Solar-photovoltaic-power-India by prabhuhj

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									Potential of Solar
    Energy
       in
     India
  NITT
  Tiruchirappalli
  2009
Solar PV energy applications outside
               India
Opportunities for India to
   Leapfrog technology,
   Achieve energy security and
   Create high employment
   Considerable saving in import of oil and
   generate exports and employment as good as, if not
   better, than the ICT sector


 How it is done in the world?

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Solar Energy Potential
Kwh/m2 energy availability from the Sun




                                          3
4
Germany –Solar Data

No. of Sunny days/year       95
Highest daytime temp.        22-280C
Lowest daytime temp.         2-60C
Solar insolation kwh/m2 1050-1200
PV electricity 2005 (MW) 837 MW




                                       5
Solar PV in India- Opportunities
 Solar Data               India    Germany

 No. of Sunny days/year 300-320      95
 Highest daytime temp.   35-480C   22-280C
 Lowest daytime temp.    10-250C   2-60C
 Solar insolation kwh/m2 1900-2100 1050-1200
 PV electricity 2005 (MW) 55 MW    837 MW




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In 2004 installed capacity of solar PV
in the EU countries is higher than
India.
 Most European countries have about 80 to 100 sunny
 days in a year compared to 300 to 320 days in India.

 EU Total                        1010.13 MW
 Germany                         798.00 MW
 Netherlands:                           49.08 MW
 Spain:                          37.70 MW
 Italy:                          30.70 MW
 Rest EU:                        50.95 MW
 India                                  45.00 MW


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PV in India- Opportunities

 India has ideal solar conditions for applications
 of PV technology nearly similar to California,
 Spain and Australia and far better than Germany
 Experience of Germany, Japan, USA and other
 Western Countries show that the solar
 technology is more suitable for commercialised
 major cities and urban areas




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Solar PV power
 for rural Electrification
Definition of Rural
 From Socio-economic perspective the
 definition of rural areas is based on
 population densities and living conditions.
 Let us define rural as areas remote from the
 national grid and have no chances of
 accessing the grid even in the near future
 But these areas have a potential for the
 demand of electric energy services or expect
 to develop the potential in the foreseeable
 future.

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Solar Photovoltaic Energy Systems

 Battery charging system,

 Electrical power for lighting,

 Electrical Power for pumping water,

 Electrical Power for telecommunication

 Electrical Power for rural industry

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Rural Electrification
 Storage batteries are widely used in remote
 areas to provide low voltage electrical power
 for lighting and communications as well as for
 vehicles.
 A PV powered battery charging system
 usually consists of a small PV array plus a
 charge controller.

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          Components for stand-alone
               PV Systems-1

Stand-alone (off-grid) PV systems require a battery,
[the lead acid type], to store the energy for future
use.
High-quality batteries designed for solar applications
with lifetimes of up to 15 years are available.
However, the lifetime of the battery strongly
depends on the battery management and the user’s
behaviour.



                                                       13
         Components for stand-alone
              PV Systems-2

The battery is connected to the PV array via
a charge controller. The charge controller
protects the battery from overcharging or
discharging, and can also provide information
about the state of the system or enable
metering and pre-payment for the electricity
used.
 If AC output is needed, an inverter is
required to convert the DC power from the
array.

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15
Solar powered lamp-posts
[with battery backup preferably]




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Remote Lighting Systems
 Lighting is required at remote locations where the cost of
 power is too high to consider using the grid.
 Such applications include security lighting, navigation aids,
 illuminated road signs, railway crossing signs and village
 lighting.
 Solar PV are suited to such applications, although a
 storage battery is always required in such systems. They
 usually consist of a PV panel plus a storage battery, power
 conditioner and a low voltage, high efficiency DC
 fluorescent lamp.
 These systems are viable for remote areas, and this is one
 of the major applications of solar PV.

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Battery Charging




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Water Treatment Systems

In remote areas electric power is often used
 to disinfect or purify drinking water.
 Photovoltaic cells are used to power a
 strong ultraviolet light that can be used to
 kill bacteria in drinking water. This can be
 combined with a solar powered water
 pumping system.

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 Telecommunications and Remote
       Monitoring Systems
Photovoltaics provides a cost-effective
development of remote area telecommunications
repeater stations.
Similar principles apply to solar powered radios and
television sets, emergency telephones and
monitoring systems.
Remote monitoring systems may be used for
collecting weather data or other environmental
information and for transmitting it automatically via
radio to the home base.

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21
White LED Lamp for PV based systems
 WLED lamps represent a new low-cost entry
 point for rural households in less developed
 countries.
 LED-based lighting systems for PV rural
 white lighting applications can help take the
 one-third of the world literally still living in the
 dark ages into the modern age.
 Emerging high efficiency WLED technologies
 can significantly improve the quality, safety,
 and quantity of illumination for both rural and
 urban homes, while reducing overall costs
 and environmental emissions.
                                                    22
White LED Lamp with PV system-1
PV modules are the best option to power WLEDs
 lamps in rural areas, since they can be installed
 at the site where the energy is needed and no
 further imports are required.
Therefore, investment in infrastructure is not
  required. There are projects that are promoting
  WLEDs lamps technology powered with
  photovoltaic modules, which are reporting
  excellent technical results.

                                                     23
White LED Lamp with PV system-2

However, the high initial cost, compared
 with fuel based lighting, is a barrier to
 achieve them, so other evaluation
 methods must be used such as the life
 cycle cost methodology, which found the
 PV LEDs are twice as cost effective as
 fluorescent lights, and three times more
 cost effective than traditional kerosene
 lighting technologies.

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Photovoltaic pumping systems

 Photovoltaic pumping systems provide a
 welcome alternative to fuel burning generators
 or hand pumps.
 They provide the most water precisely when it is
 needed the most - when the sun shines the
 brightest!
 Solar pumps are simple to install and maintain.
 The smallest systems can be installed by one
 person in a couple hours, with no experience or
 special equipment required.

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Advantages of using PV-powered
                            pumps
include:

 low maintenance

 ease of installation

 reliability

 scalability

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       PV- powered pumps

Solar power differs fundamentally from
conventional electric or engine-powered
systems, so solar pumps often depart
from the conventional.
PV arrays produce DC power, rather than
the AC from conventional sources. And,
the power available varies with the sun’s
intensity.


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       PV- powered pumps

Since it costs less to store water (in
tanks) than energy (in batteries) solar
pumps tend to be low in power, pumping
slowly through the duration of the solar
day.
Simple, efficient systems are the key to
economical solar pumping. Special, low-
power DC pumps are used without
batteries or AC conversion.

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Modern DC motors work well at varying
voltage and speed. The better DC motors
require maintenance (brush replacement)
only after periods of 5 years or more. Most
solar pumps used for small scale application
(homes, small irrigation, livestock) are
“positive displacement” pumps which seal
water in cavities and force it upward. This
differs from faster, conventional centrifugal
type pumps (including jet and submersible
pumps) which spin and “blow” the water up.
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Building integrated photovoltaics-1
 BI-PV are components of buildings that
 have photovoltaic cells embedded in them
 –
 For example, photovoltaic window glass or
 roof shingles that can be used instead of
 regular building materials to produce
 electricity.
 There are others where whole building
 facades are made from photovoltaics.

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Building integrated photovoltaics-2
 There are others where whole building facades
 are made from photovoltaics.
 The significance of this development is that these
 photovoltaic materials can replace something else that
 would have been used anyway, so the actual cost is the
 incremental cost between the two.
 This is often very small, which makes photovoltaics very
 cost-effective in these applications.
  In building facades, for example, they have made
 photovoltaic panels that look like marble and that
 actually cost less than the real thing!


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At present the initial cost of the PV system is high. The PV
modules account for a significant share of the overall cost
of a PV system. During the past five years a downward
trend in the cost of Photovoltaic modules in India has been
experienced. This reduction in cost was possible due to
• Expanded Government supported programme;
• Increasing competition among the PV products
manufacturers;
• Incentives provided by the government;
• Increased production volumes; and
• Improvements in the product quality and
performance.

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