Development potential for Moringa products October 29th - November 2nd, 2001, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania SYNTHESIS OF THE THEMATIC DISCUSSION ON PRODUCTION AND BREEDING 1- CULTURAL TECHNIQUES 1-1 Density COUNTRY Production system RAINFALL (mm) SPACING Tanzania Seeds, Monoculture 700 – 1200 1 row : 3 x 3m; --5 x 5m or intercropping 2 rows : 2.5 x 2.5 x 6m India Pods, monoculture or 750 – 1400 (+ irrigation) 1 : 2.5 x 2.5m intercropping 2 row : 2.5 x 2.5 x 5 Togo Seeds, intercropping 1000 – 1200 1 : 4 x 4m , 4m x 4,5 m Niger Leaves, monoculture 400 - 600 (+ irrigation) 1 : 0.5 x 0.5m Kenya Pods, intercropping 600 – 900 1:3x6m Nicaragua Leaves, monoculture 800 – 1.200 (+ irrigation) 1 : 10 cm x 10 cm There is no unique recommendation. Density is function of : Production system : Monoculture vs intercropping Manual vs mechanical field operations Product : leaf/seed/pod There is still scope for experimentation : optimal density according to climate, soil, agronomic system, etc. 1-2 Pruning techniques and frequencies Objective (for pods) Reduce height; create stable branch structure How ? OPTIMA year 1 : 1m ; year 2 : 1 .5m INDIA year 1 : 0 .75m pinch main shoot, and pinch all lateral shoots 0 .15m from the end during 3 months umbrella shape When ? Immediately after harvest. Effect on yield without = 100 – 125 fruits /tree/year /India with = 200 – 300 fruits /tree/year /India For LEAVES Niger : Cut to 20cm (or even ground level) once or twice a year Harvest leaves every 2 weeks Leave selected trees for seed production 1-3 Irrigation and fertilization Senegal + India : 4 l/tree/day during dry season in sandy to sandy–loamy soils Perennials for pod actually don't need irrigation in India (~1000 mm in two rain seasons) FREQUENCY (India : Annuals for pods) First 2 months = 1 /wk 2 – 4 months = 1 /2wk (15 days) 4 – 6 months = 1 /25 days (water stress good for flowering) Perennials for leaf in Niger : ~ 8 l/tree/day during dry season, 2-3 times a week other seasons Development potential for Moringa products October 29th - November 2nd, 2001, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania 1-4 Fertilization Optima Tanzania only cattle manure 2 kg basal application in pit. Pods are returned to soil as mulch after seed extraction. India : Chemical + organic fertilisation 150:150:100g NPK/tree basal application 500g poultry manure + 250 g neem cake per pit If only chemical fertilizer used = 44 : 16 : 30 g NPK/ tree at the time of pinching (75 days after sowing). Nitrogen @ 44g / tree at first flowering If only organic : 10 kg/tree compost as basal application at sowing + 20 kg/tree at pruning. Impact on fruit yield in India : Without fertiliser : 100 - 105 fruits/tree With organic and chemical : 200 to 300 fruits/tree With organic only : 20% less than with organic and chemical Intercropping : fertilisation for Moringa but not for intercrop Kenya : Farmers use manure and/or fertilisers, but there is no monitoring. Moisture is more critical in Kenya, it is the limiting factor. Niger : Manuring is widespread, chemical fertilisation is still rare (NPK 15/15/15) 1-5 Phytosanitary constraints Pests Many in India : leaf feeding caterpillars fruit flies (90% damage) In Kenya : a new lepidoptera (not yet identified taxonomically) linked to wet condition, apparently M. stenopetala is a host, can destroy in 48 hrs a whole plantation of M. oleifera. In Tanzania : Grasshoppers, birds, wild animals, a stink bug. Treatments Niger : DDT (banned product, but farmers call DDT every phytosanitary treatment) India : Endosulfan 0.02% + Teepol 0.01% : caterpillars (for 1 l spray) Malathian 0.02% + Teepol 0.01% : Fruit flies Nicaragua: Saponins from Quinoa plant Liquid soap 3% kills white flies Plant tomatoes around Moringa plants NOTE Site specific issues Main prescription : keep field clean If moringa for water treatment beware of pesticide contamination 1-6 Tree/crop interactions More than 10 crops tested in Tanzania and India. In Tanzania : beans, pineapple, tomato, etc. In India: Moringa as a crop in tree orchards (coconut, mango) or as a tree with associated crops (vegetables) Development potential for Moringa products October 29th - November 2nd, 2001, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania The crop can host pathogens Moringa oleifera is very sensitive to shade : in Tanzania, crops that grow taller than Moringa are discarded. Bees hives can be associated to Moringa plantations (Tanzania) In Kenya, surveys were carried out in farmers' fields, but no monitoring of competition effects In Niger, association with cereals, vegetables or cotton, but no monitoring of competition Conclusion : Lack of systematic studies. 1-7 Production time span India : 15 – 20 yrs (perennials) 4 years (annuals) Tanzania : 18 – 20 yrs perennial (not in plantation conditions but individual trees) Togo : 10 years Nicaragua : 7– 8 years Niger : no information available 1-8 Selection and breeding Selection in Tanzania by Optima : Shorter varieties More branches More pods More oil content Has begun selection on the first three criteria (collecting seeds from good trees and uprooting bad ones). Selection in India : Increasing number of pods per cluster Dwarf or semi-dwarf varieties Selection starts with open pollination, then select one line with highest potential and test it in various conditions and various sites. Then, controlled pollination. Kenya : early stages. Testing criteria for leaf and for pod production. Togo : provenance trials to select the best types for agroforestry systems (tree growth and development, fruit, seed and oil yields, effect on crops yields). Next step will be to keep the collected provenances by establishing isolated plantations. Conclusion : Appart from Indian programmes, very little breeding has been achieved so far. Other species than M. oleifera are almost ignored. Inadequate information on population across range of distribution. Tissue culture is an option (succeeded in Togo, Kenya, India etc.). 2- PRODUCTION, PROCESSING & MARKETING 2-1 Production Cultivation techniques In Senegal, Tanzania, Nicaragua and India, all Moringa cultivation promoters (technicians, companies) have problems with farmers not complying with production guidelines. In Niger where cultivation is spontaneous, some farmers have very efficient cultivation systems. Conclusion : Need to improve extension methods and/or to work more closely with farmers at identifying production guidelines. Production costs Tanzania (Daily salary = 1000 Tsh; 800 Tsh = 1 USD) Development potential for Moringa products October 29th - November 2nd, 2001, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Land preparation mand Tsh USD/ha ays Tractor disc ploughing 15 000 Marking out 9 9 000 Hole digging 25 25 000 Manuring 12 12 000 Hole filling 25 25 000 Sowing seeds 4 4 000 Total establishment costs 75 90 000 112,5 per ha mand Tsh USD/ha ays Maintenance Handweeding 23 23 000 Hand slashing 7 7 000 Handweeding 23 23 000 Hand slashing 7 7 000 Pruning 1 7 7 000 Pruning 2 7 7 000 Pruning 3 7 7 000 Ratooning 10 10000 Harvesting 1 56 56 000 Harvesting 2 56 56 000 Ginning 14 14 000 Total maintenance costs 207 217 000 271 India Production cost = 400 to 600 USD per ha Yield = 54 tons/ha green pod Annual net income for small farmer = 1300 USD/ha Niger Commercial plantation (B. Wankoye) Production cost (20 people employed) = 1 250 000 FCFA = 160 USD/ha Small farmers produce 4-5 bags a day during 6 months 1 bag = 22 kg = 2000 FCFA = 3 USD There is a market for it, demand is higher than supply, imports from Nigeria Casamance Moringa planted by CWS in hospital backyard 3 spoons a day during meals, cost = 12 cents Development potential for Moringa products October 29th - November 2nd, 2001, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania 3 - PRIORITIES Niger On farm research to document technico-economic data on existing farming systems (yields, costs, profitability) Developing processing and marketing Involvement of private companies to develop new products/outlets (pods, seeds, oil) Kenya Assessing genetic diversity, for conservation and breeding Developing other productions than green pods : fodder (in drylands), pulp, leaves for food Processing to add value Marketing intelligence Senegal Develop the use of leaf powder Make intensive production of quality leaf powder Need of scientific studies on leaf quality and benefits (pharmacology/nutritional research) Ethiopia M. stenopetala is more drought resistant than M. oleifera and should be addressed more through : Seed collection for biodiversity and domestication Characterisation of leaves nutritional value ILRI is taking interest in characterising fodder potential of M. stenopetala M. stenopetala fibers are similar to poplar : pulp production is a potential Togo Moringa oleifera cultivation must be introduced to farmers as an agroforestry species More research is needed on cultivation techniques in association with crops (densities, tree-crop interaction, etc.) Ghana Very few people use Moringa, similar situation than in Togo Develop medicinal aspects India Research must be developed in three directions : Crop improvement (super genotypes, dwarf genotypes for leaves) Crop management (organic farming) Post harvest management (storage) There is a large scope for selection, with many genotype collections (~200 genotypes). Traits that could be selected are : drought resistance, tolerance to salinity, to pest and diseases, dwarf forms. Tanzania Socioeconomic studies on Moringa production, processing and market chanels Develop fodder uses Improve extension, linked to processing techniques, especially towards women (some women groups already process fruits). Develop research on pests and diseases management Continue monitoring of crop management to improve techniques (densities, fertilisation, pruning, tree-crop interaction).