The 406 MHz ELT is Coming_

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The 406 MHz ELT is Coming_ Powered By Docstoc
					Emergency Locator Beacon
    Changes in 2009
            By: Ray Grimes
     Assistant Director, Engineering
   Orange County Sheriff‟s Department
       Communications Division
               May, 2008
      ELT/EPIRB/PLB Response Today
• An ELT/EPIRB/PLB is activated continuously.
• The AFRCC receives a position processed report from
  satellite triangulation (approximate fix) 2 hrs typical) or
  Beacon GPS reporting (optional) with unit ID (optional)
  (20 minutes typical).
• The AFRCC contacts USCG, USAF Aux. C.A.P., or
  State OES as a “missing person(s)‟ incident per MOU.
• State OES would contact respective local Sheriff
  Dispatch (or POC) to start SAR activity (2 hours) also
  asking if federal help requested. Type of Beacon device
  and position determines primary agency.
• SAR launched (2 hours to 24 hours).
              Emergency Beacon Activation
                    Chain of Events
•   An ELT, EPIRB or PLB is activated, sending a 406 MHz alert message
    with unit ID and GPS position (optional), and 121.5/243 MHz.
•   NOAA Satellites pickup the alert message (LEOSAR for non-GPS
    units, GEOSAR for GPS units).
•   LUTS (Local User Terminals) process signal and compute accuracy
    using Doppler technology.
•   NOAA U.S. Mission Control receives alert notification and validates,
    identifying the registered subject, then notifies Rescue Coord. Center
    (RCC) based on global location fix.
•   USAFRCC Langley AFB: Land Incidents, USCG: Sea Incidents
•   After USAFRCC failure to contact registered owner, becomes a
    „missing person‟ event and reported to local SAR though State OES.
•   Each State has a different MOU with USAFRCC. California State OES
    primary contact then local County Sheriff‟s notified (2 hrs).
•   Foreign PLB alert program handling and responses all different.
•   Ground search beacon DF performed using 121.5 MHz low power
    continuous beacon signal.
    The Emergency Distress Locator
             Transmitter
                     E.L.T.. Emergency Locator
                     Transmitter 121.5 MHz, 243
                     MHz, or tri-band including
                     406 MHz, Manual or Inertial
                     Force (G switch) activated,
                     GPS optional (Aviation)
           EPIRB Emergency Position Indicating Rescue Beacon
           406 MHz, Manual or Motion Activated, GPS option (Marine)
           Jan 1, 2007 121.5 MHz only EPIRB‟s prohibited




PLB Personal Locator
Beacon 406 MHz & 121.5
MHz, manually activated
only, GPS external
option
            The Workings of the E.L.T.

• 121.5 MHz/243.0 MHz simultaneous, 50-150 m/W
  analog AM transmitter, warbling tone modulated,
  optional voice capability, solid-state, battery operated. 50
  hours typical duration.
• Low-cost: Aircraft ELT 121.5 MHz beacons $300.00
• Prior to January 1, 2007 121.5 MHz ELT‟s not required
  on bizjets and charter aircraft.
• Activates from 2 to 20 G‟s dependent on direction of
  impact relative to ELT axis.
• Marine and Personal units are abundant, costing as little
  as $200 for a PLB.
Personal Locator Beacon (PLB)
    $500 av. price.
    Marketed to travelers,
    outdoorsman, boaters.
    406 MHz primary beacon.
    (5 watts pulse power).
    121.5 MHz secondary beacon.
    (50 milliwatts continuous).
    Integrated GPS receiver.
    24 hour duration.
    External strap antenna must be
    engaged.
    Waterproof.
    Requires 1 second
    simultaneous two
    button activation to alert.
    Manually activated only.
SPOT Personal Tracker
             SPOT Personal Tracker
      The „Look-Alike‟ Competitor to PLB‟s
• Transmits at 1.6 GHz (Globestar LEO Satellite Uplink)
• 400 milliwatts peak RF power
• Integrated GPS receiver for accurate positioning
• Subscription based multi-services.
• Global coverage holes due to satellite availability
• ALERT 911 is an optional function to a private
  emergency center
• HELP uses text messaging and e-mail (inc. location) to
  alert (non-emergency) up to four individuals.
• $150 unit price, plus $99/yr standard svc + $49/yr 911
  and location tracking svc, plus an optional $7.95 rescue
  global insurance policy
                      PLB Thoughts
• Class „B‟ PLB‟s are unlicensed, unregistered 121.5 MHz only,
  manual operated, low power units (without ID capability) that will no
  longer be NOAA supported after 02/01/09.
• PLB‟s should not be used in locations that are supported by 911.
• PLB‟s must not be used for non-life threatening emergencies (car
  trouble, out of gas, confused, etc.).
• PLB‟s are considered ineffective for urban disasters where they will
  not have open sky visibility, with possibly hundreds or thousands of
  PLB‟s activated in a city.
• PLB‟s require two distinct actions to operate (including breaking a
  seal). The PLB can be manually turned off at will.
• PLB‟s have a self-test feature.
• When a PLB is activated, the first SAR response will likely be by
  aircraft, followed by required ground personnel (U.S.). It is unclear
  as to who exactly would be the first responder (location determined).
• U.S.           GOES E & W (Geostationary Operational Environ. Satellite)
     121.5 MHz/243 MHz/406 MHz RECOGNITION
•    U.S.     LEO‟S      121.5 MHz/243 MHz/406 MHz LOCATION
•    Russia COSPAS 121.5 MHz/243 MHz
•    India    INSAT-3A 121.5 MHz/243 MHz
•    Europe SMG-1        121.5 MHz/243 MHz
•    35 participating countries
    International Regulatory Authority:
    International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO),
    International Maritime Organization (IMO)

    5 Geostationary (GEOSAR) and 5 Earth orbiting (LEOSAR)
    “fine location position” elements
                COSPAS

• COSPAS is the Russian counterpart of the
  COSPAS-SARSAT (circa 1982) satellite system
  dedicated to global vessel distress beacon
  location.
• COSPAS means “Cosmicheskaya Sistyema for
  the Search of Vessels in Distress”.
• Monitored 121.5 MHz and 243.00 MHz only.
• COSPAS terminated support of the COSPAS-
  SARSAT ELT tracking and reporting system
  partnership in 2006.
                       SARSAT
U.S. network of NOAA satellites consisting of both (5)
(GEOSAR) geosynchronous (fixed) orbit 22,240 miles high,
and (5) Low Earth Orbiting (LEOSAR) 22 miles high polar
orbiting satellites).

GEOSAR fixed position, synchronized with earth rotation.
Recognizes an ELT beacon global activation but must await
a position fix from the LEOSAR‟s.

LEOSAR 6 hour sun synchronous, circular north-south
orbit, gathering data once per pass, per location. Two
satellites can provide a position fix over one hour using
Doppler techniques of approx. 20 km accuracy.
 COSPAS-SARSAT FIXED SYSTEM

• 43 LEOLUT‟S, 15 GEOLUT‟S. Local User
  Terminals (LUT) processes received
  satellite signals
• 26 Mission Control Centers receive ELT
  signal activation
• (USAFRCC) or others then receive MCC
  notification that dispatches SAR team.
• USAF Auxiliary Civil Air Patrol and USCG
  notification based on approx. fix location
                ELT Program „Saves‟
Global „Saves” (1982-2003)         22,058 lives / 4851 incidents
(U.S.) „Saves‟ (1982-2003)         5,760 lives

2008 Global „Saves‟          12 lives / 6 incidents   (To Date, Feb. 1, 2008)
Rescues at Sea:               7 lives / 2 incidents
Aviation Rescues:             0 lives / 0 incidents
PLB Rescues:                  5 lives / 4 incidents

2007 Global „Saves‟      706 lives / 260 incidents
(U.S.)                   353 lives / 130 incidents
Rescues at Sea:           235 lives / 73 incidents
Aviation Rescues:          30 lives / 19 incidents
PLB Rescues:               88 lives / 38 incidents

2004 Global „Saves‟    1,748 lives / 466 incidents
Rescues at Sea:        1,505 lives / 321 incidents
Aviation rescues:         68 lives / 39 incidents
PLB Rescues:             175 lives / 106 incidents
     E..L.T. Program False Activations
• 1987 16 aviation incidents where ELT did not function
• 1991 61 validated alarms out of 2,037 activations
• 2006 95.5% (1,778) of all E.L.T. activations FALSE
  (Fewer than 2 out of 1000 alerts are ACTUAL)
• AFRCC reports since 1986 97% of ELT activations
  FALSE, or 92,000 FALSE alarms, 5,800 a year or 6 a
  day globally.
• U.S: $3.5 Million and hundreds of hours expended
  annually by Civil, State, and USAF and C.A.P. to chase
  false ELT signals.
• COSPAS-SARSAT relative to 121.5 MHz beacon
  tracking and SAR tracking and notification:
  “WE GIVE UP!”
           More E.L.T. Stories
• Corroded ELT‟s and EPIRB‟s can self-activate.
• Hard aircraft landings can activate an ELT.
• ELT‟s AND EPIRB‟s can be inadvertently activated by
  mishandling, without SAR Center notification to
  disregard transmission.
• ELT‟S, EPIRB‟s and PLB‟s are sometimes considered as
  childrens toys when left without adult supervision or
  safekeeping, or vessels are improperly stored.
• PLB‟S are sometimes activated intentionally, but for non-
  life threatening emergencies (much like 911 calls).
• 406 Mhz ELT‟s were recently activated in OC during a
  manufacturer‟s test. The FCC levied a $10,000 fine.
        Enter the 406 MHz Beacon…
•Tri-Band: 406 MHz/121.5 MHz/243 MHz
•406.025 MHz: 5 watts Peak RF, 440 ms/ each
50 sec. period (16K0G1D emission) for 24 hours.
•121.5 MHz/243 MHz 100 m/w continuous carrier,
AM warbling tone modulated, 50 hours of
continuous operation (A3X emission).
•Aircraft or Vessel ID supported.
•Aircraft or Vessel GPS position supported by
satellite triangulation or external GPS interface.
•Requires biennial registration of five (5) points
of contact and Aircraft or vessel information.
•Costly replacement over $1000 installed in A/C.
•NOT MANDATORY for U.S. Aircraft though
international requirements vary. NTSB
petitioning FAA to adopt 406 MHz ELT. Pilot
associations OPPOSE.
                 More 406 MHz ELT
• Useful Battery Stored Life: 10 years
• -20 C to +55 C temperature operating range
• Digital data: A unique 30 character 15 digit hex ID code distress
  message, identifying country of origin, aircraft or vessel ID, 121.5
  MHz homer capability, GPS position.
• Basic 406 MHz ELT with basic aircraft antenna approx. $1,000
  installed.
• Aircraft 406 MHz ELT antenna (biz-jets) approx. $5,000.
• GPS interface optional (requires GPS interface unit $1575)
• Replacement 406 MHz ELT aircraft Lithium Sulfur Dioxide (LiSO2)
  battery (upwards of $328) every 5 years.
• Inertial switch activation 2 to 20 G‟s (axis critical) , 6 axis helicopter
  model available.
                  406 MHz ELT Testing
• FAA regulations under Title 14 CFR 91.207 (d)(4) require annual
  aircraft ELT air testing.
• FCC Regulations under U.S. Code Section 301 prohibits
  unauthorized and non-conformal testing. FCC Regulations under
  U.S. Code Section 325 prohibits false, fraudulent, or unauthorized
  transmissions. Severe fines have recently been levied by the FCC
  for violations of the FCC Rules relative to 406 MHz false activations.
• Tri-Band ELT‟s transmit on all three bands simultaneously.
• 121.5 MHz „test‟ transmissions that trigger the 406 MHz beacon
  violate FCC Rules.
• The FAA is „suggesting‟ that when testing 406 MHz aircraft ELT‟s
  that „manufacturer‟s testing recommendations are followed‟. ELT
  121.5 MHz ELT testing should not exceed 30 seconds so as to not
  trigger the 406 MHz ELT component.
        POSITION ACCURACY & RESPONSE
ACCURACY
121.5 MHz/243 MHz ELT
• 20 km (12.4 miles), 1260 km search area (783 sq. mi.) or 28 x 28 miles
   using satellite triangulation. Fine location using ground or air SAR methods.
406 MHz ELT
• Basic Mode 3 km. (1.8 miles), 1.9 sq. mi. search area (1.4 x 1.4 miles)
• GPS Enhanced mode 10 meters (3.1 sq. ft.), 100 sq. meters search area
   (11 sq. ft.)


RESPONSE
121.5 MHz/243 MHz ELT
• 3 satellite hits over 8-10 hrs required to triangulate. 10-24 hrs SAR
   response.
406 MHz ELT
• 20 minutes to acquire position and information, 2 hours SAR response.
               War Stories!
• San Bernardino Forest hiker activates a PLB
  atop of a mountain, hikes down into darkness
  and fog, and reappears on a different
  mountaintop, greatly delaying his rescue by
  Sheriff‟s SAR.
• A PLB activation by a hiker on a commercial
  sightseeing vessel mid-channel to Catalina?
• A motorist involved in a TC on a freeway in a
  rural area activates his PLB.
• An airline passenger panics and activates his
  PLB upon boarding. Who responds, and how?
A „Good Day‟ is NOT Needing an
              ELT!

				
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