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					                            AR No. 1 - Install Energy Efficient Lighting

Estimated Electric Energy Savings = 128,600 kWh/yr; 438.9 MMBtu/yr
Estimated Electric Energy Cost Savings = $3,770/yr
Estimated Electric Demand Savings = 385.8 kW/yr
Estimated Electric Demand Cost Savings = $3,350/yr
Estimated Total Cost Savings = $7,120/yr
Estimated Implementation Cost = $17,310
Simple Payback Period = 2.4 years

Recommended Action
The existing lamps and magnetic ballasts should be replaced with energy efficient lamps and/or
electronic ballasts. Energy efficient lamps use less energy than standard lamps with comparable
light output.

Background
ADD A PARAGRAPH HERE DESCRIBING THE EXISTING LIGHTING SITUATION (i.e.,
types of lighting, fixtures, lamps, and ballasts in the plant, general operating hours, etc.) Something
like this:

"The primary lighting throughout the office areas is supplied by 40 W lamps (both straight and U
tubes) and incandescent lamps. In the production and warehouse areas 40 W lamps and 60 W
lamps are in use. The electronic assembly area and the cafeteria are lit with 34 W lamps."

Delete below comments on any lamp type not found in either the EXISTING or PROPOSED
lighting tables.

ENERGY EFFICIENT FLUORESCENT LAMPS AND ELECTRONIC BALLASTS
Several options are available for replacing 40 W fluorescent lamps. The most common replacement
is 34 W lamps, as were found in some areas. A more costly replacement is a combination of 32 W
T-8 lamps1 and electronic ballasts that are required to operate these lamps. This combination
provides higher quality light while using less energy than the existing magnetic ballasts and 40/34
W T-12 fluorescent lamps. The triphosphor type T-8 lamps provide light that renders color nearly
as well as sunlight, thus providing excellent lighting for office and production. A 32 W T-8 lamp
provides 5% more light than a 40 W T-12 lamp and 15% more light than a 34 W T-12 lamp. An
added benefit to electronic ballasts is the high frequency at which they operate, eliminating the
flicker often associated with standard fluorescent lighting.

A third option is to replace four-foot, four-lamp fixtures containing 40/34 W lamps with two 40 W
T-10 lamps, effectively reducing the energy per fixture in half. These specialty lamps are available
from a local supplier at a premium cost, but are cost effective because they have a longer average
life (24,000 hours) but are warranted to last four years (about 35,000 hours at 24 h/day operation).
The improved technology of the T-10 lamp results in a greater efficacy (lumen output per lamp
watt) than the traditional T-12 lamp. These 40 W T-10 lamps provide 50% more usable light than
40 W T-12 lamps and 55% more usable light than 34 W T-12 lamps. Additional literature on these
specific lamps is provided separately with this report.

  1
       The T rating refers to lamp tube diameter in 1/8ths of an inch.
[**NOTE: DELETE OR REVISE THE FOLLOWING PARAGRAPH IF NOT APPLICABLE**]
This analysis considers replacing all of the four-foot, four-lamp fixtures with two T-10 lamps per
fixture. For two-lamp fixtures containing 40 W lamps, the 34 W lamps are the recommended
replacements. Finally, for the few two-lamp, eight-foot fixtures that contain 60 W lamps,
replacement with an electronic ballast is recommended.

COMPACT FLUORESCENT LAMPS
Compact fluorescent lamps are the recommended replacement for conventional incandescent lamps.
These energy efficient lamps provide more lumens than their equivalent incandescent lamps, have a
lamp life ten times that of incandescent lamps, and reduce power consumption by about 75%.
Compact fluorescent lamps have a Color Rendering Index (CRI)2 between 80-85, while
incandescent lamps have a CRI of about 100.

HIGH PRESSURE SODIUM LAMPS
High pressure sodium lamps are recommended to replace metal halide and mercury vapor lamps.
Special energy-saving high pressure sodium lamps are available which operate with the existing
metal halide and mercury vapor ballasts. High pressure sodium lamps have a longer lamp life than
metal halide lamps (24,000 hours for HS lamps, 12,000 for MH lamps). However, they also have a
lower CRI (about 25 for HS lamps and 65 for MH lamps). In an area where color resolution is
important, both types of lamps should be tested before committing to either one. High pressure
sodium and mercury vapor lamps have equivalently rated lamp lives (24,000 hours) and CRI values
(about 25). However, high pressure sodium lamps have nearly twice the lumen output of equivalent
wattage mercury vapor lamps.

EXIT SIGNS
Incandescent exit lamps can be replaced by either compact fluorescent or LED exit lamps. Both
replacement lamps offer a longer life (10,000 hours for compact fluorescent lamps and 218,000 for
LED lamps). Both replacements also use less power per fixture while meeting specifications on
light output, offering substantial energy savings. The LED exit lamp can only be used with a red
shielded exit sign or a green/white sign whose shield can be replaced with a red shield. The labor
required to replace the existing lamps is assumed to be equal to that required to replace fluorescent
lamp ballasts (approximately $15 per fixture).




  2
       CRI is a scale from 0-100 on how well a given lamp renders color. A lamp with a CRI of 100 will make
       objects appear as they do in sunlight.
Anticipated Savings
Lighting fixture specifications, and costs are given in the table below. For reference, all costs are taken from the Grainger 2000-2001 catalog and
discounted by 10%
                                                    Lighting Fixture Codes and Specifications
                                                                           FLUO RESC ENT LIGHTING
                                               Ballast/ Lamps Lamp        Ballasts                 Fixture   Fixture          Lamp     T otal                Possible      Est. Repl.
                 Lamp/Ballast                   Lamp     per  Power Lamp    per                    Power     Lumen             Life    Lamp     Ballast    Replacement       Labor
                 Description                    Code Fixture    W   Width Fixture   Ballast T ype     W      Output    CRI    hours     Cost     Cost         Codes        per fixture
   4 ft, 4 x 40W T -12 FL fix; 2 mag ballasts     1       4    40    T 12    2     Copper magnetic   174     12,800     73   20,000   $17.93    $0.00      2, 6, 10, 12      $0.00
   4 ft, 4 x 34W T -12 FL fix; 2 mag ballasts     2       4    34    T 12    2     Copper magnetic   144     11,000     73   20,000   $21.56    $0.00         10, 12         $5.00
   4 ft, 3 x 40W T -12 FL fix; 2 mag ballasts     3       3    40    T 12    2     Copper magnetic   131     9,600      73   20,000   $13.45    $0.00          4, 11         $0.00
   4 ft, 3 x 34W T -12 FL fix; 2 mag ballasts     4       3    34    T 12    2     Copper magnetic   108     8,250      73   20,000   $16.17    $0.00           11           $5.00
   4 ft, 2 x 40W T -12 FL fix; 1 mag ballast      5       2    40    T 12    1     Copper magnetic   87      6,400      73   20,000    $8.96    $0.00          7, 13         $0.00
   4 ft, 2 x 40W T -10 FL fix; 1 mag ballast      6       2    40    T 10    1     Copper magnetic   87      6,080      85   35,040   $25.18    $0.00           12           $5.00
   4 ft, 2 x 34W T -12 FL fix; 1 mag ballast      7       2    34    T 12    1     Copper magnetic   72      5,500      73   20,000   $10.78    $0.00           13           $5.00
   4 ft, 1 x 40W T -12 FL fix; 1 mag ballast      8       1    40    T 12    1     Copper magnetic   51      3,200      73   20,000    $4.48    $0.00          9, 14         $0.00
   4 ft, 1 x 34W T -12 FL fix; 1 mag ballast      9       1    34    T 12    1     Copper magnetic   42      2,750      73   20,000    $5.39    $0.00           14           $5.00
    4 ft, 4 x 32W T -8 FL fix; 1 elec ballast    10       4    32    T8      1       Electronic      112     11,400     78   20,000   $12.67    $35.15         none         $15.00
    4 ft, 3 x 32W T -8 FL fix; 1 elec ballast    11       3    32    T8      1       Electronic      88      8,550      78   20,000    $9.50    $33.35         none         $15.00
   4 ft, 2 x 40W T -10 FL fix; 1 elec ballast    12       2    40    T 10    1       Electronic      76      6,080      85   35,040   $25.18    $29.70         none         $15.00
    4 ft, 2 x 32W T -8 FL fix; 1 elec ballast    13       2    32    T8      1       Electronic      62      5,700      78   20,000    $6.34    $32.54         none         $15.00
    4 ft, 1 x 32W T -8 FL fix; 1 elec ballast    14       1    32    T8      1       Electronic      32      2,850      78   20,000    $3.17    $29.79         none         $15.00
   8 ft, 2 x 75W T -12 FL fix; 1 mag ballast     20       2    75    T 12    1     Copper magnetic   165     13,000     73   12,000   $21.15    $0.00     21, 24, 25, 26     $0.00
   8 ft, 2 x 60W T -12 FL fix; 1 mag ballast     21       2    60    T 12    1     Copper magnetic   130     11,400     70   12,000   $22.01    $0.00         25, 26         $5.00
8 ft, 2 x 110W HO T -12 FL fix; 1 mag ballast    22       2    110   T 12    1     Copper magnetic   237     18,400     75   12,000   $27.11    $0.00     23, 27, 28, 29     $0.00
 8 ft, 2 x 95W HO T -12 FL fix; 1 mag ballast    23       2    95    T 12    1     Copper magnetic   203     16,700     73   12,000   $26.71    $0.00         28, 29         $5.00
   8 ft, 2 x 75W T -12 FL fix; 1 elec ballast    24       2    75    T 12    1       Electronic      132     13,000     73   12,000   $21.15    $39.78        25, 26        $15.00
   8 ft, 2 x 60W T -12 FL fix; 1 elec ballast    25       2    60    T 12    1       Electronic      107     11,400     70   12,000   $22.01    $39.78         none         $15.00
    8 ft, 2 x 59W T -8 FL fix; 1 elec ballast    26       2    59    T8      1       Electronic      110     11,600     75   15,000   $15.41    $48.87         none         $15.00
8 ft, 2 x 110W HO T -12 FL fix; 1 elec ballast   27       2    110   T 12    1       Electronic      205     18,400     75   12,000   $27.11    $53.69        28, 29        $15.00
 8 ft, 2 x 95W HO T -12 FL fix; 1 elec ballast   28       2    95    T 12    1       Electronic      170     16,700     73   12,000   $26.71    $53.69         none         $15.00
  8 ft, 2 x 86W HO T -8 FL fix; 1 elec ballast   29       2    86    T8      1       Electronic      160     16,000     75   18,000   $30.53    $80.37         none         $15.00
The estimated energy savings, ESi, and energy cost savings, ECSi, for replacement of the
lamp/ballasts in a given area i are given by the following relations:


                                         N i  ( CFW i  PFWi )  H i
                                 ESi 
                                                      C1

                              ECS i  ESi  avoided co of elec
                                                      st      tricity

where
    Ni    =    number of fixtures in area i, no units
 CFWi     =    power rating of current fixtures in area i, W
 PFWi     =    power rating of proposed fixtures in area i, W
    Hi    =    operating hours of fixtures in area i, h/yr
    C1    =    conversion constant, 1,000 W/kW

As an example, the estimated energy savings and energy cost savings for replacing all the 40 W T-
12 lamps in the front offices with 34 W T-12 lamps are calculated as follows:

                                  (50)(180  156)(4,000)
                          ES1                            4,800 kWh/
                                                                    yr
                                          1,000

                                        /yr)($0.02604/kWh)  $125/yr
                        ECS1  (4,800 kWh

The demand savings, DSi, and demand cost savings, DCSi, associated with replacement of the
lamp/ballasts in a given area i are given by the following relations:


                                 N i  ( CFW i  PFWi )  CF i  DUF  C 2
                        DS i 
                                                    C1

                          DCS i  DS i  avoided co of elec demand
                                                   st      tric

where
   CFi =       coincidence factor - probability that the equipment contributes to the facility peak
               demand, per month
  DUF =        fraction of the year equipment contributes to peak demand, no units
   C2 =        conversion constant, 12 months/yr

Continuing the example above, the lights will likely be operating at their rated power when the peak
demand is set each month, so CF = 1.0/month. The lamps operate continuously throughout the
year, so DUF = 100%. Thus, the demand savings and demand cost savings for the front offices are
calculated as follows:
                               (50)(180  156)(1.0)(
                                                   1.0)(12)
                      DS i                                  14.4 kW/yr
                                          1,000

                                            r)($9.76/kW)  $141/yr
                           DCS i  (14.4 kW/y

The tables below provides the existing lighting characteristics as determined from the lighting
survey conducted during the facility visit, and the energy savings and demand savings for
lamp/ballast combinations in the other plant areas.
Existing Lamp/Ballast Combinations


Proposed Lamp/Ballast Combinations
From the tables, the total estimated energy savings are 128,600 kWh/yr, and the estimated demand
savings are 385.8 kW/yr.

Implementation Costs
The implementation cost for this recommendation includes the equipment and labor costs required
for the new lamps and ballasts. Labor costs are estimated as $15 per fixture requiring both ballast
and lamp installation and $5 per fixture requiring lamp replacement only. The table below
summarizes the energy cost savings, demand cost savings, total cost savings, estimated
implementation cost, and simple payback period for each area of the facility.

                          Implementation Costs and Payback Periods

From the table, the total estimated implementation cost is $17,310. The cost savings of $7,110/yr
would pay for the implementation cost after 2.4 years.

The energy savings, cost savings, and implementation costs presented in this analysis are based
upon total replacement of all applicable fixtures in the facility at once. This would be the case if a
facility has sufficient capital, loans or other funding available for implementation. This method
would result in a large and immediate energy savings, but would require a large initial investment.
Several options are available to spread out this investment, including spot relamping and group
relamping. The analysis below summarizes the incremental savings and costs that would result
from these options.

Incremental Implementation
A common practice for many facilities is to relamp on a spot basis as the lamps burn out or group
relamp a fraction of the fixtures in an area of the plant at periodic time intervals depending upon the
rated life of the lamps and the annual usage hours of the lamps. These methods of relamping spread
the total implementation cost over several years, as lamps (and ballasts if applicable) are replaced
only as the existing lamps burn out. Differential costs are used for the lamps in this case and labor
costs are not included for fixtures requiring only lamp replacement, as there is no additional labor
cost associated with installing energy efficient lamps in place of conventional lamps. The purpose
of this section is to present estimates of the annual cost savings and implementation costs that are
expected for the first two years if these methods of relamping are followed.

The annual savings due to replacing burned out conventional lamps with energy efficient lamps
(and magnetic ballasts with electronic ballasts for the fluorescent fixture case) will depend on the
life of the old lamps. Assuming an even distribution of lamp life throughout the areas considered,
the current annual lamp replacement fraction, f, is estimated as follows:
                                                       H
                                                f 
                                                      CLL

where H is the number of hours that the lamp operates per year and CLL is current lamp life in
hours. As an example, the lamp replacement fraction for the front offices, which operate for 4,000
h/yr with lamps that have an average life of 20,000 hours, is calculated as follows:

                                               4,000
                                         f            0.200
                                               20,000
This value can be used to estimate the number of lamps of a specific type that will burn out each
year. All lamps in a fixture are assumed to be of equal age, thus the lamp replacement fraction also
represents the fixture replacement fraction for each area of the facility. The energy savings for an
area after the first year would be the fraction of fixtures that burn out in that area in a given year
multiplied by the difference in the total projected and total current electrical energy usage for all
fixtures in that area. Each succeeding year more of the original lamps and ballasts are replaced with
energy efficient lamps and electronic ballasts. Thus, the incremental energy savings in the nth year,
IESn, can be estimated as follows:

                                           IESn  n  f  ES

The incremental savings cannot be greater than the total savings when all the lamps and ballasts
have been replaced (i.e., if f x n > 1, then f x n = 1). As an example, the incremental energy savings
that can be realized in the first year (n = 1) for the front offices, IES1, are as follows:

                                           (4,800 kWh  960 kWh/yr
                           IES1  (1)(0.200)        /yr)


Similarly, the incremental cost savings after the nth year, ICSn, can be estimated as follows:

                                           ICS n  n  f  CS

As an example, the incremental cost savings that can be realized in the first year for the front
offices, ICS1, are calculated as follows:

                                                    ($266)  $53
                                    ICS1  (1)(0.200)

The incremental implementation cost for an area is equal to the fraction of fixtures in that area
requiring replacement in a given year multiplied by the sum of the differential lamp costs, electronic
ballast costs for that area (if needed) and labor costs (if electronic ballasts are being installed). If no
electronic ballasts are being installed the additional labor cost is zero because the fixture is serviced
anyway when the existing lamp burns out. Except for the final year of lamp and ballast
replacement, each year will have the same fraction of fixture replacement and thus equal
incremental implementation costs. Each successive year will also have increasing cost savings.
The final year will usually have a smaller fraction of fixtures to replace and thus a lower
incremental implementation cost. The annual incremental implementation cost, IIC, can be
calculated as follows:
                                                         al electronic ballast 
                                               differenti
                  For Years n  1: IICn  f                                  
                                               lamp cost ballast cost labor cost

                                                     and


                                                                   al electronic ballast 
                                                         differenti
          For the Fi Year: IICn  [1  ((n  1)  f)]  
                   nal                                                                   
                                                         lamp cost ballast cost labor cost

The incremental cost savings and implementation costs for the remaining lamps in the facility are
listed in the tables below.

Additional Information
      When removing lamps, the ballast should be disconnected since the ballast draws energy
       even when there are no lamps in the fixture.

           From tests conducted at CSU and from lighting manufacturers' literature, ballasts typically
            draw from 5% to 15% of the energy consumed by the lamps. However, compact fluorescent
            ballasts typically draw from 25% to 45% of the energy consumed by the lamp. The values
            in the calculations above include the usage by the ballasts.

           Lamp life ratings for fluorescent lamps are based on the assumption of 3 hours between
            lamp start-ups. If the time between starts is reduced to only one hour, lamp life is reduced
            by 25%.3

           Lamp life ratings for mercury vapor, metal halide, and high pressure sodium are based on
            the assumption of 10 hours between starts. If the time between starts is reduced to 5 hours,
            the lamp life is reduced by 25%.

Contact Information
Vendor contact name:
Vendor company name:
Address:
City:
State:
Phone:
Fax:
E-mail:
Internet:
Make and Model Number:
Other Info:




  3
            Chapter 8, 1981 Illuminating Engineering Society Handbook Reference Volume.
Summary of Incremental Savings For First Two Years


Summary of Incremental Costs For First Two Years

				
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