Name: Mohammad Nabi Hashimi
Faculty of Agriculture, Kabul University, Afghanistan
M.Sc., Dept. of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture,
Evaluation of some maize
genotypes under water stress
1. Dr. Ahmed Medhat Mohamed Al- Naggar
Professor of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture,
2. Dr. Salwa El- Moursi Soliman
Professor of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture,
3. Dr.Hamdy Yossuf El- Sherbeiny
Head of Maize Research Program, Agricultural
Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important
cereal crops in the world as well as in Egypt and
Afghanistan also. Worldwide, the total acreage of
maize was 160.65 million hectares in 2008; the total
production was 791.5 million tons, with an average
productivity of 4.93 tons of grain per hectare (Report
of USDA, 2009). According to this report, Egypt grew
in 2008, 0.72 million hectares and produced 6.17
million tons of grains, with an average yield of 8.58
tons per hectare.
According to the same report, Egypt ranks
the fourth in the world with respect of average
productivity after USA, France and Italy.
However, the local production of maize is not
sufficient to satisfy the local consumption. So
Egypt imports every year about five million
tons of maize grains.
To reach self-sufficiency of maize production
in Egypt, efforts are devoted to extend the
acreage of maize; in the desert and to
improve the maize productivity from unit area.
Growing maize in the sandy soil of the desert,
characterized by low water holding capacity
would expose maize plants to drought stress
which causes great losses in grain yield.
• Maize breeders should pay more attention
for developing corn hybrids of tolerance to
water stress conditions. For starting a
successful breeding program to improve
drought tolerance in maize, screening of
available germplasm for tolerance to this
stress should be done first to identify the
suitable parents for such a program.
REVIEW AND LITERATURE
• Drought tolerance may be defined as the
mechanisms causing minimum loss of
yield in a drought environment relative to
the maximum yield in constraint- free, i.e.
optimal environment of the crop (Singh,
2000). Plants with better growth under
limited water supply were considered to be
drought tolerant (Boyer, 1996 and Moser,
• Maize crop was found to be particularly
susceptible to drought several weeks
before and after flowering (Chapman et
al, 1996). Drought occurring at flowering
leads to greater yield losses than when it
occurs at other developmental stages
(Claassen and Shaw, 1970, Grant et al,
Several investigators emphasized the role of
maize genotypes in drought tolerance. Tolerant
genotypes of maize were characterized by
having shorter anthesis-silking interval (ASI)
(Bolanos and Edmeads, 1993), lower canopy
temperature (Fischer et al, 1989), higher
number of ears per plant (Edmeads et al, 1993
and Ribaut et al, 1997) and higher number of
kernels per ear (Hall et al, 1980 and Ribaut et
al, 1997) than susceptible genotypes.
El- Sayed (1998) in Egypt studied the genotypic
differences among 18 open-pollinated populations of
maize in drought tolerance at three developmental
stages (pre- flowering, flowering and post flowering).
Flowering stage was the most sensitive one for the
reduction in grain yield due to drought. The local cultivar
Giza-2 and the exotic populations DTP-1 and DTP-2
were the most drought tolerant genotypes at all growth
stage. The most drought tolerant genotypes had a
shorter ASI, lower leaf air temperature, higher number of
ears per plant, lower leaf rolling percentage and lower
number of barren stalks, than those of the most
Al- Naggar et al (2008) evaluated fourteen
Egyptian maize cultivars for their differential
response to drought imposed at flowering stage.
Performance of genotypes varied with water supply
and season. Genotypes TWC- 321 and TWC- 310
were the most drought tolerant and SC- 155, TWC-
322 and TWC- 323 were the most susceptible
ones. They concluded that more progress would be
expected to be considerably achieved when
selection was practiced for shorter ASI under
drought stress and for high grain yield under well-
The Objectives of the present
1. To examine the genotypic differences among
several maize genotypes in drought tolerance
at flowering stage and identify the best ones
for future use in breeding programs.
2. To study the effect of soil water deficit at
flowering stage on some morphological and
yield attributes of maize.
3. To identify the maize characters strongly
associated with yield under water stress
4. To estimate the heritability under different soil
moisture regimes and expected genetic
advance from direct and indirect selection.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
• Table (1). Maize genotypes used in this study.
Ser. Genotype Source Genetic make up
1 S.C. 30K08 Pioneer Single cross
2 S.C. 3062 Pioneer Single cross
3 S.C. 30D80 Pioneer Single cross
4 S.C. 30N11 Pioneer Single cross
5 S.C. 30K09 Pioneer Single cross
6 S.C. Ageeb Fine Seed Single cross
7 S.C. FSI 101 Fine Seed Single cross
8 S.C. 124 ARC Single cross
9 S.C. 10 ARC Single cross
10 S.C. 128 ARC Single cross
11 S.C. 155 ARC Single cross
12 S.C. 162 ARC Single cross
13. T.W.C. 323 ARC Three-way cross
14. T.W.C. 310 ARC Three-way cross
15. T.W.C. 314 ARC Three-way cross
16. T.W.C. 321 ARC Three-way cross
17. T.W.C. 324 ARC Three-way cross
18. T.W.C. 329 ARC Three-way cross
19. T.W.C. 352 ARC Three-way cross
20. T.W.C. Maged-3 Nile Seed Dev. Three-way cross
21. DTP-1 C-7 CIMMYT Open-pollin. pop.
22. Cairo- 1 Fac. Agric. Cairo Uni Open-pollin. pop.
23. Pop- 45 ARC Open-pollin. pop.
24. Comp- 21 ARC Open-pollin. pop.
25. Tep- 5 CIMMYT Open-pollin. pop.
26. AED ARC Open-pollin. pop.
27. Local Yellow ARC Open-pollin. pop.
28. Pop- 59E ARC Open-pollin. pop
The field experiment is carried out in 2009 and 2010
seasons at the Experimental Station of Faculty of
Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza. Planting date in
both seasons is on May 1st. The experimental design
used is a split-plot with three replications. Main plots
are devoted to two irrigations regimes:
1. Stress irrigation by preventing the fourth and fifth
irrigations; the irrigation interval between the 3rd and
the next 6th irrigation was 39 days, so water stress
period is 26 days just before and during flowering
2. Well watering by giving the recommended irrigation,
i.e. every 13 days.
Sup-plots are allotted to 28 maize
genotypes. Experimental plot consists of
two rows (ridges), of 4 meter long and
0.70 meter width (plot size = 5.6 m2).
Spaces between hills are 30 cm. Thinning
is done before the first irrigation, where
one plant was left in each hill. All other
agricultural practices are done according
to the recommendations of Ministry of
1. Days to 50 % anthesis (on per plot basis).
2. Days to 50 % silking (on per plot basis).
3. Anthesis silking interval (ASI) in days (on per
4. Plant height (cm) on 10 guarded plants per
5. Ear height (cm) on 10 guarded plants per plot.
6. Number of ears per plant = number of ears/plot
÷ number of plants/plot at harvest.
7. Percentage of barren stalks (%).
8. Number of rows per ear (on 5 ears per plot).
9. Number of kernels per row (on 5 ears per plot).
10. 100- kernel weight (g).
11. Grain yield per plant (g) adjusted at 15.5 % grain
12. Grain yield per feddan (ardab) adjusted at 15.5 %
13. Leaf rolling (at the end of stress) according to O’tool
and Mya (1978) (Scale from 1 to 5; where 1 = unrolled
and 5 = tightly rolled leaves).
14. Leaf senescence (at the end of stress), (Scale from 1
to 10; where 1 = no senescence and 10 complete
15. Stay green at physiological maturity (Scale from 1 to 5;
where 1 = complete dry leaves and 5 = green leaves
Statistical and Genetic Analyses
1. Analysis of variance of split plot design and
calculating LSD to compare means according
to Snedcor and Cochran (1989).
2. Expected mean squares from ANOVA tables
will be calculated according to Hallauer and
Miranda (1988), heritability (broad sense) and
expected genetic advance from selection
under each environment will be calculated.
3. Genetic correlation (rg) between studied
characters will be computed.
Thanks for your attention