ration formulation - PowerPoint by fjwuxn

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									                       Ration formulation
–   The goal is to offset the animals requirement with an appropriate
    level of feed nutrients.
–   There are economic and possibly animal welfare consequences when
    the ration is „out of balance” in either surplus or deficient direction.
–   The accuracy of the process depends, how reliable the information
    provided for each „side” of the balance are (nutrient requirements of
    the animals, nutrient content of feeds).
                          Ration formulation
–   There are two ways for formulation:
    •   hand methods (needs practice, practical experience, slow, does not take into
        account the price of feedstuffs)
    •   computer methods (quick, takes into account also the price of feedstuffs, needs
        also practical experience)

–   For ruminants daily rations are prepared (daily ration for cows
    producing 20l milk per day)
–   For monogastric animals compound diets are produced (diets for 30-
    60 kg pigs)

The nutrient content of feeds
– can be measured in a laboratory
– can be found in the same recommendations like to the requirements
In the case of ruminants the following requirement values are used:
– dry matter, NE, crude protein, crude fibre, Ca, P,
In the case of monogastric animals:
– dry matter, DE or ME, crude protein, crude fibre, Ca, P, Lysine,
    Methionine + Cystine
Other minerals, vitamins, salt are added in the form of so called premixes
                     Ration formulation
The requirement of animals depends on the
– species (feedstuffs used for the ruminants and monogastrics are
   different)
– form of utilisation (the ration of milking cows contain more forage,
   on the other hand beef cattle are fed with rations containing high
   amounts of grains)
– age of animals (young animals need more energy, protein, minerals,
   vitamins; requirements decline in elder animals)

Requirement values can be determined or found in different
   recommendations (National Research Council, NRC; other national
   recommendations, like Hungarian Feed Codex, research
   publications etc.)
 Determination the energy, protein or amino acid
      requirements with animal experiments


35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
      12    12,0  12,512,8 13 13,5
     MJ/kg MJ/kg MJ/kg MJ/kg MJ/kg
Requirements of some animal species
                              Energy       Crude     Ca      P
                                           protein
Beef cattle, live weight:    26,6 MJ NEm    741g     29g    18g
300 kg, daily growth rate:   11,6 MJ NEg
800g
Growing diet for pigs (50     14MJ DE       170g     6g      5g
kg)

Broiler grower diet (3-5     13, 4 MJ ME    200g     9g     3,5g*
week old chicks)

Turkey growing diet (13      13,0 MJ ME     190g     7,5g   3,8g*
week old birds)


  * = non phytate, or available P
                                                Energy requirements of beef cattle
Liwe weight, kg   150    200    250      300       350      400    450     500    550      600    650

                                           Medium frame
                                     Maintenance energy requirement, NEm, MJ/day
Growth kg/day
                  15,8   19,6   23,2     266       29,8     33 0   360    39,0   41,9      44,7    -
                                      Energy requirement of growth, NEg, MJ/day
     0,4                  -      -         -        6,1     6,8    7,4    8,0        8,6   9,2     -
     0,6          5,0    6,3    74        8,5       9,5     10,5   11,5   12,5   13,4      14,3    -
     0,7          6,0    7,4    8,8      10,1      11,3     12,5   13,6   14,7   15,8      16,9    -
      0,8         69     8,6    10,2     11,6      13,1     14,4   15,8   17,1   18,3      19,6    -
     0,9          7,9    9,8    116      13,2      14,9     16,4   18,0   19,4   20,9      22,3    -
      1,0         88     11,0   13,0     14,9      16,7     18,4   20,2   21,8   23,4      25,0    -
      1,1         9,8    12,2   14,4     16,5      18,5     20,5   22,4   24,2   26,0      27,8    -
      1,2         10,8   13,4   158      18,2      20,4     22,5   246    26,6   28,6       -
      1,3         11,8   14,6   17,3     19,8      22,3     24,6   26,9   29,1   -          -      -
      1,4          -     159    18,8     21,5      24,1     26,7   29,2     -    -          -
                                                Big frame
                                        Maintenance energy requirement, NEm, MJ/day

Growth kg/day     16,6   20,6   24,3     27,9      31,3     34,6   37,8   40,9   43,9      46,9   49,8
                                      Energy requirement of growth, NEg, MJ/day
     0,4           -      -                -         -             6,5    7,1        7,6   8,1    8,6
     0,6          4,5    5,6    6,6       7,5       8,4     9,3    10,2   11,0   11,9      12,7   13,4
     0,8          61     7,6    9,0      10,3      11,6     12,8   14,0   15,1   16,3      17,4   18,4
     0,9          70     8,7    10,2     11,7      13,2     14,6   15,9   17,2   18,5      19,7   21,0
      1,0         7,8    9,7    11,5     13,2      14,8     164    179    19,3   20,8      22,2   23,5
      1,1         8,7    10,8   12,8     14,6      16,4     18,2   19,8   21,5   23,1      24,6   26,1
      1,2         9,6    11,9   140      16 1      18,1     20,0   21,8   23,6   25,4      27,1   28,7
      1,3         10,5   13,0   15,3     17,6      197      21,8   23,8   25,8   27,7      29,6   31,4
      1,0         11,3   14,1   16,6     19,0      21,4     23 7   258    28,0   300       32,1    -
      1,5         12,2   15,2   17,9     20,6      23,1     25,5   27,9   30,2   32,4       -      -
      1,6         13,1   16,3   19,3     22,1      248      27,4   29,9   32,4   -          -
      1,8          -     18,5   21,9     25,1      28,2     31,2   34,0     -                      -
Formulation daily rations for milking cows

Basic ration (the roughage part of the ration, covers the
maintenance requirement of cows and the production of
about 10-12 l milk per day)

Supplementary feed (contains cereals and protein
concentrates, covers the requirement of producing milk
above the basic ration)

Mineral and vitamin premixes are mixed with the
supplementary feed. If no supplementary feed is needed
some grain meal (0,5-1 kg) is used to mix with the
premixes.
  Formulation daily rations for milking cows
1. find out the nutrient requirement of the cow or th group of cows
2. find out the feedstuffs available
3. define the ratio of feedstuffs, according to the potential dry
   matter intake of cows and the recommended maximum ratios of
   feedstuffs
4. NEl and crude protein contents of the ration is calculated and
   compared with the requirements
5. Check the Ca and P supply. If necessary use Ca and P
   supplements. If both minerals are missing, use the P supplement
   first, since it contains also Ca. The final deficiency of Ca can be
   supplied with limestone.
6. Check the fibre content of the ration (20±3% of the dry matter
   intake)
7. Ruminants can feed about 8-10% green forages, 3-5% silages,
   and 0,5-1% hays of their live weight.
   Formulation daily ration for 600 kg milking cows, producing 14
    litre milk per day, the milk contains 3,6% fat, grazing on good
                             quality pasture
Requirement       Dry matter (kg) NEl (MJ)                Crude protein   Ca (g)             P (g)
                                                          (g)
Maintenance
Milk production
Total


 Feedstuffs                Nutrients in 1 kg dry matter                          Nutrients in the ration
               sz.a.   NEl  c. prot. c. fibre Ca      P       Amount   dry      NEl c. prot. c. fibre Ca   P
                                                                       matter
               (g)     (MJ)   (g)     (g)     (g)    (g)        (kg)   (kg)     (MJ) (g)     (g)     (g)   (g)
 corn silage                                                     25

 alfalfa hay                                                     5

 Total                                                           30

 Differences
              Maintenance requirements of cows
Weight (kg)                                    crude    Ca   p
                                              protein
                        NEl, MJ                         g
                             grazing
                stall    good     medium
                        quality   quality
   450         34,3       37,7     41,2        403      19   15
   500         37,2      40,9      44,6        432      22   17
   550         39,9      43,9          47,9    461      24   18
   600         42,6      46,9          51,1    489      26   20
   650         45,2      49,7          54,2    515      28   21
   700         47,8      52,6          57,4    542      30   23
   750         50,4      55,4          60,5    567      32   25
   Requirements of production 1 litre milk

milk fat   NEl    milk protein   CP   Ca     p
  %        MJ         %
                                       g


  3,0      2,68       2,7        77
  3,5      2,87       2,8        82
  3,6      2,92       2,9        83
  3,7      2,96       3,0        84
  3,8      3,00       3,1        85
  3,9      3,04       3,2        86
  4,0      3,10       3,3        87   2,8   1,7
  4,1      3,13       3,4        88
Potential dry matter intake of dairy cows, kg
                    (±1kg)
 Live weight (kg)   400    500    600     700
Milk production
(kg)

  10                10,0   11,5   13,2    14,7
  15                11,2   12,5   14,4    16,1
  20                12,4   14,0   16,2    18,2
  25                13,6   15,5   18,0    19,6
  30                14,8   17,0   19,2    21,0
  35                16,0   18,0   20,4    22,4
  40                       19,0   21,6    23,8
  45                 -     20,0   22',8   25,2
                            Ca and P supplements
     Name                                    Ca               P            Amount needed
                                                                           for supplying 1 g
                                Dry matter         g/kg                           P
                                                                  Ca:P
                                 (g/kg)

MCP (monocalcium phosphate)        908       160      220         0,73:1         4,55
DCP (dicalcium phosphate)          980       290      210         1.38:1         4,76
ÁP-17                              950       225          171     1,31:1         5,85
ÁP-18                              950       191          187     1,02:1         5,35
Hostaphos                          950       90       175         0,51:1         5,71
Nutrafosz                          950       87           131     0,66:1         7,63
I. (cattle )
 II. (pig)                         950       184      105         1,75:1         9,52
III. (poultry)                     950       170      105         1,62:1         9,52
Phylafor                           950       39       121         0,32:1         8,26
Cefkaphos                          950       160      227         0,70:1         4,41
Phylafor Super                     950       34       180         0,19:1         5,56
Phylafor (sheep)                   950       42       122         0,34:1         8,20
Limestone                          950       380          -         -              -

								
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