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									                                                                SPUTNIC – Strategies for Public Transport in Cities




                              BEST PRACTICE CASE STUDY
     Bus with a High Level of Service: the example of the Quality Bus
      Network, Dublin (Ireland), results of the Malahide Quality Bus
                                 Corridor


Demonstration site                                    Dublin (Ireland)
Priority Area                                         <…>
Date of latest update of document                     December 2008



    Table of contents

      Abstract ................................................................................................................. 2

      Urban profile ................................................................................................. 3
      Basic outline .......................................................................................................... 3
      Background and objectives of transport policy ......................................................... 4

      Project profile ............................................................................................... 4
      Administrative and technical description .................................................................. 4
      Financing and Costs .............................................................................................. 7
      Political, institutional, legal, financial and cultural framework .................................... 7
      Approach and present stage of implementation ....................................................... 7
      Results and impacts ............................................................................................... 7
      Barriers, conflicts and problems .............................................................................. 7
      Transferability and lessons learned ......................................................................... 8
      Contact for additional information............................................................................ 9
      Bibliography ........................................................................................................... 9




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                                          SPUTNIC – Strategies for Public Transport in Cities




Abstract
Context: Dublin City is a conurbation with nearly 1.2 mln inhabitants, showing during
the last years a great economical growth around the old city. Despite the previous
investments into metro and two tram lines, mobility problems remain hardly.
Dublin has launched since several years an impressive network of several Quality Bus
Corridors (QBC), on the main arteries of the whole urban area. The goal is to provide
400km of QBC (200km are already carried out) with an annual investment of € 30-40
mln until 2011. The gain of regularity and speed allowed to introduce a very attractive
gain of frequency: in average on all QBC, around 16% of the trips are coming from the
cars. The objective is also to implement soon a dynamic information system for
passengers (real time data).
The objectives are
    - to connect everybody within 10 min walking distance of corridor.
    - To provides integration with existing rail and the proposed rail development
        strategies for the Dublin Area.
Short Term Public Transport System will be Bus Based. Long term strategy is for rail
based PT network with feeder bus.

Brief description of one QBC in Dublin:
The Malahide QBC has been in operation since 1997, and currently carries high levels
of bus patronage. The infrastructure is being further enhanced to improve its ability to
deliver a congestion free operating environment to the bus service so that it can both
retain and increase patronage into the future. The need for this increased performance
is particularly acute given the increase in development within the catchments of the
corridor.

Conclusion and recommendations:
The comprehensive approach of the « system » implies that stations, vehicles, traffic
lanes, line identification and operating methods are dealt with in a coherent and
sustainable manner.




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                                           SPUTNIC – Strategies for Public Transport in Cities




                                  Urban profile
Basic outline
Dublin City is a conurbation with nearly 1.2 mln inhabitants, showing during the last
years a great economical growth around the old city. Despite the previous investments
into metro and two tram lines, mobility problems remain hardly.




The “Quality Bus” network, as it is planed: it shows a great “network approach, all
around the city centre, with the objective to connect all the suburban areas.




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                                           SPUTNIC – Strategies for Public Transport in Cities




Background and objectives of transport policy
Dublin has launched since several years an impressive network of several Quality Bus
Corridors (QBC), on the main arteries of the whole urban area. The goal is to provide
400km of QBC (200km are already carried out) with an annual investment of €30m-
€40m until 2011. The gain of regularity and speed allowed to introduce a very attractive
gain of frequency: in average on all QBC, around 16% of the trips are coming from the
cars. The objective is also to implement soon a dynamic information system for
passengers (real time data).
The objectives are:
    - to connect everybody within 10 min walking distance of corridor.
    - To provides integration with existing rail and the proposed rail development
        strategies for the Dublin Area.
Short Term Public Transport System will be Bus Based. Long term strategy is for rail
based PT network with feeder bus.



                                 Project profile
Administrative and technical description

Dublin City Council, on behalf of the four Dublin Local Authorities, has set up a Quality
Bus Network (QBN) Project Office. The Office has been established to take
responsibility for all aspects of bus priority measures set out in the transportation
strategy document 'A Platform for Change' published by the Dublin Transportation Office
(DTO) in November 2001. The QBN Project Office aims to accelerate the
implementation of the Quality Bus Network.
The QBC programme has been successful in providing an appealing alternative to the
private car. The on-street public transport priority measures have resulted in:
          significant reductions in bus journey times
          substantial increases in bus passenger numbers
          increase in bus modal share after years of decline
      The role of the QBN Project Office covers the areas of:
          Planning
          Programming
          Design
          Public consultation/approvals
          Procurement/construction
for bus priority measures in the Dublin region.

The Malahide QBC (7 km with 60% into dedicated lanes) has been in operation since
1997, and currently carries high levels of bus patronage. The infrastructure is being
further enhanced to improve its ability to deliver a congestion free operating
environment to the bus service so that it can both retain and increase patronage into
the future. The need for this increased performance is particularly acute given the
increase in development within the catchments of the corridor.
All bus stops along the route have been /are being upgraded to QBC Standard with
level boarding platforms, shelters, and seating.


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                                             SPUTNIC – Strategies for Public Transport in Cities




Approximately 60 buses are involved on this corridor with an average age of 6.5yrs
(with headways by 2 and 3 min in peack hours). Primarily double deck buses between
10 and 12m in lenght. 82% of fleet operating on route are low floor buses.

Dublin Bus currently developing an Automatic Vehicle Location System. This AVL
system will facilitate the incorporation of real time data from other compatible systems
to permit information from multiple public transport companies to be displayed at
electronic bus stop display units.

At present there is a limited degree of integrated fares. A project is currently underway
to develop a smart card based ticketing system for public transport operators in the
Dublin region. This system will provide a technical platform for integrated fares. 60%
cash fares taken by driver in autofare/no change arrangement. Validation of prepaids
through magnetic card and smart card readers.

No distinctive marketing identity for this system : not by a logo, not by by a distinctive
name.




          O’Connell street in the centre, where several lines converge (up to
                               1700 buses/day/direction)




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                                         SPUTNIC – Strategies for Public Transport in Cities




         The model of station, with the static information display; Kassel
                     kerbs fitted at large number of stops




Malahide Quality Bus Corridor: photograph from videos used for traffic management




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                                             SPUTNIC – Strategies for Public Transport in Cities




Financing and Costs

Investment costs:
The cost of the global project (including P+R, interchange stations, …) is around by
€4.5 mil per km in average with a funding from Central Government (Department of
Transport) for infrastructure.
The operating fleet is provided by semi-state bus company (Dublin Bus). All buses are
common buses (not a new shape) and mainly double-deck.


Political, institutional, legal, financial and cultural framework
To launch such a project, there is a need to have a specific and strong political or
institutional framework.
These projects, tram or BHLS, always request a high involvement by the decision
makers, at the political level. The difficulties become less important after a first new
line.



Approach and present stage of implementation
The SEMITAN (PT operator), mandated by Nantes Métropole, conducted the
operation. The line entered into service on 6 November 2006, after two years of
construction (including 18 months that severely disrupted traffic) and is operated by the
SEMITAN.



Results and impacts

Regularity and speed: much less variation of the speed
   - Inbound AM Peak : 16.5 km/h
   - Inbound Off Peak: 18.67 km/h

Dublin Bus Survey November 2002 indicated passenger satisfaction as follows:
   - Reliability 80%
   - Quality of Service 83%
   - Value for Money 82%

Before and after modal share of route available. Car mode share down from 33.51% to
21.93% and bus up from 56.64% to 60.55%.

Average travel time (comparison with the car traffic):
   - by bus: 19.47 min
   - by car: 25.35 min
These are average journey times in morning peak. Monitoring carried out annually.


Barriers, conflicts and problems
The challenges were and are always:


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                                             SPUTNIC – Strategies for Public Transport in Cities




      Lack of available road space, competing functions
      Public Consultation
          o Opposition to QBCs
          o Lengthy Public Consultation Process
      Construction mainly on city streets
      Lack of experienced contractors and consultants
      Retention of experienced design staff
      Requirement for additional new & enhanced buses
      Uncertainty surrounding deregulation of bus companies
      Too important delay in implementation of Integrated Ticketing and Real Time
       Passenger Information


Transferability and lessons learned
The main Key Issues for QBC Success were:
    Low–cost solution in parallel with the implementation of Metro & Light Rail
      extensions
    Funding to be aligned with other resources such as the Road Construction
      Programmes where bus lanes are incorporated in the designs
    Continued annual investment of €30m-€40m until 2011
    Strong enforcement using ITS resources to complement the Garda Síochana
      (Irish Police)
    Integration with other major public transport modes
    Park and Ride facilities, Integrated Ticketing & Real Time Passenger
      Information
    Selling the concept of QBCs through the website and other means of publicity in
      conjunction with the Local Authorities, the Bus Companies and the Dublin
      Transportation Office
    Political support & public acceptance

To set up efficient bus priority schemes, keep in mind to:
    1) provide bus schemes complementary to other structuring routes like metro and
        tram systems;
    2) greatly fix objectives of Level of Service that can be easy to brand
    3) form an operational staff that can be in charge of all sub-systems
        (Infrastructure, vehicles and operating matters)
The comprehensive approach of the « system » is very important and implies that
vehicles, stations, traffic lanes, line identification and operating methods are dealt with
in a coherent and sustainable manner.




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                                           SPUTNIC – Strategies for Public Transport in Cities




Contact for additional information
Organisation: Dublin City Council (QBNPO)
Main contact: Ciaran Deburca and Anne McElligott
Adresse: QBN Project Office
4th Floor, Verizon Building
Erne Street Lower
Dublin 2
Tel : +353 (0)1 6860100
E-mail: ciaran.deburca@dublincity.ie ; anne.mcelligott@dublincity.ie
Website: http://www.dublincity.ie/Pages/Homepage.aspx


Bibliography

Dublin Transportation Office: www.dto.ie

Quality Bus Corridor Annual Monitoring Report 2006
http://www.dto.ie/web2006/QBCmon2006.pdf

Dublin Bus www.dublinbus.ie

Quality Bus Network Project Office
http://www.dublincity.ie/ROADSANDTRAFFIC/QBNPROJECTOFFICE/Pages/QBNProj
ectOffice.aspx




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