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Comparative and Superlatives of Adjectives

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Comparative and Superlatives of Adjectives Powered By Docstoc
					            COLÉGIO SANTO AMÉRICO
NAME                                                      Nº   CLASS




                                         9th GRADE

                                           ENGLISH



                                          3rd BIMESTER

                                 REMEDIAL ACTIVITIES




          “COMPARISONS”
   COMPARATIVES, SUPERLATIVES and
            EQUATIVES



                    “Keep training… No pain, no gain!”
                                         Teacher Miriam




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                                              COMPARISONS

                     COMPARATIVES, SUPERLATIVES AND EQUATIVES


A – ADJECTIVES – USAGE + BASIC RULES

                      ADJECTIVES                      COMPARATIVE                          SUPERLATIVE

                                                                                   When you compare three or
                                               When you compare two things/        more things/ people. To say
              USAGE
                                               people.                             that one person or thing in a
                                                                                   group is unique.

                                                                                                          –est
     SHORT




             one syllable       or
                                               Adjective +   –er       + (than)    The + Adjective +
             two syllables ending in “y” *                   –ier                                        –iest

                                               More                                        most
     LONG




             Two syllables or more                     + Adjective + (than)       The +            + Adjective
                                               Less                                        least




EXAMPLES:

    Number of syllables                 ADJECTIVE            COMPARATIVE                  SUPERLATIVE

                                  cheap                  cheaper than               the cheapest
one syllable *
                                  old                    older than                 the oldest

two syllables ending in happy                            happier than               the happiest
“y” *                   easy                             easier than                the easiest

                                  expensive              more expensive than        the most expensive
two syllables or more
                                  modern                 less modern than           the least modern
*See spelling rules next page (PART B)




EXAMPLE SENTENCES:

                       COMPARATIVE                                         SUPERLATIVE

        New York is larger than Boston.                    New York is the largest city in the U.S.
        Chicago is colder than Miami.                      Chicago is the coldest city I know.
        Bob is taller than John.                           Bob is the tallest person in my family.
        A Mercedes is more expensive than a                The Rolls Royce is the most expensive car.
         Volkswagen.




B – * SPELLING RULES
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1) One-syllable adjectives             simply add “er” or “est”

2) C + V + C ending                    double the last consonant and add “er” or “est”

      (Or ending in a short vowel followed by a single consonant)

      Ex: hot = hoTTer (than), (the) hoTTest

          big = biGGer (than), (the) biGGest

3)    “e” ending            just add “r” or “st”

      Ex: nice = niceR (than), (the) niceST

          wide = wideR (than), (the) wideST

4) a) C + Y ending                 drop the “y” and add “ier” or “iest”

      Ex: lucky = luckIER (than), (the) luckIEST

          healthy = healthIER (than), (the) healthIEST

     b) V + Y      ending            just add “er” or “est”

      Ex: coy* = coyER (than), (the) coyEST

          gray = grayER (than), (the) grayEST
VOCABULARY: COY* = someone who pretends to be timid.




C – IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES

  IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES                        COMPARATIVE                          SUPERLATIVE

               good                                better than                         the best

                bad                                worse than                         the worst

                little                             less than                          the least

           much/many                               more than                          the most

                 far                        farther / further than              the farthest / furthest


EXAMPLE SENTENCES:

                   COMPARATIVES                                          SUPERLATIVES

- Steak is better than fish.                             - The steak I had last night was the best I‟ve ever
                                                          had.
- This book is worse than that book.                     - The book I read last month was the worst I‟ve
                                                          ever read.



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D – EXERCISES
    Read the information about the three women in the box below and do exercises I, II and III
     using comparatives and superlatives as indicated.



            Jean                          Donna                     Connie           NOTE:
                                                                                       ’ = feet
      30 years old                   34 years old            27 years old
                                                                                       ” = inches
      5 feet, 2 inches tall          5 feet, 4 inches tall   5 feet, 6 inches tall     5‟5” = 1,67m
                                                                                       (5‟479)
      105 pounds                     110 pounds              125 pounds
      very beautiful                 beautiful               not very beautiful      FEET TO METERS
      very neat                      neat                    not very neat           = multiply by 0.3048
      friendly                       very friendly           friendly                METERS TO FEET
      very quiet                     quiet                   not very quiet          = multiply by 3.2810


    I – Compare Donna with Connie:
    1. Donna is older than Connie.                                                            (old)

        Connie is younger than Donna.
    2. __________________________________________________________________. (young)
        Connie is heavier than Donna.
    3. __________________________________________________________________. (heavy)
        Donna is more beautiful than Connie. / Connie is less beautiful than Donna.
    4. ________________________________________________________________. (beautiful)

        Donna is neater than Connie.
    5. ____________________________________________________________________.(neat)


    II – Now compare the three women:
    1. Jean is the quietest of the three women.                                              (quiet)

       Connie is the tallest of the three women.
    2. _____________________________________________________________________. (tall)

    3. Jean is the shortest.
       ___________________________________________________________________. (short)
        Donna is the friendliest. (or the most friendly)
     4. _________________________________________________________________. (friendly)
       Jean is the most beautiful.
    5. ________________________________________________________________ . (beautiful)


    III – Finally complete the questions below according to the answers:
    1. A: Which of the three women is the most beautiful?                                 (beautiful)
       B: Jean.

    2. A: Who ____________________________________________________________? (neat)
                is the neatest of the three women?

       B: Jean is the neatest.
    3. A: Is Connie __________________________________________________________? (tall)
                        the tallest of the three women?
       B: Yes, she is.
                       of the three women is the quietest?
    4. A: Which ___________________________________________________________? (quiet)
       B: Jean is.
    5. A: Is Donna ________________________________________________________? (young)
                     the youngest of the three women?
       B: No, she‟s the oldest.
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                                         EQUATIVES
                                     Comparatives of Equality
As ... as
    We use as ... as to say that two people, things, etc are the same in some way.




    Judy is as tall as Martin.

    as + adjective + as


    I’m as old as you are.
    Was the exam as difficult as you’d expected?

    After not, we can use as ... as or so ... as.

    not as/so + adjective + as


    Judy isn’t as/so tall as Carla.
    Today isn’t as/so cold as yesterday.




EXERCISE 1
COMPLETE THE SENTENCES USING AS ... AS AND THE ADJECTIVES IN THE BOX.

EXAMPLE:         „Are you as old as Mike?‟          „No, I‟m younger than he is.‟


             interesting         cheap              old             clever                tall


1) Jill is almost __________________________ her father. She‟s 164 cm and he‟s 166 cm.
                      as tall as

                   as/so clever as
2) I‟m not __________________________ my brother. He‟s very intelligent.

                   as/so interesting as
3) The film wasn‟t __________________________ I‟d thought it would be. In fact, it was quite

   boring.

                                   as cheap as
4) Going by train is almost __________________________ taking the coach. They both cost
                                                                              the bus
   around ₤ 5.
                                                                             (Br. Eng.)


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EXERCISE 2
MAKE COMPARISONS USING ISN’T AS ... AS AND THE ADJECTIVES IN PARENTHESES.

EXAMPLE:             Japan / India (large / industrialised)
                     Japan isn’t as large as India.
                     India isn’t as industrialised as Japan.


1) a giraffe / an elephant (tall / strong / fast)

      An elephant isn’t as / so tall or fast as a giraffe.
_______________________________________________________________________________

      A giraffe ins’t as strong as an elephant.
_______________________________________________________________________________

2) iron / gold (strong / valuable)

      Gold isn’t as strong as iron.
_______________________________________________________________________________

      Iron isn’t as valuable as gold.
_______________________________________________________________________________

3) a gorilla / a human (intelligent / strong)

      A gorilla isn’t as intelligent as a human.
_______________________________________________________________________________

      A human isn’t as strong as a gorilla.
_______________________________________________________________________________

4) a car / a bicycle (expensive / fast / easy to park)

      A bicycle isn’t as fast or expensive as a car.
_______________________________________________________________________________

      A car isn’t as easy to park as a bicycle.
_______________________________________________________________________________


NOTE: In an informal style we use object pronouns like me, him after as. Example, You aren’t as
        tired as me. In a more formal style we use a subject pronoun like I, he + verb. Example,
        You aren’t as tired as I am. Some people think that the subject form + verb is more
        „correct‟.



COMPARATIVES, SUPERLATIVES AND EQUATIVES
EXERCISE 3
COMPLETE THE SENTENCES USING THE CORRECT FORM OF THE ADJECTIVES IN
PARENTHESES. ADD THAN, THE OR AS WHERE NECESSARY.


EXAMPLES:            A mile is longer than a kilometer (long)
                     Today isn’t as sunny as yesterday. (sunny)
                     What’s the best holiday you’ve ever had? (good)


1) Baseball is one of _________________________ sport in the USA. (popular)
                         the most popular

2) She‟s much _________________________ her brother. (serious)
                       more serious than

3) He wasn‟t as _________________________ he usually is. (friendly)
                        friendly as
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4) That was _________________________ film I‟ve ever seen. (good)
                the best

5) He‟s much _________________________ any of his brothers. (generous)
                more generous than

6) You aren‟t as _________________________ you think you are. (clever)
                  clever as

7) Where‟s _________________________ place in the world? (hot)
                the hottest

8) Debbie is far _________________________ she used to be. (self-confident)
                  more self-confident than

9) My brother is one of _________________________ people I know. (strange)
                          the strangest

10) Which is _________________________ building in the world? (tall)
                the tallest

11) Our holiday was much _________________________ we‟d expected. (cheap)
                            cheaper than

12) That was one of _________________________ times of my life. (enjoyable)
                      the most enjoyable


                                                 COMPARISONS
                                                     SUMMARY

                                            COMPARISONS OF ADJECTIVES
                 ADJECTIVES                   EQUATIVE        COMPARATIVE                                SUPERLATIVE
         One – syllable                                                          taller than
                                                as tall as                                                    the tallest
         adjectives                                                            (nor as tall as)
 SHORT




         Two – syllable
                                                                                noisier than
         adjectives                            as noisy as                                                   the noisiest
                                                                           (not as noisy as)
         ending in “y”
         Two – syllable
                                                                        more / less famous than           the most famous
         adjectives not                       as famous as
                                                                          (not as famous as)              the least famous
 LONG




         ending in “y”
         adjectives with                                                more / less artistic than          the most artistic
                                              as artistic as
         3 or more syllables                                               (not as artistic as)            the least artistic
                                                                                 better than
                                                                                 worse than
                                                                                                               the best
                                               as good as                 farther / further than
                                                                                                              the worst
         Irregular form of adjectives          as bad as
                                                                                                             the farthest
                                                as far as                   (not as good as)
                                                                                                             the furthest
                                                                               (not as bad as)
                                                                               (not as far as)


NOTE 1: The following adjectives can use either form (-er / -est or more / the most):
              able, angry, clever, cruel, friendly, gently, handsome, narrow, polite, obscure, secure,
              simple, stupid.
              Example:
                                                             friendlier than                        The friendliest
                           as friendly as
                                                       more friendly than                          The most friendly


NOTE 2: The comparative form of fun is “more fun than”.
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