sauce. The attention to correct
  preparation and production methods is vital to
  make this sauce.
• Awareness of good hygiene, use of fresh eggs,
  the temperature of the egg yolks and butter
  and the fact that the sauce must be made just
  prior to service, requires a sound level of
  knowledge and skill.
         Hollandaise sauce.
• Is also classed as a
  ‘warm sauce’. The
  best temperature
  for the ‘holding’ of
  the sauce is 37°C
  or blood heat.
Explain the differences
between Hollandaise &
• Stocks.
• The traditional stock pot has been the
  foundation of many kitchen preparations for
  many, many years. The cooking of meat/bones,
  vegetables and herbs in a pot with water has
  long been a basic method of cookery to produce
  an aromatic cooking liquor to be used as the
  basis to other dishes.
• The classical kitchen has worked with the
  making of these stocks – beef, veal, poultry,
  game and fish as the first step in ensuring the
  quality of a finished dish.
• Nowadays due to a greater awareness
  of food hygiene, strict kitchen
  procedures, economy of time, and food
  cost, the stock pot has lost its role as
  an essential preparation.

• Convenience stocks have taken over and
  fulfil a necessary requirement.
  However, there is no substitute for the
  freshly made stock and where factors
  allow, a fresh stock will always assist in
  producing a dish of an excellent,
  original flavour.
• The dictionary describes gravy as.
   ‘the juice that comes from the flesh
 when cooking.’
• Explained in French as a ‘Jus’. Likewise
  Jus is explained as juice, gravy.

• The traditional English understanding of a
  gravy is a sauce-like preparation which has
  gained its texture by being thickened with
  a gravy powder out of a tin.
• In good kitchens, the liquid left after
  roasting beef, poultry, veal and game etc,
  has the grease removed, is then boiled
  down to a concentrate and offered as the
  Jus-rôti (juice from the roast) as the
  accompaniment to the joint.
• Jus-lie is a stock made up from veal
  bones/chicken, bacon pieces, vegetables
  and herbs, fresh stock and tomato purée.
  This is cooked for 1-2 hours before being
• Hence Jus-lie – Juice thickened.
• The process of making a glaze will normally be found in
  only the most professional of kitchens. Good quality
  stock, one with a definite taste, free from grease and
  clear, is suitable.
• Constant simmering, reducing and straining the stock
  down to a sticky glutinous mass takes time and an ever
  watchful eye, especially over the last stages. The
  original quantity of stock, that is 12-15 litres will
  become no more than ½ litre and it is very easy to spoil
  by reducing too fast and burning.
• The time taken can be several hours and the
  consumption of gas or electricity can make this process
• Sometimes this reduction can be left at the
  stage of a concentrated stock called an essence,
  which is much thinner than a glaze and cannot be
  used in quite the same way.
• Essences can be purchased in bottles from good
  quality stockists (mushroom, truffle, anchovy
• A finished glaze resembles a dark sticky mass
  and is very strong in flavour. It must be used in
  very small amounts and added to sauces to
  strengthen the flavour, to darken the colour
  slightly, and help to give a shine.
      Oil And Vinegar Based
• Vinaigrette or French dressing as it is
  sometimes referred to, is made by mixing
  together oil and vinegar, with seasoning, to
  produce a sharp flavoured preparation used on a
  variety of salads.
• A basic vinaigrette is made using a good quality
  oil – groundnut, or a mixture of olive oil and
  groundnut, with white wine vinegar.
• Due to the wide range of oils available and an
  even greater choice of vinegars you can produce
  a dressing to suit every and any combination of
• Mustard can be added to a vinaigrette to add
  further flavour and to help in stabilising the
• Vinegar (sharply flavoured water) and oil will not
  mix as oil is less dense than water and will float
  on the water. Next time you look at a bottle of
  vinaigrette (not commercial but kitchen made)
  you will see that the oil has separated out and is
  on top of the vinegar.
• When mustard is added it helps the oil and
  water mix together and stay together longer.
  The separating out effect has no ill effect on
  the flavour or quality of the vinaigrette. It is
  important though to shake the vinaigrette well
  to remix the ingredients just before using.
   Sour Cream Based Sauce.
• In classical cookery in particular, fruit based
  salads were bound with acidulated cream –
  cream mixed with fresh lemon juice. The lemon
  juice has the effect of denaturing the protein
  of the cream. In simple terms the protein was
  changed so that it became thick.

• The use of sour cream or crème fraîche is an
  alternative to acidulated cream. Each one of the
  creams mentioned offers a different flavour
  and acidity to the finished salad.
• With the change in eating habits, sour cream or
  similar ingredients have been substituted where
  mayonnaise was once the binding agent. A well
  known salad such as coleslaw can be changed by
  using sour cream and adding herbs or spices,
  such as carraway seed or poppy seed.

• The choice and variations are limitless and in
  the hands of a good chef a wide range of
  interesting salads can be developed.

• Using good quality catering reference books
  identify a range of salad preparations using
  acidulated cream/sour cream as their binding
       Vegetable/Fruit Coulis.
• The term ‘coulis’ is a well known term used in
  good quality kitchens. A thin purée of the main
  ingredient, smooth and definite in taste is used
  as a sauce around the plate of the dish to be

• This method is very popular in the up-to-date
  presentation of plated dishes because the
  coulis is very much part of the taste of the
  dish. Its colour and style of presentation will
  enhance the appearance of the dish being
                 Aspic Jelly.
• Aspic jelly is a savoury jelly used for decorative
  purposes in cold work presentation. It can also
  be found in pâtés, terrines and pork pies.

• The aspic jelly used in kitchens in past
  generations would have been produced from
  veal bones, calves feet, shin of beef, to produce
  a well flavoured stock with the natural gelatine
  of the animal. This in turn would be clarified to
  produce a crystal clear gelatinous stock.
• Today, because of the length of time to produce, the
  cost and in particular the availability of some of the
  ingredients, aspic jelly is even more unlikely to be
  produced in a modern kitchen. For example calves feet
  are difficult to obtain due to strict slaughter house
  regulations as a result of BSE.
• It is also worth noting that aspic jelly is high in protein
  and very easily exposed to bacterial infection. Due to
  the fact that it is only warmed over a gentle heat
  before being coated over meat or fish etc, it can
  become an excellent medium for food poisoning.
• Convenience aspic is the most commonly used savoury
  jelly used in kitchens. It is still very important to
  remember that this product is high in protein but Agar
  Agar is a safer product to use.

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