-DRAFT SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT REPORT- by uij90909

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									     -DRAFT SOCIAL IMPACT
      ASSESSMENT REPORT-



        PROPOSED KYALAMI
  STRENGHTENING PROJECT,
        GAUTENG PROVINCE




                   JANUARY 2009




PREPARED BY:    Ms Ingrid Snyman
PREPARED FOR:   Ms Jo-Anne Thomas
                Savannah Environmental
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.      INTRODUCTION                            1

1.1     Background to the proposed project      1

1.2     Location of proposed substation sites   1

1.2.1   Site A                                  1

1.2.2   Site B                                  1

1.3     Alternative Route Corridors             2

1.3.1   Alternative 1                           2

1.3.2   Alternative 2                           2

1.3.3   Alternative 4                           2

1.3.4   Alternative 5                           3

1.4     Study area                              3

1.4.1   Affected Suburbs                        3

1.4.2   Map of the study area                   3

2.      PURPOSE OF THE REPORT                   5

3.      METHODOLOGY                             6

3.1     Approach                                6

3.1.1   Scoping                                 6

3.1.2   Profiling                               6

3.1.3   Projection and estimation of effects    7

3.1.4   Reporting                               7

3.2     Data Gathering                          7

3.2.1   Primary Data                            7

3.2.2   Secondary Data                          7

3.2.3   Consultation                            7

3.3     Variables                               7

3.4     Significance Criteria                   8

4.      SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE AREA      10

4.1     Background                              10

4.2     Social and Population Characteristics   11

4.2.1   Population Figures                      11

4.2.2   Age Groups                              11
4.2.3   Education Levels                                     11

4.2.4   Employment                                           12

4.3     Service Infrastructure                               12

4.3.1   Housing                                              12

4.3.2   Water, Electricity and Sanitation                    12

4.3.3   Roads and Public Transport                           13

4.3.4   Health Facilities                                    13

4.3.5   Educational Facilities                               13

4.3.6   Protection Services and Crime Rates                  13

4.4     Key Economic Activities                              14

5.      IMPACTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE CONSTRUCTION PHASE       14

5.1     Population Change                                    14

5.1.1   Discussion                                           14

5.1.2   Assessment Table                                     15

5.2     Inflow of workers                                    16

5.2.1   Discussion                                           16

5.2.2   Assessment Table                                     17

5.3     Influx of jobseekers                                 18

5.3.1   Discussion                                           18

5.3.2   Assessment Table                                     18

5.4     Worker Accommodation                                 20

5.4.1   Discussion                                           20

5.4.2   Assessment Table                                     20

5.5     Impacts on daily living patterns of residents        21

5.5.1   Discussion                                           21

5.5.2   Assessment Table                                     21

5.6     Impacts on the Leeuwkop Correctional Services Site   22

5.6.1   Discussion                                           22

5.6.2   Assessment Table                                     23

5.7     Relocation of Families                               24

5.7.1   Discussion                                           24

5.7.2   Assessment Table                                     25


                                                                  ii
5.8      Safety and Security Impacts                     26

5.8.1    Discussion                                      26

5.8.2    Assessment Table                                26

5.9      Impacts on daily movement patterns              27

5.9.1    Discussion                                      27

5.9.2    Assessment Table                                28

5.10     Impact on job opportunities                     29

5.10.1   Discussion                                      29

5.10.2   Assessment Table                                29

5.11     Local economic benefits                         31

5.11.1   Discussion                                      31

5.11.2   Assessment Table                                31

5.12     Health related Impacts                          31

5.12.1   Discussion                                      31

5.12.2   Assessment Table                                32

5.13     Noise Impacts                                   33

5.13.1   Discussion                                      33

5.13.2   Assessment Table                                33

5.14     Dust Impacts                                    34

5.14.1   Discussion                                      34

5.14.2   Assessment Table                                34

5.15     Visual Impacts                                  35

5.15.1   Discussion                                      35

5.15.2   Assessment Table                                35

6.       IMPACTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE OPERATIONAL PHASE   36

6.1      Population Change                               36

6.1.1    Discussion                                      36

6.1.2    Assessment Table                                36

6.2      Impact on job opportunities                     37

6.2.1    Discussion                                      37

6.2.1    Assessment Table                                37

6.3      Inflow of workers                               38


                                                              iii
6.3.1    Discussion                             38

6.3.2    Assessment Table                       38

6.4      Impact on regional and local economy   39

6.4.1    Discussion                             39

6.4.2    Assessment Table                       39

6.5      Potential job losses                   40

6.5.1    Discussion                             40

6.5.2    Assessment Table                       40

6.6      Impact on sense of place               41

6.6.1    Discussion                             41

6.6.2    Assessment Table                       42

6.7      Impact on Leeuwkop Golf Course         43

6.7.1    Discussion                             43

6.7.2    Assessment Table                       44

6.8      Impact on Leeuwkop Prison Property     45

6.8.1    Discussion                             45

6.8.2    Assessment Table                       46

6.9      Safety and Security Impacts            47

6.9.1    Discussion                             47

6.9.2    Assessment Table                       47

6.10     Impact on Property Values              48

6.10.1   Discussion                             48

6.10.2   Assessment Table                       49

6.11     Future Developments                    50

6.11.1   Discussion                             50

6.11.2   Assessment Table                       51

6.12     Impact on Sensitive Receptors          52

6.12.1   Discussion                             52

6.12.2   Assessment Table                       52

6.13     Noise Impacts                          53

6.13.1   Discussion                             53

6.13.2   Assessment Table                       53


                                                     iv
6.14     Visual Impacts                                                54

6.14.1   Discussion                                                    54

6.14.2   Assessment Table                                              55

6.15     Health Related Impacts                                        56

6.15.1   Discussion                                                    56

7.       COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE CORRIDOR 1 AND 2        56

7.1      Background                                                    56

7.2      Preferred Corridor                                            57

8.       COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE CORRIDOR 4, 4A, 5 AND   57
         5A

8.1      Background                                                    57

8.2      Preferred Corridor                                            58

9.       COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF SUBSTATION ALTERNATIVES             58

9.1      Background                                                    58

9.2      Preferred Substation Site                                     58

10.      CONCLUDING REMARKS                                            59

10.1     Attitude Formation and potential for social mobilisation      59

10.2     General Conclusions                                           60

10.3     Preferred Alternatives                                        61

11.      RECOMMENDATIONS                                               61

12.      SOURCES CONSULTED                                             61

12.1     Documents                                                     61

12.2     Internet Sites                                                62

12.3     Responses to Socio-Economic Questionnaires                    62

13.      QUALIFICATIONS AND EXPERIENCE OF AUTHOR                       63




                                                                            v
1. INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the proposed project
Eskom Transmission has established the need for additional transmission capacity in the
Johannesburg North area by the year 2013. Eskom Transmission is therefore proposing to
establish a new substation in the Kyalami/Midrand area and three 400 kV transmission
power lines between the new substation and the Lulamisa-Bravo 400 kV line. The project
will thus entail the following:


      •   A new 400 kV substation in the Midrand/Kyalami area.
      •   Construction of three 400 kV transmission power lines looping in and out of the
          proposed Bravo (Kendal B) – Lulamisa 400 kV line (in the vicinity of the Lulamisa
          Substation) to connect the substation to the Transmission grid, a distance of
          approximately 15 km in length, depending on the nominated preferred substation
          site and Transmission line alignment.
      •   Associated works to integrate the proposed new substation and transmission power
          lines into Eskom’s electricity Transmission grid (including the construction of
          service/access roads, the construction of a communication tower at the substation
          site, etc.)


The substation will be approximately 400 m x 400 m in extent. For a 400 kV transmission
power line a servitude of approximately 55 m is required, but in this case a total of
165 metres might be required should all three proposed power lines be situated in parallel
(Savannah Environmental, 2008).


1.2       Location of proposed substation sites
Three alternative substation sites were proposed as part of the Scoping Study, namely Site
A, B and C. It should be noted, that Site C (which was located within the Waterfall Country
and Equestrian Estate) will not be further investigated and would thus not form part of this
Social Impact Assessment Report. Only Site A and Site B will be investigated as part of the
EIA Phase of the project.


1.2.1 Site A
Site A is situated within the northern section of the Leeuwkop Prison property within close
proximity to an existing substation site and Main Road (M71).      The land on which this
substation is proposed is sometimes used for agricultural purposes by the Department of
Correctional Services.


1.2.2 Site B
Site B is located within the south-eastern section of the Leeuwkop Prison Property nearby
the Leeuwkop Golf Club and golf course.




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1.3      Alternative Route Corridors
As part of the Scoping Phase, five different route corridors were investigated. Alternative
corridors 1, 2 and 3 would link the Lulamisa Substation with the proposed Substation Site A.
Alternative corridors 4 and 5 would link Alternative corridors 1, 2 and 3 with the proposed
Substation Site B and C. During the EIA Phase of the project only Alternative 1 and 2, as
well as Alternative 4 and 5 will be assessed. On the basis of the findings of the scoping
study, Alternative 3 will not be further investigated and would thus not form part of this
Social Impact Assessment Report.


Alternative alignments to Alternative 4 and 5 (as initially assessed during the Scoping
Phase) were proposed by the Leeuwkop Golf Course management and will therefore also be
assessed during the EIA Phase of the project. These alternatives (referred to as Alternative
4a and 5a) to Alternative 4 and 5 are located on the Leeuwkop Prison Property.


The following section provides a brief outline of the alternative alignments to be
investigated during the EIA Phase of the project and the areas affected by these corridors.


1.3.1 Alternative 1
Alternative 1 follows a corridor from the proposed substation in the northern section of the
Leeuwkop Prison (Site A) in a northerly direction along Zinnia Road through the Kyalami
Agricultural Holdings area. From there it follows a north-westerly direction along Caracal
Road through the Treesbank Agricultural Holdings and Kleve Agricultural Holdings, across
the R511 up to the Lulamisa Substation.        Existing power lines are situated within this
corridor (Refer to map: Section 1.4.2).


1.3.2 Alternative 2
From the proposed substation (Site B) at the Leeuwkop Golf Course, Alternative 2 follows
Main Road for a short section where it turns in a westerly direction along MacGillivray Road
situated in the Glenferness Agricultural Holdings.    From MacGillivray Road it passes two
dams and follows a corridor along Erling Road up to the R511. From the R511 it turns into a
northerly direction next to the R511 up to the Lulamisa Substation. (Refer to map: Section
1.4.2)


1.3.3 Alternative 4
From the proposed substation (Site B) at the Leeuwkop Golf Course, Alternative 4 follows
the boundary between the Leeuwkop Prison area (golf course) and Barbeque Agricultural
Holdings (Barbeque Downs) in a northerly direction. Just south of the Kyalami Grand Prix
Circuit in turns to a westerly direction from where it again turns into a north westerly
direction towards the proposed substation (Site A) situated in the Leeuwkop Prison area.
Existing power lines are situated within this corridor (Refer to map: Section 1.4.2).




                                                                                              2
1.3.4 Alternative 5
From the proposed substation (Site B) at the Leeuwkop Golf Course, alternative 5 runs in a
westerly direction along the western border of the Leeuwkop Prison area until it reaches
MacGillivray Road where it ends and meets up with Alternative 2.
(Refer to map: Section 1.4.2)


1.4       Study area
The following suburbs/areas form part of the study area, which falls under the jurisdiction of
the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan:


1.4.1 Affected Suburbs
The affected suburbs include:
      •   Barbeque Agricultural Holdings (Barbeque Downs);
      •   Kyalami Agricultural Holdings;
      •   Glenferness Agricultural Holdings;
      •   Treesbank Agricultural Holdings; and
      •   Kleve Agricultural Holdings;


1.4.2 Map of Study Area
Figure 1 overleaf provides a map of the study area and alternative alignments and
substations investigated as part of the Environmental Impact Assessment.




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4
2.       PURPOSE OF THE REPORT


Burdge (1995) describes a Social Impact Assessment as the “…systematic analysis in
advance of the likely impacts a development event (or project) will have on the day-to-day
life (environmental) of persons and communities.” A SIA therefore attempts to predict the
probable impact of a development (before the development actually takes place) on
people’s way of life (how they live, work, play and interact with one another on a daily
basis), their culture (their shared beliefs, customs and values) and their community (its
cohesion, stability, character, services and facilities), by:


     •   Appraising the social impacts resulting from the proposed project;
     •   Relating the assessed social impacts of the project to future changes in the socio-
         economic environments that are not associated with it.        This would serve to place
         the impacts of the project into context;
     •   Using the measurements (rating) to determine whether the impacts would be
         negative, neutral or positive;
     •   Determining the significance of the impacts; and
     •   Proposing mitigation measurements.


An SIA is thus concerned with the human dimensions of the environment, as it aims to
balance social, economic and environmental objectives and seeks to predict, anticipate and
understand the potential impacts of development.


The usefulness of an SIA as a planning tool is immediately clear, in that it can assist the
project proponent to conceptualise and implement a project in a manner which would see
the identified negative social impacts addressed through avoidance or mitigation and the
positive impacts realised and optimised. It would also allow the community to anticipate
and plan for and deal with the social changes once they come into effect.           In this sense
then, the SIA is an indispensable part of the Environmental Impact Assessment,
Environmental Management Plan and any participative activity (e.g. community involvement
in mitigation and monitoring during planning and implementation).


The aim of the Social Impact Assessment Report is to:

     •   Determine the current socio-economic status            of   the   area   and   the   social
         characteristics of the receiving environment;

     •   Indicate the anticipated core impact categories and impact areas (possible hot
         spots);

     •   Identify anticipated positive socio-economic impacts of the proposed project,
         including positive impacts and provide management measures for these impacts;

     •   Identify and highlight negative socio-economic impacts (social hot spots) of the
         proposed project and indicate mitigation measures to deal with these impacts;

     •   Present a Social Impact Assessment Report including the findings, recommendations
         and conclusions of the social study.


                                                                                                  5
3.        METHODOLOGY


3.1       Approach
The IAIA Guidelines for Social Impact Assessment stipulate some guidelines for social
impact assessments. These guidelines have been used as the basis for the study, although
adjustments have been made to correspond with specific project requirements. The phases
that formed part of the study, with their various steps that were undertaken are
summarised as follows:


3.1.1 Scoping
Scoping involves a preliminary investigation to identify the scope of the assessment and
framework of the project. This includes the following:

      •   Demarcation of the study areas;

      •   Development of the evaluation framework; and

      •   The collection and interpretation of secondary data.


Scoping further assists to identify the main anticipated social impacts and therefore serves
to focus the study. The identification of I&APs, affected landowners and stakeholders is also
undertaken as these individuals assist to provide the project team with information and
verify issues identified.


3.1.2 Profiling
Profiling serves to build on information generated during the Scoping phase. It involves a
description of the social characteristics and history of the area being assessed. The profiling
process is a combination of secondary and primary research, site visits and consultation.
This could include information on:

      •   Historical background;

      •   Social characteristics;

      •   Culture, attitudes and socio-psychological conditions;

      •   Population characteristics;

      •   Community and institutional structures;

      •   Community resources; and

      •   Broad economic impacts.


The broad profiling will typically include:

      •   A description of the social trends and current conditions; and

      •   A description of the local and regional economy and potential economic links
          between the proposed project and its environs.




                                                                                             6
3.1.3 Projection and Estimation of effects
A baseline assessment indicates the current reality in the social and related aspects of the
affected environment.       A baseline assessment is necessary to enable a logical and
theoretically sound analysis of social impacts.   It forms part of the process of identifying
important cause-and-effect relationships and a comparative framework for anticipated
changes and impacts.


The output of this phase is the impact matrix and mitigation measures.


3.1.4 Reporting
The data generated during the previous stages are integrated into a report that includes
recommendations about specific actions that will need to be undertaken.


3.2        Data Gathering


3.2.1 Primary Data
This assisted the consultants in establishing the social setting and characteristics of the
study area, as well as the key economic activities. A site visit was undertaken to familiarise
the consultants with the area and obtain relevant information regarding the social
characteristics of the area.


A socio-economic questionnaire was developed and circulated by the public participation
consultants to the database of Interested and Affected Parties (I&APs).      The aim was to
glean specific information related to the residents’ properties and activities undertaken on
the properties. Responses to the questionnaire have been noted under section 12.3.


3.2.2 Secondary Data
Secondary data, which was not originally generated for the specific purpose of the study,
were gathered and analysed for the purposes of the study.          Such data included route
alternative maps, land use maps, census data, internet searches, the draft Integrated
Development Plan (IDP) of the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality (2007/8) and
the Eastern Sub-Region Precinct Plans (2008) prepared for the Johannesburg Metropolitan
Municipality.


3.2.3 Consultation
Information gathered and social issues identified and verified during the public participation
process undertaken as part of the Environmental Impact Assessment also served as key
input to the social assessment.


3.3        Variables
The following variables are typically assessed1 as part of the Social Impact Assessment:
       •    Population impacts;


1
    Burdge, R.J. A Community Guide to Social Impact Assessment


                                                                                            7
      •    Community/institutional arrangements;
      •    Conflicts between local residents and newcomers;
      •    Individual and Family level impacts;
      •    Community infrastructure needs; and
      •    Intrusion impacts.


For the purpose of assessing the impacts associated with the proposed project, the above
variables were adapted to allow the assessment of the full range of social impacts relevant
to the specific project.   These variables would relate to the construction and operational
phases of the proposed project.


3.4       Significance Criteria
During the Environmental Impact Assessment Phase, the anticipated social impacts were be
rated according to a rating approach used and specified by Savannah Environmental. This
rating approach is described below:


CATEGORY                   DESCRIPTION

Nature                     A description of what causes the effect, what will be affected and
                           how it will be affected.

Extent                     Whether the impact will be local (limited to the immediate area or
                           site of development) or regional.

                           A value between 1 and 5 will be assigned as appropriate (1 = low
                           and 5 = high).

Duration                   Where it will be indicated whether:

                           •    The lifetime of the impact will be of a very short duration of 0 –
                                1 years: Assigned a score of 1

                           •    The lifetime of the impact will be of a short duration of 2 – 5
                                years: Assigned a score of 2

                           •    Medium term of 5 – 15 years: Assigned a score of 3

                           •    Long term (   15 years): Assigned a score of 4

                           •    Permanent: Assigned a score of 5

Magnitude                  This is quantified on a scale of 0-10, where

                           •    0 is small and will have no effect on the environment;

                           •    2 is minor and will not result in an impact on processes;

                           •    4 is low and will cause a slight impact on processes;

                           •    6 is moderate and will result in processes continuing but in a
                                modified way;

                           •    8 is high where processes are altered to the extent that they


                                                                                                8
CATEGORY        DESCRIPTION
                    temporarily cease; and

                •   10 is very high and results in complete destruction of patterns
                    and permanent cessation of processes.

Probability     The probability of occurrence describes the likelihood of the impact
                actually occurring. Probability will be estimated on a scale of 1-5,
                where:

                •   1 is very improbable (probably will not happen)

                •   2 is improbable ( some possibility, but low likelihood)

                •   3 is probable (distinct possibility)

                •   4 is highly probable (most likely)

                •   5 is definite (impact will occur regardless of any prevention
                    measures)

Significance    The significance shall be determined through a synthesis of the
                characteristics described above and can be assessed as low,
                medium or high.

                The significance weightings for each potential impact are as
                follows:

                •     30 points: Low (i.e. where this impact would not have a
                    direct influence on the decision to develop in the area)

                •   30-60 points: Medium (i.e. where the impact could influence
                    the decision to develop in the area unless it is effectively
                    mitigated)

                •      60 points: High (i.e. where the impact must have an
                    influence on the decision process to develop in the area)

                The significance is calculated by combining the criteria in the
                following formula:

                S = (E+D+M)P

                S= Significance weighting

                E= Extent

                D= Duration

                M= Magnitude

                P= Probability

Status          The Status will be described as positive, negative or neutral.

Reversibility   The degree to which the impact can be reversed.



                                                                                  9
CATEGORY                 DESCRIPTION

Irreplaceable     loss   The degree to which the impact may cause irreplaceable loss of
of resources?            resources.

Can    impacts      be   The degree to which the impact can be mitigated.
mitigated?

Mitigation               Description of mitigation measures.

Cumulative impacts       Identification of cumulative impacts.

Residual impacts         Identification of residual (remaining) impacts after mitigation.



4.     SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE AREA


Each community is unique as it is shaped by its social networks, cultural influences, values
and norms, politics and the infrastructure in the area.     The report therefore provides an
overview of the social characteristics of the area in order to determine its current capacity
and its ability to manage change.


4.1    Background
The study area falls within Administrative Region A: Eastern Sub Region, Wards 93 and 94
under the jurisdiction of the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality, in the Gauteng
Province (www.demarcation.org.za).


Region A is situated within easy access to the Johannesburg Inner City, and economic hubs
such as Rosebank, Sandton, Randburg and so forth. It is also fairly close to the Tshwane
Metropolitan Municipality area. Region A borders the larger Centurion area to the north and
Mogale City (Krugersdorp) to the west.        To the east is the Ekurhuleni Metropolitan
Municipality with areas such as Tembisa and to the south it borders Alexandra, Sandton,
Randburg and Roodepoort (www.joburg.org.za).


Region A was divided into the Central, Western and Eastern Sub-Region.          The latter was
again divided into four different precincts, namely the Sunninghill Precinct, the PWV9
Precinct, Kyalami Precinct and the Blue Hills Precinct. The study area forms part of the first
three precincts (Maluleke, Luthuli and Associates, 2008).


A large section of the study area is characterised by agricultural holdings (western part),
whereas the southern and eastern section are more built up with developments such as
residential estates, cluster developments and townhouses which are on the increase. Horse
riding has a special appeal in the rural environs of the area. The study area can therefore
be described as a peri-urban and agricultural sector within an urban setting.


From a social perspective, one could conclude that those living in the formal settlements
throughout the study area are prosperous, well-educated residents, while most of those in


                                                                                            10
the nearby informal settlements have low income levels and low educational levels. Due to
the rapid expansion, many sections of Region A are in need of proper services, additional
roads, public transport systems, water and sewage services, educational facilities,
increasing employment opportunities and retail nodes (www.joburg.org.za).      Schools and
public health facilities are especially needed in the Diepsloot area.


Local attractions in the area include:
      •   Kyalami Grand Prix Circuit;
      •   Kyalami Castle;
      •   The Sound Stage and Theatre on the Track;
      •   Fourways Nature Reserve;
      •   Lion Park;
      •   Glen Austin Bird Sanctuary; and
      •   Lory Park Zoo (www.joburg.org.za).


Other facilities in the area include the Leeuwkop Prison, the Leeuwkop Golf Course and the
Kyalami Country Club.


4.2       Social and Population Characteristics


4.2.1 Population Figures
According to the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality, Region A has a total
population of 250 000 individuals (www.joburg.org.za).        Based on information from the
Eastern Sub-Region Precinct Plans prepared by Maluleke, Luthuli and Associates, it was
estimated (based on the Census 2001 figures) that the Eastern Sub-Region was home to
approximately 51 000 people in the year 2007 with an estimated 19 000 households
(Maluleke, Luthuli and Associates, 2008).


Although some areas within the study area could be seen as close-knit communities (e.g.
the smallholdings), the larger area is typified by a diversified character. The larger
community could thus be more adaptive to change than a smaller close-knit society.


4.2.2 Age Groups
Region A has a relative young population, with 24% between the ages of 20 and 29
(www.joburg.org.za), but the majority of the population within the Eastern Sub-Region are
between the ages of 20 to 49 years (Maluleke, Luthuli and Associates, 2008).


4.2.3 Education Levels
According to Maluleke, Luthuli and Associates, the education levels of the population within
the Eastern-Sub Region are higher than the national average which is an indication of the
income levels in the area. Sixty percent of the residents have completed secondary school
and 14% have achieved a higher education level. Merely 18% have only completed primary
school (Maluleke, Luthuli and Associates, 2008).




                                                                                         11
It is thus clear that a large sector of the population in the study area living in the formal
residential areas could be classified as affluent, well-educated citizens. However, those in
Region A living in the informal settlements are poor with low education levels.


4.2.4 Employment
In the Eastern Sub-Region of Region A, the general unemployment rate is very low at just
6%. This figure compares favourably with the national unemployment rate of 24%. A large
section of those that are employed are employed within the financial sector, followed by the
retail sector. The income levels match the high employment rate as a large sector of the
population within the Eastern Sub-Region falls within high income categories (Maluleke,
Luthuli and Associates, 2008).


The nearby Diepsloot, area, however, is said to have an unemployment rate of over 50%,
and 70% of that specific population is living below the poverty line. It was further stated
that 70% of those living in the Midrand area earned less than R2 500 per month, while 34%
had no income (www.joburg.org.za).


4.3      Service Infrastructure


4.3.1 Housing
The Eastern Sub-Region has no informal housing settlement. Housing types in the study
area include detached houses, townhouses and some backyard flats. The high percentage
of backyard flats is indicative of the rental market in the area (Maluleke, Luthuli and
Associates, 2008).


The nearest informal settlements such as Diepsloot and Zevenfontein are located within the
central sub-region of Region A. Informal housing settlements are also found in the western-
sub region of Lanseria and Kya Sands. The most desperate need for housing therefore falls
outside the study area. The nearest affordable housing development project is planned for
Olievenhoutbosch South (Maluleke, Luthuli and Associates, 2008).


4.3.2 Water, Electricity and Sanitation
The majority of residents in the study area and the Eastern Sub-Region have access to
piped water. The provision of water is thus not a priority (Maluleke, Luthuli and Associates,
2008).


Electricity supply in the study area is not a concern as the majority of residents have access
to electricity.   It was, however, noted that the upgrading of the electricity supply to the
northern areas of Johannesburg was critical (Maluleke, Luthuli and Associates, 2008).


Flush toilets and flush toilets connected to a septic tank are the most common sanitation
facilities found in the area (Maluleke, Luthuli and Associates, 2008).




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4.3.3 Roads and Public Transport
Three distributor roads serve the Eastern Sub-Region, namely the K60 (Witkoppen Road),
the K58 (Allandale Road) and the K71 (Main Road). As part of the proposed project, the
K71 would have to be crossed by the proposed transmission lines.                The collector road
network is used by numerous motorists to access areas of employment and retail facilities.
These roads were not designed to function as such (Maluleke, Luthuli and Associates,
2008).


Due to the development explosion the roads in the study area are under tremendous
pressure to handle the increase in traffic, especially in the Kyalami, Midrand and Sunninghill
areas. Furthermore, it should be noted that the public transport network within the Eastern
Sub-Region is not up to standard and would need to be addressed.


The Gautrain would pass through a section of Region A, although this location in Midrand
does not fall within the study area.


The PWV9 (north to south link) and the PWV5 (east to west link) are also planned for the
area. The PWV9 and K56 cross the study area, and the alignment of these proposed routes
should thus be noted.


4.3.4 Health Facilities
Health facilities in Region A, especially in close vicinity to Diepsloot and surrounding areas
are not adequate to meet the needs of the communities in the area.                  The Eastern Sub-
Region has two hospitals, namely the Sunninghill Hospital and the recently completed
Fourways Life Hospital near Fourways Mall. There is also no provision for primary health
care clinics (Maluleke, Luthuli and Associates, 2008). The effects of HIV/Aids in the region
has put tremendous pressure on the existing health care facilities, resulting in an increased
need for service provision and support services such as counselling and support centres
(www.joburg.org.za).


4.3.5 Educational Facilities
Primary and secondary schools are scattered throughout the study area. As most of these
are private schools these facilities do not cater for the lower income groups (Maluleke,
Luthuli and Associates, 2008).


4.3.6 Protection Services and Crime Rates
The only Metro Police Station is located within Midrand which makes the reaction time
towards the Eastern Sub-Region quite slow (Maluleke, Luthuli and Associates, 2008). The
Lonehill Fire Station is also the only one in the region (www.joburg.org.za).


Crime statistics applicable to the study area falls under the Midrand Police Station’s
statistics. The 2007 information indicates overall high crime rates, especially with regards
to   robberies,   burglaries,   car   hijackings,   vehicle   theft   and   other    types   of   theft
(www.saps.org.za).


                                                                                                    13
4.4    Key Economic Activities
The main economic activities in the study area are centred on the commercial and industrial
sectors. The area is ideally situated to attract large numbers of investors to the area. The
primary business node is Sunninghill with a large office component and some retail facilities.
Smaller retail facilities are scattered throughout the area.    The main commercial centres,
namely the Kyalami Business Park and Barbeque Downs Business Park are situated at
Kyalami.


The equestrian industry is also said to play a key economic role in the study area, as a
significant portion of the properties in the study area are involved in this industry.


5.     IMPACTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE CONSTRUCTION PHASE
The timeframe for the construction of the substation would be approximately twelve months
and for the transmission lines it is expected to be approximately six months. Impacts
associated with this phase of the project would normally be of a short duration, temporary
in nature, but could have long-term effects on the surrounding environment.


The following social impacts are anticipated during the construction of the proposed
substation and transmission lines:


5.1    Population Change
5.1.1 Discussion
Population change refers to the change in the size and density, as well as demographic
profile of the local community.


Although the size of the construction workforce is not known at this stage, one could
assume that it could be similar to an estimated workforce for another transmission line
project which would average 65 temporary jobs (Soweto Integration Project).                   No
information was available for the number of jobs to be created during the construction of
the substation.   One could, however, still anticipate that the construction of transmission
lines and a substation would not result in any significant changes in the overall size, density
and/or demographic profile of the local population as the approximate construction
workforce is relatively small in comparison with the overall population figures.


The focus in this regard should rather be on the influx of non-residents to the area seeking
employment, and the possibility of their families eventually migrating to the local study
area. Due to the distance of informal settlements such as Diepsloot to the study area and
the high unemployment rate and poverty levels in that area, an influx of jobseekers is
expected during the construction phase. Should the non-residents stay in the area once the
construction process has been completed, the social consequences could be felt well into the
distant future (e.g. impacts on infrastructures, services, housing provision and so forth).




                                                                                              14
The negative impacts thus associated with population changes would depend on the number
of unskilled locals (e.g. from an area such as Diepsloot) that would be employed within the
project or elsewhere, as well as the size and extent of the influx of jobseekers. Both these
aspects are difficult to quantify and are characteristics of urbanisation which cannot only be
attributed to the specific Kyalami Strengthening Project. However, if the proposed project
results in rapid and undesirable settlement patterns within the existing communities or on
the Department of Public Works’ land (the prison property) it could have long-term negative
impacts on the local communities, landowners and on the implementation of services of the
City of Johannesburg Metropolitan.


5.1.2 Assessment Table

Nature: Change in population size, density and/or demographic profile

                             Without mitigation                 With mitigation

Extent                       Regional (3)                       Local (1)

Duration                     Short term (2)                     Short term (2)

Magnitude                    Low (4)                            Low (4)

Probability                  Probable (3)                       Improbable (2)

Significance                 Low (27)                           Low (14)

Status     (positive    or   Negative                           Negative to Neutral
negative)

Reversibility                To an extent

Irreplaceable    loss   of   No
resources?

Can      impacts        be   Yes
mitigated?

Mitigation:                  Mitigation measures include:

                             •     Maximise the use of local community members from e.g.
                                   Diepsloot as local labour, e.g. during site preparation, as
                                   this could further minimise any possible negative inflow of
                                   additional   non-residents   with   subsequent     undesirable
                                   settlement pattern related impacts

                             •     Before construction commences, representatives from the
                                   local authority and community-based organisations (e.g.
                                   residents associations), as well as neighbouring residents
                                   should be informed of the details of the construction
                                   company, size of the workforce and construction schedules

Cumulative impacts:          Non-residents coming to the area and staying on in the
                             communities, along with their families


                                                                                               15
                              Possible increase in local unemployment rates with subsequent
                              increase in crime

Residual impacts:             Possible undesirable settlement patterns and negative impact
                              on quality of life


5.2    Inflow of Workers
5.2.1 Discussion
This variable refers to the inflow of temporary workers as well as potential conflict between
locals and this “outside” workforce.


The construction phase is expected to last for approximately twelve months for the
construction of the substation and approximately six months for the transmission lines.      At
this stage there is no information readily available to determine the exact composition of
the outside workers during the construction phase, as well as the number of construction
workers and contractors that could be hired from within the community.


Skilled and semi-skilled contractors would be required for the construction of the
transmission lines and substation. Opportunities for low to medium skilled local labour are
therefore possible although limited. It is expected that the low to medium skilled people
could be sourced from the nearby Diepsloot settlement, as the majority of residents in the
study area are qualified skilled professionals.


For the construction of the transmission lines, which is an intermittent process, it is
therefore not foreseen that large numbers of workers would be introduced into the study
area for long periods of time. Although the negative intrusion and disruptive social impacts
usually associated with a large outside workforce are perceived to be limited, it would still
be present, especially in the areas where the construction work would be taking place on
private properties and in close proximity to residents’ dwellings, workplaces and leisure
activities. Conflict is also more likely to appear at the “stationary” construction area for the
proposed substation due to the longer construction timeframe and expected larger size of
the workforce to be present in the localised area.     The fact that the substation sites are
proposed within secured areas (i.e. within the Leeuwkop prison property) could be a
mitigating factor in this regard.


However, conflict between private property owners and/or the local community and an
outside workforce, even if relatively small, is always of concern and therefore mitigation to
avoid conflict is proposed.


An inflow of workers to the area proposed for Substation Site B could be slightly more
negative than for Substation Site A due to substation site B’s proximity to the Leeuwkop
Golf Course and the golfing activities. The impact of the inflow of workers to the area on
the surrounding residents for Substation A (Kyalami, Glenferness and Treesbank Agricultural
Holdings) and B (Barbeque Downs and northern section of Sunninghill) are deemed similar.



                                                                                             16
5.2.2 Assessment Table

Nature: Inflow of workers and potential for conflict between locals and outsiders

                             Without mitigation                   With mitigation

Extent                       Local (1)                            Local (1)

Duration                     Short term (2)                       Short term (2)

Magnitude                    Low (4)                              Minor (2)

Probability                  Probable (3)                         Probable (3)

Significance                 Low (21)                             Low (15)

Status     (positive    or   Negative                             Negative
negative)

Reversibility                Yes

Irreplaceable    loss   of   No
resources?

Can      impacts        be   Yes
mitigated?

Mitigation:                  Mitigation measures include:

                             •     Maximise the use of local labour and contractors where
                                   possible by developing a strategy to involve local labour in
                                   the construction process

                             •     Conditions stipulated by property owners in terms of the
                                   construction    activities   should   be   implemented    and
                                   monitored by selected community representatives (e.g.
                                   councillors,    ratepayers     associations,    members    of
                                   Conservancies and ward committee members) and Eskom.

                             •     Contractors and temporary employees should behave
                                   fittingly at all times

                             •     Workers should receive fines if they do not adhere to the
                                   conditions, rules and regulations

                             •     Workers should be made aware of property owners’
                                   concerns regarding construction work on their properties
                                   so that they are familiar with the sensitive issues

                             •     A specific contact person should be identified to allow
                                   community members and property owners to easily direct
                                   their queries and concerns and obtain general information
                                   regarding the construction process




                                                                                              17
Cumulative impacts:          Temporary workers staying on in the area without permanent
                             employment

Residual impacts:            Possible increase in local unemployment rates with subsequent
                             increase in crime



5.3      Influx of Jobseekers
5.3.1 Discussion
With any construction project an influx of jobseekers is experienced. The size and profile of
these jobseekers cannot be determined or controlled, but could result in negative social
impacts such as illegal squatting with associated environmental pollution, social conflict
between the jobseekers and locals to secure employment, conflict between informal vendors
for “new” business, lack of sufficient accommodation and other infrastructure to cater for
their needs, pressure on water and sanitation related facilities, and so forth. As the area is
characterised by other developments such as the construction of various residential
complexes, jobseekers could move from one construction site to another. A totally “new”
impact would then not be introduced into the area.


It is expected that the influx of jobseekers to the construction site for the proposed
substation would be more noticeable than for the transmission lines, as there would be
more visible construction activities within one place for a longer period of the time. The fact
that the substation sites are proposed within secured areas could be a mitigating factor in
limiting the influx of such jobseekers.


The construction related impacts of this variable would thus be more intense during the
peak construction period and could materialise in the medium term should these jobseekers
remain in the area.


5.3.2 Assessment Table

Nature: Inflow of jobseekers with possible social, economic and environmental challenges

                             Without mitigation              With mitigation

Extent                       Regional (3)                     Regional (2)

Duration                     Medium term (3)                  Short term (2)

Magnitude                    Moderate (6)                     Low (4)

Probability                  Probable (3)                    Improbable (2)

Significance                 Medium (36)                      Low (12)

Status      (positive   or   Negative                         Negative
negative)

Reversibility                Yes



                                                                                            18
Irreplaceable   loss   of   No
resources?

Can     impacts        be   Yes
mitigated?

Mitigation:                 Mitigation measures include:

                            •     Maximise the use of local labour and contractors where
                                  possible by developing a strategy to involve local labour in
                                  the construction process

                            •     The   project   applicant,   local   leaders    (e.g.   ratepayers
                                  associations, members of Conservancies, councillors and
                                  ward committee members) and representatives of the City
                                  of Johannesburg Metropolitan should jointly develop a
                                  strategy to minimise the influx of jobseekers to the area

                            •     The recruitment process and the use of contractors should
                                  be clearly communicated to the local communities

                            •     A recruitment office with a Community Liaison Officer could
                                  be established in close proximity to the construction sites
                                  to deal with jobseekers

                            •     The communication strategy of Eskom regarding the
                                  proposed     project    should       ensure     that    unrealistic
                                  employment expectations are not created

                            •     A Community Liaison Officer should be appointed and
                                  should attend applicable community meetings arranged by
                                  the ward councillors to discuss the employment and
                                  recruitment process (e.g. in the Diepsloot area)

Cumulative impacts:         Added pressure on service delivery (e.g. housing), the existing
                            infrastructure in the area and local environment

                            Social conflict between locals and outsiders

                            Additional       socio-economic     burdens     for     the    City   of
                            Johannesburg Metropolitan

Residual impacts:           Possible undesirable settlement patterns and negative impacts
                            on quality of life

                            Possible increase in local unemployment rates with subsequent
                            increase in crime




                                                                                                   19
5.4      Worker Accommodation
5.4.1 Discussion
During the Scoping Phase it was indicated that a lack of adequate public transport in the
study area could make the development of a construction camp viable. On the other hand,
the urban nature of the area could result in workers being housed in formal residences.


At this stage it is anticipated that workers required for the construction of the transmission
lines and substation would be accommodated in formal housing within the towns
surrounding the study area.     It is anticipated that these workers would make use of the
existing taxi system to travel to and from the construction sites.


No negative impacts are thus foreseen with regards to a construction camp and very limited
impacts, if any, are foreseen with the accommodation of workers within formal residences in
the residential areas.


5.4.2 Assessment Table

Nature: Worker accommodation

                              Without mitigation              With mitigation

Extent                        Regional (2)                    Regional (2)

Duration                      Short term (2)                  Short term (2)

Magnitude                     Low (4)                         Low (4)

Probability                   Improbable (2)                  Improbable (2)

Significance                  Low (16)                        Low (16)

Status     (positive     or   Neutral                         Neutral
negative)

Reversibility                 Yes

Irreplaceable     loss   of   No
resources?

Can       impacts        be   Mitigation not required
mitigated?

Mitigation:                   Mitigation measures are not deemed required

Cumulative impacts:           Limited possible impact on the rental housing market

Residual impacts:             None




                                                                                           20
5.5      Impacts on daily living patterns of residents
5.5.1 Discussion
Where power line towers are constructed on private properties, especially those where the
owners reside, it would seriously impede on the property owners’ daily living and movement
patterns. Construction activities would result in noise, dust, increased traffic and intrusion
impacts.    This would specifically be more severe in cases where the sizes of the stands
and/or smallholdings are relatively small and not capable of easily accommodating the large
400 kV power line towers. The smallholdings sizes in the study area vary between 2 ha to
10 ha on average. Construction activities would thus, in some cases where relocation does
not occur, take place on the owners’ “doorstep” and their quality of life would be gravely
harmed.


Safety and security could be compromised due to the presence of large construction forces
and machinery in the area, as criminals could use the movement of various workers in the
area to their advantage.


5.5.2 Assessment Table

Nature: Impacts on daily living patterns of residents

                              Without mitigation                With mitigation

Extent                        Local (1)                         Local (1)

Duration                      Short term (2)                    Short term (2)

Magnitude                     Moderate (6)                      Moderate (6)

Probability                   Highly Probable (4)               Probable (3)

Significance                  Medium (36)                       Low (27)

Status      (positive    or   Negative                          Negative
negative)

Reversibility                 Yes

Irreplaceable     loss   of   Yes, tower footprint
resources?

Can        impacts       be   Yes
mitigated?

Mitigation:                   Mitigation measures include:

                              •     Tower design should be carefully considered as it could
                                    limit negative construction related impacts

                              •     Members of the construction team should be easily
                                    identifiable

                              •     Members of the construction team should behave fittingly
                                    at all times


                                                                                           21
                             •   Fines should be given for not adhering to rules and
                                 regulations (with regards to conduct and safety)

                             •   A Community Liaison Officer should be on site at all times

                             •   Residents should be informed of the construction activities
                                 and schedules prior to the construction workforce entering
                                 the property

                             •   Privacy of residents and property owners should be
                                 respected    and   the   construction   team   should    obtain
                                 permission to enter properties

                             •   No fires should be made on site

                             •   Animals should be fenced off from the construction
                                 activities

                             •   The construction sites should be fenced off to avoid any
                                 unauthorised individuals, especially children entering the
                                 site

                             •   Dust suppression measures should be implemented

Cumulative impacts:          Possible    environmental     damage    and    pollution    during
                             construction

Residual impacts:            Visual impact associated with infrastructure


5.6    Impacts on the Leeuwkop Correctional Services Site
5.6.1 Discussion
Substation Site B is proposed within the Leeuwkop Correctional Services site near the
Leeuwkop golf course which could have an impact on the golfers’ sense of place and golfing
experience when making use of the facility.         Golf courses are usually associated with
greenery, natural vegetation, large trees and water features without infrastructure
developments such as substations.        One should, however, note that there are already
distribution power lines passing through this golf course which would already have a
negative impact on the “golfing experience”.         Additional construction activities would
however result in noise, dust, increased traffic and intrusion impacts which could negatively
impact on the games played. If not properly mitigated it could result in financial losses for
the club.


Access to Substation Site A is not seen as problematic as the site is in close proximity to the
main entrance gate currently used by the Department of Correctional Services.            It could
also be accessed via the existing entrance to the distribution substation. Temporary dust
and noise impacts are foreseen but can be mitigated. Strict safety and security measures,
however, would have to be implemented during the construction phase.                    The area
commissioner should be informed of the construction schedules, activities and so forth to




                                                                                              22
ensure that the necessary safety measures could be put in place by the Department of
Correctional Services to enable them to accommodate the construction team on site.


5.6.2 Assessment Table

Nature: Impacts on the Leeuwkop Correctional Services Site

                             Without mitigation                  With mitigation

Extent                       Local (1)                           Local (1)

Duration                     Short term (2)                      Short term (2)

Magnitude                    Moderate (6)                        Moderate (6)

Probability                  Highly Probable (4)                 Probable (3)

Significance                 Medium (36)                         Low (27)

Status     (positive    or   Negative                            Negative
negative)

Reversibility                Yes

Irreplaceable    loss   of   No
resources?

Can      impacts        be   Yes
mitigated?

Mitigation:                  Mitigation measures include:

                             •     The construction schedule and details should be pro-
                                   actively discussed with and be approved by the area
                                   commissioner

                             •     Safety    and   security     measures     stipulated    by   the
                                   Department of Correctional Services should be strictly
                                   adhered to

                             •     Members of the construction team should be easily
                                   identifiable

                             •     Members of the construction team should behave fittingly
                                   at all times

                             •     Fines should be given for not adhering to rules and
                                   regulations (with regards to conduct and safety)

                             •     A Community Liaison Officer should be on site at all times

                             •     Residents in the housing located on the prison property
                                   and in the surrounding areas should be informed of the
                                   construction    activities   and   schedules    prior   to   the
                                   construction workforce entering the property



                                                                                                 23
                              •   No fires should be made on site

                              •   Animals should be fenced off from the construction
                                  activities

                              •   The construction sites should be fenced off to avoid any
                                  unauthorised individuals, especially children entering the
                                  site

                              •   Dust suppression measures should be implemented

Cumulative impacts:          Possible     environmental    damage      and    pollution   during
                             construction

Residual impacts:            Visual impact associated with infrastructure


5.7    Relocation of families
5.7.1 Discussion
Alternative Corridors 1 and 2 cross agricultural holdings. Due to the size of the properties in
the Kyalami, Glenferness, Treesbank and Kleve Agricultural Holdings which vary between 2
ha to 10 ha, it is expected that some properties would be severely negatively affected as a
result of the extent of the property that would be taken up by the tower positions.


From feedback from the majority of residents that responded to the questionnaires, it is
clear that the number of dwellings on the properties along Alternative Corridor 1 and
Alternative Corridor 2 and layout of these buildings on the property makes the positioning of
towers on the properties extremely problematic.            Most of the properties consist of
residential dwellings (in some cases more than one), outbuildings (e.g. workshops or
alternative accommodation), offices, dedicated staff accommodation, storage facilities and
stables. Some also have horse jumping arenas, dressage areas, paddocks for horses and
chickens and so forth. In some cases there are breeding pens for different types of birds
and exotic fowls.


Relocation of these families, which is highly likely, is foreseen to be particularly difficult, as
the property owners would have to find similar properties with similar number of buildings
(facilities) to suit their needs, as well as their animals’ needs. A large component of the
residents also use their properties for business purposes, worsening the relocation issue by
the additional movement of their business “premises” which might not be feasible.


Depending on the final negotiations and alignment, relocation of selected residents might
thus be necessary.      Relocation could negatively impact on the social cohesion of the
community and in the worst cases lead to the social degradation of the area that are
directly affected by relocation of property owners. The intensity of the impact would only be
known once Eskom has completed their negotiations with the affected property owners.


Relocation is furthermore stressful for those individuals and families involved, and even
more so when the period of uncertainty is extended by the Environmental Impact


                                                                                               24
Assessment Process and/ or negotiations between Eskom and the affected parties. These
sensitivities should thus be taken into account when communicating or negotiating with
affected property owners.


5.7.2 Assessment Table

Nature: Relocation of families

                             Without mitigation                  With mitigation

Extent                       Regional (3)                        Regional (3)

Duration                     Permanent (5)                       Permanent (5)

Magnitude                    High (8)                            High (8)

Probability                  Highly Probable (4)                 Probable (3)

Significance                 High (64)                           High (64)

Status     (positive    or   Negative                            Negative
negative)

Reversibility                No

Irreplaceable    loss   of   To an extent
resources?

Can      impacts        be   Yes, but limited
mitigated?

Mitigation:                  Mitigation measures include:

                             •    Care should be taken in finalising the final route alignment
                                  to have the least impact on properties in terms of the
                                  location   of   the   towers   in   relation   to   buildings   and
                                  residential dwellings

                             •    Specific attention should be given to the tower type to be
                                  used as this could minimise the impact

                             •    Provide affected residents and property owners with as
                                  much information as possible to enable them to anticipate
                                  the potential relocation

                             •    It would be desirable to address issues relating to
                                  relocation as a matter of urgency and also to provide
                                  definitive timeframes linked to the relocation

Cumulative impacts:          Possible legal action against relocation

Residual impacts:            Loss of community cohesion due to relocation of some
                             residents and loss of “sense of place”




                                                                                                   25
5.8         Safety and Security Impacts
5.8.1 Discussion
The construction period could pose a safety risk to residents in general. Increased traffic on
local roads could lead to an increased accident risk. This is not only applicable to vehicles,
but also to pedestrians and horse riders, especially those partaking in frequent horse “out
rides” on horse trails in the vicinity of the construction sites.


It was also noted as a concern that the risk of fires could possibly be increased by the
construction activities, especially on the smallholdings.


Intrusions of strangers on private properties, as well as the influx of workers and jobseekers
to the area are often also linked to fear amongst residents of additional criminal activities in
the area. These perceptions could materialise if criminals take advantage of the situation.


In addition, care should be taken that the construction activities do not pose any safety
risks to animals (especially the horses kept by the majority of residents on the
smallholdings in the Kyalami and Glenferness areas) or to children (especially in areas
where construction would be in close proximity to schools).


Safety and security issues if construction activities were to take place on the Leeuwkop
Correctional Services site should be considered and all sensitivities should be adequately
addressed prior to the construction phase.


5.8.2 Assessment Table

Nature: Safety and security impacts

                              Without mitigation                    With mitigation

Extent                        Local (1)                             Local (1)

Duration                      Short term (2)                        Short term (2)

Magnitude                     Moderate (6)                          Low (4)

Probability                   Probable (3)                          Improbable (2)

Significance                  Low (27)                              Low (14)

Status     (positive     or   Negative                              Negative
negative)

Reversibility                 Yes

Irreplaceable     loss   of   No
resources?

Can       impacts        be   Yes
mitigated?



                                                                                             26
Mitigation:                 Mitigation measures include:

                            •   The construction schedule and details of construction
                                activities to be taken place on the prison property should
                                be pro-actively discussed with and be approved by the
                                area commissioner

                            •   Safety       and   security   measures   stipulated   by   the
                                Department of Correctional Services should be strictly
                                adhered to

                            •   Members of the construction team should be easily
                                identifiable

                            •   Members of the construction team should behave fittingly
                                at all times

                            •   Fines should be given for not adhering to rules and
                                regulations (with regards to conduct and safety)

                            •   A Community Liaison Officer should be on site at all times

                            •   Residents should be informed of the construction activities
                                and schedules prior to the construction workforce entering
                                the property

                            •   Privacy of residents and property owners should be
                                respected

                            •   No fires should be made on site

                            •   Animals should be fenced off from the construction
                                activities

                            •   The construction sites should be fenced off to avoid any
                                unauthorised individuals, especially children entering the
                                site

Cumulative impacts:         Possible increased criminal activity during construction phase

Residual impacts:           None


5.9 Impacts on daily movement patterns
5.9.1 Discussion
During the construction phase, traffic on the main routes in the construction areas would
increase. Although the number of construction vehicles cannot be determined at this stage,
it should be noted that the area already experiences tremendous pressure on the road
infrastructure and the majority of roads are operating at full capacity. Traffic congestion is
a serious concern. Furthermore it is clear that the local road network in the vicinity of the
agricultural holdings is not up to standard. Most of the tarred and gravel roads show signs
of degradation. Roads are also quite narrow and used by a large number of vehicles.



                                                                                             27
The construction of access roads through the Leeuwkop Prison area was noted as a concern
due to environmental reasons. Detour access roads could again pose a safety and security
risk.   It should, however be noted that if the proposed substation site is located at
Substation Site A or Site B, the existing access roads could be used. Any additional access
roads to the transmission lines however should still be carefully considered to limit the
movement of workers across the Leeuwkop property with subsequent safety risks.


5.9.2 Assessment Table

Nature: Impacts on daily movement patterns

                             Without mitigation                With mitigation

Extent                       Local (1)                         Local (1)

Duration                     Short term (2)                    Short term (2)

Magnitude                    Low (4)                           Minor (2)

Probability                  Probable (3)                      Probable (3)

Significance                 Low (21)                          Low (15)

Status     (positive    or   Negative                          Negative
negative)

Reversibility                Yes

Irreplaceable    loss   of   No
resources?

Can       impacts       be   Yes
mitigated?

Mitigation:                  Mitigation measures include:

                             •     Advertising boards displaying road safety messages should
                                   be erected throughout the study area

                             •     Awareness creation of road safety measures amongst
                                   school children in the study area should be undertaken

                             •     Access roads to and from the construction site should be
                                   kept to a minimum, especially on the Department of
                                   Correctional Service’s property

                             •     Access roads and entrances to the actual construction sites
                                   should be carefully planned to limit any intrusion impacts,
                                   noise and dust pollution, as well as to limit any risks of
                                   accidents

                             •     Construction vehicles’ journeys should be planned and
                                   managed to limit or avoid travelling through the residential
                                   areas during peak times and intersections that are at



                                                                                             28
                                  capacity

                             •    Strict vehicle safety standards should be implemented and
                                  monitored.

                             •    Construction vehicles should keep to the speed limits.

                             •    The contractors should consult with the relevant officials
                                  and key stakeholders regarding the traffic schedule,
                                  routes, diversions, road closures and so forth.

                             •    Pro-active warning signs should be erected in the case of
                                  disruption or diversion of traffic during the construction
                                  phases

Cumulative impacts:          Traffic congestions

Residual impacts:            None



5.10   Impact on job opportunities
5.10.1 Discussion
It is anticipated that local job opportunities would be focused on the low to semi-skilled
categories.   However, it is not anticipated that any of the skilled and currently employed
residents from the Kyalami and Glenferness area would be employed as part of the project.
There is thus limited potential for locals (from e.g. Diepsloot) to be employed for e.g. access
road construction and erection of fences. Although limited, the benefits of these temporary
jobs should still be seen as a positive impact.


The positive impact associated with an influx of an outside workforce and increased job
opportunities relate to the increase in temporary buying power, therefore an increase in
informal vendors at the construction sites are expected (especially the area surrounding the
substation construction sites).     Although informal vendors are usually perceived as a
nuisance and the area where they operate as a “social risk area” these informal vendors are
difficult to control.   They should thus be accommodated where possible as there is a
demand for these types of informal businesses near places of employment and at
construction sites. The vendors should, however, be strictly regulated by the local authority
to avoid a situation where their businesses could serve as gathering place for criminals and
where their operations could lead to environmental pollution.


5.10.2 Assessment Table

Nature: Job opportunities and informal vendors

                             Without mitigation                With mitigation

Extent                       Local (1)                         Local (1)

Duration                     Short term (2)                    Short term (2)




                                                                                            29
Magnitude                   Low (4)                                 Minor (2)

Probability                 Probable (3)                            Probable (3)

Significance                Low (21)                                Low (15)

Status   (positive     or   Positive                                Positive
negative)
                            Possibly negative (vendors)             Possibly negative (vendors)

Reversibility               Yes

Irreplaceable   loss   of   No
resources?

Can      impacts       be   Yes
mitigated?

Mitigation:                 Mitigation measures include:

                            •     The relevant ward councillors could assist in determining
                                  local labourers that should be considered for possible
                                  employment.

                            •     The contractors should liaise with the ward councillors and
                                  community structures to determine possible candidates to
                                  be employed as sub-contractors.

                            •     The tender documentation should stipulate the use of local
                                  labourers or enterprises.

                            •     Eskom      should   ensure   an    equitable       process   whereby
                                  minorities and previously disadvantaged individuals (such
                                  as women) are also taken into account.

                            •     It is recommended that Eskom implements a skills audit
                                  and develops a skills database for the project.

                            •     Capacity building and skills transfer should immediately
                                  commence to ensure that locals are employable.

                            •     It should be ensured that contractors use local skills, or
                                  train semi-skilled people or re-skill appropriate candidates
                                  for employment purposes where possible.

                            •     On-site training should focus on the development of
                                  transferable        skills   (technical,         marketing        and
                                  entrepreneurial skills) to ensure long term benefits to the
                                  individuals involved

                            •     Informal     vendors     should    be   strictly     controlled   and
                                  regulated by the local authority

Cumulative impacts:         Development of entrepreneurial skills



                                                                                                     30
Residual impacts:            More   skilled   local   labourers   available   for    employment
                             elsewhere


5.11     Local economic benefits
5.11.1 Discussion
Possible benefits to local industries could be through the utilisation of local equipment,
supplies and services during the construction phase of the transmission lines and
substation. The direct benefits of this impact would further depend on whether local SMMEs
or small industries could meet the required need.


5.11.2 Assessment Table

Nature: Local economic benefits

                             Without mitigation               With mitigation

Extent                       Regional (3)                     Regional (3)

Duration                     Short term (2)                   Short term (2)

Magnitude                    Low (4)                          Low (4)

Probability                  Probable (3)                     Probable (3)

Significance                 Low (27)                         Low (27)

Status     (positive    or   Potentially Positive             Potentially Positive
negative)

Reversibility                Yes

Irreplaceable    loss   of   No
resources?

Can        impacts      be   No
mitigated?

Mitigation:                  No mitigation measures are recommended

Cumulative impacts:          Possible local economic growth

Residual impacts:            Possible local economic growth



5.12        Health related impacts
5.12.1 Discussion
Health related impacts during the construction phase of the proposed project are linked to
the influx of outsiders to the area, whether these are jobseekers or construction workers.
The spread of HIV/Aids, with long-term possible regional consequences, is always a source
of concern. Inadequate accommodation for jobseekers could also result in health risks due
to pollution of water resources, improper waste management and so forth.




                                                                                             31
Although Eskom or any of the contractors cannot be held responsible for the social conduct
of the workers, they should take note of this impact and assist wherever possible to limit
the spread of the disease.


Other cumulative health impacts are associated with the construction activities.            If the
construction sites are not properly managed it could result in negative impacts on the
environment with related health impacts on the surrounding communities such as pollution
of water sources due to improper sanitation facilities, solid waste management or
wastewater management.


The impact of construction activities on the health of animals (e.g. horses) due to stress
should also be noted.


5.12.2 Assessment Table

Nature: Health impacts

                             Without mitigation                 With mitigation

Extent                       Local (1)                          Local (1)

Duration                     Short term (2)                     Short term (2)

Magnitude                    Low (4)                            Low (4)

Probability                  Probable (3)                       Improbable (2)

Significance                 Low (21)                           Low (14)

Status     (positive    or   Negative                           Negative
negative)

Reversibility                Yes

Irreplaceable    loss   of   No
resources?

Can      impacts        be   Yes
mitigated?

Mitigation:                  Mitigation measures include:

                             •     Eskom,   in   conjunction   with   the   contractors,   should
                                   continue and extend HIV/AIDS awareness and support
                                   programmes amongst the contractors and sub-contractors

                             •     Adequate water supply and sanitation related facilities
                                   should be provided to the workers at the construction sites

                             •     Local labour should be employed as far as possible to avoid
                                   additional pressure of outsiders on the existing services

                             •     Construction waste should be disposed of properly to



                                                                                               32
                                   prevent any surface and ground water pollution

                             •     Animals should be fenced off from the construction sites

Cumulative impacts:          Possible spread of sexually transmitted diseases and increased
                             pressure on health services

Residual impacts:            Possible spread of sexually transmitted diseases



5.13   Noise Impacts
5.13.1 Discussion
During the construction phase of the proposed project the main noise impacts are
anticipated to originate from the construction activities where heavy machinery would be
used. Noise would also be created by the increase in heavy vehicular traffic through the
areas with general low ambient noise levels such as the smallholdings. Although this would
have a negative impact on the landowners and animals, it would be of a short duration.


5.13.2 Assessment Table

Nature: Noise impacts

                             Without mitigation                 With mitigation

Extent                       Local (1)                          Local (1)

Duration                     Short term (2)                     Short term (2)

Magnitude                    Low (4)                            Low (4)

Probability                  Probable (3)                       Improbable (2)

Significance                 Low (21)                           Low (14)

Status     (positive    or   Negative                           Negative
negative)

Reversibility                Yes

Irreplaceable    loss   of   No
resources?

Can      impacts        be   Yes
mitigated?

Mitigation:                  Mitigation measures include:

                             •     The exposure of workers to high level noise especially near
                                   engines and machinery should be minimised

                             •     Workers should wear the necessary protective devices

                             •     Noise created by the loading and off loading of construction
                                   material should be limited as far as possible




                                                                                              33
                             •     Construction should take place during normal working
                                   hours

                             •     The construction schedules should be communicated to
                                   potentially affected parties, landowners and residents

                             •     Machinery should be maintained in a road-worthy condition

Cumulative impacts:          None

Residual impacts:            None


5.14   Dust Impacts
5.14.1 Discussion
The main dust generating impacts are expected to emanate from the general construction
activities and construction vehicles travelling on gravel roads.      In select cases, property
owners have rare breeds of animals/birds which could be susceptible to the negative
impacts of the dust associated with the construction activities.


At the proposed substation sites where construction activities would be more extensive and
where the construction of additional access roads might be necessary this impact could be
more severe.


5.14.2 Assessment Table

Nature: Dust Impacts

                             Without mitigation                With mitigation

Extent                       Local (1)                         Local (1)

Duration                     Short term (2)                    Short term (2)

Magnitude                    Low (4)                           Low (4)

Probability                  Probable (3)                      Improbable (2)

Significance                 Low (21)                          Low (14)

Status     (positive    or   Negative                          Negative
negative)

Reversibility                Yes

Irreplaceable    loss   of   No
resources?

Can      impacts        be   Yes
mitigated?

Mitigation:                  Mitigation measures include:

                             •     Limit the creation of additional access roads especially on



                                                                                            34
                                   private properties

                             •     In cases where access roads need to be created, these
                                   should not be in close proximity to dwellings, or other
                                   public gatherings/venues

                             •     Gravel roads on the construction site frequently used by
                                   construction vehicles should be sprayed with water (or an
                                   alternative appropriate dust suppressant) to limit dust
                                   generation

                             •     Areas where the vegetation has been removed should also
                                   be sprayed with water to suppress dust during periods of
                                   strong wind

                             •     Construction vehicles should be in good working order and
                                   should keep to the speed limits

                             •     Sensitive animal or bird species on private properties
                                   should be screened from the dust and construction
                                   activities in consultation with the property owners and/or
                                   breeders

Cumulative impacts:          None

Residual impacts:            None


5.15     Visual Impacts
5.15.1   Discussion
The construction site would have a temporary negative visual impact. This is however rated
as low as it would be of a temporary nature.


5.15.2   Assessment Table

Nature: Visual impact

                             Without mitigation                With mitigation

Extent                       Local (1)                         Local (1)

Duration                     Short term (2)                    Short term (2)

Magnitude                    Low (4)                           Low (4)

Probability                  Probable (3)                      Probable (3)

Significance                 Low (21)                          Low (21)

Status     (positive    or   Negative                          Negative
negative)

Reversibility                Yes

Irreplaceable    loss   of   No



                                                                                           35
resources?

Can       impacts        be    Yes
mitigated?

Mitigation:                    Mitigation measures include:

                               •     Construction sites should be screened from the local
                                     communities and commuters where possible

Cumulative impacts:            None

Residual impacts:              None



6.     IMPACTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE OPERATIONAL PHASE
The operational phase of transmission lines and a substation is a long term process
(approximately twenty five years).         The impacts usually associated with this phase are
therefore perceived by affected parties to be more severe.


6.1      Population change
6.1.1 Discussion
There could be some population change over the long term if significant numbers of
properties would have to be acquired by Eskom. This impact can only be quantified after
the negotiation phase when it would be clear how many families might be affected by
relocation. Considering the population figures in the area, this impact (after mitigation) is
still anticipated to be low.


6.1.2 Assessment Table

Nature: Population change

                               Without mitigation              With mitigation

Extent                         Local (1)                       Local (1)

Duration                       Permanent (5)                   Permanent (5)

Magnitude                      Low (4)                         Minor (2)

Probability                    Probable (3)                    Improbable (2)

Significance                   Medium (30)                     Low (16)

Status     (positive     or    Negative                        Negative
negative)

Reversibility                  Yes

Irreplaceable     loss    of   No
resources?

Can       impacts        be    Yes



                                                                                          36
mitigated?

Mitigation:                     Mitigation measures include

                                •    Careful consideration should be given to the tower designs
                                     to minimise impacts on structures and activities on the
                                     affected properties

                                •    Careful consideration should be given to the final route
                                     alignment and tower placements to limit the negative
                                     impact on properties as far as possible

                                •    Where possible, towers should be placed on the border of
                                     properties

Cumulative impacts:             Relocation of families

Residual impacts:               Negative impact on social networks


6.2       Impact on job opportunities
6.2.1 Discussion
In terms of employment opportunities it is necessary to focus on:
      •   The number of jobs (direct and indirect) that would be created by the proposed
          project;
      •   The degree to which employment opportunities of the proposed project match the
          job skills of the unemployed in the area (economic equity); and
      •   Whether    the   project   would   have   a    significant    impact     on   the   occupational
          opportunities in the area.


It is not expected that an additional permanent workforce would be employed once the
transmission lines and substation are operational.           Maintenance of the transmission lines
and the substation is usually undertaken once to twice a year by Eskom’s permanent
employees. The proposed project would thus not result in positive impacts in terms of job
creation.


The downstream indirect job opportunities created by the provision of a sustainable and
reliable electricity supply should be seen as a positive injection for the end-users in the
Johannesburg North area. This impact, however, cannot be quantified.


6.2.2 Assessment Table

Nature: Impact on job opportunities

                                Without mitigation                     With mitigation

Extent                          Local (1)                              Local (1)

Duration                        Long term (4)                          Long term (4)

Magnitude                       Low (4)                                Low (4)



                                                                                                       37
Probability                   Very improbable (1)             Improbable (2)

Significance                  Low (9)                         Low (18)

Status     (positive     or   Direct (Neutral)                Direct (Neutral)
negative)
                              Indirect (Possibly positive)    Indirect (Possibly positive)

Reversibility                 Yes

Irreplaceable     loss   of   No
resources?

Can        impacts       be   No
mitigated?

Mitigation:                   No mitigation measures are proposed

Cumulative impacts:           Indirect job opportunities and economic growth

Residual impacts:             Indirect job opportunities and economic growth


6.3      Inflow of workers
6.3.1 Discussion
It is not expected that the management of the substation and power lines would result in
any additional employment opportunities and therefore no inflow of additional workers to
the area is expected in the long term. Indications are that the operations at the substation
and maintenance of the power lines would be conducted by existing Eskom employees and
would be managed accordingly.


The inflow of workers during the operational phase thus refers to the maintenance work to
be undertaken or emergency repair work.          These intrusions on private properties could
negatively impact of the daily living and movement patterns of the affected landowners
especially if they are not notified of the work schedules prior to workers entering their
properties.    Misconduct of these workers whilst on the properties is also a source of
concern.


Some complaints have been received regarding the management and maintenance of the
servitude of the existing power lines (distribution lines) and the maintenance of the actual
infrastructure. The fact that a large part of residents with existing lines on their properties
are not satisfied with the service received from Eskom worsens the negative perceptions
and attitudes of these residents towards Eskom and the proposed project.


6.3.2 Assessment Table

Nature: Inflow of workers and maintenance undertaken

                              Without mitigation              With mitigation

Extent                        Local (1)                       Local (1)



                                                                                             38
Duration                     Long term (4)                         Long term (4)

Magnitude                    Low (4)                               Minor (2)

Probability                  Improbable (2)                        Improbable (2)

Significance                 Low (18)                              Low (14)

Status     (positive    or   Negative                              Negative
negative)

Reversibility                Yes

Irreplaceable    loss   of   No
resources?

Can       impacts       be   Yes
mitigated?

Mitigation:                  Mitigation measures include:

                             •     Eskom personnel should preferably not access private
                                   properties without prior notification of the property owners

                             •     Eskom maintenance personnel should be in possession of
                                   the required identification documents when undertaking
                                   maintenance work

                             •     Eskom personnel should behave properly at all times (e.g.
                                   no   littering,   not   cause   damage      to   properties,   no
                                   unauthorised entry of properties and so forth)

Cumulative impacts:          None

Residual impacts:            None



6.4      Impact on regional and local economy
6.4.1 Discussion
It is not expected that there would be any direct economic benefits to the local communities
as a result of the proposed transmission lines and substation.


As the additional transmission lines and substation would generally improve the electricity
provided and increase the capacity of electricity supply in the area, one can conclude that
the proposed project would have a positive impact on economic development in the region.


6.4.2 Assessment Table

Nature: Impact on regional and local economy

                             Without mitigation                    With mitigation

Extent                       Regional (3)                          Regional (3)



                                                                                                  39
Duration                       Long term (4)                 Long term (4)

Magnitude                      Low (4)                       Low (4)

Probability                    Probable (3)                  Probable (3)

Significance                   Medium (33)                   Medium (33)

Status      (positive     or   Positive                      Positive
negative)

Reversibility                  Yes

Irreplaceable     loss    of   No
resources?

Can        impacts        be   No
mitigated?

Mitigation:                    No mitigation measures are proposed

Cumulative impacts:            Positive impact on economic development in region

Residual impacts:              Positive impact on economic development in region


6.5      Potential job losses
6.5.1 Discussion
Various property owners in the study area use their properties for residential and business
purposes. On average, most of the property owners employ between 2 and 4 permanent
workers. In one case along Alternative Corridor 2, it was even indicated that 97 permanent
employees were employed.         Should some properties be expropriated, and the residents
cannot find suitable alternative accommodation and business premises in the local area,
some jobs might thus be lost. In addition, existing workers not residing at their place of
employment (e.g. semi-skilled labour from Diepsloot) might find it not financially feasible to
travel further distances to their places of employment should these relocate to premises
outside the study area.


Property owners operating their businesses from home who are dependent on residents in
the surrounding area as clients could also experience a decline in the customers/clients and
business if they have to move and operate their businesses from elsewhere.


The intensity of this impact, however, can only be quantified once the final route alignment
has been negotiated between Eskom and the property owners.


6.5.2 Assessment Table

Nature: Potential job losses

                               Without mitigation            With mitigation

Extent                         Local (1)                     Local (1)



                                                                                           40
Duration                     Long term (4)                       Long term (4)

Magnitude                    Moderate (6)                        Low (4)

Probability                  Probable (3)                        Improbable (2)

Significance                 Medium (33)                         Low (18)

Status     (positive    or   Negative                            Negative
negative)

Reversibility                Yes

Irreplaceable    loss   of   Possibly
resources?

Can       impacts       be   Yes
mitigated?

Mitigation:                  Mitigation measures include:

                             •     Careful consideration should be given to the tower designs
                                   in order to minimise impacts on existing structures and
                                   activities on affected properties

                             •     Careful consideration should be given to the final route
                                   alignment and tower placements to limit the negative
                                   impact on properties as far as possible

                             •     Where possible, towers should be placed on the border of
                                   properties

Cumulative impacts:          Relocation

Residual impacts:            Negative impact on local employment figures


6.6      Impact on Sense of Place
6.6.1 Discussion
Sense of place refers to individual environmental cognition and serves to provide a
framework for organising an individual’s sense of personal identity and belonging to a
certain group or community.      A community can be referred to as a group of people that
interacts in certain ways based on shared values and norms.            Communities can thus be
identified in terms of physical boundaries and social factors.


These social factors, which play a critical role in determining an individual’s “sense of place”
could relate to the meaning attached to objects and/or places, the way in which a person
interacts with his/her environment and the way in which they perceive their environment.
The latter is again influenced by their mindset, preferences, emotions, linkages with the
environment, but is also influenced by cultural influences.




                                                                                             41
Most of the residents consulted indicated that they have lived in the area for some time
(between 3 and 40 years) and they stay in the area due to the tranquil and peaceful country
or rural environment, the low density, upmarket style of the area and the possibilities that
this environment offers, e.g. keeping, training and riding horses; the rural lifestyle; and
ability to pursue their diverse sets of hobbies on the properties. The area is furthermore
ideally situated in close proximity to the conveniences of urban living and various schools.


The conservation of the natural environment and equestrian feel of the area is thus of the
utmost importance to the residents living in the Kyalami Agricultural Holdings, the
Glenferness Agricultural Holdings, as well as the Treesbank and Kleve Agricultural Holdings.
Some residents are also of the opinion that the equestrian industry would be negatively
affected by the proposed power lines due to the relocation of residents, as well as the visual
impact on the tourism industry associated with the equestrian industry (e.g. impact on the
sense of place of visitors to the equestrian shows and competitions hosted in the area). It
should, however, be noted that the existing power lines traversing the area could already
impact on the sense of place with regards to the equestrian industry.


Unfortunately, as indicated by many, the rural and tranquil qualities of the area also attract
development to the area, placing the area under tremendous development pressure which
just adds to the residents’ negative perceptions towards any type of development intrusions
into their area.


In the case of the Kyalami Strengthening Project, the construction of transmission power
lines and substation is thus seen as an unpleasant infringement on the sense of place of the
residents in the study area, especially if relocation of some residents would occur. It is felt
by the majority of the residents that Eskom will not be able to compensate for this negative
impact. Although the attachment and emotional aspects linked to a person’s sense of place
plays a major role in the individuals’ experience of change, it is very difficult to quantify and
therefore to compensate for this “social loss”.


In addition, it is anticipated that the construction of a substation at Site A would have a
further intruding impact on the rural sense of place of the Kyalami Agricultural Holdings to
the north and east of the study area on the Leeuwkop Ridge and on the view from the
Kyalami Castle.     Similar perceptions exist among residents of Barbeque Downs and
members of the Leeuwkop Golf Club with regards to the negative impact on the sense of
place should the substation be constructed at Site B.


6.6.2 Assessment Table

Nature: Impact on sense of place

                             Without mitigation                With mitigation

Extent                       Local (2)                         Local (2)

Duration                     Long term (4)                     Long term (4)



                                                                                               42
Magnitude                     High (8)                           Moderate (6)

Probability                   Highly probable (4)                Probable (3)

Significance                  Medium (56)                        Medium (36)

Status     (positive     or   Negative                           Negative
negative)

Reversibility                 No

Irreplaceable     loss   of   No
resources?

Can       impacts        be   Yes but only to a limited extent
mitigated?

Mitigation:                   Mitigation measures include:

                              •    Careful consideration should be given to the tower designs

                              •    Careful consideration should be given to the final route
                                   alignment and tower placements to limit the negative
                                   impact on properties as far as possible

                              •    Where possible, towers should be placed on the border of
                                   properties

Cumulative impacts:           Negative visual impacts, possible relocation of families and
                              possible loss of resource use

Residual impacts:             Loss of sense of place


6.7      Impact on Leeuwkop Golf Course
6.7.1 Discussion
Golf courses are usually associated with tranquil natural environments with limited
infrastructure and buildings in close proximity.


Three power lines are already situated on the Leeuwkop Golf Course (two alongside each
other in close proximity to holes 10, 17, 18 and 1 and another line in close proximity to
holes 3, 7, 8 and 12). These existing lines already impact on the golfers’ experience as well
as the overall sense of place. Golf rules state a compulsory replay if balls hit power lines.
At present, the existing power lines are frequently hit by the golfers which result in delays
of play and back-up of the entire field. As more holes could be affected by the transmission
lines proposed (possibly the 10th, 13th, 16th, 17th and 18th), the proposed construction of the
three transmission lines would result in more delays in the play and subsequent financial
losses to the club.


The construction of additional power lines along Alternative Corridor 4 could furthermore
result in three holes being moved (i.e. holes 10, 17 and 18) which would be of an
inconvenience to the golfers’ game and to the cost of the club. These holes could be moved


                                                                                            43
to the east of the Jukskei River, but a sufficient bridge would then also have to be
constructed to accommodate river flooding.         The servitude would also traverse the
Leeuwkop Golf Club’s thatched lapa used for events and functions.         Not only would this
increase the risk of fire, but it is highly likely that it would have to be moved. Such changes
and layout of new holes, the construction of a bridge and re-construction of the lapa would
put a huge financial burden on the Leeuwkop Golf Club.


The Leeuwkop Golf Club aims to host international tournaments in future.          Power lines
impacting on the golfers’ experience and layout of the field could hamper this potential
development with severe loss of generating future revenue.


Construction of the substation at Site B would furthermore impact on the Leeuwkop Golf
Club’s plans to construct a future driving range to the west of hole 17. These plans have
now been put on hold due to the proposals of the Kyalami Strengthening Project.


Representatives of the Leeuwkop Golf Club proposed alternative alignments referred to as
Alternative 4a and 5a which should thus rather be considered, as these alignments do not
traverse the golf course, but run on its border to either link with Alternative Corridor 4 or
Alternative Corridor 5 on Department of Correctional Services’ land. These alternatives are
not expected to impact on the golf course holes, the lapa or on the golfers’ experience of
the game. It could, however, still have some visual impact on the golf course.


6.7.2 Assessment Table

Nature: Impact on Leeuwkop Golf Course

                             Without mitigation              With mitigation

Extent                       Local (1)                        Local (1)

Duration                     Long term (4)                    Long term (4)

Magnitude                    Moderate (6)                     Low (4)

Probability                  Highly Probable (4)              Probable (3)

Significance                 Medium (44)                      Low (27)

Status     (positive    or   Negative                         Negative
negative)

Reversibility                Yes

Irreplaceable    loss   of   No
resources?

Can      impacts        be   Yes
mitigated?

Mitigation:                  Mitigation measures include:




                                                                                            44
                             •   Careful consideration should be given to the tower designs
                                 to limit the visual impact on the golf course

                             •   Careful consideration should be given to the final route
                                 alignment and tower placements to limit the negative
                                 impact on the golf course as far as possible

                             •   Eskom     should      enter    in     negotiations      with    the
                                 representatives of the Leeuwkop            Golf Club and the
                                 Department of Correctional Services to determine an
                                 alignment     with   the   least    negative   impact    on    both
                                 stakeholders

                             •   The implementation of Alternatives 4a or 5a could mitigate
                                 the impacts on the Leeuwkop property

Cumulative impacts:          Visual impacts and resultant impact on sense of place

Residual impacts:            Visual impacts


6.8    Impact on Leeuwkop Prison Property
6.8.1 Discussion
The Leeuwkop Correctional Services Property belongs to the Department of Public Works.
The Department of Correctional Services is the custodian of the buildings on the property.
Since 1935, the main use of the property was to function as a correctional centre for
offenders, but various farming activities are also undertaken on the property mainly for use
by the Leeuwkop Correctional facility and other correctional facilities in Gauteng. Cattle and
pigs are kept and vegetables are cultivated.


Alternative Corridor 4 and 4a (as proposed by the Leeuwkop Golf Club) traverse agricultural
fields. This is not seen as a significant negative impact due to the fact that the land could
still be used for agricultural purposes and would thus not impact on the overall productivity
and yield. Land would only be lost to the tower footprints.


Alternative Corridor 5 could be problematic where it is situated in close proximity to the rifle
range and area where a new 3 000 person facility is planned.                    Even though this
development was put on hold, the location thereof should still be taken into account.
Transmission lines cannot be constructed within the secured area around such a facility as
no towering structures are allowed in the secured area.                 Transmission lines could
furthermore pose security risks and potential health risks (electrocutions) to the prisoners if
within the secured areas. Should Alternative Corridor 5 be preferred the power lines should
be situated to the east of the road adjacent the rifle range (section of the road running in a
north-south direction) and to the north of the Jukskei River.


Alternative Corridor 5 is also in close proximity to houses situated within the southern
section of the property.



                                                                                                  45
With regards to Alternative Corridor 4, 4a, 5 and especially 5a, care should be taken to
avoid impacting on the overhead irrigation system used on the agricultural fields.


Substation Site A is preferred from an access point of view. This site is situated near the
main entrance used by the Department of Correctional Services and is also accessible
through the existing access to the distribution substation.          The construction of additional
access roads with subsequent security and environmental impacts would thus be limited.


6.8.2 Assessment Table

Nature: Impact on Leeuwkop Prison Property

                             Without mitigation                 With mitigation

Extent                       Local (1)                          Local (1)

Duration                     Long term (4)                      Long term (4)

Magnitude                    Low (4)                            Minor (2)

Probability                  Probable (3)                       Improbable (2)

Significance                 Low (27)                           Low (14)

Status     (positive    or   Negative                           Negative
negative)

Reversibility                Yes

Irreplaceable    loss   of   No
resources?

Can      impacts        be   Yes
mitigated?

Mitigation:                  Mitigation measures include:

                             •     Careful consideration should be given to the tower designs

                             •     Careful consideration should be given to the final route
                                   alignment and tower placements to limit the negative
                                   impact on the existing facilities and agricultural fields, as
                                   well as on the planned new facility

                             •     Secured areas around facilities must be avoided

                             •     Eskom     should    enter    in      negotiations     with    the
                                   representatives of the Leeuwkop           Golf Club and the
                                   Department of Correctional Services to determine an
                                   alignment   with   the   least    negative   impact    on    both
                                   stakeholders

Cumulative impacts:          Visual impacts and resultant impact on sense of place




                                                                                                  46
Residual impacts:            Visual impacts


6.9    Safety and Security Impacts
6.9.1 Discussion
Safety and security impacts during the operational phase relate to the maintenance of the
transmission lines, substation, and emergency work to be undertaken. Although this would
be done infrequently, maintenance would still have severe negative impacts on the property
owners’ daily living and movement patterns and their sense of security.      The intensity of
this impact would be more severe if maintenance personnel access properties without prior
notification.


Other concerns in this regard relate to possible theft of animals (such as horses) and animal
losses due to gates being left open. Some of the horses kept by property owners in the
Kyalami and Glenferness area are of prime breeds with high economic values.


Concerns were furthermore raised that the servitude could serve as a route for criminals to
gain uncontrolled access to the area.    Security is already an issue in the study area and
residents are of the opinion that an open area without access control could worsen the
situation. It should, however, be noted that fences between properties would remain and
the servitude would thus not be an open area that could be freely and easily accessed.


Experience has shown that uncontrolled servitudes, especially those in close proximity to
informal settlements, are also frequently used by squatters for erecting informal housing
structures. If the servitudes are thus not effectively managed and controlled land invasions
are possible which could result in grave security problems, fire risks and subsequent
financial consequences (e.g. property devaluation, installation of additional security
measures by private property owners, increased risk of criminal activities and so forth).
The fact that the servitude would cross private properties and access would continue to be
controlled could mitigate this impact.


6.9.2 Assessment Table

Nature: Safety and security impacts

                             Without mitigation             With mitigation

Extent                       Local (1)                      Local (1)

Duration                     Long term (4)                  Long term (4)

Magnitude                    Moderate (6)                   Low (4)

Probability                  Probable (3)                   Improbable (2)

Significance                 Medium (33)                    Low (18)

Status     (positive    or   Negative                       Negative
negative)



                                                                                          47
Reversibility                Yes

Irreplaceable    loss   of   No
resources?

Can      impacts        be   Yes
mitigated?

Mitigation:                  Mitigation measures include:

                             •     Sound        servitude   management     measures    should    be
                                   implemented

                             •     The      implementation    of   the   servitude    management
                                   measures should be monitored on an ongoing basis

                             •     An emergency management plan (for fires and possible
                                   land invasions) should be developed in conjunction with
                                   the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan (CJM)

                             •     A     fire   management     plan    should   be   developed   in
                                   conjunction with the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan
                                   (CJM)

                             •     The substation should be designed in such a manner as to
                                   limit any possible risks of fires

                             •     Safety and security measures at the substation should be
                                   strictly enforced

Cumulative impacts:          Unauthorised settlement patterns

Residual impacts:            None


6.10   Impact on Property values
6.10.1 Discussion
The extent of the majority of properties along Alternative Corridors 1 and 2 are between 2
ha to 10 ha on average. The layout of the buildings on the properties also makes the
construction of transmission lines difficult as most of the properties consist of more than
one dwelling and various outbuildings.            In many cases the “open areas” are used as
paddocks, grazing areas, jumping arenas and general areas for the training of horses.
Some property owners have also been living in the area for long periods and some have
inherited their properties which increases the sentimental value attached to these
properties.


Property owners in the study area are thus extremely concerned about the impact of the
proposed project on their property values and the replacement cost of acquiring new
properties (in cases where relocation would be necessary).




                                                                                                 48
Properties traversed by transmission lines are usually perceived to be less valuable than
properties without these. The towers not only sterilise a section of a property due to its
footprint size, but also have negative visual impacts on properties, especially when located
near dwellings or other sensitive receptors. This visual impact on the aesthetic quality of
the environment and sense of place would potentially negatively influence the resale value
of the affected properties. This would be worsened if the towers and servitude area also to
some extent affect the resource use as could be the case within the agricultural holdings
areas where open spaces are used for horse riding, horse jumping arenas, dressage areas,
and paddocks for horses and so forth.


As part of the Environmental Impact Assessment a detailed study has been done regarding
the anticipated impacts on the property values in the area. This document indicates that the
economic impact on the property values for both Alternative Corridor 1 and 2 would be
significant. The social impacts, associated with the devaluation of properties, however, are
rated as medium with a high probability of occurrence.


6.10.2   Assessment Table

Nature: Impact on property values

                             Without mitigation                  With mitigation

Extent                       Local (1)                           Local (1)

Duration                     Permanent (5)                       Long term (4)

Magnitude                    High (8)                            High (8)

Probability                  Highly probable (4)                 Probable (3)

Significance                 Medium (56)                         Medium (39)

Status     (positive    or   Negative                            Negative
negative)

Reversibility                No

Irreplaceable    loss   of   No
resources?

Can      impacts        be   Yes, but only to a limited extent
mitigated?

Mitigation:                  Mitigation measures include:

                             •    Careful consideration should be given to the tower designs
                                  in order to minimise impacts on existing structures and
                                  activities on affected properties

                             •    Careful consideration should be given to the final route
                                  alignment and tower placements to limit the negative



                                                                                          49
                                 impact on properties as far as possible

                             •   Where possible, towers should be placed on the border of
                                 properties

Cumulative impacts:          Severe financial losses to property owners

Residual impacts:            Permanent devaluation of properties


6.11     Future Developments
6.11.1    Discussion
Any future town planning developments are critical for the construction of a transmission
line, as these pose numerous challenges in terms of finalising a route alignment. There are
various indications that the agricultural holdings in the study area are under development
pressure, not only from established developers, but various property owners have indicated
that they plan to subdivide their properties in the next few years. Although many therefore
want to preserve the rural lifestyle, development pressure also comes from within the same
community.


In the Treesbank Agricultural Area along Alternative Corridor 1, applications for the
Treesbank Village development have been submitted to the City of Johannesburg
Metropolitan. This development, which is situated in close proximity to Summit College and
Lynx Road, would entail some subdivision of properties (Plot 1, 2 and 3) into four portions
of approximately 1 ha and the resulting stands would be incorporated into a single security
protected development (Potgieter, 2009).       Should the proposed transmission lines be
situated along Alternative Corridor 1 (to the south of Caracal Road), this development would
most probably have to be re-planned with resultant economic implications for the property
owners.    The development was furthermore planned in such a way that the existing
property owners would be able to continue occupying their existing residences.


Along Alternative Corridor 2, a large integrated township development has been approved
by the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan.        These are referred to as Riverside View
Extensions 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 (situated on portions of the farm Zevenfontein 407 JR to the
west of the Jukskei River) and Riverside View Extensions 1, 3, 11 and 12 (east of the
Jukskei River). The township layout has therefore been completed for all these extensions.
The area to the west of the Jukskei River (approximately 40 ha) would be developed as
Phase 1 of the entire development. Services to these erven have been constructed, and the
erven can now be sold to members of the public.


Township layout that would have to be redone to accommodate the proposed power lines
would be an expensive and long process, with subsequent severe financial losses to the
developer (number of erven that would be lost in the process).             The same impact is
expected with regards to a proposed township development by Century adjacent the
Riverside View Extensions.




                                                                                          50
The exact location of the proposed PWV9 and proposed K56 should also be considered when
finalising a route alignment.


The establishment of transmission lines on the Leeuwkop Prison property should take note
of the location of a proposed new 3 000 person facility which could in future be built.
Foundations for this facility have already been laid. At this stage, this development was put
on hold, but future planning could result in this facility being built.         The route corridor
should thus avoid this location.


6.11.2   Assessment Table

Nature: Future developments

                                Without mitigation                 With mitigation

Extent                          Local (1)                          Local (1)

Duration                        Permanent (5)                      Permanent (5)

Magnitude                       Moderate (6)                       Low (4)

Probability                     Probable (3)                       Improbable (2)

Significance                    Medium (36)                        Low (20)

Status     (positive    or      Negative                           Negative
negative)

Reversibility                   Yes

Irreplaceable    loss   of      No
resources?

Can      impacts        be      Yes
mitigated?

Mitigation:                     Mitigation measures include:

                                •     Should Alternative Corridor 2 be preferred, an alignment to
                                      the north of the proposed future developments could be
                                      considered to limit the negative impact on the future
                                      township establishments.     Such an alignment, however
                                      does not fall within the corridor assessed as part of the EIA
                                      which would again result in additional studies to be
                                      performed

                                •     The exact location of the proposed PWV9 and proposed
                                      K56 should also be considered when finalising a route
                                      alignment

                                •     Should Alternative Corridor 5 be preferred it should be
                                      situated to the east of the road adjacent the rifle range
                                      (section of the road running in a north-south direction) and


                                                                                                 51
                                to the north of the Jukskei River to avoid the secure area
                                of the future facility

                            •   The alignment of the transmission lines along Alternative
                                Corridor 1 should aim to avoid negatively impacting on the
                                proposed Treesbank Village development by positioning the
                                towers to the north of Caracal Road or as near to Caracal
                                Road as possible (if technically feasible)

                            •   Eskom should liaise with the developers, representatives of
                                the CJM and project proponents during the negotiation
                                phase of the project to ensure a route alignment which
                                would ensure the protection of the land value and
                                resources and which would also be to the socio-economic
                                benefit of the communities

Cumulative impacts:         Impact on sense of place and possible financial losses to
                            developers

Residual impacts:           Visual impact


6.12   Impact on sensitive receptors
6.12.1 Discussion
The impact of transmission lines on the daily living and movement patterns of the affected
communities is more marked in the areas where sensitive receptors such as schools, old age
homes and hospitals are situated due to the possible health impacts associated with
transmission lines.


Alternative Corridor 1 could traverse the property of the Summit College which is perceived
as a sensitive receptor. This school has students from pre-primary (Grade 0) to Grade 12.
Three power lines already traverse the school’s property.        If the power lines are built
parallel to these existing lines and away from the school building and activity areas, the
impact could be limited.


Along Alternative Corridor 2, the proposed transmission lines could traverse in fairly close
proximity to the Cedarwood Special School and a playschool (for 2 to 4 years old) with a
playground and animal farm for children. The same principle as mentioned above should
thus be implemented at the Cedarwood School, and the school situated near the Lulamisa
Substation (name unknown) where the towers are placed away from the school buildings
and activity areas.


6.12.2 Assessment Table

Nature: Impact on sensitive receptors

                            Without mitigation                With mitigation

Extent                      Local (1)                         Local (1)



                                                                                          52
Duration                      Long term (4)                     Long term (4)

Magnitude                     Low (4)                           Low (4)

Probability                   Probable (3)                      Improbable (2)

Significance                  Low (27)                          Low (18)

Status     (positive     or   Negative                          Negative
negative)

Reversibility                 Yes

Irreplaceable    loss    of   No
resources?

Can       impacts        be   Yes
mitigated?

Mitigation:                   Mitigation measures include:

                              •     Careful consideration should be given to the tower designs

                              •     Careful consideration should be given to the final route
                                    alignment and tower placements to limit the negative
                                    impact on sensitive receptors as far as possible

Cumulative impacts:           Health related impacts

Residual impacts:             Health and visual impacts


6.13     Noise Impacts
6.13.1    Discussion
Concerns regarding noise refer to the low humming noise created by power lines.            Such
noise could possibly be heard in certain areas with low ambient noise levels (such as the
smallholdings in the study area), especially at night. This impact could be disturbing to the
horse riders, and residents whose properties would be in close proximity to the transmission
lines.   This impact, however, is from a social point of view perceived to be of a low
significance as it would not suspend or interrupt activities undertaken by the property
owners or schools in the study area.


6.13.2    Assessment Table

Nature: Noise impacts

                              Without mitigation                With mitigation

Extent                        Local (1)                         Local (1)

Duration                      Long term (4)                     Long term (4)

Magnitude                     Low (4)                           Minor (2)

Probability                   Probable (3)                      Improbable (2)



                                                                                             53
Significance                    Low (27)                       Low (14)

Status    (positive        or   Negative                       Negative
negative)

Reversibility                   Yes

Irreplaceable       loss   of   No
resources?

Can      impacts           be   Yes
mitigated?

Mitigation:                     Mitigation measures include:

                                •     Ensure that all equipment and machinery are in good
                                      working order

Cumulative impacts:             None

Residual impacts:               None


6.14   Visual Impacts
6.14.1 Discussion
A detailed Visual Impact Assessment was undertaken by a specialist and this section of the
report only aims to portray the perception of Interested and Affected Parties with regards to
the visual impact and change to the landscape character.


The critical impact associated with transmission lines and substations is the permanent
impact on the affected parties’ visual environment. Transmission lines and substations are
usually perceived to have an adverse impact on the aesthetic quality of an area due to the
height and extent of the steel structures.


The study area, even the smallholdings, are built-up with an extensive road network,
existing power lines, cellular phone masts, telephone pole structures and so forth. Although
additional transmission lines and another substation would therefore not bring “new” or
“different” visual impacts to a “totally undisturbed” area, it would still result in intrusive
visual impacts, especially if the new transmission line towers are higher than the existing
steel structures.     With regards to Alternative Corridor 1 and 2 the visual impact is
anticipated to be severe as the size of the properties does not allow towers to be placed
away from residential dwellings. From a social point of view, the visual impact with regards
to Alternative Corridor 2 would be more severe compared to Alternative Corridor 1 as
Alternative Corridor 2 does not have existing power lines at the moment, whereas various
lines currently traverse Alternative Corridor 1.


Concerns, however, were raised that the visual impact would result in the devaluation of the
majority of the properties in the study area due to the visibility of these lines from far
distances. From a social perspective these negative visual impacts associated with power



                                                                                           54
lines would thus have a permanent negative impact, perceived to impact on property values
and influence the residents’ perception of their living environment affecting their quality of
life.


With regards to the proposed substation, site A and Site B, the visual impacts are perceived
by the surrounding residents to be severe in both instances. Site A would be highly visible
to motorists travelling along Main Road and residents to the west of Main Road.            Site B
could again be high visible to motorists travelling along Malindi Drive (which becomes Main),
as well as Kipling Street. It should, however, be noted that there is an existing distribution
substation at Site A with existing visual impacts and another substation can thus not be
seen as a new negative impact in an undisturbed area.


The intensity of the visual impact would thus depend on the proximity of dwellings and
sensitive receptors to the power lines and substation, the angle of observation, the number
of viewers (e.g. if transmission lines are situated next to roads), the proximity of the new
infrastructure to existing infrastructure of a similar nature and the duration of the view.


6.14.2 Assessment Table

Nature:

                             Without mitigation                With mitigation

Extent                       Local (1)                         Local (1)

Duration                     Long term (4)                     Long term (4)

Magnitude                    Moderate (6)                      Moderate (6)

Probability                  Probable (3)                      Improbable (2)

Significance                 Medium (33)                       Low (22)

Status     (positive    or   Negative                          Negative
negative)

Reversibility                No

Irreplaceable    loss   of   No
resources?

Can       impacts       be   Yes, but only to some extent
mitigated?

Mitigation:                  Mitigation measures include:

                             •    Careful consideration should be given to the substation
                                  design to contain the visual impact as far as possible

                             •    Careful consideration should be given to the tower design
                                  and the final route alignments to limit intrusive visual
                                  impacts on properties



                                                                                              55
                                •   The mitigation measures and recommendations of the
                                    Visual Impact Assessment should be implemented

Cumulative impacts:             Possible devaluation of properties and impact on sense of
                                place

Residual impacts:               Negative visual impact



6.15      Health related impacts
6.15.1 Discussion
Concerns were raised with regards to the possible impact of Electromagnetic fields (EMFs)
on the health of humans and animals, especially the horses.


The Social Impact Assessment notes these concerns and acknowledges that the public
health risks associated with Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have not been established within
the worldwide scientific community and that no consensus regarding this matter exists. The
SIA also does not include a community health assessment. Therefore the possible health
impacts of exposure to transmission lines and a substation on the surrounding communities
cannot be rated from a social perspective.


7.        COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE CORRIDOR 1 AND 2
7.1       Background
With regards to Alternative Corridor 1 and 2, the following should be noted:
      •   Existing distribution lines run along Alternative Corridor 1.     Should the additional
          transmission lines be within this corridor it could create a so-called “industrial
          corridor”. It could thus be argued that, in the long term, less landowners would be
          affected should the transmission lines be placed within this corridor compared to
          introducing “new” impacts on “new” properties without existing power lines.
      •   Construction related social impacts are anticipated to be similar for Alternative
          Corridor 1 and Alternative Corridor 2.
      •   The most severe negative social impacts relate to the impact of the transmission
          lines and substation on the daily living patterns (quality of life) and sense of place of
          the property owners and residents.       The quality of life are highly regarded by the
          property owners and sentimental values are placed on the sense of place.          These
          impacts are not perceived to be responsive to mitigation and therefore the impact on
          the daily living patterns and sense of place are considered to have similar negative
          impacts for Alternative Corridor 1 and Alternative Corridor 2.
      •   Relocation along Alternative Corridor 1 and Alternative Corridor 2 as a result of the
          proposed project is highly possible.
      •   The impact on future township developments along Alternative Corridor 2 could not
          be seen as more important than the impact on existing residents along Alternative
          Corridor 1.   Should Alternative Corridor 2 be pursued, these future developments,
          should, however be avoided as far as possible.




                                                                                                56
      •   The visual impact, from a social perspective, is perceived to be similar for Alternative
          Corridor 1 and Alternative Corridor 2.
      •   Devaluation of property values is highly possible along Alternative Corridor 1 and
          Alternative Corridor 2.
      •   Sensitive receptors (schools) are situated along Alternative Corridor 1 and
          Alternative Corridor 2.


7.2       Preferred Corridor
From a social point of view Alternative Corridor 1 and Alternative Corridor 2 are ranked as
follows (where ranking number one is the most preferred alignment). This ranking is based
on the fact that an existing power line runs along Alternative Corridor 1. Should this aspect
not be taken into account, the two alternatives would have ranked similar.


                              Route Alternative                  Ranking

                   Alternative 1                                    1

                   Alternative 2                                    2



8.        COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE CORRIDOR 4, 4A, 5 AND 5A
8.1       Background
With regards to Alternative Corridor 4, 4a, 5 and 5a, the following should be noted:
      •   An existing power line runs along Alternative Corridor 4.         Should the additional
          transmission lines be within this corridor it could create a so-called “industrial
          corridor”. The negative impacts of this alignment on the Leeuwkop Golf Club would
          result in additional delays in play due to compulsory replays if balls hit power lines or
          towers, the possible movement of holes 10, 17 and 18, the need for construction of
          a bridge across the Jukskei River, and the relocation of the club’s lapa which would
          fall in the servitude.     All of these impacts would again result in negative financial
          implications for the club.
      •   An alignment along Alternative Corridor 4 is thus not preferred.
      •   Alternative 4a and 5a should thus rather be considered, as these alignments do not
          traverse the golf course, but run on its border to either link with Alternative Corridor
          4 and Alternative Corridor 5 on Department of Correctional Services’ land.
      •   Alternative Corridors 4, 4a, 5 and 5a traverse agricultural fields of the Department of
          Correctional Services. This is not perceived to have severe negative impacts on the
          resource use as the land underneath power lines could still be used for agricultural
          purposes.
      •   With regards to Alternative Corridor 4, 4a, 5 and especially 5a, care should be taken
          to avoid impacting on the overhead irrigation system used on the agricultural fields.
      •   Alternative Corridor 5 could be problematic where it is situated in close proximity to
          the rifle range and area where a new 3 000 person facility is planned. Transmission
          lines cannot be constructed within the secured area around such a facility as no




                                                                                                57
          towering structures are allowed in the secured area due to the security and
          electrocution risks involved.
      •   Should Alternative Corridor 5 be preferred it should be situated to the east of the
          road adjacent the rifle range (section of the road running in a north-south direction)
          and to the north of the Jukskei River.


8.2       Preferred Corridor
From a social point of view Alternative Corridor 4, 4a, 5 and 5a are ranked as follows
(where ranking number one are the most preferred alignment and ranking number four the
least preferred):


                               Route Alternative                  Ranking

                    Alternative 4                                    4

                    Alternative 4a                                   1

                    Alternative 5                                    3

                    Alternative 5a                                   2


9.        COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF SUBSTATION ALTERNATIVES
9.1       Background
The following issues regarding the substation sites should be considered:
      •   Grazing land would be lost to the substation footprint.
      •   There is an existing substation in close proximity to the site proposed for the new
          substation Site A.         Placing the substation at location A would thus result in the
          creation of a concentrated “industrial zone”.
      •   Substation Site A is preferred from an access point of view. This site is situated near
          the main entrance used by the Department of Correctional Services. It could also be
          accessed via the existing entrance to the distribution substation. The construction of
          additional access roads with subsequent security and environmental impacts would
          thus be limited.
      •   Although there are existing access roads to Site B, this site is in close proximity to
          the Leeuwkop golf course which could impact on the aesthetic quality of the area and
          the golfer’s sense of place and golfing experience.
      •   Construction of the substation at Site B would impact on the Leeuwkop Golf Club’s
          plans to construct a future driving range to the west of hole 17.
      •   The substation at Site B would be visible from the golf course and the club house.
      •   From a social point of view, both Site A and Site B would result in negative visual
          impacts for the surrounding residents and passing motorists.


9.2       Preferred Substation Site
From a social point of view Substation Site A and Substation Site B are ranked as follows
(where ranking number one is the most preferred site).




                                                                                               58
                              Route Alternative                Ranking

                    Substation Site A                             1

                    Substation Site B                             2



10.       CONCLUDING REMARKS
10.1      Attitude formation and potential for social mobilisation
Negative social impacts and the social desirability associated with the proposed project
could result in attitude formation and follow-on social mobilisation against the project. The
most important factors in this regard relate to the following:
      •   Expropriation / relocation, including detailed information on compensation and time-
          frames;
      •   Property value depreciation especially of those properties directly affected by the
          tower positions;
      •   Negative visual impacts and associated impact on quality of life;
      •   Safety and security issues;
      •   Perceived health risks;
      •   Whether it is perceived that the negative impacts to be absorbed by the local
          community and property owners who do not directly benefit by the improvement in
          the power supply is worthwhile; and
      •   The perception that all alternatives have not been adequately assessed.


Based upon the above and from comments received during the study period it is anticipated
that social mobilisation against the development of the transmission lines and substation
would most probably occur, should:
      •   Insufficient attention be given to the grievances and suggestions of Interested and
          Affected Parties (I&APs);
      •   I&APs not have full access to the project, including participation in detail route
          alignments and substation alternatives, and identification of mitigating measures;
          and
      •   Eskom and/or its technical advisors fail to address and mitigate impacts.


The majority of I&APs in the study area have not accepted the need for the power supply
and therefore object to the necessity for the construction of the transmission lines and
additional substation. According to comments received regarding the route alignments, the
impacts on the quality of lives of the affected residents, the visual impact, the apparent
environmental destruction and the perceived devaluation of properties, as well as the fact
that the power lines should be constructed underground (irrespective of the cost involved
and impact on the natural environment), it is highly likely that I&APs would not willingly
accept the construction of the transmission lines through the study area and would most
probably not agree with the mitigation measures implemented by Eskom. Numerous I&APs
furthermore indicated that the substation should be placed “where the power is required”.
Based on the above comments and the fact that the majority of residents consulted feel that


                                                                                           59
the proposed project will “destroy their lives” and retirement investments, social
mobilisation (perhaps only by individuals and not organised groupings) against the project is
thus expected to materialise.



10.2   General Conclusions
In respect of the above discussions, the following general conclusions can be drawn:
   •   The majority of the negative social impacts associated with the construction and
       operation of the proposed transmission lines and substation are expected to be
       responsive to mitigation.
   •   The proposed project would not bring about significant nor sustainable direct benefits
       to the local communities, but would improve the Johannesburg North area’s
       electricity supply network.
   •   The proposed project is expected to result in some positive impact on job
       opportunities, although these opportunities would be limited and of a temporary
       nature.
   •   Indirect downstream economic impacts could occur.
   •   The construction of transmission lines on private properties, especially the
       smallholdings which are limited in extent, could have significant negative impacts on
       the daily living and movement patterns of the residents as it would potentially either
       render the property economically non-viable or it would result in serious intrusions
       on the residential dwellings and activities undertaken on these properties.
   •   Social impacts with the most negative impact on the residents and property owners
       are the impact on their daily living patterns (quality of life) and sense of place.
       These are highly regarded and sentimental values are placed on these.         Although
       these play a major role in the residents’ and property owners’ feeling of well-being it
       cannot be quantified and the negative impact of transmission lines and a substation
       on their general well-being is extremely difficult to be portrayed in    financial and
       practical terms.
   •   The impact on the “sense of place” does not readily lend itself to mitigation. Since
       the sense of place is non-economic and non-transferable, it cannot be mitigated
       through reimbursement or relocation of individuals.
   •   Relocation could in all instances be highly possible.
   •   The main negative impacts expected to occur during the construction phase of the
       transmission lines and substation and refer to the inflow of outsiders (workers and
       jobseekers) to the area, the impact of their presence on the services and
       infrastructure and the impact on the social networks, negative impact on safety and
       security and possible conflict between locals and these outsiders.      These impacts
       would be similar irrespective of the route alignment along Alternative 1 or along
       Alternative 2.
   •   The devaluation of properties affected by the transmission line alignment is possible.
   •   The negative visual impacts associated with transmission lines and a substation is
       permanent and cannot be fully mitigated.




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10.3      Preferred alternatives
Based on the social assessment it is found that:
      •   Alternative Corridor 1 and Alternative Corridor 2 would result in negative social
          impacts on property owners and residents.
      •   Alternative Corridor 1 is the preferred alignment for the proposed transmission lines
          if the substation would be located at Site A or at Site B (linked to Alternative 4, 4a,
          5, or 5a).
      •   Alternative Corridor 2 could also be pursued and is only ranked second due to the
          fact that an existing power line runs along Alternative Corridor 1. Should this aspect
          not be taken into account, the two alternatives would have ranked similar
      •   Alternative Corridor 4a is most preferred, followed by Alternative 5a, Alternative 5
          and then Alternative 4.
      •   Substation A is the preferred option.
      •   Substation B is the second preferred option.


11.       RECOMMENDATIONS
The following general recommendations are made to limit the negative social impacts
associated with the different alignments:
      •   In areas or on properties with existing power lines, Eskom should at all times aim to
          place the new transmission lines further away from the residential dwellings and
          sensitive activities taking place on those properties. This could assist in limiting the
          intrusion factor, lessen the negative impact on the property value and possibly
          contain the impact on the overall sense of place of each property. Further activities
          or developments could then most probably be focused away from the transmission
          line “corridor”.
      •   It is recommended that the towers be placed along the boundary of the properties to
          limit the intrusion and impact on the property value, as well as on the residents’
          daily living and movement patterns, except in cases where this would result in more
          negative social impacts on the property.
      •   Careful consideration should thus be given to the tower designs as a straight route
          would be very difficult to implement if the social impacts are to be minimised.
      •   Although some property owners would be more severely affected if all the lines
          would be placed within one corridor, this option is preferred from a social and land-
          use perspective compared to initiating new separate servitudes within different
          positions.   However, due to the limited space on some of the properties it could
          become inevitable to split the lines along different corridors. More property owners
          would then be negatively affected, but less relocation of certain property owners
          could occur.


12.       SOURCES CONSULTED


12.1      Documents
City of Johannesburg Metropolitan, (2007/8): Integrated Development Planning (IDP)
Document


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City of Johannesburg Metropolitan, (2007/2008): Regional Spatial Development Framework
for Region A
Maluleke, Luthuli and Associates, (2008): Eastern Sub-Region Precinct Plans. Prepared for:
Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality
Savannah Environmental (2008): Background Information Document
Savannah Environmental (2007): Minutes of meeting with Department of Correctional
Services and Department of Public Works held on 27 November 2007
Savannah Environmental (2007): Minutes of meeting with Department of Correctional
Services and Department of Public Works held on 6 December 2007


12.2   Internet sites
http://www.demarcation.org.za
http://www.en.wikipedia.org
http://www.joburg.org.za
http://www.kyalamicountryclub.co.za
http://www.lippizaners.co.za
http://www.places.co.za
http://www.saps.org.za
http://www.statssa.org.za
http://www.summitcollege.co.za


12.3   Responses to Socio-Economic Questionnaires
Questionnaires received from the following property owners were assessed:
Mr. Basnett
Mr. Brown
Mr. Buchholz
Mr. Buisansky
Mr. Bush
Ms. Corlett
Ms. Dekker
Ms. De Wit
Mr. and Mrs. Edwards
Mr. Fouche
Ms. Girand and Mr. White
Mr. Glyn
Mr. Hall
Mr. Hare
Ms. Hidden
Ms. Holmes
Mr. and Mrs. Jarman
Ms. Kallesen
Mr. Lazic
Ms. MacSorley
Ms. May and Mr. Lyon


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Mr. Mew
Mr. Oosthuizen
Mr. Pepper
Mr. Potgieter
Mr. Ramsay
Mr. Rodrigues
Ms. Sacks
Mr. Thomas
Mr. Webster
Mr. Whiteley


13.   QUALIFICATIONS AND EXPERIENCE OF AUTHOR
Ms. Ingrid Snyman holds a BA Honours degree in Anthropology. She has thirteen years’
experience in the social field.   This involves designing and managing public participation
programmes and communication strategies, particularly on complex development projects
that require various levels and approaches. Her experience in the facilitation of projects in
the social field ranges from Social Impact Assessments to development of community
structures, community facilitation, and community based training.    Ms. Snyman has been
involved in more than twenty Social Impact Assessments during her career as social scientist.
These project themes consist of infrastructure development, waste management, road
development, water and sanitation programmes, township developments, as well as golf
estate developments.




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