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                                        ISRAEL POLICE HQ

     T                                                     A Field Kit for Special
                                                           Fingerprinting Techniques
                                                           In recent years the IP’s forensic
                                                           officers have been called upon to
                                                           contribute their special skills in
                                                           their response to multi-casualty
                                                           incidents, whether the incident
                                                           be a terrorist attack, road or air
                                                           accident, or natural disaster. Part
                                                           of the response demanded by all
                                                           these conditions is rapid and
                                                           professional identification of the
                                                           victims, and one of the
                                                           recognized and most reliable
                                                           identification methods is
                                                           fingerprinting (more applicable in
                                                           Israel than in other countries
                                                           because compulsory military
                                                           service for both sexes puts the
                                                           fingerprints of so many Israelis on

                                                           Unfortunately, however, forensic

officers have often found the        severely damaged bodies.              unequipped holding area
bodies so damaged by intense                                               presented only the first of many
heat, blast or prolonged                                                   obstacles. A whole series of
immersion in water as to make
                                     A Fingerprint Comparison              makeshift set-ups had to be
the usual inkpad fingerprinting      Field Kit                             cobbled together, involving
method very difficult — or even      One of the multi-casualty             improvised lighting, extension
impossible — to apply. Knowing       incidents to which the aid of IP      cables, portable lamps,
that the USA’s FBI had developed     identification experts was            magnifying glasses, envelopes and
exceptional expertise in this        summoned was the in-flight            office supplies, etc., etc.
area, we appealed to them for        collision of two troop-carrying IDF   Realizing that the situation was
help. To our benefit, the FBI        helicopters, which left not a         going to repeat itself with future
sent one of their experts to         single soldier or crew-member         incidents, the Field Support Unit
instruct our forensic officers in    alive. Since every serving IDF        at once set out to put together a
the special techniques they had      soldier has his or her fingerprints   portable fingerprint comparison
devised.                             on file, a relatively                 kit comprising every item the
                                     straightforward identification        expert was likely to need to do
The Field Support Unit then          process was anticipated. But          his work.
proceeded to develop a portable      when the forensic officers arrived

                                                                                                                Technology and Equipment
incident kit using these special     at the holding area where the         The kit has now been in use some
techniques and containing all        bodies were gathered it soon          time and is enabling our forensic
required appliances and              proved not straightforward at all.    experts to provide anywhere the
materials. The kit has now been      Transferring the identification       same reliable and rapid
issued to several District field     process normally conducted in         identification they can achieve in
units, and is proving its worth in   the specialized facilities of a       the laboratory.
the rapid identification of          forensics laboratory to an



     The Basel system imprints            Coordination and Liaison [with       Advantages of
     biometric data on smart cards,       the Palestinian Authority]; in the
     which Israel can then issue for      Israel Defense Forces (IDF); and,
                                                                               Automated Identity
     use at its border crossing-points    geographically, at the Erez          Checking:
     at the Palestinian Authority         crossing point from the Gaza         The two chief goals of the
     areas, for purposes of               Strip, in Judea and Samaria, and     introduction of the new cards
     identification, oversight and        at IDF regional commands.            are to minimize the amount of
     control. The identity of persons                                          time each Palestinian has to
     passing through the checkpoints      An automated crossing-point          spend passing through the
     is examined automatically,           using these cards and operated       battery of security and identity
     without human intervention.          by IDF Southern Command will be      checks at checkpoints, and
                                          installed at the Magen 12            thus permit a much faster flow
     Special facilities register the      checkpoint, where Palestinian        of people than at present (to
     biometric data (e.g. fingerprints)   workers cross from the Gaza Strip    the relief of Palestinians and
     on each card and issue it to the     to the Erez industrial park. The     Israeli soldiers alike), and to
     correct holder, after which the      new smart cards will also come       do so without any weakening
     card remains valid for a period of   into use at those manned IDF         of security. A secondary
     two years. The Basel network         checkpoints that are equipped to     benefit is that the fingerprints
     includes all units involved in       handle biometric data and to         on the cards are also readable
     registering Palestinians’ personal   read and inscribe smart cards.       by standard, non-Basel
     data and issuing them Israeli        The cards will not replace the       equipment and so can be used
     documentation. Such units are        IDF’s current rules and              by the regular police to check
     found at the Coordinator of          procedures for checkpoint            the identity of workers residing
     Activities in the Territories; the   operations but only supply an        illegally within Israel’s borders.
     Department for Administration,       additional identification element.


                                                                                                               Technology and Equipment
 “Did the suspect use the            The only clues for this appeared     in the presence of traces of iron
firearm?” is a question often        after the forensics came in          on the hand. The iron and
asked during criminal                looking for firearm imprints on      vitamin C will improve the color
investigations. In late 1998 two     the hands. No imprints were          reaction on the hand. In certain
dead bodies were found in a          found on Anat’s hands but clear      cases very clear marks are
famous hairdresser’s apartment       marks were found on David’s          obtained, which make it possible
in Jerusalem, David Afuta and his    hands.                               to connect the suspect and the
girlfriend, the actress Anat         The Division of Identification and   specific tool. A bolt on the butt,
Elimelech. The bodies were lying     Forensic Science (DIFS) of the       trigger or any unique iron item
on the floor, heads up and in        Israel Police developed a simple     might give important
opposite directions. The first       chemical method to find firearm      information.
policeman who found the bodies       impressions on a suspect’s hands.    Although the spray has been
reported that a Colt 45 pistol was   By spraying the suspect’s hands,     successfully used in some
near the woman’s right hand.         only the one who touched the         criminal cases, it has not been
Anat was felled by one bullet,       gun will show positive. Iron found   fully researched. Therefore, the
and David by two. To make a long     on the firearm or any tool’s         DIFS of the Israel Police is
story short, the final               surface, will attach to the hand     collaborating with Prof. Joseph
investigation came to the            after touching it. The spray         Almog of the Casali Institute and
conclusion that a third person       contains a chemical reagent          Prof. Dani Mandler of the
had changed the position of the      known as PDT plus vitamin C, to      Analytical Chemistry
pistol before the police arrived.    produce a typical magenta color      Department, both at the Hebrew

     University of Jerusalem. Our goal is to
     improve the understanding of the
     reaction mechanism.
     Three main aspects are being
     • First, focusing on the interaction
       between an iron surface and the palm
       of the hand. How does the iron
       attach to the skin? What parameters
       influence the presence of iron on the
     • Second, focusing on the reaction
       between iron and PDT. What are the
       optimal conditions? And what are the
       detection limits?
     • Third, investigating the absorption
       mechanism of iron on the palm skin.
       How long after the contact will the
       suspect give a visible sign?
     All three directions are not new, yet
     not much scientific work had been
     accomplished until now.
     Preliminary results indicate a
     correlation between the development
     of latent fingerprints and good firearm
     imprints on the hands. We assume that
     as the amount of sweat increases, a
     better magenta mark develops. The
     firearm’s rust and holding duration
     affects the imprints as well. So far,
     most questions remain open. However,
     by collecting enough information from
     many individuals, we hope to get some
     answers and improve the detectability
     of the marks and hence, improve the
     detective’s work where there is “no
     smoking gun”.

                                       ISRAEL POLICE HEADQUARTERS

P                          Background
                           The familiar sight of
                           investigators staggering into
                           court loaded with boxfuls of
                           cardboard files, of
                           detectives busy filling up
                           the pages of their notebooks
                           at a crime-scene, of
                           suspects in an interview
                           room trying to swallow
                           incriminating documents, all
                                                           software, capable of
                                                           retrieving and displaying to
                                                           interviewers in real time any
                                                           statistical analysis, graph,
                                                           map or any other item of
                                                           processed police data they
                                                           might require. And all at the
                                                           touch of a key-board. The
                                                           plan at present is not to
                                                           replace the investigator         Technology and Equipment
                           this should within a few        himself but only to spare him
                           years be a thing of the past.   days and nights of paper-
                           The Israel Police (IP)          pushing and other
                           Technology Administration       bureaucratic chores.
                           has a new vision.
                           Investigators will come into    The history of police
                           court with no more than one     investigations is riddled with
                           or two hard disks or at most    instances of investigations
                           a single lap-top computer,      that have broken down for
                           containing the whole body       lack of access to records and
                           of evidence. Or                 evidence stores. Investigators
                           alternatively the complete      have worn themselves ragged
                           investigation file will have    hunting through shelves of
                           been simply E-mailed to the     paper records and still in the
                           judge’s own computer.           end have been forced to
                           Interviews of suspects and      release their suspect after
                           witnesses will be recorded      not finding the vital sheet of
                           and managed by special          incriminating paper. Files

     containing sensitive             statistical data analyses, these   retrieve, reclassify and
     information have gone            and other techniques will be       reconnect information drawn
     astray and police units have     deployed to enable police          from any file and any IP unit.
     declined to offer each other     officers to make informed use
     a helping hand, precisely        of the warehouses of printed       A second objective of the
     because of the logistical        data and material exhibits the     project is to use the
     difficulty of moving             IP holds in storage.               computerization of IP data to
     evidence files and exhibits                                         construct a map of criminal
     around the country.              Investigators will arrive at       activity in Israel, that can be
                                      their desks in the morning to      updated day by day and week
                                      find their computer screen         by week and reduced or
     The Pele Project                 displaying the list of tasks for   enlarged in scale to map crime
     The Pele project — a key         that day in each of the files      street by street within a single
     segment of the ongoing           they are handling. A click of      neighborhood or nationwide
     computerization revolution       the mouse takes them into          across the whole country. The
     the IP has been pushing          whichever file they choose.        same data can be recategorized
     forward over the last            Instead of having to rummage       to give a picture of the
     decade — plans to put these      through sheets of paper            distribution of crime by type of
     logistical difficulties behind   divided among tens of files,       offense or time of year or any
     us by computerizing the          they click their way from          other relevant unit of analysis.
     investigative process from       category to category of
     beginning to end and making      evidence, organized by the         This ambitious program is one
     access to all police-held        new software — the diary of        of a range of projects being
     criminal records available at    the investigation, witness         developed by the Technology
     the click of a computer key.     statements, suspect                Administration as the Israel
     Textual data retrieval by        interrogations, photos of          Police like its counterparts
     keywords, the GIS system         weapons, vehicles, material        world-wide participate in the
     for mapping criminal             samples and exhibits, etc.         revolution brought about by the
     activity, a range of             From their keyboards they can      computer.



                                                                                             Technology and Equipment

                      All Israeli police officers, like   the output of the center’s
                      police officers everywhere, must    physicians, paramedics and
                      undergo regular medical and         dieticians, and to improve
                      physical performance checks         service to officers by reducing
                      throughout their career in the      waiting times and the time spent
                      force. The IP has recently taken    at the center.
                      the initiative to computerize the
                      health center that conducts         The computerization has been
                      these checks, both to upgrade       designed to upgrade the
                      the performance and increase        following functions:

     • Storage and retrieval of all        sending reminders to officers       different testing equipment
       individual medical and              who require follow-ups              will be eliminated.
       performance data                  • Producing operational and         • Each officer’s complete
     • Collating the results from          statistical reports.                physical performance
       different tests and testing                                             history will be centralized
       devices                           The computerization project is        and accessible.
     • Advance planning of testing and   expected to yield the following     • We will have the data-
       other activities                  benefits:                             processing infrastructure to
     • Streamlining each officer’s       • Waiting times between tests         compile a medical dossier
       check-up day by setting up          will be reduced and the overall     for each officer and to
       separate testing stations for       quality of service improved.        produce medical reports for
       each component battery of         • The center will be able to test     individual police officers
       tests                               more officers in a given day.       and their unit medical
     • Setting appointments and          • Duplicate data entries from         officers.


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