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PRODUCTION AND BREEDING

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					Development potential for Moringa products   October 29th - November 2nd, 2001, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania




                SYNTHESIS OF THE THEMATIC DISCUSSION ON

                             PRODUCTION AND BREEDING

1- CULTURAL TECHNIQUES

1-1 Density

     COUNTRY        Production system             RAINFALL (mm)                     SPACING
      Tanzania       Seeds, Monoculture             700 – 1200             1 row : 3 x 3m; --5 x 5m
                      or intercropping                                     2 rows : 2.5 x 2.5 x 6m
        India       Pods, monoculture or     750 – 1400 (+ irrigation)           1 : 2.5 x 2.5m
                        intercropping                                        2 row : 2.5 x 2.5 x 5
        Togo        Seeds, intercropping           1000 – 1200             1 : 4 x 4m , 4m x 4,5 m
       Niger        Leaves, monoculture       400 - 600 (+ irrigation)           1 : 0.5 x 0.5m
       Kenya         Pods, intercropping             600 – 900                     1:3x6m
     Nicaragua      Leaves, monoculture      800 – 1.200 (+ irrigation)        1 : 10 cm x 10 cm

There is no unique recommendation. Density is function of :
   Production system : Monoculture vs intercropping
   Manual vs mechanical field operations
   Product : leaf/seed/pod

There is still scope for experimentation : optimal density according to climate, soil, agronomic
system, etc.


1-2 Pruning techniques and frequencies

Objective (for pods)
Reduce height; create stable branch structure

How ?
 OPTIMA       year 1 : 1m ; year 2 : 1 .5m
 INDIA               year 1 : 0 .75m pinch main shoot, and pinch all lateral shoots 0 .15m from
 the end during 3 months  umbrella shape
 When ? Immediately after harvest.

Effect on yield

  without = 100 – 125 fruits /tree/year /India
  with = 200 – 300 fruits /tree/year /India

For LEAVES
Niger :
  Cut to 20cm (or even ground level) once or twice a year
  Harvest leaves every 2 weeks
  Leave selected trees for seed production


1-3 Irrigation and fertilization

Senegal + India :  4 l/tree/day during dry season in sandy to sandy–loamy soils
Perennials for pod actually don't need irrigation in India (~1000 mm in two rain seasons)
FREQUENCY (India : Annuals for pods)
First 2 months = 1 /wk
2 – 4 months = 1 /2wk (15 days)
4 – 6 months = 1 /25 days (water stress good for flowering)
Perennials for leaf in Niger : ~ 8 l/tree/day during dry season, 2-3 times a week other seasons
Development potential for Moringa products   October 29th - November 2nd, 2001, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania


1-4 Fertilization

Optima Tanzania only cattle manure 2 kg basal application in pit. Pods are returned to soil as
mulch after seed extraction.

India :
Chemical + organic fertilisation
  150:150:100g NPK/tree basal application
  500g poultry manure + 250 g neem cake per pit

If only chemical fertilizer used = 44 : 16 : 30 g NPK/ tree at the time of pinching (75 days after
sowing). Nitrogen @ 44g / tree at first flowering

If only organic : 10 kg/tree compost as basal application at sowing + 20 kg/tree
                 at pruning.

  Impact on fruit yield in India :
  Without fertiliser : 100 - 105 fruits/tree
  With organic and chemical : 200 to 300 fruits/tree
  With organic only : 20% less than with organic and chemical
  Intercropping : fertilisation for Moringa but not for intercrop

Kenya : Farmers use manure and/or fertilisers, but there is no monitoring. Moisture is more
critical in Kenya, it is the limiting factor.

Niger : Manuring is widespread, chemical fertilisation is still rare (NPK 15/15/15)


1-5 Phytosanitary constraints

Pests

Many in India :
 leaf feeding caterpillars
 fruit flies (90% damage)

In Kenya : a new lepidoptera (not yet identified taxonomically) linked to wet condition, apparently
M. stenopetala is a host, can destroy in 48 hrs a whole plantation of M. oleifera.

In Tanzania :
Grasshoppers, birds, wild animals, a stink bug.

Treatments

Niger : DDT (banned product, but farmers call DDT every phytosanitary treatment)
India :
Endosulfan 0.02% + Teepol 0.01% : caterpillars (for 1 l spray)
Malathian 0.02% + Teepol 0.01% : Fruit flies

Nicaragua:
Saponins from Quinoa plant
Liquid soap 3% kills white flies
Plant tomatoes around Moringa plants

NOTE
Site specific issues
Main prescription : keep field clean
If moringa for water treatment beware of pesticide contamination


1-6 Tree/crop interactions

More than 10 crops tested in Tanzania and India.
In Tanzania : beans, pineapple, tomato, etc.
In India: Moringa as a crop in tree orchards (coconut, mango) or as a tree with associated crops
(vegetables)
Development potential for Moringa products   October 29th - November 2nd, 2001, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania


The crop can host pathogens
Moringa oleifera is very sensitive to shade : in Tanzania, crops that grow taller than Moringa are
discarded.
Bees hives can be associated to Moringa plantations (Tanzania)
In Kenya, surveys were carried out in farmers' fields, but no monitoring of competition effects
In Niger, association with cereals, vegetables or cotton, but no monitoring of competition

Conclusion : Lack of systematic studies.


1-7 Production time span

India : 15 – 20 yrs (perennials)
        4 years (annuals)

Tanzania :      18 – 20 yrs perennial (not in plantation conditions but individual trees)

Togo :          10 years

Nicaragua :     7– 8 years

Niger : no information available


1-8 Selection and breeding

Selection in Tanzania by Optima :
Shorter varieties
More branches
More pods
More oil content
Has begun selection on the first three criteria (collecting seeds from good trees and uprooting bad
ones).

Selection in India :
Increasing number of pods per cluster
Dwarf or semi-dwarf varieties
Selection starts with open pollination, then select one line with highest potential and test it in
various conditions and various sites. Then, controlled pollination.

Kenya : early stages. Testing criteria for leaf and for pod production.

Togo : provenance trials to select the best types for agroforestry systems (tree growth and
development, fruit, seed and oil yields, effect on crops yields). Next step will be to keep the
collected provenances by establishing isolated plantations.

Conclusion :
Appart from Indian programmes, very little breeding has been achieved so far. Other species than
M. oleifera are almost ignored. Inadequate information on population across range of distribution.
Tissue culture is an option (succeeded in Togo, Kenya, India etc.).


2- PRODUCTION, PROCESSING & MARKETING

2-1 Production

Cultivation techniques
In Senegal, Tanzania, Nicaragua and India, all Moringa cultivation promoters (technicians,
companies) have problems with farmers not complying with production guidelines.
In Niger where cultivation is spontaneous, some farmers have very efficient cultivation systems.

Conclusion : Need to improve extension methods and/or to work more closely with farmers at
identifying production guidelines.

Production costs
Tanzania (Daily salary = 1000 Tsh; 800 Tsh = 1 USD)
Development potential for Moringa products     October 29th - November 2nd, 2001, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania



     Land preparation
                                   mand       Tsh      USD/ha
                                    ays
    Tractor disc ploughing                   15 000
  Marking out                         9       9 000
  Hole digging                       25      25 000
   Manuring                          12      12 000
   Hole filling                      25      25 000
       Sowing seeds                   4       4 000

 Total establishment costs          75       90 000     112,5
           per ha
                                   mand       Tsh      USD/ha
                                    ays
 Maintenance
 Handweeding                         23       23 000
      Hand slashing                   7        7 000
 Handweeding                         23       23 000
      Hand slashing                   7        7 000
  Pruning 1                           7        7 000
  Pruning 2                           7        7 000
  Pruning 3                           7        7 000
  Ratooning                          10       10000
 Harvesting 1                        56       56 000
 Harvesting 2                        56       56 000
   Ginning                           14       14 000
 Total maintenance costs            207      217 000     271



India
Production cost = 400 to 600 USD per ha
Yield = 54 tons/ha green pod
Annual net income for small farmer = 1300 USD/ha

Niger
Commercial plantation (B. Wankoye)
Production cost (20 people employed) = 1 250 000 FCFA = 160 USD/ha

Small farmers produce 4-5 bags a day during 6 months
1 bag = 22 kg = 2000 FCFA = 3 USD

There is a market for it, demand is higher than supply, imports from Nigeria

Casamance
Moringa planted by CWS in hospital backyard
3 spoons a day during meals, cost = 12 cents
Development potential for Moringa products   October 29th - November 2nd, 2001, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania


3 - PRIORITIES

Niger
On farm research to document technico-economic data on existing farming systems (yields, costs,
profitability)
Developing processing and marketing
Involvement of private companies to develop new products/outlets (pods, seeds, oil)

Kenya
Assessing genetic diversity, for conservation and breeding
Developing other productions than green pods : fodder (in drylands), pulp, leaves for food
Processing to add value
Marketing intelligence

Senegal
Develop the use of leaf powder
Make intensive production of quality leaf powder
Need of scientific studies on leaf quality and benefits (pharmacology/nutritional research)

Ethiopia
M. stenopetala is more drought resistant than M. oleifera and should be addressed more through :
Seed collection for biodiversity and domestication
Characterisation of leaves nutritional value
ILRI is taking interest in characterising fodder potential of M. stenopetala
M. stenopetala fibers are similar to poplar : pulp production is a potential

Togo
Moringa oleifera cultivation must be introduced to farmers as an agroforestry species
More research is needed on cultivation techniques in association with crops (densities, tree-crop
interaction, etc.)

Ghana
Very few people use Moringa, similar situation than in Togo
Develop medicinal aspects

India
Research must be developed in three directions :
Crop improvement (super genotypes, dwarf genotypes for leaves)
Crop management (organic farming)
Post harvest management (storage)
There is a large scope for selection, with many genotype collections (~200 genotypes). Traits that
could be selected are : drought resistance, tolerance to salinity, to pest and diseases, dwarf forms.

Tanzania
Socioeconomic studies on Moringa production, processing and market chanels
Develop fodder uses
Improve extension, linked to processing techniques, especially towards women (some women
groups already process fruits).
Develop research on pests and diseases management
Continue monitoring of crop management to improve techniques (densities, fertilisation, pruning,
tree-crop interaction).

				
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