Responsibility sustainability in tourism concerns in the by youmustknowme

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									Responsibility & sustainability
 in tourism: concerns in the
   context of liberalization
           policies
Presentation of Tourism Services
Workshop on WTO related issues
   for Government officials of
        SAARC countries

       New Delhi, May 2006
        Tourism statistics & trends

   Fastest growing industry
   Increasingly dominant role in 49 less
    developed countries
   694 mn tourist traffic1
   Which rose by 23.8% (3.4 mn) in 2004
   Earnings generated – US$ 4810 mn
   India: contributed 4.9% of GDP
   Supports 46.87 mn jobs – directly &
    indirectly2
 Thematic areas of conflict: Economy

Tourism is considered as an important
  development option for the purpose of:
 Providing income & revenue; foreign
  exchange
 Providing employment & augment
  livelihoods, through multiplier effect
 Aiding in strengthening economies

 Ushering in development
Thematic areas of conflict: Economy
The actual scenario is that:
 Leakages supercede incomes / revenues3
 Offers low skill / pay jobs to local
  communities
 There is a lack of support to SMEs
 Creates dependency on tourism, which
  may be unsustainable in long run
 Tourism development is privileged & gets
  primary beneficiary status
 Indigenous & local communities, other
  marginalized groups become secondary or
  tertiary beneficiaries
Thematic areas of conflict: Environment
   Tourism has a track record of negative
    impacts
   Current focus is on new tourism forms –
    “eco”
   Tourism operates in an unregulated
    climate & inadequate policy regime
   Sustainability is sought for tourism
    purposes
   Whereas, there is denial of access to
    natural resources for local communities
Thematic areas of conflict: Institutions

   Constitutional provisions &
    contradictions
   Dilution of powers of local governing
    institutions
   Inclusion of scheduled areas (removal
    of trade barriers)
   Inconsistencies with international
    covenants that recognize rights of
    indigenous & local communities
    Thematic areas of conflict: Society


   Non recognition of impact of tourism on
    marginalized & vulnerable sections –
    women, children, indigenous
    communities
   Non participatory mechanisms adopted
    in tourism development processes
         GATS … on a hot tin roof!

   The GATS & tourism in brief
    – Sub agreement within the WTO-OMC
    – Aim: develop global trade rules in
      services, including tourism
    – Tourism: very important (125 / 148
      members committed to have liberalized
      policies)
    – Very few limitations / regulations
      included in commitment schedule
          GATS … on a hot tin roof!

   The GATS & tourism:
    – Liberalization of tourism impacted by
      liberalization of other sectors as well:
      • Environmental services: water, waste
        management, landscaping
      • Transportation services
      • Construction services
    – Widening of inequities & imbalances
    – Failure to see linkages of local
      economy, livelihoods to natural
      resources and social processes
     GATS … on a hot tin roof!

– Benefits to communities not considered
– Challenges faced by community
  initiatives
– Dilutions of domestic regulations (trade
  barriers)
– Conflicts with other MEAs – e.g. CBD
– Acknowledges only national
  governments & there are no
  consultations with state or local
  governments
             GATS – key questions

   What is the urgent need to hasten tourism
    development?
   Role of IFIs: local priorities, aspirations vs.
    mega plans
     – ADB SASEC Plan
       • Tourism a priority sector4
       • Significant progress made
       • Focus: branding, connectivity & joint
         marketing, infrastructure
       • Negligence on: sustainability,
         conservation & community participation
         What needs to be done …

   Holistic development of tourism is
    required
   GATS impact assessment studies need
    to be done
   Democratic consultation & scrutiny of
    WTO positions & interventions by IFIs
Thank You.

								
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