Development of Cultural And Ecotourism in the
Mountainous Regions Of Central and South Asia
Report of the Third Regional Workshop
May 12-16, 2003
Organised by the
Chitral Association for Mountain Area Tourism (CAMAT),
with assistance from UNESCO and AKRSP
Table of Contents
Acronyms ..................................................................................................................................... 1
1. Program Background .............................................................................................................. 2
2. Workshop Outline ................................................................................................................... 3
3. Participation ............................................................................................................................ 3
4. Projects Poster Bazaar............................................................................................................. 5
5. Issues and Opportunities ......................................................................................................... 5
6. Sharing Three Tangible Products............................................................................................ 9
7. Appreciative Participatory Planning and Action .................................................................. 10
8. Tourism and the Disadvantaged and Poor ............................................................................ 12
9. Products and Markets ............................................................................................................ 16
10.Visit to the Kalash Valleys ................................................................................................... 20
11.Recommendations for Cultural and Ecotourism Development in Chitral ............................ 22
12.Evaluation of the Workshop ................................................................................................. 26
Annex 1 ...................................................................................................................................... 28
Annex 2 ...................................................................................................................................... 32
Annex 3 ..................................................................................................................................... 35
Annex 4 ...................................................................................................................................... 36
Annex 5 ..................................................................................................................................... 38
ACTED Agency for Technical Cooperation and Development
AKRSP Aga Khan Rural Support Programme
APPA Appreciative Participatory Planning and Action
CAMAT Chitral Association for Mountain Area Tourism
ITTO Iran Travel and Touring Organisation
KMF Kazakhstan Mountaineering Foundation
NT Nepal Trust
PLA Participatory Learning and Action
PRA Participatory Rural Appraisal
RSPN Royal Society for the Protection of Nature
SLC Snow Leopard Conservancy
TMI The Mountain Institute
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation
1. Program Background
Participating Countries (Regions): Kazakhstan (Tien Shan/Alatau), Kyrgyzstan (Issyk-Kul),
Tajikistan (Murghab), Nepal (Humla), Pakistan (Chitral), India (Ladakh), Iran (Masouleh) and
Brief Description of the Program
The purpose of this inter-disciplinary project is to promote community-based cultural and eco-
tourism in selected mountain areas, with a specific focus on poverty eradication, reduction of
rural-urban migration and the preservation of cultural and natural heritage in those areas.
The project’s first phase will assess prospects for sustainable tourism development in selected
mountain regions of Central Asia and in the Himalayas, identify potential difficulties and
promote best practices. The aim is to help avoid the spread of tourism in an haphazard or ad
hoc way, and to help ensure that the local communities benefit from it.
The project will also seek to set up links and to establish co-operation between local
communities and national NGOs on the one hand and international NGOs and tour agencies on
the other, with a view to involving the local population in income-generation activities related
to tourism. Such activities could include the training of tour guides, the production and sale of
high-quality craft items, the promotion of home-stays and of bed and breakfast type
accommodation, as well as the development of traditional dance and music, etc. As the project
advances, recommendations, tour guidebooks and web sites will also be produced.
Justification and background
Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries in developing countries, notably in
mountainous areas, which are often rich in traditional and minority cultures, as well as in
biological diversity. Many mountainous regions, infact, are safe-havens for traditional cultures,
architecture, religions, beliefs and traditional knowledge. In addition, they are also important in
environmental terms, since they are havens of biological diversity and conserve much rare or
endangered plant and animal species. The greater part of the world’s renewable clean water
resources are formed and stored in mountain areas, and such regions are often areas of great
scenic beauty, making them prime tourist destinations.
There is, therefore, a need to assess prospects for the development of culturally and
ecologically sustainable tourism in the mountainous regions of developing countries. This
project will identify the tourist potential of a selected number of mountain environments, will
develop cultural and eco-tourism in these regions, and will promote best practices in this
regard. Specifically the project will explore forms of sustainable tourism that could provide
income-generating activities in the tourism sector, including in pilgrimage tourism, so as to
contribute to poverty alleviation and provide valuable sources of employment for the poor.
Project areas could include among others, the important cultural and natural heritage sites
and/or ―Biosphere Reserves‖ included in the Man and Biosphere (MAB) Programme. About
40% of all natural World Heritage Sites and over 42% of all biosphere reserves are located in
mountainous regions or include mountain areas. Mountain areas included in the present project
are: Tien Shan in Kazakhstan, Lake Issyk-Kul in Kyrgyzstan (a Biosphere Reserve), the
Himalayan regions of Ladakh in India, Humla in Nepal, and Phobjikha in Bhutan, Chitral in
the Hindukush in Pakistan, the Pamir region in Tajikistan and the mountain areas in and around
Masouleh in Iran.
The project will work with interdisciplinary teams from the main participating countries. These
teams could include representatives of local NGOs, community leaders, INGOs, UNESCO
field offices and National Commissions, as well as of appropriate foundations, research centers
and tour agencies.
The main objectives of the project are:
To identify potential areas for culturally and environmentally sustainable tourism in the
mountainous and rural areas of Central Asia and the Himalayas/Pamirs, rich in traditional
and minority cultures as well as biodiversity; as well as to promote best practices in the
areas concerned; and
To explore sustainable tourism practices that conserve natural and cultural heritage and
provide income-generating activities in the tourism sector so as to contribute to poverty
alleviation of mountain populations.
2. Workshop Outline
The workshop was designed to address issues in and develop strategies for cultural and
ecotourism that participants could use in their projects.
The topics, which were covered during this five-day workshop, included
Tourism Benefits and Impacts
Chitral Tourism Development
This outline was the result of the discussion of the last workshop at Issyk-Kul, Kyrgyzstan
2002. Details about each topic are given in Annex 1, as is a session plan for the workshop.
Each of the sessions was chosen and designed to serve dual purposes of providing participants
the experience of a facilitation technique with a focus on participatory learning, as well as a
way to address current and emerging issues in their projects.
To understand the concept of participation and its role in sustainable and responsible tourism
an exercise was conducted to provide a hands-on experience of participatory planning,
monitoring and evaluation. At the end of the exercise participants discussed some key issues
in participatory planning, monitoring and evaluation based on their experience. Details of the
exercise can be found in Annex 2.
Each group was allocated a set of items and they were asked to build a tree using these and
based on the following criteria. The tree should be:
1. Most stable.
2. Most beautiful.
3. Most resource efficient.
The activity was divided in three parts of 15 minutes each. All the three groups were asked to
move from their original position after making the plan for the tree. Then in the second part
they had to actually build the tree and had to leave it for the other group for evaluation. Thus in
the third part each group evaluated the other group’s efforts in building the specified tree
What made it easy to implement the plan?
Use of diagram/picture/Map (visual methods. e.g.- useful for illiterate people). Use
Written instructions are not always clear to everyone.
What happened when others implemented your plan?
Misused resources (some were broken), improvised.
Disappointment (plan was distorted by others), reinterpreted.
Improved on product.
Added some resources/ elements that were not planned.
Didn’t achieve initial vision/ concept.
Disrupted balance of criteria/ values.
(How difficult/ easy to evaluate) e.g. – How did you judge “resource efficiency”?
Criteria for resource efficiency were different among teams – use some or all?
Scoring ―beautiful‖ based on different definitions, values.
Difficult to evaluate if evaluation criteria is too compartmentalized/ structured (use of
qualitative & quantitative criteria).
Beauty should considered in context – is not objective
Need educated input in aesthetic criteria.
Consider available resources to judge tallness (resources were not the same for all).
What was learned?
How to use resources efficiently.
Importance of continuity of stakeholder participation from beginning to end, from planning
Consider differences in perspectives – criteria for evaluation must be agreed and
understood in advance
Value of clear plans that others can follow – use appropriate means e.g. visuals, local
Need to involve all members / good participation/ need to listen to all / consensus.
4. Projects Poster Bazaar
As a part of this presentation and discussion, each partner project addressed how it aims to
achieve UNESCO project objectives of conserving nature and culture, and contribution to
poverty alleviation; and how the results will be monitored and measured.
Partners prepared ―poster‖ (using 1-2 large pieces of poster paper and no more!) before coming
to Chitral that illustrated in words, images, or graphics, etc. the following items:
Overall project objectives (no more than four objectives)
Activities for 2003 (only summary) brought copies of this year’s proposals for every
Expected impacts of 2003 activities and their relationship to the objectives
Key opportunities and issues for 2003
Significant impacts to date that show progress towards the objectives (where
applicable) – no more than two per objective
All the participants tried to be very creative while making their posters by using pictures,
graphics, color, etc.
Posters were put up around the room for others to look at. Other participants wrote questions or
requested points of clarification on post-its, and the poster presenter/s addressed these points in
Project Titles (2003-2004)
ACTED Ecotourism in East Pamir - Tajikistan
CAMAT Cultural and Ecotourism Project for Chitral (Pakistan)
ITTO Development of Community-based Cultural Tourism in Masouleh, Iran
KMF Mountain Eco- and Cultural Tourism Professionals: A Training
Initiative for Central Asia (Kazakhstan)
Nepal Trust Ecotourism and Trekking Promotion, Limi Valley, Humla, Nepal
Novinomad Development of Ecotourism in Issyk-Kul Area, Kyrgyzstan
RSPN Ecotourism for Conservation and Development of Phobjikha Valley,
Wangduephodrang District in Western Bhutan
TMI/SLC Himalayan Homestays in India
5. Issues and Opportunities
To encourage the process of learning from each other, this exercise highlighted key issues and
opportunities in the projects, and we worked together to think of ways to address these. All the
participants were given two cards (green and pink) to mention one issue and opportunity each.
Then these cards were collected from the participants and were put in to a hat. Then
participants randomly picked an issue and opportunity card each. Participants were asked to
share his/her views upon the issue that was written on the card, and then all the participants
were given time for discussion upon the issue. Due to time constraints the participants could
not cover all the opportunities.
The main issues, which were highlighted and their possible solutions that were discussed, were
How can one measure benefits to disempowered people?
Eco-Tourism can be used as a tool to empower the disadvantaged people not only in
economic aspect but also socially, politically and psychologically. This can be done
through in many ways including establishing community funds, providing facilities,
building their confidence and equal distribution of benefits to them.
First we need to identify the poor that who are the poor? The disadvantaged people can be
termed as poor. After their identification we must ensure their participation at policy level,
information should be disseminated to them and their skills building should be ensured.
Before providing services to the disempowered people we need to be clear about certain
things such as who will get the services, how much money will they earn, what is the
criteria for choosing the participants, what are types of the participants? Whether they are
individuals or businesses and
Who is making decisions?
How to deal with the issue of expectations for instant benefits (short term) by communities?
Prior discussion on duration of benefits.
Nature of tourism-seasonality.
Encourage dialogue around risks.
Be aware and discuss the fact that tourism is often an additional income source.
Roles are defined/expectations are clear.
Trust / confidence building – tangible results + skills building will help
Conduct training needs assessments in a participatory manner.
Encourage payment for training courses to feel ownership and create value
Homestays are relatively cheap accommodation. How can we stop / control those that come
and want to bargain further and cheapen its image?
Fixed price – rules to fix price, no discussion on different prices, distribution of homestays
according to demand,
An association could control flow and prices, use a voucher system, price set by association
members, community enforcement,
Build capacity to understand pricing and its components
Educating visitors, educating guide book writers.
How to convince the government that Eco-Tourism is important to improve the livelihoods
of the people of Chitral?
Regular meetings with concerned stakeholders
Workshops with stakeholders
Give information and success stories from elsewhere
Use big and more powerful agencies to lobby on your behalf
How can we promote regional tourism and how might it be done?
Regional packages of attractions
Share different experiences
Develop regional interests
Branding Himalayan Homestays across the region (from Pakistan to Bhutan)
Circulate festival calendars and prior advertising
How to attract domestic markets / how to educate the domestic tourists?
Hitting the right market, conducting market research on domestic visitors
Setting a trend among the domestic visitor – make it attractive and desirable
Demands may be different among domestic visitors
Professional societies and hobby clubs are worth exploring – foresters, gardeners, trekking
Right packages are critical
Nature clubs – focused interest
Festivals of sports and cultural events
Website, brochures, and leaflets etc., especially for the middle class professional
Local/ national newspapers – but with the right and responsible image
Local / National radio – can be effective
Codes of conduct
Sign boards, bill boards
Homestays seems to be of interest to Indian tourists. What methods of promotion might work
to interest this group of middle class professionals?
See above as well.
Government of religious parties in the North West Frontier Province is an important issue in
context of Chitral / CAMAT?
Reasons for weak policy support
Rapid turnover of government officials
Loss of institutional memory and support
Supposed to be not supportive of Eco-Tourism activities (cultural opposition)
Enter into dialogue with local and provincial governments.
Role of visitor in policy change –s/he should play his/her role.
Showing success / results to decision-makers
Govt as partner (e.g. UNESCO in Pakistan)
Economic importance can be stressed
Master plan for tourism
Awards – e.g. Greenest Chief Minister Award is given in India
Weak awareness of cultural Eco-Tourism and sustainability issues among local
We can address this issue through:
Working with teachers (KMF)
Radio stations and suitable programmes
Messages through other groups
Alternative media campaigns
Support for local tourism organisations
Take a risk
Strength in association
Some of the issues could not be discussed due to time shortage but were woven into later
▲ High transportation cost for the tourists - Often difficult to get to Humla even if they
want, very long and difficult route.
▲ How can we promote our regions on the international markets?
▲ Traditional materials are not enough used.
▲ Lack of tourism development boards. If some exist they are too weak.
The opportunities, which could not be discussed, are as under. However, these were woven
into later sessions
▲ Annual magazine on regional tourist activities, calendar of festivals etc.
▲ Strengthening linkages with national and international actors
▲ Creation of legal structure for Eco-Tourism supported by ACTED
▲ Supervision by UNESCO is a great opportunity to influence Govt policies in favor of
▲ The presence of biodiversity, with varied landscape and rich cultural monuments
6. Sharing Three Tangible Products
Each project partner brought and shared three tangible products from their projects to date that
they have found useful, are proud of and could be of value to others. These were ―tangible‖
items, such as survey forms/results, training materials, codes of conducts, newsletters, brochure
or website material, by-laws of a tourism association, feed back forms, monitoring protocols,
Project Partners Products
ACTED Guy’s report of Murghab visit (UNESCO to provide translation soon)
Itineraries for 2003 treks
Yak House activities in handicraft and women empowerment
CAMAT Plates for vehicles, certificate for visitor safety
By-laws of CAMAT, Chitral
Chitral festival / Jashn-e-Chitral – revival in 2002
ITTO-MASOULEH Committee (govt. + community)
Center of research for handicraft
Historical research center
KMF Training curricula (geography, history, culture, language etc.
Training of Trainers curriculum – from R. Lepcha (Nandita to obtain)
NEPAL TRUST APPA training report
Promotion of tourism in mountains of Nepal (Rosie Swales trek with the local
NOVINOMAD Data base for tourism service providers
Image brochure outline of Issyk-Kul
Trust fund of service providers – guidelines
RSPN Codes of conduct for operators
TOR of tourism committee
Endowment fund guidelines
TMI/SLC Homestay planning outlines
Wildlife info sheet for Hemis National Park
Feedback forms for Himalayan Homestays
Parachute Cafes – publicity leaflet and solar technology
UNESCO Copies of all project proposals for 2003
Tourism surveys from Nepal
Wildlife handbook from Thailand
Brochure from Responsible Ecological and Social Tours in Thailand
Designs to increase fuel efficiency and use of renewable energies, e.g. solar.
7. Appreciative Participatory Planning and Action1
To help understand the concept of appreciative inquiry all the participants were asked to give
their inputs upon the words APPRECIATIVE and INQUIRY.
Different meanings of the word appreciative were
Assess, Enjoy, Praise, Respect, Encourage, Value, Proud
Different meanings of the word Inquiry were:
Question, Investigate, Request, Observation, Study, Research, Find, Understand
Summary of Appreciative Inquiry
Development planning has traditionally focused on problem solving and/or a needs driven
approach. As a result we, as practitioners, have become experts at problem identification and
finding the causes of failure, as well as the search for external resources to address these
problems. We often think of those we work with, and places where we work as being needy,
but with nothing to contribute: “She is an abandoned wife. She needs education, loans and
a profession”. In the same way we look at organizations and situations as ―problems to be
solved‖. We become great problem solvers, but at the same time lose the capacity to envision
and create better worlds. In some cases, we can become so overwhelmed by problems that we
begin to believe things will never get better.
Asset-building approaches, such as Appreciative Inquiry, focus on valuing the skills we have
for we all have skills, and the factors that motivate individuals and groups to success; to focus
on as identifying and releasing individual and group capacities. Such an approach asks us as
individuals, groups and organizations to seek out the very best of ―what is‖ to help us imagine
―what could be.‖ Furthermore, the approach seeks to mobilize resources, capacities and skills
from within the participants involved to achieve ―what could be.‖ So in Maya’s case from
above “She is Maya. She is a great cook and learns quickly. She can teach cooking to lodge
operators. She will benefit from training on how to teach”.
Another key principle of Appreciative Inquiry is the focus on collective inquiry and action, the
collective discovery and valuing of skills, resources and capacities and the collective visioning
of what might be and is possible and how this can be done. By continuously asking the
questions – What makes our working together possible? What allows us to function at our
best? What possibilities await that will allow us to stretch beyond where we currently are to
reach higher levels of achievement – an organization or community allows its creative
capacities to be released and valued.
Our application of Appreciative Inquiry is in planning and managing conservation and
development programs and activities; to provide an additional approach that helps motivate
people to plan and manage a collective vision of the best possible future. Our lives and
environments become opportunities and possibilities for a desirable future rather than problems
See Community Based Tourism for Conservation and Development: A Resource Kit, The Mountain Institute,
to be overcome. This is not to say that problem-solving is an irrelevant approach, but that
other planning models that can also produce results can supplement it.
A common framework for using Appreciative Inquiry to plan for action is the ―4-D‖ model, of
Discovery, Dream, Design and Delivery. In the application of APPA this cycle has been
adapted for the purposes of community planning and action.
Appreciative Participatory Planning and Action (APPA)
The interest in small-scale, participatory approaches has emerged from dissatisfaction with
mainstream development models characterized by authoritarian, top-down policy initiatives in
which economic growth is pursued at considerable environmental and social cost. In many
developing countries this mainstream has tended to be comprised of large-scale state
involvement with unplanned injections of free-market policies.
The primary aim of participatory strategies, whether popular, local or community is that local
people become active subjects of the development effort rather than passive recipients. More
specifically, the concept is related to the active involvement of local people in the choice,
execution and evaluation of projects and programs designed to raise their living standards.
APPA combines the Appreciative Inquiry framework with traditional participatory learning
methods and a planning and management process based on around ―Discovery, Dream, Design
and Delivery‖. During this process participatory learning both generates information and is an
empowering activity for all participants. This alternative promotes policies and activities based
upon the capacities, skills and assets of participants and which are creative based upon the
capacities, skills and assets of participants and which are creative and innovative.
Principles of Appreciative Participatory Planning and Action
Principle 1- Focus on finding and building upon the root causes of success and motivation
among participants as individuals and groups. Appreciative Inquiry uses a planning and
management cycle of Discovery, Dream, Design and Delivery that builds upon those
capacities, resources and life-giving attributes that we value. As a starting point, we typically
seek to discover and record the skills and assets of who we are and where we work and live:
Find a success story of local enterprise and conservation work
Community working together for shared vision
Strengths, success: things people feel proud about
Based on these values and assets, Appreciative Inquiry also asks us to build dreams of what we
want for our communities, our environment, and ourselves. Challenging but realistic dreams
are important since they guide and inspire the design of our actions, motivate and excite us,
and are more likely to lead to successful delivery of the possible.
Principle 2 – Participatory learning – As a process, APPA builds upon the practice of PRA,
PLA and group dynamic disciplines that have influenced rural development over the past 20
years. The philosophy and practice of participatory learning as a part of sustainable
development is critical to APPA since participation empowers people through acquiring and
affirming knowledge, and through building ownership of jointly planned actions. Traditional
PLA tools have been modified to help investigate the above questions, and to attributes such as
garbage, wildlife sightings, forage availability, forest cover, etc. are projected to 10 – 20 year
horizons, schematic maps of future community and natural resources status, mapping of
current and potential ecotourism resources, ranking of ecotourism attributes, e.g. sites, services,
etc. A similar approach is adopted during the evaluation of community conservation and
ecotourism activities, when the focus is on ―What worked well, and what needs to be
Principle 3 – Sustainability – The combination of principles that build upon and mobilize
participants’ skills, resources and active participation help ensure sustainability of the approach
and the resources and communities for which actions are planned. The process is very much
one of finding and implementing actions to address opportunities and issues, as it is one of
building local capacities to continue learning and taking increasingly active roles in decision
Exercises to encourage Creativity
Creativity is critical to an asset-building approach and to make the concepts of creativity and
appreciative inquiry more interesting, all the participants were divided into four groups and
were given one item each and were asked to think creatively about as many uses of the item as
they could. The items were Tea Cozy, Hand Bag, Marker and Scale/Ruler. All the groups came
up with very creative ideas that they shared with the rest of the participants.
At the end of the session, the workshop facilitators gave short presentations on the importance
of creative thinking and its usefulness in the field of tourism, and how we can develop creative
approaches to using tourism to help the poor and disadvantaged.
8. Tourism and the Disadvantaged and Poor
One of the main aims of UNESCO’s Cultural and Ecotourism program is to reduce poverty.
That can be done only if the tourism activities benefit the poor. To elaborate and understand
this issue further, we need to understand who we think of as the poor and disadvantaged and
why. Therefore in this session as the first step all the participants were asked to brainstorm
ideas and characteristics of those we consider to be poor, disadvantaged or in poverty.
After a detailed discussion the participants listed the following as possible characteristics:
No access to health, education, information, and natural resources
Being a child
Low self confidence
Those who have a lack of options
New entrants in a community
Using a group forming exercise (animal pictures and distinctive noise recognition!) all the
participants were divided into three groups and given three scenarios. The groups and their
relative scenarios were as follows.
Woof-Woof Small House/ Home Stay accommodation
Meow Service Providers associated with Trekking
(Including guide training)
SSSSS Tour Operators and Operations
First the groups were asked to identify Key Disadvantaged Target Groups for that particular
scenario. After that the groups were asked to give answers to the four questions given below.
1. What are the skills/strengths of these groups within ―Scenarios‖?
2. What specific mechanisms (within tourism scenario) are needed to help involve/benefit
3. What activities/inputs are needed?
4. What are indicators of success/what would you measure?
Group Meow - Service Providers for Trekking
Key target Skills Selection criteria Inputs Indicators for all
Guides Physically fit Good nature Training: Additional
Knowledge of Disadvantaged Hygiene income
Local culture group Discipline Gaining self
Language Flexibility Basic foreign confidence
(local) Basic knowledge language Interest in
Interest of the area. Technical skills continuing of
Knowledge of Fitness Environment work
the animals protection Feed back forms
First aid from tourists and
Using animal local community
To be a leader Willing ness to
Cook Physically fit Good nature Trainings:
Basic Disadvantaged Hygiene
knowledge of group Discipline
cooking Flexibility Trekking cuisine
Interest Fitness Serving
Porter Young people Age: Trainings:
& Extra fitness Up to 25 years Environmental
Knowledge of Protection
the region Technical Skills
Knowledge of First aid
the animals Packing
Animal Owners Knowledge of Good condition Trainings:
animals of animals Veterinary
Good accessories Pricing
Food Providers Trainings:
Group (SSSSSSS) – Tour Operators
Key Skills/Strengths Mechanism Activity/Inputs Indicators
Young Motivation Training Training Sale of Products
People Willingness to Capacity Courses No. of customers
learn/ take risks Building Financial Financial success
Enthusiasm Plough Back Support Employment
Partnerships Perspective for
Community (future) growth.
Fund Exposure to new
The (SSSSS) group showed their measurement through the below graph.
1st Yr 2nd yr 3rd yr 4th yr
Additional target Groups for the SSSS group were
Low income groups as Service providers---
Women handicraft workshops
Home Stay Operators.
Woof-Woof Group – Homestay/Small Accommodation
Target Group Skills/strength Specific Mechanism Inputs/Activities Indicators
Running houses Awareness HH owned by
Preparation of Participative board campaign - raise target
traditional food for planning, decision acceptance, raise self groups/employee
Handicraft taking, monitoring s involved
Criteria catalogue No. of tourists
Motivation for selection of home visiting Home
Traditional lifestyle stays Training on stays
Running houses/food Creating groups
Economically Poor Hospitality (catering to tourists,
with group saving money earned
families language, hygiene
Source of information etc.) Children of
Group Fund -part HH family going
Motivation of benefits re- to School
channeled for general Feed back of
Time/availability benefits tourists
Loan/ grants Standardization of Creation of
Unemployed Flexibility provision houses (renovation boards
Motivation >employ unemployed Cultural
Some exposure starter kits) ation of practice
Traditional/unspoilt Use of local
Geographic isolation Peacefulness Savings
Good understanding of
Ethnic balance cultural diversity
information material /
9. Products and Markets
To understand the concept of markets and products all the participants were divided into three
Group 1. Consisted of Iran, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan.
Group 2. Consisted of Nepal, Bhutan and Kazakhstan.
Group 3. Consisted of Pakistan and India.
And then each group was asked to identify existing strongest product with its market
(customer, tourist type). Secondly each group had to answer a series of questions as well.
What can we do to sell more to the same customer/tourist type
(What, Where, How--- linkages)
The next step was to change the product or market and address a few more questions.
What would change and why?
How would you change it?
What activities and linkages between projects?
Product Market Improvement in strategies Changes in Market
Black – Necked Bird watchers,/ Building/ strengthening linkages Expansion of Market
Crane Festival. researchers/ supporters for e.g. with North East Crane through the above
(American, Asian, and Network sites, International Crane strategy.
European) Foundation (Members) Promotion through
Conduct promotional tours Bhutanese tour operators.
abroad as well within, media, fliers. Wild life/ Eco-Tourism)
Promote local guides
Product Sales Change Activity/Linkage
Experience desert tour on camels, Bigger promotion, Add Bay konut Offer to foreign
horses, ship cemetery, Aral see, Website, publicity, extension partners
Kamystr bas lake, advertisement, Age group 18 – Encourage
Merkit Ana mausoleum, culture international market, 25 archaeological
(songs, stories) Existing clients database, New concept: experts
Snake city (XI century). foreign workers, ex-pats, Ecological
Age group (25 – 40 (middle class) TV disaster + nature
Endemic animals and flowers. in pure form
Under water city.
KYRGYZSTAN - For Existing Product and Market
Product Customers How To Sell More
Cultural tours with the activity Western European people of Better promotion of existed market.
one such as trek of horse riding. middle class with average Establishing new links to European.
Duration 7 – 15 days. age 25 - 50 Providing more information about region
Improve the quality of services.
KYRGYZSTAN - Changed Product with Same Market
Product Customer Marketing
Cultural tour along great Silk Western European people of Trial tour with tour operator
Road. Includes 3 countries: middle class. Age 25 – 50 Developing itinerary
Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and years old. Establishing links with involved countries
China. Promotion through website and printed
Duration 15 days. materials.
Promotion through tour operators –
Permanent control and improvement of
ACTED- MURGHAB, TAJIKISTAN
Existing Product and Market
Products Markets How to Sell More
General Tour to different high Independent travelers mainly Advertise the ETM at INGOs in CA,
lights (car). from internet assistance from ACTED bases in
Semi nomadic life style, NGO’s in Central Asia (5 – 7 embassies
environment. days) Refine itineraries (information,
Wildlife some horse riding transportation, the quality of service
(accommodation, food, hygiene
transport) & expand (tracking,
Strengthen Eco-Tourism association
to take care of management, pricing
of benefit > advertise.
Same Product and Changing the Market
Product Market How To Sell More
General tour to different highlights Innovation: Marketing (brochures, website
(car) 25 – 40 year old middle class agencies).
Semi nomadic life style, environment professionals, (international) Linkages with existing offers (e.g.
Wild life some horse riding students in search of a unique Kazakhstan) & tour operators
experience. Market research & adopt offers
Strengthen Eco-Tourism association.
Existing Product and Market
Product Market How To Sell More
Himalayan Homestays Professional Middle Class Websites, Advertise to Professional clubs +
Indians. companies, and in Natural History Magazines,
Local Advertisement in Leh in Eco-Tourism
friendly places, Market Research on methods of
finding out about homestays, Survey forms, feed
Same Product with Different Customer
Product Market How To Sell More
Himalayan Homestays More International visitors Market research on additional local activities,
already in Leh willingness to pay, local advertising, in tour
operators and shops, advertise on websites of
Existing Product and Market
Product Market How To Sell More
Kalash valley cultural trips Domestic tourist looking for National dailies advertising, through tour
cooler, exotic, less spoilt operators, websites, PTV, GEO, Cultural events
destinations in cities, word of mouth, charity events, Market
research, survey forms, feed back forms,
lobbying on access (flights).
Changing Product with the Existing Market
Product Market How To Sell More
Adding Chitral fort to the itinerary Same Market: as before – more Market research – duration of stay, those who
+ Chitral activities +wild life. will come want to spend money, what activities, Interest in
fort + Chitrali activities.
HUMLA, NEPAL TRUST
Existing Product with its Market
Product Market How To Sell More
Treks for Development Rotarians, Volunteers from UK & Expansion of website with search tours.
Austria More information on the area, flora, and
Get the good position expansion of guests
and put on the websites,
(A code of conduct) we use local guides,
cooks and porters and building programs
are usually planned with community
Changing Market with the Same Product
Product Market How To Sell More
Treks for development Market expansion e.g. Europe, Database on flora and fauna, cultural
Asia, (Japan), Domestic mkt. aspects to be included in promotional
(dev. Org. experts) materials.
Integration of cultural preservation, nature
protection aspect of building programs and
Media, TV, radio, tour operators and
special events such as Rosie Swale etc.
Existing Product with its Market
Product Market How To Sell More
Exotic Nature, Heritage Urban national tourists who Advertising in national as well as
attraction. want to go to rural areas in international market.
summer. More preservation activities.
To have more options.
Same Product with Changed Market
Product Market How To Sell More
Exotic Nature, Heritage To attract international Advertisement in foreign languages,
attraction. clients. foreign media.
Adoption of offer to the demand of foreign
International tour operators.
Linkages in Markets
Sharing market research methods for domestic visitors (India and Pakistan)
Sharing market and product information to customers (Nepal, Bhutan, Kazakhstan)
Greater collaboration on Silk Road initiatives (Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, China,
Pakistan), e.g. routes that link Tajikistan--- Pakistan, Tajikistan---Kyrgyzstan,
Traders along routes use local accommodation that could be promoted
Flights access/Visa relaxation between countries
Yak house (Murghab) and Shubinak House (Chitral) – market and information
linkages on products, women empowerment methods, etc
Himalayan Homestays--- Branding of HH across the Himalayan from Pakistan to
UNESCO initiatives —CDs, Short films on Discovery Channel, Promoting Twin
Festival Calendars – jointly between countries
Familiarisation Trips for operators among participating countries
10. Visit to the Kalash Valleys
On May 14, 2003, all the participants visited the world famous Kalash valleys. The main
purpose of this visit was to learn about the people of Kalash valley of Rumbur, talk to them, to
understand and learn about their culture and to know their views on Eco tourism and
preservation of the unique culture of Kalash valleys.
Background of the Kalasha People
In the North Western corner of Pakistan lie the Kalash valleys, home of the non Muslim tribe
known as the Kalasha. Their ancestors once ruled nearly to Kabul to the west and to the Lowari
pass to the east. Today immigrants and converted Muslims outnumber the 4,000 or so Kalasha
are outnumbered in their own valleys. Their ancestry is enveloped in mystery and is the subject
of controversy. Legend says that five soldiers of the legions of Alexander of Macedonia settled
in Chitral and are the progenitors of the Kalasha.
The Kalasha live in the valleys of Birir, Bumburet and Rambur, south of Chitral. Bumburet, the
largest and the most picturesque valley of the Kafir-Kalasha, is 40 kms. from Chitral and is
connected by a jeepable road. Birir, 34 kms away is accessible by a jeepable road as is Rambur
which is 32 kms from Chitral.
Chitral town is the gateway to the Kalash valleys. Traveling over rugged terrain one bounces
all the way to the valley. An icy cold river cuts its fast flowing path down the valley and water
channels cut high in the rock face feed water to the thirsty green valley
The Kalasha women wear black gowns of coarse cloth in
summer and hand-spun wool dyed in black in winter. Their
picturesque headgear is made of woolen black material decked
out with cowry shells, buttons and crowned with a large
The Kalasha are know for their wood carving skills, and their
love of music and dancing particularly on occasion of their
religious festivals like Joshi Chilimjusht (12th & 16th May-
spring), Phool (20th – 25th September) and Chomas (18th to 21st
December for a week.
The Kalasha communities are facing a number of challenges as they become part of a larger
economy and participants in cultural change. Tourism in the Bumburet valley has grown
tremendously as evidenced by the number of hotels and guest-houses most owned by non-
locals. The Rambur valley, while relatively undisturbed by tourism development, is also
undergoing change in response to the potential of tourism and other development schemes that
have improved local infrastructure and facilities. While international visitation has dropped,
domestic visitors are drawn to the area and its people for various reasons. Among the certain
sections of the domestic market, the Kalasha have an unwarranted and incorrect reputation as a
objects of oddity and liberal morals. Such perceptions have led to undesirable behaviour by
visitors and considerable discussion about the value and nature of tourism in the area. Project
participants met with some residents of the Rambur Valley and development agencies such as
AKRSP, and discussed the development of tourism and its relationship with Kalasha culture.
Participants’ impressions and thoughts are summarized below, and should be seen as a
reflection of a very limited interaction and brief visits to the two valleys.
De-briefing on visit to Kalash Valleys on May 15,2003.
Stay longer – real experience / interaction between host/visitor.
More activities for visitors – building into what is being done.
More interpretation – leaflets, more information beforehand about culture and behaviour
Encourage & be proud of traditional customs/ tradition – education – funds/economies
Benefits to local population from tourism – mechanism – advocacy.
Skills development based on indigenous skills.
Nature / structure of new buildings – encourage positive relationship with local
11. Recommendations for Cultural and Ecotourism Development in Chitral
After discussions with members of CAMAT, and considering the unprecedented opportunity to
contribute to the development of responsible cultural and ecotourism in Chitral, participants
developed recommendations that would be discussed further by local residents and tourism
actors. These recommendations would provide a platform for CAMAT to pursue responsible
tourism development in the region and to leverage additional support from both policy-makers
On the last day of the workshop (May 16, 2003) different stakeholders of tourism in Chitral
were also invited to attend the last session of the workshop. Those included representatives of
the local Govt, elders of the community, poets, artists, teachers, heads of the local and national
NGO’s, representatives of the government owned tourism institutions, and member of
Then the international experts and participants displayed the recommendations, which they had
made to promote culturally and environmentally sensitive tourism in Chitral by sharing
benefits more widely and protecting cultural and national heritage.
Since there were five recommendations, therefore, they were put on five separate charts and
the participants were asked to put their names under one recommendation which was of
particular interest to them and would like to explore further. Groups were then created and
given a task to discuss the recommendation, elaborate upon it and make changes if needed.
International experts and participants from regional countries meeting at the UNESCO
Regional Workshop on the Development of Cultural and Eco-tourism in the Mountainous
Regions of Central and South Asia held in Chitral, Pakistan, from 12 to 16 May 2003 made
the following Recommendations to promote culturally and environmentally sensitive
tourism in Chitral, with the aim of sharing the benefits of tourism more widely and
protecting the cultural and natural heritage:
1. That ease of access to Chitral should be improved, notably through flights to
Chitral from Islamabad;
2. That community participation in decision-making and in the sharing of benefits
from tourism should be promoted;
3. That building regulations should be introduced in Chitral, in order to protect and
preserve the area’s outstanding cultural and natural heritage; and
4. That accurate and responsible information on the region’s history, culture and
traditions should be produced and disseminated both nationally and
internationally, as should information on Chitral’s outstanding natural heritage;
5. That regional cooperation in the development of cultural and eco-tourism should
be promoted, notably with regard to the neighboring Central Asian countries.
Those present (see Annex 3) endorsed the above recommendations, in addition to providing
more detail on activities and mechanisms to help in their execution as shown below.
The recommendations and discussions were as follows.
1. That ease of access to Chitral should be improved, notably through flights from
Islamabad to Chitral
Reasons to have flights from Islamabad.
Domestic tourists can access Chitral easily/ better
Better quality tourists.
Foreign missions and multinationals
Too much hassle on road
On weekends directly from Islamabad
Other days via Peshawar.
Twin Otter on Islamabad – Chitral flight
Current flights from Peshawar to continue.
Other related issue
Explore for extension of Chitral flight to Khorogh in Tajikistan.
2. That community participation in decision–making and sharing of benefits from
tourism should be promoted
Finding, strengthening, encouraging local structures/ organizations (e.g. valley
Existing or new umbrella organization with representation of local / community structures
For coordination and support of local structures.
For information center / dissemination.
Promote small local accommodations
Set rules with the communities.
Provide legal coverage to legal institutions.
Do capacity building (guiding, catering, interpretation, management).
Formulate code of conduct & rules for quality service with participation of community.
Manage & redistribute funds.
Base line survey (using APPA – tools) to find out different potentials.
Capacity building (training centers for different issues).
Local Govt. should encourage participation: no unnecessary.
Convert organization into enterprise for economical sustainability.
3. That building regulations should be introduced in Chitral, in order to protect the
area’s outstanding natural and cultural heritage
Points to be considered
Site selection (production + cultural values)
Building orientation and design considering weather and traditions + materials.
Proper link roads and drainage system.
Selection of certain areas as national / world heritage site in Chitral.
Preservations + renovations of old houses and historical buildings (fort).
The local community
National + International media.
NGOs technical advice (e.g. Aga khan cultural service, Focus humanitarian Assistance,
University of Peshawar, Archeology department, Aga Khan planning and building service.
Incentives for preservation / compatibility of design of new buildings.
Tourism values for old buildings
Coordination of UNESCO for Islamic architecture.
Alternative resource use to reduce wood use.
4. That accurate and responsible information on the region’s culture and traditions
should be produced and disseminated nationally and internationally, as should
information on Chitral’s outstanding natural heritage
Check on providing information (cultural and natural) to tourists.
Codes of conduct (developed with community involvement).
Local advisors/ experts on the topic should advise provincial and Federal Tourism
Zoning for the protection of religious and private places.
Kalasha should not be the only point of attraction for the tourists.
Screening the tour operators.
Participatory Resource Inventory.
Develop brochures, leaflets, sign boards- Both in Urdu and English and it should be
provided to down country tour operators.
Website, tourist police, fame visits, links with international tour operators, workshop with
Continue the Chitral Festival (Jashan e Chitral).
5. That regional co-operation in the development of cultural and ecotourism should be
promoted, notably with neighbouring Central Asian countries
Factors that link regions
Historical and Cultural
Establishing communication infrastructure through UNESCO and respective Govts.
MOUs between governments.
By relaxation of procedure and regulations i.e., VISA, Custom duties and taxes etc.
Exchanging cultural and Eco Tourism groups through UNESCO, NGOs and tour operators.
Interaction of intellectuals and journalists.
Road and Air link should be the top priority.
Exchange of sports, cultural and other groups.
Regional cooperation and coordination of NGOs.
Educational sponsoring of students/talents.
12. Evaluation of the Workshop
This was the last session of the workshop. In this session all the participants were given two
cards each to put their inputs upon each of them on what did they think was useful in this
workshop and how would they practically apply it later on in field.
Exercise on products and markets To design the short term strategy,
Market strategies, cultural aspect. (four Training on markets and products.
participants thought this topic as useful) Strategies, assisting existing markets/products
and improving on it,
Change/improve marketing strategies for
Tourism for Dev. to ensure that it integrates
cultural and environment aspects and also
expand market and also ensure that poor people
benefit from it.
APPA concepts and tools Participatory learning tools, 4Ds,
4-D model - Discovery, Dream, Design, We can use it while developing codes of
Delivery. (2 participants) conduct in Kalash valleys.
Detailed definition of ―poor‖. A more clear description of ―poverty‖ will help
Definition of ―Poverty‖/ Disadvantaged. (2 us to identify people who really need our help.
participants) This means we will be able to reach those
people and get them involved.
Developing strategies for sharing Eco tourism
opportunities to disadvantaged people
Tree Game for Participatory Planning Working with the communities, Training
(project staff +others) in doing participatory
Poster Bazaar Relate the issues, activities and results to our
own work in the field.
First- hand knowledge/contact with mountain Useful in sketching further fund raising
communities, problems of access etc. activities/grant and proposal writing.
Sharing of ideas Try to adapt some ideas to local conditions.
The methodology of workshop for To organize same workshop for tourism
developing/understanding/ implementation of students of the University of Tehran and for
Eco tourism. Eco tourism in Masouleh.
The idea that not only should there be a direct I shall redouble my efforts towards increasing
Twin Otter flight from Islamabad to Chitral, but the awareness of my students regarding the
that also there should be a continuation of the Central Asian States.
flight up to the airport in Tajikistan.
Before the formal closure of the workshop, each participant was asked about the arrangements
of the workshop i.e., what did they like most, and what could be improved. This activity was
done through a ball game. The ball was thrown by the facilitator to every participant and he/she
had to catch it and tell the audience about the things that s/he liked, and what could be
improved. Some of the responses are shown below.
Liked Could be improved
Exchange of ideas Gender balance among participants
Practical skills More energizers
Working with Stakeholders More days
Field trip and workshop mix More local and traditional food.
Hospitality and venue
Being invited to people’s homes
Creative thinking approach
Workshop at Chitral on Community Based Eco-tourism
Monday 12 May to Friday 16 May 2003
Introduction to workshop and workshop rules (0900-1000)2
Introduction to Participatory Approaches (build a tree exercise) (1000-1230)
Lunch Break (1230—1330)
Poster Bazaar: An overview of 2003 Objectives, Activities, Impacts and Priorities3.
Posters will be put up, participants will walk around & look at them and submit
questions on post-its, which will be answered by presenter in plenary (1330-1700)
Recap of Day 1: (0830—0845)
Addressing project opportunities/priorities for 2003 – Opportunity/Priority Hat
Lunch Break (1230—1330)
Sharing Tangible Successes: Each participant shares 3 project products they are proud
of4 and presents them to group for discussion/questions (1330—1700)
Recap of Day 2: (0830—0845)
Participatory Planning within the Appreciative Framework: Concept and Tools (why
participation is important, turning problems into opportunities). Understanding poverty
in the context of disadvantaged populations, and developing strategies for sharing
benefits and opportunities within cultural and ecotourism (0845-1230)
Lunch Break (1230—1330)
Products and Markets: Understanding markets and their relationship to product
development, and vice versa. (1330-1700)
Excursion – Horse riding trek to the Kalash valley to join their Spring Festival.
Discussion with representatives of the Kalasha communities. .
Recap & Reflection on Day 4 (Discussion on the impacts and opportunities in Kalash)
Discussion groups with CAMAT members and invitees5 on Recommendations
followed by group discussions of recommendations and presentations
Tea/Coffee breaks will be organized during the morning and afternoon sessions
See attached notes for workshop participants
E.g., training curriculum, code of conduct, website, etc. Participants should bring photo-copies for all.
Lunch (1300—1400). Informal interaction with CAMAT members and guests.
Evaluation and Planning for next Workshop. (1400—1500)
Press Conference with Local and National Media (1700-1800)
Notes for Participants at the Chitral Workshop, 12 – 16 May 2003
The Chitral workshop has been designed to focus the learning and sharing process around
topics identified during our last workshop in Issyk-Kul, Kyrgyzstan, and upon our assessments
of specific needs expressed by partners at this stage (e.g., the need for guide or lodge
management training materials, market links, etc).
Furthermore, the workshop will focus on what each partner project is planning and undertaking
for the year 2003, while the fall workshop will enable us to reflect on what has been done (in
that summer is a prime tourism season for a number of us).
Key workshop topics and activities will include:
The participatory approach (concept and tools) for community-based tourism planning and
monitoring, and the opportunity to practice participatory exercises with the Kalasha people.
Having a better understanding of the participatory approach, and specifically of Appreciative
Participatory Planning and Action (APPA) as a planning framework, should help you engage
community stakeholders in the identification of cultural and ecotourism products, and in
empowering them to take a lead in developing and managing community-based tourism. We
will draw on components of the ―Community-based Tourism for Conservation and
Development‖ course given by Nandita Jain and Wendy Brewer Lama in Nepal and Thailand,
and for which you have the ―Resource Kit‖ (The Mountain Institute and RECOFTC, 2000)
Again, in response to the perceived need for all of us to better understand the international and
regional eco-tourism markets (i.e., competition, trends, market research tools and channels,
ecotourism product ideas, etc.), we will discuss and do exercises to identify and understand
eco-tourism markets, and discuss what additional information is needed.
Sharing planned 2003 Objectives and Activities through a ―poster bazaar‖. As part of this
presentation and discussion, we ask that each partner project address how it aims to achieve
UNESCO project objectives of conserving nature and culture, and contributing to poverty
alleviation; and how the results will be monitored and measured. As you’ll recall from our
discussions at Issyk-Kul, poverty alleviation may be addressed both in terms of sharing
economic opportunities (enterprise, jobs, income) as well as other less tangible but real
benefits such as building skills, widening educational opportunities, or in other ways.
Representatives of the local Govt, elders of the community, poets, artists, teachers, heads of the local and
national NGO’s, representatives of the government owned tourism institutions, and member of CAMAT. (see
While it has been stressed that these impacts need not be measured in quantitative terms, they
should aim to be qualitative, illustrating the positive impact that the development of
community-based tourism can have, and is having, on such communities.
Partners should prepare a ―poster‖ (using 1-2 large pieces of poster paper and no more!) before
coming to Chitral that illustrates in words, images, or graphics, etc. the following items:
Overall project objectives (no more than four objectives)
Activities for 2003 (only a summary is needed – David will bring copies of this
year’s proposals for everyone)
Expected impacts of 2003 activities and their relationship to the objectives
Key opportunities and issues for 2003
Significant impacts to date that show progress towards the objectives (where
applicable) – no more than two per objective
Be creative when making your posters – use pictures, graphics, colour, etc.
Posters will be put up around the room for others to look at. We will write any questions or
points of clarification on post-its, and the poster presenter/s will later address these points in
Opportunity/Priority Hat: To encourage the process of learning from each other, this
exercise will highlight key issues, and we will work together to think of ways to address
these. No preparation needed other than some prior thought about the key
opportunities/priorities for your project and participants this year.
Sharing 3 Tangible Products: Each partner will bring and share three products from their
projects to date that they have found useful, are proud of and could be of value to others.
These should be ―tangible‖ items, such as visitor survey forms/results, training materials,
codes of conduct, newsletters, brochure or website material, by-laws of a tourism
association, feedback forms, monitoring protocols, etc. If you are using an item from a
previous project and it is useful then bring it. Please try to bring enough copies for
everyone. Although you can make photocopies or print-outs of material in Chitral, this will
take time and resources, so please try to bring them with you.
Excursion: During the excursion on Day 4, partners will work in small groups with
community members to practice selected participatory tools (approx. 3 hrs, through
translation). After returning to the hotel, participants will debrief on the use of the tools, the
participatory experience, and what was learned with the community re: the topic. To the
extent possible, we will work with the Kalasha community to generate a common
understanding about impacts of tourism, but we may need to adapt to local circumstances.
Continuation of Participatory techniques and CBT planning (2 hrs): Another participatory
tool(s) will be introduced, and preparations made to work in small groups with CAMAT
members to practice the tool/s and to address issues relevant to the CAMAT association.
After lunch, the results and the process will be presented and discussed. We hope that this
session will be of use to everyone as they consider how they work with local organizations
and perhaps more importantly as they help establish new ones.
Sharing Results of Workshop with Invitees: A number of key stakeholders from the local
community, local and national government agencies, I/NGOs, and others have been invited
to attend the final day of the workshop. This is an opportunity for dialogue and exchange
with stakeholders, as well as a review of the results of the workshop.
Evaluation of Workshop and Planning for Next Workshop: Finally, there will be a
participatory evaluation of the workshop, and discussions toward planning the fall 2003
Participatory Planning Monitoring & Evaluation 6
OBJECTIVES At the end of the session participants are able to …
Identify the value of participatory monitoring and
Identify some key issues on PM&E
Link PM&E with their experience
MATERIALS 1. Stationery items for each team depending on team numbers, but could
be 20 pieces for each; similar types of items but not exactly same.
2. Evaluation sheets
3. Flip chart/Paper and markers
4. Place for participants to move around
5. Bell or any signal maker
TIME 2 hours
STEPS 1. Don’t explain the purpose of the activity initially but inform
participants that it will become clear during the exercise
2. Explain that we will work in small teams and compete to design a tree.
The best tree will be tallest, most beautiful, most stable, and most
3. Post these criteria on the board.
4. Explain that each group will be provided a set of stationery and a
blank sheet of paper or flip chart. They will work on specific
instructions in different areas of the room. There will be four rounds
and each round will be 10 minutes.
First round each team will spend 10 or 15 minutes to discuss and
develop a plan for building a tree on basis of those criteria. They can
practice but at the end of 10 or 15 minutes every thing has to be
detached and left on the ground.
Second round each team will rotate to a place and review the plan
developed by another team. They can practice but they have to leave
Adapted from Worah et. al, 2000, Integrated Conservation and Development Projects; Trainer’s
Manual, page 231
Participatory Planning Monitoring & Evaluation 6
all pieces on the ground after the time is over.
Third round each team will move to the next place and look at the
reviewed plan developed by another team. Based on the plan, they have
to use the given pieces and build the tree.
Fourth round each team will rotate to another place and will be given
the evaluation sheet. They will spend 10 minutes to discuss and
evaluate the tree with following the sheet.
5. Ask the team to go back to their original place and see the results.
6. Get all participants in plenary and initiate discussion on the following
How easy was it to implement a plan developed by some one else?
What were some of the problems?
What happened when some one else implemented your plan?
Was it easy to evaluate? Why or why not?
Was the evaluation helpful? Why?
How was it easy to compare the results? Why and why not?
Which tree is the most beautiful, tallest, most stable, and most
What does this activity tech you about linkages between program
design and implementation?
What have you learned from this exercise?
COMMENTS 1. Each team will have similar pieces of stationery but not exactly the
same. This is relevant to actual situations where different program
have different resources or inputs.
2. They will not be able to compare beauty of the trees due to different
3. The criteria were developed to mislead participants and generate
4. Instead of four rounds, three could be done as well.
Criteria Score Reason
4. Resource efficiency
Total score (out of 20)
Please also add comments on:
How clearly was the plan written? How easy was it to implement?
How well did the team follow instructions? Did they change these or improve the
List of Participants
NAME ORGANIZATION COUNTRY
Eric Engel ACTED Murghab, Tajikistan.
Ubaudullah Mamadiev ACTED Murghab, Tajikistan.
Daniyar Shabdukarimov KMF Almaty, Kazakhstan.
Saifuddin CAMAT Chitral, Pakistan.
N.B.Lama (Jigme) Nepal Trust Humla, Nepal.
Ehsanul Haq AKRSP Chitral, Pakistan.
Sirajul Mulk CAMAT Chitral, Pakistan.
Nandita Jain TMI/SLC and Consultant, Ladakh, India (Britain)
Wendy Lama Consultant, UNESCO United States
Sergey Pareha NOVINOMAD Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan
Murtaza Tale Masouleh I.T.T.O IRAN Masouleh, Iran
David Tresilian UNESCO-HQ Britain
Jigme Tobgay RSPN Phobjikha, Bhutan
Ingeborg Breines UNESCO-Pakistan
List of the Last Day Guests
1. Gul Nawaz Khaki
2. Prof. Shams Nazar, Teacher
3. Dawood Jan, CAMAT Member.
4. Manzoor Hussain, Member CAMAT,
5. Naseer, Member CAMAT,
6. Babu Mohmad, Member CAMAT
7. Abdul Haleem Manager, Ticketing, PIA
8. Zuhran Shah AKRSP, Chitral.
9. Mohamad Abbas G.M, PTDC, Motels.
10. Mohamad Ali, (STC) Sarhad Tourism Corporation.
11. Iqmail Shah, Manager IUCN.
12. Rahimullah, AKRSP, Chitral.
13. Col. Sardar Mohamad Khan, G.S Jashn-e- Chitral Committee.
14. Taj Mohamad Figar, Poet
15. Amir Khan Mir, Nazim Tehsil Chitral
16. Maulana Israruddin Alhilal, V.Chairman CAMAT.
17. Maj. Langland, Principal Sayurj Public School.
18. Ms. Maureen Lines, Social worker.
19. Syed Harir Shah, G.S CAMAT.
20. Kaleem Ahsan, Journalist.
21. Iltaf Hussain, MACP/WWF.
22. Inayat Ullah Aseer, (Social Worker).
UNESCO promotes sustainable regional eco-tourism, protects
cultural and natural heritage
Chitral (16 May) A group of international experts, drawn
from Bhutan, India, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Nepal, Pakistan,
Tajikistan, Europe and the USA, met from 12 to 16 May in Chitral,
North West Frontier Province, Pakistan, to discuss the development
of sustainable, community-based cultural and eco-tourism in the
mountainous areas of Central and South Asia.
The meeting, held within the framework of a UNESCO
project designed to look at ways in which tourism can be mobilized
to alleviate poverty, reduce rural-urban migration and preserve the
cultural and natural heritage, heard presentations on country projects reporting on initiatives in,
among other places, Ladakh in India, the Tien Shan mountains in Kazakhstan, the Pamirs in
Tajikistan and the Kyrgyz Issyk-Kul region, as well as on Chitral in Pakistan.
Methods for promoting community participation were looked at, as were ways of
generating employment opportunities for mountain populations in the eight countries
participating in the project, many of which suffer from high levels of poverty, as well as
isolation and marginalisation in often-remote mountain districts.
Responsible cultural and eco-tourism, involving mountain trekking and using
community home-stays or bed-and-breakfast type accommodation, can help such communities
find sustainable employment and enhance their cultural heritage and traditions, the experts
Drawing on experiences gained from regional and Himalayan community-based eco-
tourism projects, the experts said that such methods could be promoted and expanded in
Chitral, whose mountain areas contain communities that could well benefit from eco-tourism.
The participants at the meeting issued a set of recommendations to promote culturally
and environmentally sensitive tourism in Chitral, with the aim of sharing the benefits of
tourism more widely and protecting the cultural and natural heritage.
These recommendations were: that ease of access to Chitral should be improved,
notably through flights to Chitral from Islamabad; that community participation in decision-
making and in the sharing of benefits from tourism should be promoted; that building
regulations should be introduced in Chitral, in order to protect and preserve the area’s
outstanding cultural and natural heritage; that accurate and responsible information on the
region’s history, culture and traditions should be produced and disseminated both nationally
and internationally, as should information on Chitral’s outstanding natural heritage; and that
regional cooperation in the development of cultural and eco-tourism should be promoted,
notably with regard to the neighbouring Central Asian countries.
The UNESCO partner in Chitral is the Chitral Association for Mountain Area Tourism
(CAMAT), which is working to build the capacity of association members, to promote training
for local stakeholders, to prepare brochures and information for visitors and to develop home-
stay type accommodation in local valleys.
It is also working to develop the production and sale of local handicrafts, to promote
Chitral domestically and internationally as a tourism destination and to help ensure that the
benefits of tourism are shared as widely as possible within the community.
According to experts at the UNESCO meeting, at present tourism in Central and South
Asian mountainous areas seldom brings benefits to the poorest and most isolated communities,
where employment opportunities are scarce, causing young people to seek employment in the
cities and leading to the break up of mountain communities and the loss of their cultural
For this reason, UNESCO decided to sponsor a regional project to promote community
based eco-tourism, which would allow local communities to share in the economic benefits of
increasing tourism in the Central and South Asian mountainous areas, through local home-stay
accommodation and the sale of high-quality craft items.
―Mountainous regions,‖ the experts said, ―are safe-havens for traditional cultures,
architecture and knowledge. They are also important in environmental terms, since they
contain many rare and endangered plant and animal species.‖
―Tourism is increasing in the South Asian mountainous regions, notably in Pakistan,
and this UNESCO project aims to promote best practices for tourism development, helping to
ensure that local communities benefit from it and that the outstanding cultural and natural
heritage of Central and South Asia is protected from the threats that uncontrolled tourism can
While in Chitral, the experts visited the neighboring Kalash Valleys of Rumbur and
Bumburet, attending the Kalasha spring festival there. They met with members of the local
community in Chitral to discuss the development of responsible tourism in the area and held a
town meeting with members of the Kalasha community in order to discuss the challenges this
community faces from uncontrolled or inappropriate tourist development.
The UNESCO project was also presented to members of CAMAT, among whom it
generated considerable interest. All agreed that Pakistan, and Central and South Asia as a
whole, had enormous potential for tourism development, particularly for cultural and eco-
tourism in mountainous areas.
However, it was important that such development should benefit local communities and
that it should protect, rather than damage, the local and regional cultural and natural heritage --
main aims of the UNESCO project.
UNESCO Regional Workshop on the Development of Cultural and Eco-tourism in the
Mountainous Regions of Central and South Asia, Chitral, 12 – 16 May 2003
www.ecotourism.org The International Ecotourism Society (TIES) website.
Non-TIES members have access to papers on ecotourism topics (e.g., market surveys, case
studies, mostly in PDF format), TIES ecotour operators’ listings and links to their websites,
and access to purchasing TIES publications.
TIES members (institutional membership cost US$70/year) get access to additional papers
and materials thru the website, and can order publications at a 15% discount, plus receive a
quarterly newsletter. TIES also promotes members’ ecotours on its website, with links to
the member’s site.
www.uneptie.org/pc/tourism The United Nations Environmental Programme website. Click on
Tourism, sustainable tourism, ecotourism etc, for linkages to reports and general information
about topics, including reports from the International Year of Ecotourism. Digging further will
lead to various publications on ecotourism that can be ordered.
www.earthprint.com Publishes reports on ecotourism, sustainable tourism and related
conservation matters; order on line.
www.ecoclub.com Publishes a free monthly newsletter on ecotourism for subscribers, with
articles on various ecotourism-related topics, events, publications, jobs, ecolodges, news, etc.
For example, this month is mentions the new community based ecotourism planning being
done in Bhutan by the Dept. of Tourism and Nature Conservation Section in Phobjikha.
www.ecotourism2002.org Papers and reports from the International Year of Ecotourism
Summit and preparatory meetings.
www.world-tourism.org Reports, statistics, etc. Not too useful.
http://www.icomos.org/tourism/charter.html International Cultural Tourism Charter: Managing
Tourism at Places of Heritage Significance
www.unesco.org/culture/ecotourism: Summary of all UNESCO Cultural and Ecotourism
projects; down-loadable project documents; links to participating organizations websites;
meeting minutes. Planned additions: participants’ forum, photo gallery. Participants can submit
other resources for posting/sharing.
Poverty Alleviation through Tourism:
www.propoortourism.org.uk Discussions, papers, research findings, publications, etc on how
to target poorer people to benefit from tourism. Papers cannot be downloaded, must be read
www.id21.org Society & Economy: Search for tourism/sustainability. Discussion of issues
and case studies on poverty alleviation.
Conservation and Related Topics:
www.mtnforum.org An online forum for exchanges about mountain issues, including
sustainable and community based tourism, and various conservation and development topics.
Periodically conducts scheduled online discussions/email conference. Subscription is free. See
website to sign up as a member.