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Expansion – 1800 1815 by keara


									                                    9. “The Era of Good Feelings”

U.S. Nationalism
    Madison was more popular when leaving office in 1817 than in 1809.
    Causes:
           o Victories in War of 1812; especially Battle of New Orleans
                    U.S. was now capable of defending itself against a world power.
           o Death of Federalist party: temporarily reduced sectionalism & states’ rights sentiment
           o Decline of economic and political dependence on Europe
           o Westward expansion and optimism about the future
    Americans began to see themselves as Americans first and state citizens second.
Expansion and Migration
    Rush-Bagot Agreement (1817):
           o Limited U.S. and British naval ships on the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain (Vermont)
           o Guaranteed that the British would not invade the U.S. from Canada
           o U.S. would never take Canada from the British
    The Anglo-American Convention of 1818 (London Convention):
           o Set the border between the Louisiana Territory and Canada at the 49th parallel
           o Joint British and American occupation of Oregon
           o Affirmed US fishing rights along Newfoundland and Labrador
    Florida:
           o By 1812, the US had annexed West Florida (future Alabama) claiming it was part of the
               Louisiana Purchase.
           o General Andrew Jackson pursued the hostile Seminole Indians into East Florida.
           o Jackson went beyond his official orders and occupied East Florida (1818).
           o The occupation was condemned by Monroe’s administration as well as by Congress.
           o No disciplinary action was taken against Jackson, mainly because the public opinion was
               behind the popular general (Hero of New Orleans).
           o Secretary of State John Quincy Adams used this attack as leverage against Spain. He said
               future attacks can only be avoided by ceding East Florida to the US.
           o The Spanish empire was breaking up and they agreed to the Adams-Onis Treaty.
                    Signed in 1819 by Adams and Spanish foreign minister Don Luis de Onís.
                    US assumed $5 million of claims of American citizens against Spain.
                    Spain also agreed to surrender claim to the Pacific Coast north of California.
                    They also agreed on a new boundary from Texas to the Pacific (Oregon).
                             Britain and Russia still claimed parts of the Pacific Northwest.
           o American fur traders set up companies in the Pacific Northwest.
                    They hired “mountain men” to hunt for the companies.
                    Jedediah Smith, Jim Bridger, Kit Karson, Jim Beckwourth
Trans-Appalachian West
    Included the land between the Appalachians and Mississippi River.
    Most of the remaining Indians tribes were forced to move west of the Mississippi.
           o Americans saw the Indians as racially inferior or as people who would not assimilate.
           o Wars and treaties removed most Indians from the South between 1815-1830.
           o Members of the five “civilized” tribes did stay and became farmers – Cherokee, Creek,
               Seminole, Choctaw, and Chickasaw.
    In 1810, 1/7th of Americans lived west of the Appalachians.
    In 1840, 1/3rd of Americans lived west of the Appalachians.
    Government land was surveyed and then sold at auction.
    Wealthy speculators purchased most of the good land.
    Squatters fought for preemption – to have the first right to buy the land.

       o   Between 1799-1830, Congress allowed for preemptive rights if the squatters had actually made
           improvements on the land.
       o Speculators that found squatters on their land sometimes sold it or rented it to them.
       o Since most western farmers were in debt, they had to grow enough crops to sell, not just subsist.
       o Therefore, most early settlements were along rivers.
       o Local marketing centers quickly sprang up, usually at river junctions that eventually turned
           into cities.
People and Culture of the Frontier
    Migration occurred from the eastern seaboard due to high land prices and declining fertility of soil.
    Most moved in family units and recreated their former ways of life.
    States of the Northwest Territory took on the attributes of New England (that is where the majority
       of settlers migrated from).
    Frontier states of the south looked more like Georgia, Carolinas, and Virginia.
    Frontier-people tried to be self-reliant, but many tasks could not be accomplished alone -families
       began to assist each other:
           o Ex: raise a house, burn the woods, roll logs, harvest crops, husk corn, make quilts
           o These turned into social occasions and sometimes turned into competitions.
           o Most families were very mobile.
           o Improved land could be sold at a profit and even more land purchased.
Revolution in Transportation
    Travel was very primitive on the east coast. In 1813 it took 75 days for one wagon of goods pulled
       by four horses to travel from Massachusetts to Charleston.
    Coastal shipping helped to speed the process and stimulate the growth of port cities.
    Traveling west over rugged terrain and mountains took months.
    Political leaders began to realize that national security, economic progress, and political unity
       necessitated an improved transportation system.
    President Madison called for internal improvements in 1815.
    John C. Calhoun stated, ―Let us, then, bind the nation together with a perfect system of roads and
    The National Road went from Cumberland, MD on the Potomac to Wheeling, VA on the Ohio
       River (1811-1818).
           o This toll road had a crushed stone surface and immense stone bridges.
           o It later extended to Vandalia, IL (1838).
    The Lancaster Turnpike connected Philadelphia and Pittsburg.
           o Turnpikes were privately owned toll rolls chartered by the states.
           o A barrier of sharp pikes was not lifted until the toll was paid.
    By 1825, thousands of miles of turnpikes connected New England, New York, Pennsylvania and
       New Jersey.
    Turnpikes did not raise sufficient revenue. Travelers used the roads but commercial transporters
       found them too expensive. Instead, they looked to water travel.
Water travel
    Flatboats on the many rivers carried most of the products of commercial tradesmen and farmers.
    The flatboat trade was one way – from the Midwest to New Orleans.
           o The only way to return was by walking through rough terrain.
           o There was no way to transport the manufactured goods back home that the farmers traded
                their crops for.
    Steamboats became the solution for upriver travel.
    During the late-1700’s, various American inventors experimented with steam powered river boats
       (delegates at the Constitutional Convention were even shown a model by John Fitch).
    In 1807, Robert Fulton successfully demonstrated his steamboat called the Clermont (financed by
       New Yorker Robert Livingston).
           o He went 150 miles up the Hudson River (from NY City to Albany).
    The New Orleans went from Pittsburg to New Orleans (1811-1812).
     The Enterprise made the first return trip from New Orleans to Pittsburg in 1815.
     Although steamboats were used for passenger travel, they also revolutionized western commerce.
          o Steam transport reduced costs, increased speed and allowed two-way commerce on the
               Mississippi and Ohio Rivers.
   By 1820, there were 69 steamboats in western waterways.
   Luxurious paddleboats became floating hotels.
   Steamboats also had accidents – they ran aground, had collisions, or had explosions in boilers.
          o In 1838, the federal government began regulating the steamboat industry (the only federal
               regulation of transportation in pre-Civil War era).
   Canal transportation helped to fill the gap for those farmers not located by rivers.
   In 1817, New York passed legislation to build a canal from Albany to Buffalo (364 miles) – the
      longest canal at this time was only 26 miles.
          o New York Governor De Witt Clinton developed this plan and encouraged the issuance of
               bonds to finance the construction (it was called “Clinton’s Big Ditch”).
          o Construction on the Erie Canal began in 1818 and was completed in 1825.
          o The Erie Canal was 364 miles long, 40 feet wide, 4 feet deep, and contained 84 locks.
          o The Erie Canal reduced the costs of transporting goods to 1/12th of the previous rate.
                    This also reduced the price of goods.
                    It helped to make New York City the commercial capital.
   The Erie Canal inspired other states to extend public credit for canal building.
          o In 1834, Pennsylvania constructed a 395 mile canal from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh.
          o In 1833, Ohio constructed a canal from the Ohio River to Cleveland (Lake Erie).
   The canal boom ended by the 1840’s because most were unprofitable.
          o Economic depressions in the 1830’s and 1840’s hindered their growth.
          o Railroads were beginning to take some of the transportation business.
Emergence of a Market Economy
   In the early 19th century, most farmers produced enough for their own families and then sold a small
      surplus to nearby markets.
   Easier and cheaper access to distant markets changed these patterns.
   Agriculture production increased 3% annually from 1800-1840 – most was grown for sale rather
      than for consumption.
          o Technological advances helped this increase (iron/steel plows replaced wooden ones; the
               grain cradle replaced the scythe, and better varieties of crops, grasses, and livestock).
          o The two most important factors were good land and the revolution in marketing
                    Farmers could move to more fertile lands.
                    Because of improved transportation methods, they could now sell their products to
                    Farmers also had access to financial markets for credit.
          o This new exchange network moved farmers away from diversified farming and toward
               regional concentration on staple crops.
                    North – wheat was main cash crop – NY and PA, then Ohio, Indiana and Illinois
                    Upper South – tobacco continued to be the main cash crop
                    South Carolina – rice
                    Louisiana – Sugar
                    Lower South – cotton was “king” and became the nation’s main export commodity.
   The growth of cotton in the Lower South – reasons:
          o England’s (and somewhat NE) growing textile manufacturing increased demand for cotton.
          o The cotton gin – Eli Whitney (1793)
                    It cleaned short-staple cotton quickly.
                    It could produce up to 50 lbs. of cleaned cotton per day.
                    Whitney never profited. He did not receive patent until 1807 (many imitations).
          o Farming moved inland where there was short-staple cotton and there was more land
               available (from GA and SC to AL, MS, LA).
          o From 1817 to 1840, the production of cotton tripled.
          o Slavery provided forced labor for large scale plantations.
           o    Many plantations were established on the South’s great network of navigable rivers (canals
                and roads were not as necessary as they were in the North).
Commerce and Banking
    Local merchants became intermediators between farmers and buyers.
    These local merchants then shipped the products to bigger markets such as Pittsburgh, Cincinnati,
       and St. Louis. From there, products were sent to even larger markets (NY, Phil. or New Orleans).
    Local merchants also served as creditors for farmers.
            o Even though the farmers had to pay interest for this credit, using an intermediator to sell
                their goods was still cheaper than if they handled their own marketing.
    The need for credit led to the growth of money and banking.
    The U.S. government printed so few coins and paper currency in the early 19th century that it failed
       to meet the expanding economy’s need for a circulating currency.
            o Private or state banks filled the gap by printing banknotes – promises to redeem their value
                in specie (gold or silver) on the bearer’s demand. They served as a form of currency.
            o Congress refused to re-charter the BUS in 1811 and state banks filled the void.
            o Many state banks ran out of reserves during the War of 1812.
    The demand for credit during the post-war boom led to the creation of many more state banks (from
       88 to 208 banks in two years.
    The rise of banknotes led to runaway inflation.
    In an effort to stabilize the currency, Congress established the Second BUS in 1816.
    By 1819, the second BUS’s overextension of credit led to a depression.
    Many Americans (including politicians) became hostile toward banks, blaming them as the culprit
       for the collapse of the economy.
Early Industrialism
    The growth of the market economy created new opportunities for industrialists.
    Up to this point, most manufacturing occurred in the home, in workshops of artisans or in small
            o Factories were rare; several spinning mills in NE relied on women and child labor.
            o In 1820, 2/3 of American clothes were made entirely in households by females.
            o The “Putting out” system was where merchants provided women with raw materials to
                produce finished or semi-finished products (clothes, shoes, hats).
                      This was usually found in the Northeast.
    Increased demand led to pressures of speed, quantity, and standardization.
    Samuel Slater:
            o He left England in disguise for New York City in 1789.
            o With Moses Brown providing the capital and Slater the carefully memorized specifications
                for the equipment, the two opened a small mechanized mill in Providence in 1790.
            o Slater introduced the ―Rhode Island Method‖— the practice of hiring entire families,
                including children, to work in his mills.
            o Workers lived in company-owned housing, shopped at company-owned stores, and studied
                in company-run schools.
    The first factory system was in textile manufacturing. Cotton mills were able to turn cotton fiber
       into cloth in a single factory.
            o It was first developed by three Boston merchants - Francis Cabot Lowell, Nathan Appleton
                and Patrick Tracy Jackson.
            o On a visit to England in 1810-1811, Lowell memorized how a power loom was constructed.
            o The three began the Boston Manufacturing Company in Waltham, MA and its success led
                to establishing a second mill at Lowell, MA in 1822 (even more profitable) and a third in
                Chicopee in 1823.
            o Lowell became the example for early American industrialization.
            o Most of Lowell’s labor force was young, unmarried women who lived in supervised dorms
                and were called the ―Lowell girls.”
            o By the late 1830’s and 1840’s, many of the women became militant labor activists when the
                owners began to require more work and less pay.

                     Sarah Bagley founded the Lowell Female Labor Reform Association in 1844.
                     She also led a series of protests against long hours and poor conditions.
   The Lowell Offering (1840) was a monthly periodical of poetry and fiction written by the factory
      workers of Lowell.
   The factory system replaced the ―putting out‖ system.
   When other manufacturing mills sprung up in the area, New England became the first important
      manufacturing area in the U.S.
   The growth in domestic manufacturing also lessened the emphasis on international trade. Many
      investors began to put their money into these American factories.
   Political consequences soon followed. Politicians like Daniel Webster no longer advocated low
      tariffs that favored importers over exporters. They now became proponents of high tariffs protecting
      American businesses.
   Eli Whitney’s interchangeable parts helped to modernize the weapons industry, farm products in
      the West, distilleries in Kentucky and Ohio.
   By the 1840’s, 63% of American workers were still working in agriculture and only 8% were
      employed in manufacturing.
American Politics after the War of 1812
   The Federalist Party soon died out after the election of 1816.
   Why did the party die?
           o "Disloyalty" during the War of 1812
           o Extremely sectional regarding the interests of New England
           o Jefferson had adopted many of their most important ideas (e.g. Hamilton’s financial plan,
                expansion, loose construction in certain cases).
   “The Great Triumvirate”– John C. Calhoun (SC), Daniel Webster (NH), and Henry Clay (KY)
   Conflicts of interest were unavoidable when federal and state laws were enacted to encourage or
      control expansion. These laws impacted groups in different ways:
           o Farmers, merchants, manufacturers, laborers
           o Northerners, Southerners, and Westerners
   Following the War of 1812, these differences were not reflected in national politics. The Republicans
      dominated politics.
   “The era of good feelings” occurred during James Monroe’s two terms in office (1817-1825).
           o A myth of national unity prevailed.
           o The lack of a party system led to a declining interest in politics.
           o The common theme was nationalism – American pride that reflected expansionism and
                material progress of the period.
   The "Era of Good Feelings" is somewhat of a misnomer; serious issues divided the nation.
           o Emerging sectionalism (east, west and south)
           o Tariff issue (east and south opposed; west in favor)
           o Internal improvements (east and south opposed; west in favor)
           o The BUS: west and south opposed; eastern bankers in favor
           o Sale of public lands (east opposed; west and south in favor)
           o The Panic of 1819 caused western hostility toward eastern bankers.
           o The issue of slavery in Missouri created increased sectionalism (north vs. south); it was
                resolved by the Missouri Compromise of 1820.
           o The Republican Party enjoyed 1-party rule but factions eventually led to the 2nd Party
                System in the 1830s.
   Republicans in power:
           o The party moved away from their states’ rights platform and embraced many positions
                previously taken by Federalists.
           o In 1815, Madison proposed to Congress the following policies:
                     Re-chartering of the BUS
                     A mildly protective tariff
                     Federally financed internal improvements (transportation)
           o Madison’s proposals actually came from Hamilton’s program of the 1790s!

     The American System – Henry Clay (Kentucky) proposed that the federal government should
      promote economic development.
           o He argued that high protective tariffs would stimulate industrial growth and provide a
               “home market” for farmers of the West.
           o His goal was self-sufficiency and freedom from dependence on Europe.
    Congress then passed the Tariff of 1816 which raised import duties an average of 25%.
           o This was necessary because a flood of cheap British goods came into the country after the
               War of 1812 and these goods were hurting the infant industries in America.
           o This was the first protective tariff in US history.
    Later in 1816, Congress reestablished the Bank of the United States (BUS).
           o It was given a 20 year charter.
           o It could establish branches throughout the country as needed.
           o It was still a mixed public-private venture. The federal government owned 1/5th of the stock
               and appointed five of its 25 directors.
           o It served as a depository for funds, an outlet for marketing bonds, and a source of
               redeemable banknotes that could be used to pay taxes or purchase lands.
                    State banks and strict constructionists opposed the BUS.
    Legislation dealing with internal improvements created much more controversy.
           o Who would benefit from projects?
           o The National Road was the only federal project under Madison and Monroe.
           o In 1817, just before leaving office, Madison vetoed a bill that would have distributed $1.5
               million to the states for transportation projects.
           o In 1822, Monroe vetoed a spending bill that would have made improvements on the
               National Road (he said it went beyond the Constitutional powers).
           o Most internal improvements were paid for by the states (up until the Civil War).
The Monroe Presidency
    The election of 1816:
           o Just like Jefferson, Madison hand picked his successor - James Monroe.
           o James Monroe defeated Federalist Rufus King 183-34.
    James Monroe was well qualified.
           o He was an officer in the Revolution, governor of VA, envoy to France, and Secretary of
    But he was considered to lack the intellect of Jefferson and Madison.
    Monroe avoided controversy in his effort to maintain national harmony.
           o He was the first president since Washington to take a goodwill tour of the country.
           o When Monroe went to Federalist Boston, he was warmly received and a newspaper
               announced that party strife was over and that an “era of good feeling” had begun.
    Monroe’s first challenge to peace was the Panic of 1819.
           o It brought about the end to the postwar boom.
           o High inflation, easy credit and massive land speculation all occurred.
           o The BUS called loans and demanded redemption of state banknotes in specie.
           o This immediately caused an economic collapse where prices fell, businesses failed, and land
               bought on credit was foreclosed.
           o This was the first great panic or depression in the U.S.
Congress takes action
    In 1821, Congress attempted to end the depression by passing a relief act that eased the terms for
      paying debts owed on public lands.
    Monroe himself had no plan to assist the economy (and voters also did not expect it of him).
    The one party system left Monroe without the ability to work through a majority party in Congress
      – in essence, it was a no-party system.
    The panic was over by 1824. Other followed almost every twenty years (Panic of 1837 ; Panic of
      1857; Panic of 1873; Panic of 1893; Panic of 1907; Great Depression: 1929-1941).

The Missouri Compromise
    In 1817, Missouri applied for statehood and the assumption was they would enter as a slave state
       (there were 2-3000 slaves already in Missouri).
    Missouri would be the second state (LA) from the Louisiana Purchase territory to be added and the
       allowance of slavery would have implications for the rest of Louisiana territories.
    In 1819, Congress began their debate and sectional fighting was obvious.
           o Many Northerners resented Southern control of the White House.
           o The 3/5ths Compromise added Southern seats to the House and Electoral College.
           o Southerners wanted to keep the balance of power in place between the North and South.
                     Up until 1919, equality had been maintained by alternately admitting slave and Free
                        States (11/11).
                     Northern population was larger as was their representation in the House.
                     The South saw their equal vote in the Senate as essential for this balance.
    Congressman James Tallmadge (New York) introduced an amendment to the statehood bill, banning
       further introduction of slaves in Missouri and a gradual elimination in the state.
    After much heated debate, the House narrowly approved the Tallmadge amendment but the Senate
       rejected it.
    The issue remained unresolved until a new Congress convened in December 1819.
    Maine also had applied for statehood at this time (to be separated from Massachusetts).
    In February of 1820, the Senate passed the Missouri Compromise.
           o Missouri was admitted as a slave state.
           o Maine was admitted as a free state.
           o Prohibited slavery in the Louisiana Territory north of the 36˚ 30’ line (except Missouri)
    The House initially rejected it but then Henry Clay broke the proposal into three separate bills and
       then it was adopted.
    The Missouri Compromise was a short-term remedy but sectional differences did not subside.
The Election of 1820
    James Monroe ran unopposed (received 99.5% of electoral votes).
    Only one voter refused to vote for Monroe (voted for Adams).
    He was the only US president to be reelected following a major economic recession.
Postwar Nationalism and the Supreme Court
    Chief justice John Marshall served from 1801-1835 (he was Federalist from VA).
    Marshall helped to shape the Constitution and clarified the role of the Supreme Court.
    He allowed the power of the federal government to grow (so as to promote economic growth and
       prosperity). He believed in a loose interpretation of the Constitution.
    Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819) – Could New Hampshire convert Dartmouth College from
       a private college to a state university?
           o Daniel Webster argued on behalf of Dartmouth (he was an alumnus) that its original charter
                in 1769 was a valid contract.
           o The court agreed that states could not remove privileges of private businesses.
           o This increased the power and independence of corporations and weakened states’ ability to
                regulate them.
    McCullough v. Maryland (1819) – Could the state of Maryland tax the Baltimore branch of the
       Bank of the United States?
           o The Marshall Court unanimously said they could not.
           o There were two main issues:
                     Could Congress establish a national bank? The Supreme Court said that they could
                        due to the doctrine of implied powers (this sent a blow to strict constructionists).
                     Could a state tax an institution created by Congress? The Supreme Court said that if
                        a state was given the power to tax a federal agency, then they would have the power
                        to destroy it.
                     Marshall stated that the American people ―did not design their government
                        dependent on the states.‖

      Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) – Could Congress regulate interstate commerce?
           o New York granted a steamboat company (Ogden) a monopoly and was being challenged by
                its competitor (Gibbons). The service was between NY and NJ on the Hudson River.
           o The court ruled that the monopoly was unconstitutional because it interfered with Congress’
                right to regulate interstate travel.
           o This decision broadened the federal government’s power while at the same time it
                encouraged the growth of the national market economy.
The Monroe Doctrine
    After the Napoleonic wars, most of Spain’s Latin American colonies revolted.
    Henry Clay called for an immediate recognition of these new republics (they were simply following
       the example of America, he reasoned).
    Before 1822, the U.S. remained neutral. President Monroe and Secretary of State J.Q. Adams were
       afraid of antagonizing Spain (until we could purchase Florida).
    After the Adams-Onis Treaty was signed and Florida was acquired, Monroe agreed to the
       recognition and the establishment of diplomatic ties.
           o Mexico and Colombia (formally recognized in 1822), Chile and Argentina (1823), Brazil
                (which had separated from Portugal) and the Federation of Central American States (1824),
                and Peru (1826).
    Events in Europe put the US on a possible collision course with the major European powers.
           o Austria, Russia, and Prussia were moving away from democratic self-government because
                fears stemming from the French Revolution and the Napoleonic wars.
           o After Napoleon’s first defeat in 1814, the Grand Alliance was formed to protect authoritarian
                governments from democratic challenges (Great Britain was a member but withdrew).
    Also troubling for the US was the czar of Russia, Alexander I, who was talking of expanding his
       empire into Oregon territory.
    In 1823, the British foreign secretary attempted to get the French to pledge that they would not
       attempt to acquire territories in Spanish America – they refused.
    Britain then appealed to the US to prevent the Grand Alliance from interfering in Latin America.
    Monroe welcomed the idea but Secretary of State Adams did not. He did not trust the British.
           o Adams aspired to be the next president and he feared being labeled pro-British (remember
                his father).
           o Adams advocated unilateral action.
    In Monroe’s annual message to Congress on December 2, 1823, he included a statement on foreign
       policy that came to be known as the Monroe Doctrine (written by J.Q. Adams).
           o The US opposed any further colonization in the Americas or any effort by European nations
                to extend their political systems outside of their hemisphere.
           o In return, the US would not involve itself in internal affairs of Europe or take part in
                European wars.
           o North and South America would consist of independent republics.
    The Monroe Doctrine had little impact on the Europeans but it signified a rise in independence
       and self-confidence in America toward the Old World.
The End of an era:
    On July 4, 1826 (the fiftieth anniversary of the Declaration of Independence) John Adams and
       Thomas Jefferson both died.
           o One of Adams’ final statements, ―Thomas Jefferson still survives.‖


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