The Role of IOs in Tourism

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					    The Role of IOs in Tourism

    This review is based on notes of Dr. Maria
      Alvarez and TRM 431 student presentations.




1                                      TRM 431
    International Organizations in a world
    of paradoxes

    Paradox 1: The insistence upon state sovereignty, supremacy and
      independence in a shrinking, interdependent world.
    Each state declares the right to determine its own course of action,
       regardless of the effects upon the other states, and at the same time is
       increasingly dependent upon the actions of other states in vital areas
       of mutual concern such as trade, communications, economic
       development and world peace.
    Even though increasingly there are many problems which are
       international and common to many countries, because states insist on
       their sovereignty and right to make their own decisions, only when high
       coincidence of interests occurs can agreements be reached.



2                                                              TRM 431
    International Organizations in a world
    of paradoxes

    Paradox 2: Increasing nationalism in an increasingly
      global world.
    For newly emergent states, nation building is the
      primary concern and they emphasize nationalism.
      Older states emphasize national security issues,
      economic interests and prestige. But at the same
      time we are seeing that increasingly the world is
      becoming more global and that what occurs in one
      state affects other states.(ex: we have mentioned the risk of
       nationalism in Russia in return for NATO expansion)



3                                                            TRM 431
    International Organizations in a world
    of paradoxes

    Paradox 3: The separation of international and
      domestic concerns.
    As the world shrinks through the effects of
      technology and communications, the line
      between domestic and international
      problems becomes increasingly blurred.



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    The UN System


    The IMF, World Bank and other independent
      organizations are known as specialized agencies
      linked to the UN by cooperative agreements. Some
      of these are older than the UN (Ex: ILO, Universal
      Postal Union).
    These organizations have an autonomous and
      independent status inside of the UN, and can not be
      affected or pressured by other UN organs and
      institutions. ???

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    The UN System

    There are a number of UN offices, programmes and
      funds work to improve economic and social condition
      of people around the world.
    Ex: UNDP, UN Children’s Fund.

    These are set-up for specific problems or issues, but
      they are not totally independent from the UN.



6                                               TRM 431
    UNDP

    UN's global development network, an organization advocating for
      change and connecting countries to knowledge, experience
      and resources to help people build a better life.
    World leaders have pledged to achieve the Millennium
      Development Goals, including the overarching goal of cutting
      poverty in half by 2015.
    UNDP’s focus is helping countries build and share solutions to the
      challenges of:
       Democratic Governance
       Poverty Reduction
       Crisis Prevention and Recovery
       Environment and Energy
       HIV/AIDS



7                                                       TRM 431
    UNDP

    "The fact is that globalization, the global market
       economy delivers to the upper half; it doesn't really
       deliver to the poor people. In some cities in the
       developing world, you have 50 percent of young
       people unemployed. So the challenge is huge and
       we have to focus on it.
    At the UNDP, that's what we try to do. We try to find the
       right solutions, try to compare what worked in some
       places to what didn't work in other places, and build
       and bring capacity development to these countries”.
       Kemal Deviş, UNDP Administrator
8                                                TRM 431
    The UN System

    All these organizations have their own governing
       bodies, budgets and secretariats. Increasingly these
       specialized agencies, funds and programs are
       pooling their resources for various purposes.
    Ex: The Global Environmental Facility, a $5 billion fund,
       is administered by the United Nations Development
       Program (UNDP), United Nations Environmental
       Program (UNEP) and the World Bank, to help
       developing countries carry out environmental
       programmes.

9                                                TRM 431
     UN: The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)



        The mission of the ECOSOC is to promote the welfare of all peoples
         everywhere. It coordinates the economic and social work of the United
         Nations and the UN family (specialize agencies and UN programs) and
         it provides a central forum for discussing economic and social issues
         and for formulating policy recommendations. It consults with NGOs,
         maintaining the link between the UN and the civil society.

        The following include some topics for the ECOSOC: human rights,
         refugees, economic and social development, culture, education,
         health, food supply, trade and transportation, population, narcotic
         drugs, housing, labour conditions, communications, etc.



10                                                               TRM 431
     ECOSOC


     The functions of the ECOSOC are:
     1.   Deliberation and recommendation
     2.   Research and reports
     3.   Coordination.




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     INTERNATIONAL
     NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS


     NGOs are private, voluntary, non-profit organizations whose
       members combine their skills, means and energies in the
       service of shared ideals and objectives.
     NGOs are very diverse. Some deal with topics such as human
       rights, environmental protection, humanitarian relief, etc., with
       the aim to protect the whole of human society.
     Other NGOs represent limited groups (ex: industries, religious
       sects, etc.). Some NGOs are independent of government or
       private interests, whereas others are not so independent.




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     The Rising Importance of NGOs

     Recently, NGOs have started to acquire more importance due to:
      1.     Growth of citizen organizations at all levels of society. There
       is a move towards a greater democratization and development. This in
       turn leads to the greater participation of citizens in the economy and
       political environment. An increasing number of organizations are
       created by these empowered citizens.
      2.     The need for action on global problems. There is a growing
       realization that national governments by themselves can not cope with
       the increasing number of global problems. This has resulted on a
       move towards “global governance”.
      3.     Breakthroughs in communication technologies have caused
       the immediate and direct contact of individuals and their organizations
       anywhere in the world.


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  NGOs in Tourism


  1 Promotion of                          2 Addressing
                                                                        3 Providing Data
   Industry Interests                     Environmental and                 and Advice
                                             Social Issues

• Monitoring decisions that            • Sustainable Development      • Support planning
may affect the industry,                                              • Conducting studies
                                       • Environmental Protection
• Lobbying (direct/indirect)                                          • Providing consultants
                                       • Preserve Cultural Heritage
• Setting standards
                                       • Peace and Security
• Regulating members                                                  ex: International Centre of
                                       • Equal Access (rights) for    Responsible Tourism,
                                        all travelers                 World Travel & Tourism Council
ex: TTYD, Association of Independent
Tour Operators
                   1
World Association of Travel Agents

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     Organisation for Safety and Security in Tourism
     (OSST)


        Provides a review of the expansion of the concept of security and the
         relationship of security to tourism.

        Despite the damage done to the concept of collective security because
         of the United States led invasion of Iraq, the development of common
         security structures through collective, multilateral frameworks such as
         the United Nations remains important for the expansion of security
         concerns to cover the environment, health and economic threats.




15                                                              TRM 431
     The Role of Tourism in IR

     Tourism is as much part of foreign policy as a
       commercial activity. It is a component of
       International Relations:
     -     The encouragement of travel flows between nations may
         be evidence of a positive political relationship (ex: States inside
         European Union). Or the absence might indicate political
         tension. (ex: Turkey and Greece)
     -       Travel flows between nations encourage economic
         interdependence (ex Turkey-Germany, Greece-UK).
     -       Tourism can serve as a force for peace. The greater contact
         between nations, the greater the international understanding.


16                                                           TRM 431
     European Monetary Union

        The establishment of the European Monetary
         Union (EMU) and the introduction of the Euro
         represented a further step in the process of
         economic integration within the European
         Union (EU).




17                                         TRM 431
      Effects of the EMU on Tourism
 1.    Increase of intra-European travel due to the ease of moving from
       one EU country to another without having to change currencies. This
       will facilitate the positioning of European tourism destinations as
       “Destination Europe”.
 2.    At the same time, the EU consumer will be able to easily compare
       prices in different member countries directly. This may eventually
       strengthen competition and cause prices to fall. After the introduction
       of euro notes and coins, European tourists traveling within the
       Eurozone no longer have the problem of left-over cash.
 3.    The disappearance of foreign exchange commissions for persons
       traveling within the Eurozone will stimulate mobility. Savings made
       on transaction costs may lead to higher travel budgets.


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     Effects of the EMU on Tourism

      4. For third countries receiving European tourists it is expected
       that they will increasingly deal in euros rather than dollars.

     5. Tourist operators can also benefit from the elimination of a great
        part of foreign exchange risks due to the elimination of
        exchange rate fluctuations within the Eurozone. On the other
        hand, the travel agents will loose the revenue previously
        obtained from foreign exchange transactions.




19                                                         TRM 431
     Specialized international regimes


     In some areas, governments have developed specialized global
         institutions operating under specific rules for each service.

     Example: Air transport is ruled at the international level under the
       fundamental principle that each country is sovereign of its own air
       space and nothing happens in that space without its permission.
       Notwithstanding this principle, firms have been allowed to form the
       International Air Transport Association (IATA) and governments have
       formed an International Aviation Organization (ICAO). These
       institutions provide rules for the allocation of routes, setting of prices,
       safety regulations, etc.



20                                                                 TRM 431
     The World Tourism Organisation
     (UNWTO)

     The leading international organisation in tourism. It has
       a role in promoting the development of responsible,
       sustainable and universally accessible tourism,
       paying particular attention to the interests of the
       developing countries.
     160 members countries’ more than 350 Affiliate
       members representing the private sector,
       educational institutions, tourism associations and
       local tourism authorities.

21                                                TRM 431
                       UNWTO

     UNWTO has regional representatives in Africa,
       the Americas, East Asia and the Pacific,
       Europe, the Middle East and South Asia
       based at the Headquarters in Madrid.
     Actions that strengthen and support the efforts
       of National Tourism Administrations are
       carried out by the regional representatives.


22                                        TRM 431
     The World Tourism Organisation
     (UNWTO)

        The Organization encourages the implementation of
         the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism.
        The Code sets a frame of reference for the
         responsible and sustainable development of world
         tourism. There are ten principles defining the roles of
         various parties.(Gov, tour operators, tourist..)
        World Tourism Organization believes that the Code
         is needed to help minimize the negative impacts of
         tourism on the environment and on cultural heritage
         while maximizing the benefits for residents of tourism
         destinations.
23                                                  TRM 431
     The World Tourism Organisation
     (UNWTO)

        UNWTO is committed to the United Nations
         Millennium Development Goals, geared toward
         reducing poverty and fostering sustainable
         development. It has special programs targeted for
         achieving these goals.
        One such example is the Sustainable Tourism
         Eliminating Poverty (ST-EP) program. It grew out of
         the World Summit made in Johannesburg, South
         Africa in 2002.
        The implementation of the project started in 2005 in
         the village of Ebogo in Cameroon. Since then the
         number of projects have expanded.
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