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									                                  International Labour Office (ILO)
                 International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC)




                                      Outline of Project Memorandum

                               Government of the United Kingdom



                        SHORT VERSION FOR USE BY STAKEHOLDERS




Project title:                       Project to prevent trafficking in girls and young women for labour
                                     exploitation within China 1 (or in short ‘China project to Prevent
                                     Trafficking IN Girls (CP-TING project))

Project number:


Duration:                            48 months (1 April 2004 – 31 March 2008)


Geographical coverage:               China nationally, with comprehensive interventions                    in   Anhui,
                                     Guangdong, Henan, Hunan and Jiangsu Province

Project site/venue:                  Beijing, China People’s Republic


Project language:                    English


Executing agency:                    ILO-IPEC


Donor:                               UK Department for International Development, Beijing office


Donor contribution:                  USD 2,250,000 (by DFID-Beijing)
                                     USD 316,000 for project activities (by project partners)
                                     USD X for ILO project management & technical support (by DFID-
                                     Beijing)
                                                                                          Final version: 20 January 2004


1
  The main target groups are girls aged 12-15 at risk of school drop-out, girls aged 16-17 who are allowed to
migrate for labour within China, and young women aged 18-24 at risk of trafficking for labour exploitation. Labour
exploitation in this document is short for ‘exploitation in the entertainment sector’, and/or ‘labour exploitation in
situations of forced labour or slave-like practices’ - in for instance small workshops, (illegal) factories, organized
begging, and as domestic workers.


ILO-IPEC proposal                                                                1                 January 2004
                                    TABLE OF CONTENTS
Acronyms and abbreviations
Executive summary
    1       Background and justification
            1.1 International context
            1.2 China’s context
            1.3 The problem to be addressed by the project
    2       Project rationale, approach and strategy
            2.1 Need for a project
            2.2 ILO response to date – including the TICW project in Yunnan
            2.3 Proposed project approaches
            2.4 Proposed project strategy
            2.5 Links to DFID policy framework
            2.6 Planning and design process of project document
    3       Target groups
            3.1 Overview
            3.2 Beneficiaries
            3.3 Direct recipients
    4       Institutional framework
            4.1 Strong points in China to capitalize on
            4.2 Strong points in ILO to capitalize on
            4.3 Strong points in international organizations to capitalize on
            4.4 Project management
            4.5 Technical and financial management
            4.6 Partner agencies
    5       Objectives, outputs, activities and indicators
            5.1 Objectives (goal and purpose)
            5.2 Outputs and activities
            5.3 Indicators
    6       Management, monitoring and evaluation
            6.1 Supervision, approval procedures and reporting
            6.2 Integrated systems of participatory monitoring and evaluation
    7       Inputs – partly erased
    8       Budget – only main categories listed
    9       Risks and undertakings – erased


ANNEXES:
Annex 1:        Logical framework
Annex 2:        Socio-economic analysis annex
Annex 3:        Institutional annex
Annex 4:        Resources and tasks annex
Annex 5:        Project design process - erased
Annex 6:        Roundtable: Agenda & list of participants - erased
Annex 7:        List of other consulted stakeholders - erased
Annex 8:        ACWF project endorsement letter - erased
Annex 9:        List of consulted documents - erased
Annex 10:       Map of China – including labour migration flows - erased




ILO-IPEC proposal                                                       2       January 2004
 ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
ACFTU        All China Federation of Trade Unions                MoU       Memorandum of Understanding
ACWF         All China Women’s Federation                        MPS       Ministry of Public Security
AP           Action Programme                                    NGO       Non-Governmental Organization
APSO         Action Programme Summary Outline                    NPA       National Plan of Action
ARIAT        Asian Regional Initiative against Trafficking       NPC       National Project Coordinator
ASEAN        Association of South East Asian Nations             NPM       National Project Manager
CAS          Chinese Academy of Sciences                         NSC       National Steering Committee
             UN Convention for the Elimination of All Forms of
CEDAW                                                            OOPP      Objective Oriented Project Planning
             Discrimination against Women
CRC          UN Convention on the Rights of the Child            PAR       Participatory Action-Research
CSEC         commercial sexual exploitation of children          PM&E      Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation
CTA          Chief Technical Advisor                             POM       Programme Operations Manual
             UK Government Department for International
DFID                                                             PPC       Provincial Project Coordinator
             Development
DFID-SEA     South East Asia office of DFID                      PSB       Public Security Bureau
             Economic and Social Council of the United
ECOSOC                                                           PSC       Provincial Steering Committee
             Nations
FAFO         Institute for Applied International Studies, Oslo   RMB       Currency of the People’s Republic of China
             Gender Equality in Child Labour (ILO Action
GECL                                                             RWG-CL Regional Working Group on Child Labour
             Programme)
GMS          Greater Mekong Subregion                            SARS      Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
IEC          Information, Education & Communication              SC-UK     Save the Children-UK
ILC          International Labour Conference                     SFU       ILO Social Finance Unit
ILO          International Labour Organization                   SURAC     Sub-regional Advisory Committee
ILO-
DECLARATI    ILO Progammme on Promoting the Declaration          TBP       Time-Bound Programme
ON
ILO-EASMAT ILO East Asia Multi Disciplinery Advisory Team        TIA       Technical Intervention Area
                                                                           ILO-IPEC’s sub-regional project to combat
ILO-
             ILO Gender Equality Promotion Programme             TICSA     trafficking in children and women in South
GENPROM
                                                                           Asia
             ILO Private Sector Mobilization and Workplace                 ILO-IPEC’s sub-regional project to combat
ILO-
             Initiatives in Response to HIV/AIDS in South-       TICW      trafficking
HIV/AIDS
             East Asia                                                     in children and women in the GMS
             ILO’s International Programme on the Elimination
ILO-IPEC                                                         TNC       UN Trans-national Crime Convention
             of Child Labour
ILO-
             ILO International Migration Branch                  ToT       Training of Trainers
MIGRANT
             ILO/Japan Inter-Country Project on Strategic
ILO-PEP                                                          UN        United Nations
             approaches Toward Employment Promotion
             ILO Special Action Programme to Combat                        United Nations Development Assistance
ILO-SAP-FL                                                       UNDAF
             Forced Labour                                                 Framework
ILO-SEED     ILO Small Enterprise Development                    UNDP      United Nations Development Programme
                                                                        United Nations Educational, Scientific and
ILO-SIYB     ILO Start Improving Your Business Programme         UNESCO Cultural
                                                                        Organization
ILO-SRO      ILO Sub-regional Office                             UNICEF    United Nations Children’s Fund
                                                                           United Nations Inter-Agency Project to
ILO/ROAP     ILO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific        UN-IAP
                                                                           combat trafficking
IPEC-        Statistical Information and Monitoring                        United States Agency for International
                                                                 USAID
SIMPOC       Programme on Child Labour                                     Development
MAMA         TICW-developed Management Manual                    WFCL      Worst Forms of Child Labour
MoLSS        Ministry of Labour and Social Security

 ILO-IPEC proposal                                                                  3                    January 2004
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Massive numbers of people migrate within China - given enormous population pressures in rural areas
that face150 million surplus labourers, and rapid economic development along the east coast. An
estimated2 94 million Chinese farmers migrated for work in 2002. Though men constitute the majority
of the migrant labour force, the percentage of women is quickly rising, especially in the younger age
group. The influx of such huge numbers of rural surplus labourers has created opportunities for those
seeking to exploit those most vulnerable –i.e. girls and young women as they often migrate at lower
ages than men, and with lower average levels of education. In particular those that migrate non-
informed and ill-prepared and that use the services of non-registered recruitment agencies are at high
risk of ending up in situations of labour exploitation (including sexual exploitation).

Despite a dearth of data, sources in the Ministry of Public Security confirm an increase in the number
of cases of trafficking into the ‘entertainment’ sector, in particular in the age range 16-20. Provincial
data from Anhui, Henan and Hunan confirm that they are major ‘sending’ provinces that are proposed
to be covered by the project, along with two major ‘receiving’ provinces - Guangdong and Jiangsu.

Following three years of pilot interventions in Yunnan Province under the ILO-IPEC Mekong sub-
regional project to combat trafficking in children and women (TICW-project) and funded by DFID-SEA,
the Chinese authorities are keen to apply the learning from Yunnan in the mentioned five provinces,
and work towards a national policy and implementation framework that is currently virtually absent.

A new ILO-IPEC project has therefore been designed - in collaboration with the All China Women’s
Federation, the Ministry of Labour and Social Security, a range of other ministries and representatives
from Anhui, Guangdong, Henan, Hunan and Jiangsu Province - to primarily focus on the most
vulnerable group – girls and young women at risk of trafficking for labour exploitation within China.

Over a period of four years, beginning in April 2004, and with an anticipated budget of USD 2,250,000
for activities the project has three major objectives (O) and six outputs (OPs) as follows:
O.1:     By the end of the project, key stakeholders have been mobilized effectively to prevent
         trafficking in girls and young women for labour exploitation
OP 1.1: Strategy developed and implemented within each project province and nationally for sound
         conceptual understanding of trafficking (including a common understanding of the
         internationally accepted definition of trafficking) and its effective interventions by key
         stakeholders
OP 1.2: Gaps in research and information relating to trafficking in girls and young women for labour
         exploitation identified (including baselines for focused interventions), and responses to these
         identified and addressed by key stakeholders
O.2:     By the end of the project, integrated, effective and sustainable responses to trafficking in girls
         and young women for labour exploitation are in place both in sending and receiving areas and
         serve as ‘models’
OP 2.1: Pilot projects of community-owned preventative interventions undertaken and monitored for
         impact, evaluated, and documented for replication within sending provinces (Anhui, Henan
         and Hunan Provinces)
OP 2.2: Pilot projects of ‘city neighbourhood-owned’ preventive interventions undertaken and
         monitored for impact, evaluated, and documented for replication in urban centres of Jiangsu
         and Guangdong Province (receiving provinces)
O 3:     By the end of the project, national and sub-national policy frameworks and implementation
         capacity to prevent trafficking in girls and young women for labour exploitation will have been
         strengthened
OP 3.1: Provincial and lower level policy frameworks, structures, processes and staff skills to prevent
         trafficking in girls and young women for labour exploitation reviewed and improvements
         suggested – including sound migration management arrangements between sending and
         receiving provinces (between Anhui and Henan & Jiangsu, and between Hunan and
         Guangdong)
OP 3.2: National policy framework, structures, processes and staff skills to prevent trafficking in girls
         and young women for labour exploitation reviewed and improvements suggested – based on
         sub-national experiences and realities (output 3.1) and new conceptual understanding (OP 1.1)




2
    Ministry of Agriculture.

ILO-IPEC proposal                                                       4               January 2004
1        Project background & justification
1.1      INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT

1.1.1    Trafficking in humans as a global phenomenon
The trafficking in humans is not a new phenomenon. It has existed in different forms for centuries,
and has been addressed for instance in the context of efforts to eliminate slavery and to combat the
sale of women into prostitution.
Since the early 1990s, however, a number of factors have conspired to increase human trafficking
worldwide and to put efforts to respond to it high on the international political and humanitarian
agenda. These include the opening of some borders and the closing of others (in the form of more
restrictive migration policies); the globalization of production, demand and markets; widening
economic differentials within and between countries; the growing transnationality of organized crime;
increased people movements as a result of many diverse factors including internal conflict, natural
and man-made disasters, uneven population growth and resulting strains on education and
employment opportunities; and the continued exploitation of vulnerable people (among whom women
and children generally predominate) in all forms of labour.
These factors have resulted in an increase in both legal and irregular migration -- domestic and
cross-border, temporary and permanent/semi-permanent -- as vulnerable populations in almost all
regions of the world have sought work or just improved life opportunities ‘elsewhere’. They have at
the same time increased opportunities for those seeking to exploit this vulnerability for profit at many
different points in the migration chain: departure, passage and destination. Where exploitation in
slave-like conditions occurs, migration becomes trafficking. Victims may also include residents of a
country who are trafficked within the country, driven as they are in search of work or in pursuit of
opportunities. Such migration can be beneficial to all parties concerned but - in particular when the
migration is ill-prepared and doesn’t take place through regular channels - may also involve deception
or coercion, systems of debt bondage, and/or result in exploitative labour. The notion of ‘exploitation’
encompasses the poverty of income and opportunity in which victims of trafficking remain trapped,
and the concurrent failure of societies to raise standards of living for all of its members.


1.1.2    International frameworks and responses
The latter years of the 1990s and the early years of this century have seen a concerted international
effort to acknowledge the fact of human trafficking, to move towards consensus on defining it, to
construct international frameworks for collaborative action against it, and to make resources available
for this.
The ILO Conference adopted the Worst Forms of Child Labour (WFCL) Convention in 1999, calling for
urgent action to prohibit and eliminate the WFCL – i.e. the use of children in slavery-like practices,
bonded labour, prostitution, child trafficking, and child labour in hazardous work.
An important breakthrough came in December 2000, when the United Nations General Assembly
opened for signature a new protocol supplementing the UN Convention against Transnational
Organized Crime. The Supplementary Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in
Persons, Especially Women and Children (known as the Palermo Protocol), had been long in
negotiation and offered the first widely accepted definition of trafficking. The Palermo Protocol defines
trafficking as: “…the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means
of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the
abuse of power or of position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to
achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation.”
Although not perfect, this definition is broadly acknowledged and accepted as a useful working
definition.3 It acknowledges that trafficking is complex but that it essentially constitutes ‘relocation &
exploitation’ and that, where these two elements are conjoined, trafficking has taken place, regardless
of the circumstances which have given rise to relocation or exploitation (e.g. a woman who has

3
  Its use, in fact, has already gone beyond the narrow confines of the UN Convention on Transnational Organized
Crime, and it is widely quoted as a working definition in discussions of trafficking that are neither transnational nor
involving organized crime. An example would be the rural-urban trafficking of children sent by parents into
unpaid domestic service with extended family members – in this case there has been no crossing of borders and
no involvement of organized crime; still the Palermo definition might well be quoted in discussion of this case.


ILO-IPEC proposal                                                                5                 January 2004
actively sought to relocate but who has subsequently been exploited in labour is considered a
‘trafficking victim’). Importantly, the Palermo Protocol reiterates that the age of a ‘child’ for the
purposes of the definition is anyone under 18 years of age, and it explicitly rejects the notion of
‘voluntary’ entry into exploitation for people below this age.4 This definition allows for trafficking to be
seen more broadly than transfer into commercial sexual exploitation – a narrow understanding that
has hindered analysis and action for many years, particularly in Asia – and has substantially
contributed to acknowledgement of the importance of the labour migration framework in
understanding and responding to trafficking.
In addition to the Palermo Protocol, other recent international framework initiatives against trafficking
include the Optional Protocol to the 1989 UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), on the
Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography which entered into effect in January 2002;
and the 2001 Yokohama Global Commitment against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children
(CSEC),5 updating the 1996 Stockholm Declaration and Agenda for Action, that deals specifically with
trafficking of children for sexual purposes. ILO Convention on the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999
(No. 182) and ILO Convention on Forced Labour, 1930 (No. 29) do cover trafficking, and ratifying
countries are requested to include information on trafficking in their regular reports to ILOs Committee
of Experts.
These are reinforced by a number of trafficking-specific regional framework instruments, including in
South East Asia the Bangkok Accord and Plan of Action to Combat Trafficking in Women adopted by
the Regional Conference on Trafficking in Women in 1998; the Asian Regional Initiative against
Trafficking (ARIAT) Regional Action Plan against Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and
Children (2000); the Conclusions and Recommendations of the Asia-Pacific Seminar of Experts in
Preparation for the World Conference against Racism: Migrants and Trafficking in Persons with
Particular Reference to Women and Children (2000); and the Declaration on the Commitments for
Children in the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 2001.


1.2      CHINA’S CONTEXT
1.2.1    Socio-economic & cultural context of trafficking within China
A dearth of data
There is a dearth of reliable data on the volume of population movement and the types of people
moving, as well as the mechanisms that facilitate and support this movement, particularly in the case
of illegal/irregular migration and undocumented labour, in the informal sector or in clandestine or
illegal employment. Despite the dearth of data, proxy indicators and anecdotal evidence by senior
government officials suggests that the problem of trafficking for various forms of labour exploitation
(including ‘entertainment’) is significant within China. Though ‘labour migration’ within China and
‘trafficking’ are certainly not the same, and though most labour migration is considered beneficial to all
parties, it is recognized increasingly that where such labour migration movement is non-informed and
ill-prepared, and takes place through non-registered recruitment agencies, people are at high risk of
ending up in exploitative situations.

Huge numbers of internal movement
In 2001, China’s rural population was 795.63 million and its’ rural labour force amounted to 490.85
million persons - 62.34% and 67.22% of the total population of 1.276 billion respectively (National
Statistic Bureau, 2002). According to a survey by the Ministry of Agriculture (2001), China had 150
million surplus labourers in rural areas. Based on its 2001 household survey, the Ministry of
Agriculture estimated that 94 million Chinese farmers had left their hometowns to find work in 2002
(Xinhua News Agency April 3, 2003) – mostly in the urban centers of the increasingly wealthy east-
coast provinces of China. Migration patterns in China are primarily internal as the vast majority of
people move within national borders to seek work or alternative lifestyles either permanently or

4
  The Protocol stipulates that, as far as children are concerned: “…recruitment, transportation, harbouring or
receipt of a child for the purpose of exploitation shall be considered ‘trafficking in persons’ even if this does not
involve any of the means set forth in the definition”. In line with ILO Convention No.182 (ratified by China), it
specifies that exploitation shall include “forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery [or]
servitude”.
5
  The annexes of the Yokohama Global Commitment include a series of regional commitments and action plans
that were negotiated in pre-Congress intergovernmental consultations and that are being implemented and
monitored at regional level.


ILO-IPEC proposal                                                               6                January 2004
temporarily (for example in seasonal employment). Such migration movement is expected to grow in
coming years as the increasing rural population and reduced job creation capacity in the agricultural
sector result in increasing numbers of surplus labourers. The service sector is expected to generate
the highest number of new jobs (Institute of Labour Studies, 2002) and many migrants to cities will
become self-employed in informal activities (e.g. street traders, domestic workers, etc)

Increasingly young women
A survey conducted by a research team from the Center for Chinese Agricultural policy under the
Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) found that although men still constitute the bulk of the migrant
labour force, women are quickly catching up, especially in the younger age group. It is observed that
more rural women aged between 16-20 were quitting farming for labour migration. The percentage of
women aged 16-20 that became a migrant labourer increased from 13% in 1990 to 76 % in 2000
(China Daily October 8, 2002/Chinese Academy of Sciences).

Sources in the Ministry of Public Security confirm further that though official statistics have not been
announced they have seen a significant drop in trafficking for marriage purposes in recent years, while
trafficking into the ‘entertainment’ sector is on the increase (50-60 % of currently known cases). It is of
great concern further that number of girl victims of trafficking for ‘entertainment’ in the age range 16-
20 is increasing.

Preferential treatment of sons over daughters
The influx of such huge numbers of rural surplus labourers has created and increased opportunities
for those seeking to exploit those most vulnerable – i.e. girls and young women as they often migrate
at lower ages than men, and with lower average levels of education. A sample survey in 2000 -
conducted by the All-China Women’s Federation and the State Statistic Bureau - found that the
average number of years of girls’ education was 6.1, compared to 7.6 years for boys. Also the sex
proportion ratio of new-born boys to girls was found to be 116.9 % in 2000 with central provinces
having even more eschewed ratios (National Population and Family Planning Commission). This is in
part due to the effects of the one-child policy, which has been implemented (with regional differences)
since the mid-1980s. Preference of sons over daughters has influenced different methods (legal and
illegal) to ensure that the only child became a son. Such a ‘son-centred’ culture has resulted in some
girls working in the ‘entertainment’ business in order to support their brothers’ education (see Social
Annex).

High vulnerability when migrating through non-registered agencies
The Ministry of Labour and Social Security informed further that 40 % of internal labour migrants used
their job placement services or those of registered recruitment, and that 60 % migrated through social
networks or non-registered recruitment agencies. It is believed that of this 60 %, the ones that migrate
through family contacts are relatively safe, but those that migrate through non-registered recruitment
agencies or vague acquaintances are highly vulnerable to trafficking for labour exploitation in the
process of their movement.

Though a break-down by sex of the regular versus irregular migrant workers was not available at the
time of writing the proposal it is assumed that the percentage of women opting for non-registered
recruitment agencies is higher than the percentage of men doing so – given that regular/legal job
placement services are more geared towards skilled workers (who are more likely to be male).

Inter-provincial migration
Provincial data suggest further that there is significant inter-provincial labour migration movement – in
particular from central provinces including Anhui, Henan and Hunan, to eastern provinces including
Guangdong and Jiangsu. In fact 49 % of all cross-provincial migration in 2000 was from central
provinces to the east coast, compared to 46 % in 1997 (Institute of Labour Studies, MOLSS).
Guangdong is the biggest receiver of migrant workers with 25,300,000 people in 2000 (or 17.52 % of
all labour migrant workers in China) and 37 % of the population of Guangdong is a labour migrant.
Other big receiving provinces are Fujian, Jiangsu, Shanghai, and Zhejiang (Chinese Academy of
Social Sciences).

According to the situation analysis undertaken by the Ministry of Agriculture in 2000, Hunan, Anhui
and Henan were among the nine big sending areas of inter-provincial migration.




ILO-IPEC proposal                                                        7               January 2004
From Anhui, 20.3% of its inter-provincial migration was to Jiangsu – which is geographically and
culturally close – and 11.6% of its migrant workers went to Guangdong6. From Hunan, 91% of inter-
provincial migration was to Guangdong, and from Henan, 40.9% of inter-provincial migration was to
Guangdong.

National commitment to address the down-side of labour migration
The State Council document No 1 (issued in January 2003) reiterates that migration of rural surplus
labour to non-agricultural sectors and urban areas is a key part of industrialization and urbanization,
increasing the income of rural people, helping to restructure the rural economy, quickening the pace of
urbanization and improving the social and economic development of urban areas. The document also
lists some of the down-sides of labour migration, including unreasonable limitations to the types of
employment they are allowed to have; lack of effective protection of rights and benefits of migrants;
and frequent serious delay of wage payment and illegal collection of fees.

Other forms of trafficking
Trafficking in babies (sons in particular) and trafficking for marriage purposes are also considered real
problems within China, and they partly result from the continued preference of sons over daughters.
Addressing these forms of trafficking has been a responsibility of the Ministry of Public Security.
Though recognizing the importance of these forms of trafficking they are perceived to be beyond the
scope of work of the International Labour Organization, and hence beyond the scope of this particular
project.

1.2.2      China specific frameworks and responses

The Chinese Government has taken steps to acknowledge and address trafficking. It has ratified
major international instruments and has additionally built up a comprehensive national framework of
anti-trafficking laws and regulations, with severe penalties for traffickers and clients. Worthwhile noting
is further that though local stakeholders involved in the design of the project document recognize that
international law covers trafficking more broadly than Chinese law, they advice the project to review
not only anti-trafficking laws in China but also those dealing with ‘illegal use of child labour’ and other
related matters.
International instruments: signature/ratifications table 7
                                                                                         Signature(S)/ratifica-
International instruments
                                                                                         tion(a ) by China
ILO C.29 Forced Labour                                                                   Active consideration
ILO C 97 Migration for Employment
ILO C.105 Abolition of Forced Labour                                                     Active consideration
ILO C.138 Minimum Age                                                                    a
ILO C.143 Migration in Abusive Conditions
ILO C.182 Worst Forms of Child Labour                                                    a
UN Convention on the Rights of the Child                                                 a
Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution, Child Pornography         S
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)       a
1949 Trafficking Convention
Trans-national Crime Convention (Palermo Convention)                                     a
Palermo Protocol on trafficking                                                          S

Public security agencies at all levels have established training teams for the handling of major cases,
publicity teams, Internet consultation groups, and rescue teams. There have been some significant
successes in law enforcement, especially during a special drive against trafficking in 2000, however
overall the problem continues to grow, partly because of low self-protection abilities and untimely
reporting from communities where irregular people movement is common which complicates police


6
    The only other ‘destination’ province with a high percentage is Shanghai with 23.8 %.
7
    Table updated on 20 November 2003.


ILO-IPEC proposal                                                                    8                January 2004
investigations. There is broad tolerance furthermore of assisted irregular migration and poor
awareness of what this can lead to.
The All-China Women’s Federation (ACWF) has committed itself to combating trafficking – partly
resulting from the Beijing Conference on Women in 1995 and partly resulting from the increasing
numbers of trafficking victims that seek assistance of the ACWF (since the early 1980s). Since then it
has done a lot to advocate for a law on trafficking and has joined the MPS in many actions to combat
trafficking, including IEC-campaigns, rehabilitation, counseling and social integration services.
Not many agencies have major interventions to combat trafficking in China. The most significant ones
are the following: Interventions supported by UNICEF (mainly with the PSB and the ACWF) in
selected provinces in particular covering return and reintegration operations; Save the Children/UKs
interventions revolving around Participatory Action Research in Yunnan and Guangxi Province; the
DFID-Beijing funded project (with ACWF) on skills training for adolescent girls in rural areas, and a
collaborative effort of the ACWF and ILO-IPEC in Yunnan Province (the Yunnan component of the
TICW-project). The successes of the latter project were documented and shared during a National
Replication Meeting in Beijing in October 2002 and resulted in national level interest to replicate the
pilot project in Yunnan, hence this proposal.


1.3     THE PROBLEM TO BE ADDRESSED BY THE PROJECT
1.3.1   Despite efforts and good will by a variety of government agencies in China, trafficking seems
        to be on the rise with increasing numbers of girls and young women being trafficked into the
        ‘entertainment’ industry and the average age of victims dropping. As a result of non-informed
        or ‘blind’ migration, often through irregular channels, huge numbers of people, girls and young
        women in particular, are furthermore at risk of severely exploitative labour (see section 3.2.2
        for more details on the selected target groups);
1.3.2   The problem of trafficking will likely increase given significant changes in the Chinese eco-
        nomy (see Annex 2) that result in increasing numbers of people moving to the east coast where
        job creation cannot keep pace and many migrants end up in the informal economy;
1.3.3   There is poor awareness amongst these likely victims, their families and the authorities that
        such non-informed and irregular movement may involve deception or coercion, systems of
        debt bondage, and/or result in exploitative labour in slave-like conditions;
1.3.4   Though there is clear government commitment to address trafficking, a rather one-
        dimensional perception of trafficking is quite wide-spread in Chinese government circles and
        the public at large, with many interpreting trafficking as for marriage purposes, or trafficking in
        babies only, and solutions often being seen in the area of law enforcement and crime
        prevention only;
1.3.5   Furthermore, addressing the multi-faceted issue of trafficking holistically is hampered by
        under-developed inter-ministerial co-ordination mechanisms in this policy field, a dearth of
        reliable data and a dearth of meaningful pilot projects that have had demonstrated impact.
        These reasons combined with the rather narrow understanding of trafficking may also explain
        the absence of a comprehensive policy and implementation framework to prevent trafficking
        nationally.




ILO-IPEC proposal                                                        9               January 2004
2        Project rationale, approach and strategy
2.1      NEED FOR A PROJECT

Given the sheer magnitude of internal migration movements in China and the particular vulnerability to
labour exploitation of girls and young women in this process, and given the demonstrated commitment
by relevant line ministries and the ACWF to work towards replication of good experiences of the
Yunnan based TICW-project (as demonstrated during the National Replication Meeting in October
2002 and afterwards in meetings with TICW-project management based in Bangkok), it is felt
opportune to seek additional funding for project interventions in other provinces than Yunnan, and to
work towards a national policy framework to prevent trafficking for labour exploitation – with a
particular focus on girls and young women8; thereby to the extent possible capitalizing on the learning
by the TICW-project - in particular its’ Yunnan-based component.
Working with committed government agencies now will mean that future generations of girls and
young women may be prevented from ending up in exploitative and slave-like situations. Not starting
this project will likely result in a continuation of the state of affairs described in section 1.2.1 (and
section 1.3).


2.2      THE ILO RESPONSE TO DATE – INCLUDING THE TICW-PROJECT IN YUNNAN

The proposed project in China is in line with ILO policy and interventions for a number of reasons, and
can be seen as a ‘spin-off’ from the Yunnan-based component of the TICW-project.
2.2.1    ILOs response
Throughout its standards-related work, the ILO has dealt with the issue of human trafficking in relation
to forced labour, the abuse of migrant workers, discrimination at work and as one of the worst forms of
child labour.
The ILO views the result of trafficking as an assault on human dignity and a denial of a person's
opportunity both to make the most of his/her resources and to contribute to the economic
development of his or her nation. The types of exploitation suffered by victims of trafficking are the
antithesis of decent work and detract from national efforts to pursue ‘full, productive and freely chosen
employment’ in accordance with the ILO Employment Policy Convention, 1964 (NO. 122), a priority
Convention which China ratified in 1997. This is even more the case for children, where immediate
exploitation is aggravated by a denial of the child's rights to development that severely limits his/her
potential to become a productive adult.
The ILO has for a long time dealt with child trafficking through its Forced Labour Convention (No. 29),
that aims to eradicate “all work or service which is exacted from any person under the menace of any
penalty and for which the said person has not offered himself voluntarily”.
Since 1999, the ILO’s work against trafficking has been framed and reinforced by the ILO Worst
Forms of Child Labour Convention (No.182) and its accompanying Recommendation (No. 190). ILO
Convention No.182, adopted unanimously by ILO member states at the June 1999 International
Labour Conference, has been pivotal in promoting understanding of trafficking as an issue of
exploitative labour defined much more broadly than commercial sexual exploitation.
It was in the context of the growth in trafficking, global recognition of the need for concerted action to
combat it and the introduction of instruments in which to articulate ILO’s specific strengths and
experience, that the project known as TICW (Combating Trafficking in Children and Women in the
Greater Mekong Subregion) was launched in February 2000 under the auspices of ILOs Inter-national
Programme on the Elimination of Child labour (IPEC). The project covered Cambodia, Lao PDR,
Thailand and Viet Nam, and Yunnan province of China. DFID South-east Asia covered the entire
budget of USD 4.4 million for the period February 2000 – May 2003.
In addition to the TICW-project, ILO-IPEC operates five other regional projects against child trafficking
(South Asia, Eastern Europe and the Balkans, West and East Africa, Central America, and South
America) and there is hence enormous scope for knowledge enhancement and sharing.

8
 It is acknowledged that boys may also be at risk of trafficking and they should not be denied assistance, but girls
and young women are believed to be more vulnerable given China’s current culture of ‘son-preference’. The latter
are hence the main target group in this project.

ILO-IPEC proposal                                                             10                January 2004
2.2.2      ILO-IPEC TICW-project in Yunnan province
The TICW-project has been operational in Yunnan Province of China since July 2000. A letter of
agreement between the All China Women’s Federation (ACWF) and ILO (signed on 20 June 2000)
enabled the creation of a project office in Kunming (Yunnan Province) and the start of operations.

Starting from scratch the project facilitated the creation of a provincial steering committee composed
of all key bureaus including the Public Security Bureau, Labour Bureau, Education Bureau, All China
Women’s Federation, Agricultural Bureau, Finance Bureau, Statistics Bureau, etc. The committee
discusses policy issues, selects target sites for pilot interventions, reviews project proposals for
endorsement, and contributes to monitoring of project interventions.

The target sites that were selected for pilot interventions (in the period 2001-2003) are Jiangcheng
County of Simao Prefecture and Menghai County of Xishuanbanna Prefecture. The overall strategy of
the TICW project was to ‘build up a process-based approach through three groups of interlinked
interventions (capacity building, awareness raising and direct assistance) and working at all levels:
community, district, provincial and central government, in the target areas.

Authorities in Beijing were kept abreast of project progress throughout the period 2000-2003 –
amongst others through a liaison officer based in the ACWF in Beijing. The ACWF in Beijing was so
pleased with project progress in Yunnan Province that they hosted a ‘National Replication Meeting’ in
October 2002 where Yunnan-based project partners and the TICW-project team presented project
learning to an audience of about 150 participants from 8 different provinces and national level. This
event that was co-sponsored by the ACWF, signified the positive commitment of the ACWF to combat
trafficking and provides an important starting point for possible expansion of interventions into areas
other than Yunnan Province.

2.2.3      Achievement to date by TICW in Yunnan Province

Project achievements in Yunnan Province to date include the following9:
    1. Mainstreamed trafficking-prevention approach (including interministerial collaboration,
        improved access to existing services, government financial contributions);
    2. Recognition at national level through a replication meeting in Beijing where the Yunnan-based
        project was asked to present its’ way of working and achievements to date, and willingness in
        five provinces to replicate project experiences;
    3. Reduced trafficking in children and women in target communities through awareness raising
        and mobilization, children participation, and livelihood assistance;
    4. Documentation to inform Phase-II;
    5. Stakeholders capacity built on trafficking issue.

An independent mid-term evaluation of the TICW-project took place in November 2001 and amongst
others visited China. The Mid-term evaluation concluded that ‘the political, procedural and conceptual
foundations of the project are strong and that, with some attention to strategic direction and learning,
there is considerable potential to achieve purpose within a second phase of five years’.

The mid-term evaluation report and subsequent work with stakeholders in the five countries (including
those from Yunnan Province) resulted in a Phase-II proposal covering the same four countries plus
Yunnan Province of China. The proposal was accepted by DFID South-east Asia and a budget of
USD 9.2 million covering the 4 countries plus Yunnan Province was made available for the period
June 2003 – May 2008.

The final evaluation report of phase I of the TICW-project states amongst others that ‘the TICW-
Project has found that intensive work at district and provincial levels has provided a profitable entry
point from which to generate commitment and policy change at national level. This ‘functioning middle’
also validates and gives weight to pilots carried out at local levels’.
2.2.4 The Yunnan project in Phase II of the TICW-project

The China component of the Phase-II proposal revolves around replication of project approaches and
experiences in other counties and prefectures of Yunnan Province (through the project team and


9
    See ‘ILO TICW-project, Yunnan project good experience notes’ (2002) for more details.

ILO-IPEC proposal                                                            11             January 2004
stakeholder network that was set up in Phase-I), and further mainstreaming of the issue of trafficking
into provincial policy. The Phase 2 proposal also recognizes the need to:
     1. address the pull-side of trafficking, mainly in urban areas and in various sectors of the
         economy;
     2. explore options to regulate migration movement in order to reduce the risk of trafficking;
     3. explore working with Workers & Employers organizations and associations to prevent
         trafficking;
     4. mainstream the trafficking issue into policy level frameworks at national level;

The budget for Phase-II of the TICW project includes coverage of the costs of continuing the
expanding operations in Yunnan Province, and a budget for a national project staff in Beijing to
engage with and prepare national level government officials for possible replication beyond Yunnan
Province.

At least in the coming 2 years the Yunnan-component of the DFID-SEA funded project will continue to
operate under Phase-II of the Bangkok-based project, given its geographical and cultural proximity to
countries of the Mekong sub-region, and given that the province is part of the Mekong sub-region.
Furthermore, trafficking from Yunnan takes place into other countries of the Mekong sub-region,
whereas the problem in central provinces of China is largely an internal movement issue - mainly to
China’s east coast. Finally, the experience and momentum that was built up in Yunnan in the period
2000-2003 makes it rather advanced in terms of interventions compared to the rest of China where
interventions will need to be built up from scratch.
Towards the end of 2005 the TICW-project will undertake an independent external review that will
include its Yunnan-funded component (see Section 6). During that review process it will be considered
to what extent the Yunnan-based project and the new China-project can be integrated further, as by
that time it is expected that early building blocks for a national policy framework are beginning to
emerge from the 5 target provinces under the new project. Such a possible further integration of the
Yunnan-based TICW-project and the new China-project are expected to boost efforts to develop a
comprehensive national policy framework.


2.3        PROPOSED PROJECT APPROACHES
The project will employ a series of approaches that capitalize to a large extent on experiences in the
TICW-project as follows:
Process based approach10: The process-based approach will essentially revolve around creating an
enabling environment at national and provincial level within which focused direct assistance
interventions will be developed and implemented in selected target sites. Higher-level stakeholders
will be kept abreast actively of project progress. Participatory monitoring will be undertaken to
empower girls and young women at risk of trafficking, and will result in documentation of learning
aimed at replication in other geographical areas, and mainstreaming into broader policy frameworks.




10
   As documented in an ILO-IPEC TICW-project publication entitled: ‘A process-based approach to combating
trafficking in children and women: Sharing preliminary experiences of an ILO-project in the Mekong sub-region’
(2002).

ILO-IPEC proposal                                                           12                January 2004
                 National Level




                                         Provincial Level




                                                               Prefectural level
       Mainstreaming


       Replication                                                                  County
                                                                                    Township
                                                                                    Village level


Participation and Ownership: The project will emphasize participation of key stakeholders including
girls and young women at all stages of the project cycle (from consultations and research to project
design, implementation, monitoring, evaluation, and documentation of learning) – all aimed at giving
them ‘voice’. To the extent possible communication will take place in the local language. Through
participatory processes, by having the ‘government at the centre’ and by capitalizing (where possible)
on existing mechanisms and structures ownership of an increasingly broad range of stakeholders will
be built. Where possible local understanding of key issues will be taken as a starting point to mobilize
people. Efforts will be made to gradually increase ownership of (1) ‘the issue of trafficking’ at all levels
(from national down to village level) and (2) direct assistance interventions by those at risk of
trafficking.

Holistic and Integrated: A holistic and integrated approach is intrinsic to the design of the project,
which is addressing trafficking in girls and young women as a multi-faceted issue requiring multi-
dimensional responses including efforts to link known sending (Anhui, Henan and Hunan) and
receiving (Guangdong and Jiangsu) provinces. Efforts at prevention will where possible also be linked
to those that became victims of trafficking (e.g. data collection from victims to better target preventive
interventions; awareness raising in sending areas by former victims of trafficking). Solutions to
preventing trafficking will be sought in a broader economic framework in which it is recognized that
increasing numbers of young women want to move to the east coast in search for better opportunities
(See Annex 2 for more details).

Child-focused: The project takes an approach in which the views of girls and young women (and
their families) are the focus of design, implementation and evaluation of project interventions and
activities addressing their needs.                                                                 .

Integrated Gender Component: A four-pronged approach will be employed to bring gender issues
into the mainstream in all policies, interventions and activities of the project. These are: carrying out a
gender analysis as part of the research; carrying out gender-specific project interventions; starting a
process of institutional change in project procedures and processes; and, giving girls and young
women a voice within the project and having them involved in all the above.

Replication & Mainstreaming: In order to achieve broader impact the project will aim to have (1)
model projects replicated in non-project sites, and (2) tested approaches and the ‘issue of trafficking’
mainstreamed into higher-level policy frameworks (e.g. in education policies or general poverty
alleviation programmes).




ILO-IPEC proposal                                                        13               January 2004
2.4     PROPOSED PROJECT STRATEGY

2.4.1   Intervention strategy
The overall strategy of the project is to build up a process-based approach through interventions in
three main categories that have served as the basis for ILO-IPEC actions worldwide:
Capacity building & policy development (enabling) interventions are those, which help to create
national environments in which it is possible to combat trafficking in children and women effectively.
They include investments in frameworks, structures and co-ordination mechanisms at different levels,
and in people, through training, empowerment and opportunities for participation. Children/young
people are included in such investments wherever possible. Training will capitalize on ‘process’ and
‘content’ tools developed during Phase I of the TICW-project. Existing mechanisms will be capitalized
on where possible, with a view to improve them. Efforts will be made to ensure increased access of
target groups to existing services. Where new interventions need to be pilot tested, efforts will be
made to put in place backstopping mechanisms to document learning and sustain activities beyond
the life-span of the project. Part of the capacity building efforts will be invested in linking the selected
‘sending’ and ‘receiving’ provinces for improved migration management that benefits girls and young
women at risk of trafficking. ILO technical assistance and discrete consultancies in child participation,
labour market dynamics, the informal economy and migration management are expected to contribute
to good quality interventions.
Information, mobilization and advocacy (inclusive) activities aim to harness knowledge and
understanding to promote action, attitude change and commitment to combating trafficking at all levels.
The targets of such activities include politicians and policy makers (for policy change and
commitment); discrete, identified target groups (for attitude change and mobilization) at national and
sub-national levels; and families and communities at risk (with a view to risk reduction).
Broader information and information-sharing activities aim to expand the knowledge base through
research and lessons-learned exercises, and to disseminate this information to ‘change agents’ who
will use it to grow understanding, plan actions and mainstream learning. This category includes
exploring working with the media, emphasizing the media’s role in ‘advocacy, not publicity’.
ACWF has already flagged that it would like the project to develop a National Strategy for Advocacy
on Anti-trafficking to be submitted to National Congress and the State Council towards the end of the
Project.
Direct assistance (focused) is targeted at communities and particular stakeholder groups. In
‘sending’ provinces it includes interventions for prevention of trafficking at community levels through
programmes of community-owned participatory and context-driven development, geared at increasing
community options, livelihood strategies, and access to existing services. First and foremost
interventions will revolve around awareness raising and village mobilization on the risk of trafficking
when migrating non-informed and ill-prepared. While recognizing that many youth will want to migrate
to the east coast, efforts will be made to promote ‘safe’ migration options for girls aged 16 up. Such
services will need to be combined with relevant skills training11.Girls aged 12-15 will be assisted –
where possible - in continuing their education (following the ‘cascade training’ that was pilot tested in
Yunnan Province). Young women aged 16-24 and that want to remain in villages but are at risk of
trafficking will be provided with technical support to develop their livelihoods. Such support may
include ILO rapid market appraisal techniques; training and employment needs assessment; skills and
small business training that is geared towards non-agricultural work in rural areas12; and improved
access to credit and markets. Only in exceptional cases will ‘project’ credit be considered to create
village funds. Such funds are believed13 to make a significant difference and promote positive change
in poor people’s livelihood opportunities, and the need for this kind of intervention will continue for a
considerable time given existing poverty levels. The final evaluation report states further that ‘if micro-
finance services are offered to people who are not-quite-so-poor, and when this is done at no cost or
disadvantage to the poorest people, then whole communities can be mobilized on issues which might
otherwise not gain support from those not directly involved. As long as the amount of money involved,
11
   Current vocational training is geared towards wage employment in State Owned Enterprises. These will
continue to face massive lay-offs and are unlikely to generate employment opportunities.
12
   Research in rural areas by ILO and the Institute for Labour Studies of MOLSS suggests to invest in skills
training for self-employment in non-agricultural work rather than vocational training that is currently geared
towards wage employment in State Owned Enterprises, and these face massive lay-offs. Also, ILO Gender
Specialist recently completed a training manual to develop women entrepreneurship. The manual will soon be
released in Chinese for future project partner’s possible use.
13
   See section 8 of the Final Evaluation report of Phase I of the TICW-project.

ILO-IPEC proposal                                                         14               January 2004
and available to each applicant, is kept very low, power and equity issues have been shown not to be
a problem’. Through local backstopping systems these livelihood support options will be sustained
beyond the initial project support.

In ‘receiving’ provinces efforts will be made to mobilize workers (e.g. ACFTU) and employers
organizations (State Administration for Commerce and Industry) and the private sector to create
decent work options for migrant workers and to mobilize society to prevent trafficking. Where possible
the project will link up with existing job centers run by ACFTU, ACWF, and the All China Youth
Federation, and work towards eligibility of young migrant women to profit from their services. An
interesting potential entry point is Nanjing City (in Jiangsu Province) where 10 types of informal
employment are regulated by neighbourhood communities. Small investments in migrant workers
homes will be aimed at engaging victims of trafficking in the development of meaningful and targeted
services – including awareness raising in their place of origin.

Outputs and activities within the intervention strategy, and links among them, are presented in the
project logical framework in Annex 1, and are broken down into more detail in section 5.

2.4.2   Partnership Strategy
An important element in the intervention strategy is the notion of the ‘Government at the center, the
project as catalyst’: Given the sheer scale of issues in China efforts will be made to assist the
government through demonstration project and technical assistance – while making seed money
available for small pilot projects in target sites. Documented learning is expected to result in
replication and mainstreaming by the government machinery (including budget allocations). Where
government driven opportunities arise the project will make efforts to capitalize on these and modify
its logical framework accordingly. Identified opportunities include the State Council Document No 1
(2003) that discusses the positives of internal migration but also acknowledges the down-sides (see
paragraph 1.2.1).

ACWF has agreed to play a key role in mobilizing other parts of the government. They set up an
internal ‘project working group’ that will liaise closely with other line ministries, and with project
management in Beijing. Focal points in other ministries and an actively functioning National Steering
Committee are expected to improve inter-ministerial co-ordination. Most NSC members are also in
the National Coordination Group for the Rights and Interests of Women and Children14. This group
plans to further improve the implementation of the National Plan of Action for women and children
(2001-2010) that was issued by the State Council. In addition, joint policy recommendations by NSC
members are expected to be submitted directly to the State Council and the National People’s
Congress during the implementation of the project.

Where relevant, studies will be undertaken with and through research units of the State Council such
as the Research Centre for Development Studies and the China Centre for Town Reform and
Development.

At provincial level, steering committees will be created that capitalize on existing mechanisms such
as the Provincial Coordination Group for the Rights and Interests of Women and Children. Provincial
policy recommendations will be submitted to Provincial People’s Congresses at regular intervals.

Multi-level and interagency Collaboration: As the project employs process-based approaches,
works towards sustainability, and cannot be successful on its own, networking, co-ordination and
collaboration will be crucial at all levels. Mapping exercises and actively functioning coordination
bodies will be instrumental in identifying opportunities for collaboration and opportunities for improved
access to existing services. Broader problem and objective analysis jointly with other agencies (e.g.
SC-UK, UNICEF, UN-IAP, DFID-funded adolescent girls project) is furthermore thought to assist all
involved to work towards carving out their ‘niche’ and work towards their respective comparative
advantage. To the extent possible and where relevant, the project will tap into learning resulting from
meetings by the Subregional Advisory Committee for the TICW-project (SURAC) and work by the
Regional Working Group on Child Labour (RWG-CL).



14
  And its’ chair, Ms Gu Xiulian (the President of ACWF) also is Vice-Chair of the Standing Committee of the
National People’s Congress.

ILO-IPEC proposal                                                       15               January 2004
Co-ordination within ILO: The project will actively pursue opportunities for co-ordination with other
ILO activities to promote both areas of work and to integrate the project into the chapters of the MOU
between ILO and the Chinese MOLSS dealing with the employment promotion and the promotion of
international labour standards and fundamental principles and rights at work.
The project will to the extent possible and relevant draw on experience of ILO-Beijing staff (Office
management, Financial management, Senior Policy Advisor, other project managers), ILO SRO-
Bangkok specialists (e.g. in International Labour Standards, Child Labour, Gender, Employment), staff
of the TICW-project, and staff of ILO-IPEC headquarters – in particular the Vulnerable Groups Unit. In
addition to the TICW-project, ILO-IPEC operates five other regional projects against child trafficking
(South Asia, Eastern Europe and the Balkans, West and East Africa, Central America, and South
America) and the new China-project will share experiences with these other projects through IPEC
HQs knowledge-management co-ordination.
Where possible interventions will be planned in-sync with the TICW-project: Particular efforts will be
made by the management of the new China-project and the TICW-project to co-ordinate joint planning,
monitoring and evaluation. Where appropriate, the terms of reference’ for research programmes and
other consultancies will be developed jointly. Key staff will participate in each-others’ training and
validation workshops. Specific tools (e.g. participatory research and monitoring, communication and
advocacy tools, mainstreaming tools) will be developed jointly where possible. Cross-sharing of
learning will be undertaken regularly – in particular in new and challenging areas such as mobilizing
workers & employers organizations, addressing the demand-side and articulating trafficking in a
broader labour migration framework. Where possible joint publications and joint advocacy work will be
considered and undertaken.
Active knowledge sharing, and where possible joint activities, will be undertaken with ILO SAP-FL who
are in active policy dialogue with the Chinese Government on forced labour issues.
2.4.3   Reflecting ILO/DFID efforts to mainstream gender and promote gender equality

The ILO has adopted an Action Plan on gender mainstreaming for gender equality, in response to the
1995 Beijing Platform for Action and the 1997 ECOSOC Agreed Conclusions. These define gender
mainstreaming as:

•    The process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, including
     legislation, policies or programmes, in all areas and at all levels;

•    A strategy for making women’s as well as men’s concerns and experiences an integral dimension
     of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes in all
     political, economic and societal spheres so that women and men benefit equally and inequality is
     not perpetuated.

In South-east Asia ILO actions to promote gender equality have been developed by the Gender
Equality in Child Labour (GECL) action programme executed by ILO’s Sub-Regional Office for East
Asia in Bangkok15.

This programme was initiated under the framework of the DFID/ILO partnership agreement launched
in mid-2001, which aims to achieve national-level consensus and capacity in at least 20 countries to
act on child labour, especially the worst forms. The promotion of gender equality in policies and
programmes against child labour is an important element of this initiative.

The GECL project is funded by DFID and the Government of the Netherlands, with inputs by IPECs
TICW project. Its aim is ‘to enable ILO partner organizations to systematically address gender
inequalities in action towards the elimination of the worst forms of child labour and to raise awareness
among children, youth and parents on children’s and workers’ rights and gender equality, through
capacity building and networking in Cambodia, China (Yunnan Province), Lao PDR, Thailand and Viet
Nam’.

Building further on the collaboration between GECL and TICW project, the China project will facilitate
outreach to project partners beyond those in Yunnan Province, and to project teams in the 5 selected
target provinces.

15
  Ref: Promotion of gender equality in action against child labour through capacity building and networking in
East Asia, Action Programme of ILO BAO/EASMAT, 1 July 2002.


ILO-IPEC proposal                                                         16               January 2004
2.4.4      Project focus

Given China’s size, the sheer magnitude of internal migration movements in China, and the narrow
conceptual understanding of trafficking, the project requires a clear focus for maximum impact.
All interventions under this project will focus primarily on prevention of trafficking for labour
exploitation, given ILOs mandate in the remit of ‘labour’ issues, and the belief that ILOs
contribution to tackling the problem in China has to be tackled through prevention, as the Chinese
government is actively addressing the problem of rescuing and rehabilitating victims. The focus will
furthermore be on prevention of trafficking in ‘girls and young women’ given the ‘son-centred’ family
culture in China (as discussed in sections 1.2 and 3.2.2). The geographical areas chosen for
interventions are 5 provinces with huge quantities of labour migrants. The provinces were selected
based on a consultation process involving key line-ministries and a survey among candidate
provinces. The 5 provinces selected include 3 sending provinces (Anhui, Henan and Hunan) and 2
receiving provinces (Guangdong and Jiangsu). There appears to be significant inter-provincial
movement of people amongst these provinces which is thought to provide an opportunity to review
inter-provincial migration movement with a view to identifying possible improvements.
2.4.5      Phasing of activities
Given the size of China and the relative dearth of information on trafficking for labour exploitation, and
to ensure proper implementation with local stakeholders, the project will commence with a 1-year
‘mobilization’-phase during which further consultations will take place, conceptual clarity is created16
and data are analyzed (mostly activities revolving around the first objective – see section 5) while a
project structure is being put in place. It is expected that these further consultations will contribute to
ownership building and increasingly focused interventions in terms of geographical locations within
provinces, specific target groups within the broad category ‘girls and young women at risk of
trafficking’ and specific partner agencies to work with and through.
Following this mobilization phase a 2-year ‘pilot project implementation’-phase is expected to result in
documented learning (this primarily involves activities under objective 2 though activities under
objective 1 and 3 will also be undertaken). The ‘pilot project implementation’-phase in turn is expected
to demonstrate (innovative) models for effective interventions that will result in momentum for
influencing broader policy frameworks in the 4th-year of the project (the ‘policy framework’-phase).
Work towards influencing these frameworks will commence at the start of the project by engaging
senior officials actively in the activities to be undertaken under the first 2 objectives. Direct assistance
interventions will from the start aim to built capacity of partner organizations and communities to
sustain these mechanisms beyond the project’s time-frame.
See the following visual for a graphic illustration of objectives, outputs, linkages and rough time-lines.




16
     The narrow definition of trafficking used in China results in one-sided data and interventions.

ILO-IPEC proposal                                                                17                    January 2004
MAIN OBJECTIVES, OUTPUTS & LINKAGES AND TIME-LINE VISUALIZED



  OBJECTIVES:                                             OUTPUTS:
                                                                                                YEAR

                                        1.1:
Objective 1:                                                              1.1:
                                        Conceptual clarity &              Mobilization
By the end of the project, key
                                        common ground on                  through Focal
stakeholders have been mobilized
                                        trafficking &                     points & N/PSCs
effectively to prevent trafficking in
                                        migration
girls and young women
for labour exploitation.
                                        1.2:
                                        Knowledge-
                                        base



                                                                                                     YEAR
                                                                                                      2-3



Objective 2:
By the end of the project,                 2.1:                    2.2:
integrated, effective and                  Pilots in selected      Pilots in selected
sustainable responses to                   sending areas of        receiving areas of
trafficking in girls and                   Anhui, Henan,           Guangdong &
young women for labour                     Hunan Province          Jiangsu Province
exploitation are in place in
both sending and receiving
areas and serve as ‘models’.




Objective 3:
By the end of the project,
national and sub-national                                                               3.2:
plicy frameworks and                                 3.1:                               National
implementation capacity to                           Inter-provincial                   Policy
prevent trafficking in girls                         Policy                             Frameworks &
and young women for                                  Frameworks &                       Implementatio
labour exploitation will have                        Implementation                     n capacity
been strengthened.                                   capacity                           reviewed and
                                                     reviewed and                       improvements
                                                     improvements                       suggested
                                                     suggested

                                                                                                  YEAR




ILO-IPEC proposal                                                          18               January 2004
2.4.6        Review and reflection
The importance of going ‘step-by-step’ is furthermore recognized with periodical reviews of progress
made towards achieving the objectives, active use of indicators, and modification of the logical
framework where necessary. See ‘evaluations’ under section 6 for more on review and reflection.

2.4.7      Sustainability

Given the successes of the TICW-project to date in Yunnan Province the new China-project will to the
extent possible capitalize on the learning of Yunnan province, and will actively cross-share knowledge
and learning with staff of the TICW-project.

Sustainability will be achieved through the process-based approach that allows enabling structures to
be influenced by realities at grassroots level. Participation of girls and young women throughout the
project cycle will be essential for effective interventions, and where possible and appropriate views of
girls and young women at risk of trafficking will be considered in policy making efforts.

Mobilizing efforts will aim at involving increasingly large numbers of people to take action (including
action by girls and young women at grassroots level) and the importance of putting the ‘government at
the center’ will be underlined. In these mobilization efforts it is considered crucial to have a common
understanding of ‘trafficking for labour exploitation’ - without it collaborative efforts will fail. The project
will capitalize on government policy efforts and/or statements (e.g. State Council documents that refer
to the down-side of migration may provide an opportunity to raise related issues such as trafficking).
For financial sustainability, lesson learning and policy recommendations will be linked with advocacy
activities across a range of stakeholders including finance departments and other budget drafters and
decision makers (including People's Congresses at various levels).

Where possible the project’s set up will capitalize on existing structures and mechanisms (e.g. the
National Working Committee on Children and Women and its provincial and lower level branches).
The project will invest in locally ‘owned’ backstopping mechanisms for each one of its objectives (e.g.
focal points in line ministries, steering committees at various levels, and technical backstopping
teams for local project partners) and project partner agencies will gradually take on more
responsibility. Local partner agencies will be required to contribute a minimum of 10 %17 to project
budgets within provinces.

Given current capacity levels in the government, project staff in the offices in Beijing and the five
provinces (and consultants) are expected to spend considerable energy to build capacity within line
ministries and provincial offices (i.e. understanding trafficking, participatory processes, working with
indicators, inter-agency collaboration, reporting, etc). It is envisaged that interventions will be able to
continue through the government machinery at the end of the project.

The phasing of activities – from conceptual clarity to improving the knowledge base to pilot
interventions in selected target sites – will gradually build momentum towards influencing policy at
increasingly high levels. The aim here is to mainstream the issue of trafficking into government policy
– including government budget allocations.


2.5          LINKS TO DFID POLICY FRAMEWORK
The chosen project strategy and approaches along with the logical framework (see section 5 and
Annex 1) are in line with the UK development strategy revolving around poverty alleviation in the
framework of the Millenium Development Goals. Project interventions will work towards sustainable
livelihoods and invest in education & empowerment – in particular of vulnerable groups. Participatory
and process-based approaches are central to the project’s modus operandi and are thought to
contribute to pro-poor government policies and inclusion of vulnerable groups – in particular girls and
young women at risk of trafficking for labour exploitation (see Box B3 of DFID-China’s Country
Strategy Paper 2002-05). As such, the project targets both economic and non-economic dimensions
of poverty.




17
     This amounts to a minimum USD 120,000 - see budget line 21 in section 8 for details.

ILO-IPEC proposal                                                            19              January 2004
2.6       PLANNING AND DESIGN PROCESS OF PROJECT DOCUMENT
This project document is the result of a broad consultative process with future key stakeholders, and
was yet undertaken in a very tight time-frame. Meeting tight deadlines while sticking to a good quality
consultative process was made possible through the fantastic support of a range of staff in the ACWF
who facilitated linkages with other line-ministries and representatives from a range of provinces, who
took care of notes of consultative processes and who took a large amount of translation work (back
and forth). The core design team was furthermore composed of ILO-IPEC staff rather than consultants,
and they were able to rely to a large extent on recent experiences in the design of phase-II of the
TICW-project document that received funding from DFID-SEA. See Annex 5 for details on the
participatory design process.


3       TARGET GROUPS

3.1 OVERVIEW
The target groups of the project are identified below. Following standard ILO terminology, target
groups are divided into two main categories: ‘beneficiaries’ (children, families and communities that
benefit from the project directly and/or indirectly) and ‘direct recipients’ (organizations, agencies and
groups whose capacity is built so that they in turn reach out to the beneficiaries).


3.2 BENEFICIARIES
3.2.1   Communities in target sites
In the selected target sites of Anhui, Henan and Hunan Province direct assistance will be offered to
whole communities, since trafficking can be prevented effectively only by community members working
together for development.
3.2.2   Girls and young women at risk (and their families)
In these target communities, direct (preventive) assistance will be provided in particular to families
whose girls and/or young women are at risk of trafficking. Though the key emphasis will be on girls and
young women at risk of trafficking, efforts will be made to not alienate other community members.
Though impressive progress has been made in China in terms of primary school enrolment rates –
they have reached close to 100 % scores even in poverty-striken areas – there are still some issues of
concern for those that complete primary education: Despite the imposition of 9 years compulsory
education, lower secondary schools are not yet within reach of all families as their spread is lower than
that of primary schools. As a result, girls from poor families in particular often discontinue their
education after completing primary school and sit home idle, while boys often continue with lower
secondary education. These drop-outs that are not allowed to work or migrate for labour until they are
16 are often bored with village life and feel attracted to city life where they are at a high risk of being
trafficked. Special attention will therefore be paid to girls aged 12-15.
Girls aged 16 to 17 will also receive special attention in the context of ILO Convention 182, even
though national legislation in China permits internal migration for employment of children aged 16
years and older. Their education level is often lower than that of boys in the same age range which
limits the number of legal work options available to them – hence placing them at risk of trafficking, in
particular when they are not informed about regular internal labour migration options. Efforts will be
made therefore to prolong their education, provide them skills training for self-employment or job
placement services into non-hazardous and non-exploitative work.
The third sub group are young women aged 18-24 who are allowed to migrate internally for labour but
who are at risk of trafficking if they do not opt for legal channels. Currently 60 % of all internal labour
migrants goes through friends/family or non-registered recruitment agencies.
Though the project is holistic in nature the project is focused mainly on girls and young women rather
than boys and/or men. This results from the fact that virtually all those consulted during the
preparations of this project mentioned that China has a ‘son-centred family culture’ where boys get
preferential treatment. It is recognized nevertheless that boys can be at risk of trafficking and should
get assistance too but given the scale of the issue in China it seems justified to have the project focus
mainly on girls and young women.


ILO-IPEC proposal                                                      20                January 2004
3.2.3   Girls and young women victims of trafficking
Efforts will be made to identify girls and young women victims of trafficking in urban agglomerations of
Guangdong and Jiangsu province – likely through neighbourhood committees and/or ACWF and
ACFTU staff - and to link them up with existing service providers. Though the project is not aimed at
recovery and assistance to victims of trafficking but rather prevention, ethically sound efforts will be
made to mobilize former victims for preventive advocacy campaigns, and data collection for improved
preventive interventions (and thus link migrant groups in receiving areas with those in sending areas).


3.3 DIRECT RECIPIENTS
Direct recipients will be staff of organizations (at different levels) whose capacity to act will be
enhanced through focused training and the provision of effective tools, and organizations whose
structures and ways of working will be improved through capacity building and advocacy.
In concrete terms this means capacity-building interventions with a focus on (1) human resource
development with a view to improving understanding and knowledge levels (better understanding and
analysis, and effective interventions); (2) improved ways of working within these organizations (use of
participatory approaches including monitoring, ownership at the lowest possible level, transparency,
gender equality, child-centred thinking); (3) improved structures, in particular improved horizontal and
vertical coordination and collaboration, and more meaningful coordination mechanisms that aim at
linking to expert service providers; and, (4) improved policy mechanisms.

The agencies to be covered can be categorized as:

3.3.1   Government machinery
At national and sub-national levels all the way down to village level, staff in various ministries and
offices of government will be direct recipients of project interventions. Key partnerships are envisaged
with the Ministry of Labour and Social Security, the Ministry of Public Security, the Ministry of
Education, the National Working Committee on Children and Women under the State Council, and
research units under the State Council. Others are: State Statistic Bureau, Ministry of Agriculture,
Ministry of Civil Affairs and departments relating to poverty elimination.
3.3.2   Mass organizations
The All China Women’s Federation will assume the role of project focal point for inter-ministerial co-
ordination, and will facilitate vertical coordination with provincial and lower levels. Other mass
organizations to be consulted include the Youth League. Efforts will be made to link these
organizations to expert service providers and government agencies so that, through networking,
linking and buying-in services, higher quality outputs will be generated.
3.3.3   Workers’ and employers’ organizations
Demand for trafficked girls and young women is created by unscrupulous employers in various sectors
of the economy including the ‘entertainment’ industry, small work shops, illegal factories, and other
work in the informal economy, including individual employers of domestic workers.
In order to address trafficking holistically through prevention, the project will not only address
trafficking in source areas (and thus the ‘push’ side of trafficking), but will also aim at having impact on
the demand side in urban areas of Guangdong and Jiangsu province. Understanding the dynamics
that make trafficking lucrative for traffickers and employers alike, and understanding the complexities
of the informal economy and what can be done through social partners to offer regularized
employment alternatives, is crucial to finding new ways to improve interventions. It is anticipated to
engage workers’ and employers’ groupings among partners/stakeholders and to work with labour
mechanisms (trade unions, labour inspection systems, tripartite mechanisms etc). Though the scope
of work of workers’ and employers’ organizations is limited in China, efforts will be made to
mainstream the issue of trafficking into the work of the State Administration for Industry and
Commerce and the All China Federation of Trade Unions, and to capitalize on their outreach and
influence by mobilizing them through discrete interventions planned in collaboration with them.
Particular efforts will be made through the ACWF to mobilize its members that are part of Women
Worker’s Committees of trade unions. The knowledge base on these issues will be developed in close
collaboration with the TICW-project run in the Mekong sub-region.


4       INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK

ILO-IPEC proposal                                                       21               January 2004
4.1 STRONG POINTS IN CHINA TO CAPITALIZE ON
•   The political will and demonstrated commitment of Chinese national line ministries and the ACWF
    to combat trafficking – as expressed during the National Replication Meeting in October 2002 in
    Beijing. Also, further statements of commitment were made during a roundtable meeting on the
    design of this project in November 2003, and written feedback (including statements of support)
    was received on the draft of this project document.
•   China ratified ILO Conventions 182 and 138, and the CRC and signed the TNC;
•   ILO and China’s MOLSS signed a MOU that serves as a framework for a future National Plan on
    Decent Work;
•   Strong commitment shown by the ACWF to take a lead role in serving as a focal point for the
    project – which it sees as an opportunity to learn and build internal capacity.
•   Ongoing policy dialogue between the Government of China and ILO (through SAP-FL) on forced
    labour.


4.2 STRONG POINTS IN ILO TO CAPITALIZE ON
•   ILO-IPEC has positioned itself as a lead agency in combating the worst forms of child labour and
    child trafficking (see ‘Unbearable to the human heart: child trafficking and action to eliminate it’);
•   ILO-IPEC operates six regional projects against child trafficking (South-east Asia (TICW-project),
    South Asia (TICSA), Eastern Europe and the Balkans, West and East Africa, Central America,
    and South America), covering 40 countries. A knowledge-sharing network is under establishment
    and a global trafficking project has been developed to look at trafficking corridors linking demand
    and supply in the trafficking chain. The China-project will both contribute to and benefit from this
    new initiative.
•   ILO-IPEC has been operating the TICW project covering the Mekong subregion since 1998 –
    including a component in Yunnan from which this project is a spin-off;
•   The TICW project is well positioned to share lessons, experiences, knowledge and methodologies
    – including a clear set of management tools including MAMA (management manual on
    administrative and financial procedures), OOPP (Objective Oriented Planning tool), TIAs
    (Technical Intervention Area papers), and PM&E (a set of tools on participatory monitoring and
    evaluation).
•   Other relevant projects include Time Bound Programmes against the worst forms of Child labour
    in amongst others the Philippines. These may result in lessons on working through government
    frameworks.
•   ILO-IPEC has furthermore developed a series of tools and guidelines that the new project can
    capitalize on – including the Programme Operations Manual (POM) and Project Design and
    Evaluation Guidelines;
•   ILOs Subregional Offices has a number of specialists including an International Labour Standards
    Specialist, a Child Labour Specialist and a Gender Specialist that can provide expert guidance on
    key components of the project.
•   ILO’s member states have put labour migration on the agenda of the International Labour
    Conference (ILC) in 2004, so that the issue of trafficking within a labour migration context will be
    in focus in preparation for and following this meeting. There is an opportunity for the project to
    feed into and feed off this initiative in terms of enhanced knowledge, analysis, networking and
    country experience. On a related note, an Asian regional tri-partite meeting on migration was held
    in July 2003 with participants from China. The results of the meeting will feed into the ILC in 2004,
    and the final statement of the regional meeting may be of use in mobilizing stakeholders within
    China.
•   China has commenced working with the ILO Special Action Programme on Forced Labour (SAP-
    FL). This programme is currently developing guidelines on anti-trafficking legislation (with an initial
    focus on use in Europe), and training modules for migrant workers. With regards to China, SAP-



ILO-IPEC proposal                                                       22               January 2004
     FL is in dialogue with the Chinese Government on forced labour issues and the trafficking of
     Chinese outside the country, into for example Russia and many parts of Western Europe.
•    An ILO project to Start and Improve Your Business covering 100 cities of China (including urban
     agglomerations in Guangdong and Jiangsu Province) is under consideration by DFID.
•    ILO-PEP a micro-credit programme will operate in China until at least the end of 2004.
•    ILOs HIV-AIDS project in China promotes a Code of Practice on HIV-AIDS amongst trade unions
     and employers organizations and could be capitalized on in Guangdong and Jiangsu Province
     (receiving provinces);
•    ILO-GECL has piloted gender & child labour training in China that was well received in Yunnan
     Province.
•    Relevant resources available in the ILO can be illustrated as follows:

        ILO
                    ILO SRO Specialists
                                                     ILO-IPEC
                    ILO SAP-FL
                                                     TICW project – including Yunnan
                    ILO MIGRANT
                                                     TICSA
                    ILO SIYB
                                                     TBPs
                    ILO PEP

                    ILO HIV-AIDS

                    ILO GECL


•    ILO has a long and proven record in capacity building, advocacy and in targeted direct assistance
     to vulnerable children and women workers.
•    ILO-IPEC has strong decentralized administrative and financial procedures that will fully support
     regular reporting and monitoring of project progress at all levels.


4.3 STRONG POINTS IN INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS TO CAPITALIZE ON
A relatively small number of initiatives to prevent trafficking in China has been undertaken or is
underway by other agencies. These initiatives have been mapped out to a large extent, including
opportunities for collaboration:

Oxfam/Hong Kong operates women migrant worker service centers.

Ford Foundation studies on labour mobility in China.

DFID-Beijing sponsored a high level government delegation to a regional conference on ‘Migration,
development and pro-poor policy choices’ in Dhaka (in June 2003). The Chinese delegation
contributed actively to a useful Final Conference Statement, and an informative ‘China Migration
Country Study’ was presented at the conference by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences18.

DFID-Beijing funds a partnership framework agreement with the Children’s Department of the ACWF
on skills training for adolescent girls in rural areas of Yunnan, Sichuan and Gansu.

SCF-UK – action-oriented research and interventions in selected provinces & a partnership
agreement between ILOs Asia regional office and SCF-UK regional office.



18
  The social annex to this proposal draws heavily on the China migration country study by CASS and
papers developed for the forthcoming China Employment Forum.

ILO-IPEC proposal                                                      23              January 2004
UNICEF – funds a range of pilot interventions in Sichuan and Yunnan Province – including a manual
on risks of non-informed migration for youth from Sichuan that is currently being pilot tested.

UN-IAP – Conducted research in Yunnan and Jiangxi province (results awaited) and plans to develop
a database and information management system on trafficking.

UNDP – Comparative review of international law (CEDAW and ILO core Conventions) with Chinese
law is ongoing, results expected in March 2004.

UNDAF – has 4 theme group meetings including one on gender and one on health. The UN Theme
Group on law currently focuses on rights-based approaches to development and may be a possible
forum to address trafficking. There is no joint country programming system amongst the UN system
agencies in China.

UNESCO – is conducting a survey on young migrant workers in 8 Chinese cities.

4.4 PROJECT MANAGEMENT
4.4.1   ILO headquarters and sub-regional office
ILO-IPEC will be responsible for the overall implementation and technical guidance to the project
management, and financial and technical reporting to the ILO and donor. Technical guidance will be
sought by the project with IPEC HQs (Vulnerable Groups Unit), ILO SAP-FL, ILO-MIGRANT, ILO-SFU,
ILO SRO-Bangkok (in particular the Child labour Specialist, the Gender Specialist, and the
International Labour Standards Specialist) and the TICW-project.
The new China project will operate as an autonomous national project, yet with clear links to the SRO
in Bangkok – in particular the CTA of the TICW-project and the Child Labour Specialist - from which it
will receive technical guidance and draw experience (along with technical guidance by the Vulnerable
Groups Unit in Geneva). As integral part of one of ILO-IPECs six sub-regional anti-trafficking
programmes, it is expected to contribute to and profit from cross-learning and an increasing
knowledge base. The new China project will to the extent possible capitalize on the learning of the
TICW-project – in particular the Yunnan component.
4.4.2   China national level
Given the significance of the project, the need to ‘connect’ at a policy making level, the demands
placed on putting in place 5 provincial teams, and the size of the budget, the project will have a China
Project Manager/Chief Technical Advisor (CTA) based in Beijing 19 . S/he will be seconded by a
National Project Coordinator (NPC) who was already appointed under the TICW-project. The NPC will
be absorbed by the new China-project and her roles and responsibilities will be transferred to it. An
associate expert is proposed to assist in the backstopping of learning and documentation efforts
starting in year 2 of the project implementation. A senior administrative staff will provide all
administrative support including contracts, internal financial reports etc. The country management
team will be located in the ILO Office in Beijing which provides overall administrative and financial
support and supervision to project implementation, and ‘political’ guidance where appropriate.
The China project manager/CTA will implement the project in close collaboration with the CTA of the
TICW-project based in Bangkok, and the Child Labour Specialist in the ILO-SRO - in order to ensure
synergy, the sharing of experience and coordination with other ongoing and future IPEC activities in
Asia and Pacific region. In addition to internal coordination within IPEC, the Child Labour Specialist
will also facilitate internal coordination within the ILO at the regional level. The ILO-SRO Gender
Specialist will provide technical input to the project as part of the overall ILO-Gender and Child labour
project (GECL). The ILO-SRO International Labour Standards Specialist will be consulted for
conceptual issues surrounding trafficking, forced labour and migration for employment, consistency
with obligations under international law, and comparative legal perspectives. ILO-SRO Specialists on
dealing with Workers and Employers organizations (and other issues) will be consulted as appropriate.
In addition, a number of discrete inputs will be commissioned from external experts, particularly in the
area of research and mobilization (under objective 1) and in the area of linking sending and receiving
provinces in terms of sound migration management. A breakdown of tasks is included in Annex 4.


19
   This statement is very much based on a lengthy discussion with the ILO Area Office Director in Beijing, and
follow up discussion with the CTA of the TICW-project in Bangkok.

ILO-IPEC proposal                                                         24               January 2004
A National Steering Committee on trafficking has already been formed comprising representatives of
government agencies and implementing partners. It is anticipated that the NSC-membership and roles
& responsibilities will be reviewed in light of this new project – potential additional members include
Workers & Employers organizations, the Ministry of Education and various relevant departments.
Representatives of the donor or other concerned international agencies may be invited in an
observer/consultative capacity.
Focal point positions will be created in all key ministries the project is going to work with – at the cost
of these ministries. The ACWF already set up an ‘ACWF project working group’ to facilitate project
preparations.
4.4.3 Provincial level
In each of the five selected provinces Anhui, Guangdong, Henan, Hunan and Jiangsu a full-time
Provincial Project Coordinator will be recruited. This person will take responsibility for management of
the project in the province, including technical support to a broad range of implementing agencies,
relations with authorities and other (international) agencies and general administrative oversight. In
addition, an administrative assistant will provide support with all administrative matters including
internal financial reporting, organisation of meetings, etc.
In each province, a Provincial Steering Committee will be established to be comprised of relevant
government Bureaus and Workers & Employers Organizations. Where possible such committees will
be integrated into the existing Provincial ‘legs’ of the National Working Committee on Children and
Women20. Lower level committees will be set up at Prefectural, County, Township and Village level to
ensure    outreach     to    target   groups      and    informed   needs-based    policy   making.

4.5 TECHNICAL AND FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT
The project will follow ILO’s established project management and financial disbursement and
accounting systems; ILO headquarters will have full responsibility for ensuring compliance. The newly
developed ILO-IPEC Programme Operations Manual (POM) will serve to guide project management.
Training will be provided as needed; implementing partners will be trained and backstopping will be
undertaken by provincial office staff to ensure both that management and reporting of activities
complies with ILO requirements, and that it does not become an unnecessary burden on project
partners.
Technical and financial responsibility for specific action programmes (or projects by implementing
partners) will rest with ILO-IPEC, as will overall responsibility for technical and financial management
and reporting to the relevant ILO departments and thereby to the donor. The project will follow
internally regulated, transparent procedures for timely disbursement of action programme to project
partners and for their accounting.


4.6 PARTNER AGENCIES
4.6.1      General
A full stakeholder analysis will be undertaken in each one of the 5 provinces. The outcomes will inform
the partnerships for implementation to be developed within provinces (these will likely be the
provincial and lower level bureaus of the key line-ministries in section 4.6.2). The selection of project
partners at provincial and national level will be based on ILO-IPEC selection criteria for implementing
partners and stakeholder analyses, and will be done in consultation with the NSC.
4.6.2      Key partnerships at country level
The project’s key entry point and partnership is with the All-China Women’s Federation (ACWF),
which is the biggest national women’s NGO with a mission to represent and safeguard women and
children’s rights and interests. In 2000, ACWF took the lead to set up the National Co-ordination
Group on Rights and Interests of Women and Children with 14 members from different line-ministries
and other relevant organizations. Its’ chair is the President of the ACWF who also is Vice-Chair of the
Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress. Within the ACWF, the Legal Department has
the formal responsibility for issues relating to women and children’s rights, including trafficking in
children and women. On behalf of ACWF, it participates in the law and policy-making process relating
to women and children. It publicizes legal knowledge among the masses of women, addresses

20
     These provincial committees already have a secretariat of 3-5 full-time staff and a budget for operations.

ILO-IPEC proposal                                                               25                 January 2004
complaints from women, and provides legal service for women victims. The Department on Children
co-ordinates with government departments on issues of children aged 0 to 18. The International
Liaison Department serves as focal point for international co-operation on behalf of the ACWF.

The ACWF will assume responsibility for co-ordination with other line-ministries on project related
matters and has created a project working team internally to facilitate project implementation.

Another partnership is envisaged with ILOs natural counterpart, the Ministry of Labour and Social
Security – specifically the department of employment and training, which is responsible for
employment and training in rural and urban areas, policies and strategies revolving around the
development of the labour market, and monitoring of labour market dynamics and policy
implementation. The department of legal affairs is responsible for labour and social security laws and
monitoring of labor market dynamics, recruitment practices by agencies and inspection and law
enforcement over illegal practices.

The Ministry of Education is responsible for promoting 9-years compulsory education at a macro-level
and is directly focused on one of the main target groups of the project – girls aged 12-15 that are at
risk of dropping out of school (and that are hence at risk of trafficking).

The Ministry of Public Security has been addressing trafficking in humans since the early 1990s,
mainly through formulating and improving laws and regulations to combat trafficking crimes, protect
the personal rights of women and children through legislation, and punish traffickers.

The All China Federation of Trade Unions has set up more than 4,000 job centers for unemployed
workers and has made great efforts in recent years to attract migrant workers and protect their rights.

The National Working Committee on Children and Women under the State Council is the central
government co-ordination body addressing children and women’s issues. It consists of
representatives of 32 ministries and government commissions and 5 NGOs. It is a discussion forum
and co-ordination organ for promoting relevant government departments to implement laws, policies
and regulations concerning the rights and interests of children and women.

A National Steering Committee on Trafficking has been formed through the TICW-project. Participants
include representatives of ministries that deal with issues of migration and trafficking including a
representative of the National Working Committee on Children and Women and representatives of the
National Co-ordination Group on the Rights and Interests of Women and Children. Efforts will be
made to engage the Ministry of Education and workers’ and employers’ organizations in the NSC.

The State Council includes research units such as the Research Centre for Development Studies and
the China Centre for Town Reform and Development. These units regularly conduct research on
mobility issues, and the State Council issues important documents that guide policy and
implementation in the area of migration.                                                        .




ILO-IPEC proposal                                                    26               January 2004
5         OBJECTIVES, OUTPUTS, ACTIVITIES AND INDICATORS

5.1       OBJECTIVES (Goal and Purpose)
The global objective of all ILO-IPEC projects is the elimination of child labour, giving priority to its
worst forms. In pursuit of this, the Development Objective (Goal) of the project is to contribute to the
elimination of labour exploitation of children and women, and in particular the trafficking in girls and
young women in China, through the development, implementation and monitoring of effective and
integrated national and provincial strategies and actions.
The Project has three immediate objectives designed to contribute to the development objective. Each
objective revolves around a specific category (in italics) as follows:
Knowledge base, advocacy and mobilization (inclusive):

Immediate Objective 1: By the end of the project, key stakeholders will have been mobilized
                       effectively to prevent trafficking in girls and young women for labour
                       exploitation.

Direct assistance through model interventions (focused):

Immediate objective 2: By the end of the project, integrated, effective and sustainable responses to
                       trafficking in girls and young women for labour exploitation are in place both in
                       sending and receiving areas and serve as ‘models’.

Policy & institutional framework (Enabling):

Immediate Objective 3: By the end of the project, national and sub-national policy frameworks and
                       implementation capacity to prevent trafficking in girls and young women for
                       labour exploitation will have been strengthened
These immediate objectives will be achieved through 6 key outputs, which will result in the
establishment and further development of sustainable and replicable mechanisms and services to
combat trafficking in China - subject to the risks and assumptions specified in the Logical Framework.
There are inevitable overlaps and linkages among the three categories, since the project is designed
holistically within an overarching strategic framework. Given the experience with the TICW-project it is
expected that strong links among the three objectives will help to materialize the development
objective of the project. Efforts have hence been made to cross-reference activities in the section
below.
Underpinning these three interlinked objectives are a number of cross-cutting themes. These are:
      •   Effective pro-poor government policies and initiatives (including vertical and horizontal
          linkages; linkages among sending and receiving areas; and a perspective that trafficking is a
          multi-faceted issue that should be understood in a broader labour migration framework)
      •   Mainstreaming and sustainability with a view to Chinese stakeholders increasingly assuming
          leadership to prevent trafficking;
      •   Child and youth centered approaches where their views and needs are considered at all
          stages of project implementation for needs-based responses.
      •   Gender equality considerations in both approaches and actions.




5.2       OUTPUTS AND ACTIVITIES



ILO-IPEC proposal                                                     27              January 2004
5.2.1   PREPARATORY ACTIVITIES

0.1.1    Set up full-fledged office in Beijing in ILO premises – including staff recruitment;

0.1.2    Set up offices in 5 provinces – including staff recruitment;

0.1.3    Train staff in operational procedures;

0.1.4   Develop flexible work plans for each one of the provinces and nationally – based on Section 5
        of this project document.

0.1.5   Develop, agree upon and have signed a Letter of Understanding between the ACWF and ILO
        for this specific project


5.2.2   KNOWLEDGE BASE, ADVOCACY AND MOBILIZATION (inclusive):

Immediate Objective 1:             By the end of the project, key stakeholders have been mobilized
                                   effectively to prevent trafficking in girls and young women for
                                   labour exploitation

Output 1.1      Strategy developed and implemented within each project province and
nationally for sound conceptual understanding of trafficking21 and its effective interventions
by key stakeholders

1.1.1   Conduct a more thorough stakeholder analysis (including relevant departments within
        ministries and other international organizations) 22 at national level (to map out institutional
        capacities and opportunities) based on the stakeholder table that is attached to this document
        (in ANNEX 3);                                                                                  ;

1.1.2   Following the stakeholder analysis review specifically the NSC membership and functioning
        with a view to improving roles & responsibilities as coordinating body 23 ;

1.1.3   At a fairly early stage discuss and review with NSC members (and Provincial Steering
        Committee members – see activity 1.1.7) the project’s logical framework, in particular its
        indicators. Modify where necessary and inform DFID-Beijing accordingly;

1.1.4   Conduct thorough provincial and lower level stakeholder analyses in Anhui, Henan, Hunan,
        Guangdong and Jiangsu (to map out institutional capacities and opportunities – including
        those offered by other international organizations);

1.1.5   Establish a baseline with regards to conceptual understanding on trafficking within China –
        including understanding of relevant Chinese laws and interpretations, and international laws
        and interpretations;

1.1.6   Devise - in a participatory manner – and establish an effective focal point mechanism
        amongst ministries with a view to mobilizing broader support within relevant line- ministries ;

1.1.7   Create Provincial and lower level steering committees with clear roles & responsibilities
        including endorsement authority by provincial level committees for direct assistance proposals
        (to be developed under objective 2)24.

21
   This should include common understanding of the international definition of trafficking including the labour
dimension, and an understanding that trafficking can take place in a broader labour migration framework where
‘blind’ or non-informed migration may result in trafficking.
22
   Such a more detailed analysis is necessary given the compartmentalized set up of line ministries, where multi-
faceted issues like trafficking could potentially be dealt with by a broad range of departments if there is
conceptual clarity as to the multi-dimensional nature of the issue and that it touches upon many related areas of
work.
23
   The NSC is recommended to include representatives of Workers’ & Employers’ Organizations, the Ministry of
Education and a range of other departments in already listed ministries.
24
   The committees to be created will, to the extent possible, capitalize on existing coordination bodies such as
Provincial and lower level Working Committees on Children and Women - and organize regular provincial and

ILO-IPEC proposal                                                           28                January 2004
1.1.8    Work with the National Steering Committee, national level focal points, and provincial and
         lower level committees to mobilize a broader range of stakeholders – and build co-ordination
         capacity in particular within the ACWF;

1.1.9    Conduct a strategic analysis of issues related to trafficking nationally and in the 5 target
         provinces (to the extent possible with other International Organizations such as SC-UK,
         UNICEF and UN-IAP) – aimed at identifying linkages between various issues related to the
         multi-faceted issue of trafficking, and identifying possible partnerships and/or ‘niches’ for
         different projects;

1.1.10 Develop communication tools and strategy to ensure the agreed upon conceptual
       understanding with regards to trafficking (including the international definition and a labour
       dimension of trafficking, and the articulation of trafficking in a broader migration framework)
       reaches down to village level in the 5 selected provinces25.

1.1.11 Organize exposure visits to pilot target sites in which direct assistance will be offered (see
       under Objective 2) and/or have local stakeholders do presentations during higher-level
       meetings (at prefectural, provincial and/or national level);

1.1.12 Nurture vertical links within the 5 target provinces for information sharing and focused
       planning and needs-based interventions;

1.1.13 Draw to the extent possible on relevant learning from the Yunnan-based TICW-project and
       possibly learning resulting from other projects/organizations;

1.1.14 Draw to the extent possible from the China delegation to the International Labour Conference
       in 2004 (where labour migration including trafficking will be on the agenda) and more broadly
       to the learning on migration and trafficking resulting from that Conference.

NB Output 1.1 is expected to materialize partly as a result of the validation workshops and national
level conference mentioned under output 1.2.


Output 1.2     Gaps in research and information relating to trafficking in girls and young
women for labour exploitation identified (including baselines for focused interventions), and
responses to these identified and addressed by key stakeholders

1.2.1    Consult key informants and map what relevant research efforts (on mobility issues) are
         ongoing and can be learnt from nationally and in the 5 provinces – and capitalize to the extent
         possible on the population census of 2000 and additional research with regards to
         motivations 26 in the selected provinces;                                                     ;

1.2.2    Also map out planned research efforts (including a survey in 10 provinces by FAFO) on
         mobility issues and advocate to include a focus on trafficking where appropriate;




lower level stakeholder ownership exercises, initially to create broader buy-in for a sound conceptual
understanding of trafficking, then to identify relevant and effective project partners in target sites, and later to
monitor direct assistance interventions under Objective 2.
25
   Given the size of China such a strategy will take time to implement, and should include documented learning
resulting from outcomes under objective 2. In this activity capitalize on the communication strategy that is under
development for the TICW-project, and work closely with ILO SRO specialists (e.g. in International Labour
Standards, on Child Labour, and on Gender) and staff of the TICW-project.
26
   The research is suggested to focus amongst others on the functioning of social networks.

ILO-IPEC proposal                                                             29                January 2004
1.2.3    Informed by the results of the above mentioned mapping efforts, design and conduct
         provincial studies in Anhui, Henan and Hunan Province focused on inter-provincial migration
         movement of people by age and sex (with a focus on girls and young women at risk of
         trafficking for labour exploitation; and those that left) and decision making processes
         (including issues revolving around the ‘son-centred’ family culture, broader gender analysis,
         and triggers for migration) 27 .                                                            .

1.2.4    Hold a validation workshop with key provincial level informants in Anhui, Henan, and Hunan to
         discuss and validate the draft findings, and advocate for follow up action;

1.2.5    Conduct research in urban agglomerations of Guangdong and Jiangsu Province with a focus
         on migrant intensive sectors of the economy in order to better understand the demand-side of
         the equation and treatment of workers, and with a view towards engaging with employers and
         workers organizations for decent work and prevention of trafficking 28 .

1.2.6    Hold a validation workshop with key provincial level informants in Guangdong and Jiangsu to
         discuss and validate the draft findings, and advocate for follow up action;

1.2.7    Conduct a study on the dynamics of recruitment practices within China – including pre-
         migration preparation and training - with a focus on the role of recruitment agencies and the
         Labour Bureaus, and vulnerability levels of migrant workers (as wished by MOLSS) 29 .

1.2.8    Hold a validation workshop with key ministerial representatives including NSC members to
         discuss and validate the draft findings, and advocate for follow up action;

1.2.9    Review the results of UNDP comparative study of international law and Chinese laws relating
         to CEDAW and ILO Conventions 30 to determine the extent to which trafficking has been
         covered (CRC and TNC comparisons should be made in addition to ILO Conventions 29 and
         182), and conduct additional review if appropriate. In all this consult ILOs International Labour
         Standards Specialist.                                                                           .

1.2.10 Conduct a related mapping exercise of existing national policies, structures, and enforcement
       practices to prevent trafficking in China, and identify gaps;                               ;

1.2.11 Hold a validation workshop with key government representatives including NSC members to
       discuss and validate the draft findings, and advocate for follow up action;           ;

1.2.12 In all the above, ensure a gender perspective and age dis-aggregation, inclusiveness and
       participatory pro-poor approaches through active engagement of a broad range of
       stakeholders including girls and young women, migrant workers, government officials,
       workers and employers, and members of steering committees at different levels – when
       reviewing both problems and potential solutions;                                       ;

1.2.13 Organize a national level conference where the results of all the above are presented and
       discussed to ensure common understanding and to identify interventions – this event (and the
       validation workshops) will feed into the 3rd objective;                                     ;


27
   ILO-SIMPOCs provincial survey method that is being pilot tested in Yunnan (and that was used successfully in
Laos) will serve as a basis for consultations with the State Statistical Bureau. The research results will serve as
baseline to identify geographical areas for direct assistance interventions (i.e. areas that have a big trafficking
problem), and the research will also be conducted with a view towards changing behaviour and family decisions
on non-informed or ‘blind’ migration. To the extent possible draw on experience of ILO SRO specialists (e.g. in
International Labour Standards, Child Labour, Gender) and staff of the TICW-project.
28
    Sectors to focus on could include the entertainment industry, domestic work, construction work, (light)
manufacturing, and small workshops. Methods used should include those covered in the recently released
‘Handbook for action-oriented research on the worst forms of child labour including trafficking’, and those used by
SCF-UK 28 . To the extent possible draw on experience of ILO SRO specialists (e.g. in International Labour
Standards, Child Labour, Gender) and staff of the TICW-project.
29
   The aim is to review the current operations (including provincial differences) with a view to identify best
practices and eradicate those that act to the detriment of workers rights. Draw to the extent possible on
experience of ILO-MIGRANT.
30
   Expected to be completed in March 2004.

ILO-IPEC proposal                                                            30                 January 2004
1.2.14 Arrange for exposure to learning resulting from the outcomes under objective 2 for better
       targeted future interventions.                                                          .

1.2.15 During these various high-level meetings efforts will be made to always refer to the project
       logical framework, review the indicators, and build momentum for integrated planning at
       provincial and national level.


5.2.3    DIRECT ASSISTANCE THROUGH MODEL INTERVENTIONS (focused)

Immediate objective 2:       By the end of the project, integrated, effective and sustainable
                             responses to trafficking in girls and young women for labour
                             exploitation are in place both in sending and receiving areas and
                             serve as ‘models’
Output 2.1    Pilot projects of community-owned preventive interventions undertaken and
monitored for impact, evaluated, and documented for replication within sending provinces
(Anhui, Henan and Hunan Province)
2.1.1    Identify geographical areas (villages, townships and counties) for direct assistance following
         the baseline results of the research undertaken under output 1.2 31 .                        .

2.1.2    Work with prospected local partners and local youth (in a participatory manner) on specific
         problem analysis and potential solutions;                                                 ;

2.1.3    Provide training to prospected partner agencies on project design and implementation
         (including process based approaches, participatory processes, gender equality promotion,
         management of change, and monitoring) – to the extent possible capitalizing on POM, MAMA
         and TIAs                                                                                ;

2.1.4    Conduct further research (to the extent necessary) to establish baselines of the family
         situation of intended beneficiaries (girls and young women at risk of trafficking) to enable
         proper monitoring of direct assistance interventions;                                       ;

2.1.5    Design focused project interventions with local partner organizations to prevent trafficking –
         including the design of participatory monitoring mechanisms that not only aim at monitoring
         progress made but also empowerment of intended beneficiaries (girls and young women at
         risk of trafficking)32.

2.1.6    Have the proposals for direct assistance submitted to the respective Provincial Steering
         Committee for endorsement and the National Steering Committee for verification (and final
         approval by ILO-IPEC in Beijing). Each provincial committee will be able to tap into
         approximately USD 200,000 (from ILO-IPEC in Beijing) for focused and decentralized
         interventions through partner agencies;                                                 ;

2.1.7    Once approved, develop a local backstopping mechanism. Such a system should support (1)
         Provision of support in maintaining village baseline data, and support in analyzing data to
         inform decision-making and local planning; (2) Backstopping of village planning and
         participatory decision-making processes, good governance, mobilizing manpower for a
         common cause, pooling of resources, and improving access to existing services; (3)
         Facilitation and backstopping of monitoring mechanisms that empower local stakeholders and
         result in documentation of learning;




31
   Selected target sites should currently be sending places of large numbers of labour migrants - especially of
girls and young women, and show commitment to address the issue of trafficking for labour exploitation. The
areas should be ‘sending’ areas rather than ‘receiving’ areas.
32
   A list of possible suggestions for project interventions is available in the draft project document available in the
TICW-project office in Bangkok.

ILO-IPEC proposal                                                               31                 January 2004
2.1.8    Support the documentation of lessons learnt and good practices for (1) broader replication in
         other geographical areas, (2) mainstreaming of successful practices into government policy,
         and (3) future policies that are informed by realities in project target sites33.

2.1.9    Also cross-share learning with like-minded agencies such as SCF-UK and the DFID/ACWF
         project on ‘Advocacy and skills training for poor adolescent girls’, and with the TICW-project
         and other relevant ILO interventions;                                                        ;

2.1.10 Where possible also link preventive interventions with interventions under output 2.2 (e.g.
       data collection from victims of trafficking in Guangdong and Jiangsu may help to better target
       preventive interventions in Anhui, Henan and Hunan; awareness raising by former victims of
       trafficking may be undertaken in Anhui, Henan and Hunan; and well-informed labour migration
       may result in decent jobs with decent pay in Guangdong and Jiangsu)


Output 2.2     Pilot projects of ‘city neighbourhood-owned’ preventive interventions
undertaken and monitored for impact, evaluated, and documented for replication in urban
centers of Jiangsu and Guangdong Province (receiving provinces)

2.2.1    Identify geographical areas (urban agglomerations that receive lots of migrants) for direct
         assistance following the research undertaken under output 1.2 34.                         .

2.2.2    Work with prospected local partners and local youth (in a participatory manner) on specific
         problem analysis and potential solutions;                                                 ;

2.2.3    Provide training to prospected partner agencies on project design and implementation
         (including process based approaches, participatory processes, gender equality promotion,
         management of change, and monitoring) – to the extent possible capitalizing on the POM,
         MAMA and TIAs;                                                                         ;

2.2.4    Conduct further research (to the extent necessary) to determine sectors and types of work
         with victims of trafficking in girls and young women (e.g. entertainment industry, domestic
         work, construction work, (light) manufacturing, and small workshops). Also determine current
         levels of understanding of what constitutes trafficking, and current response mechanisms (as
         baseline                       for                      new                    interventions);

2.2.5    Design focused project interventions with local partner organizations to prevent trafficking –
         including the design of participatory monitoring mechanisms that not only aim at monitoring
         progress made but also empowerment of intended beneficiaries (girls and young women
         victims of trafficking)35.

2.2.6    Have the proposals for direct assistance submitted to the respective Provincial Steering
         Committee for endorsement and verification by the National Steering Committee (and
         approval by ILO-IPEC in Beijing). Each provincial committee will be able to tap into
         approximately USD 200,000 (from ILO-IPEC in Beijing) for focused and decentralized
         interventions through partner agencies;                                                ;

2.2.7    Once approved, develop a local backstopping mechanism. Such a mechanism should support
         the following: (1) Provision of support in maintaining baseline data, and support in analyzing
         data to inform decision-making and planning; (2) Backstopping of participatory decision-
         making processes, good governance, mobilizing manpower for a common cause, pooling of
         resources, and improving access to existing services; (3) Facilitation and backstopping of
         monitoring mechanisms that empower local stakeholders and result in documentation of
         learning;

33
   To the extent possible such documentation should explain to what extent the preventive trafficking
interventions have contributed to general poverty alleviation and/or reduction of the east-west gap, so as to
create incentives for similar government funded initiatives.
34
   Selected target cities should currently receive large numbers of girls and young women that end in the informal
sector, and these cities should be committed to addressing trafficking for labour exploitation.
35
   A list of possible suggestions for project interventions is available in the draft project document available in the
TICW-project office in Bangkok.

ILO-IPEC proposal                                                               32                 January 2004
2.2.8    Support the documentation of lessons learnt and good practices for (1) broader replication in
         other geographical areas, (2) mainstreaming of successful practices into government policy,
         and (3) future policies that are informed by realities in project target sites. To the extent
         possible such documentation should explain to what extent the preventive trafficking
         interventions have contributed to general poverty alleviation and/or reduction of the east-west
         gap, so as to create incentives for similar government funded initiatives;

2.2.9    Also cross-share learning with like-minded agencies such as SCF-UK and the DFID/ACWF
         project on ‘Advocacy and skills training for poor adolescent girls’, and with the TICW-project
         and other relevant ILO interventions;                                                        ;

2.2.10 Where possible also link the interventions with preventive interventions under output 2.1 (e.g.
       data collection from victims of trafficking in Guangdong and Jiangsu may help to better target
       preventive interventions in Anhui, Henan and Hunan; awareness raising by former victims of
       trafficking may be undertaken in Anhui, Henan and Hunan; and well-informed labour migration
       may result in decent jobs with decent pay in Guangdong and Jiangsu).

5.2.4    POLICY & INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK (Enabling):

Immediate Objective 3:             By the end of the project, national and sub-national policy
                                   frameworks and implementation capacity to prevent trafficking in
                                   girls and young women for labour exploitation will have been
                                   strengthened
Output 3.1     Provincial and lower level policy frameworks, structures, processes and staff
skills to prevent trafficking in girls and young women for labour exploitation reviewed and
improvements suggested – including sound migration management arrangements between
sending and receiving provinces36

3.1.1   Review regularly with village, township, county, prefectural and the provincial committees (in
        selected target sites) progress made in terms of specific project interventions (see objective
        2)                                                                                            ;

3.1.2   Where necessary offer training to build ‘process management’ capacity at various levels (from
        province down to village level) based on tools developed under the TICW-project 37 .

3.1.3   Work with all levels within the 5 provinces towards more holistic responses by linking policy
        areas and services, and by improving access to existing services (for girls and young women
        at risk of trafficking), and review with them gaps in current frameworks, structures, policies
        and processes. Also review with them documented learning from pilot projects in the 5
        provinces and those resulting from the TICW-project in Yunnan, along with possible learning
        from         other        projects      (e.g.     SC-UK,         UNICEF,        ACWF/DFID);

3.1.4   Work with core members of the 5 Provincial Steering Committees (and the Yunnan-based
        Provincial Steering Committee under the TICW-project) to review the following on the issue of
        trafficking: (1) national – provincial links, (2) links between sending and receiving provinces, (3)
        pro-poor needs based planning – all with a view to identifying possible improvements in these
        structures and mechanisms (and compare the results with similar efforts undertaken under
        output 3.2);




36
  I.e. between Anhui and Henan & Jiangsu; and between Hunan & Guangdong.
37
  These tools will need to be adapted for context and validated by a core group of trainers who use the vertical
channels to reach down and build capacity at the lowest levels and build in assurances with regards to follow up.
Particular attention will be given to co-ordination capacity of staff of the ACWF.

ILO-IPEC proposal                                                           33                January 2004
3.1.5    Following identified gaps, discuss ways of addressing these to the extent possible through
         local resources – and ensure that improved linkages between sending and receiving
         provinces are covered. Where necessary arrange for necessary technical assistance to
         address identified concerns, and capitalize to the extent possible on learning from the TICW-
         project;
3.1.6    Where necessary offer training to build ‘process management’ capacity in selected provincial
         bureaus, and ensure follow up in terms of modifications in the policy framework, structures,
         mechanisms and processes;                                                                   ;

3.1.7    Bring core representatives from the 5 provinces together to work towards the development of
         interlinked provincial plans to prevent trafficking in girls and young women - following the
         learning under all outputs to date38.
3.1.8    In all the above be ready to modify the intervention strategy when government driven
         opportunities arise;

3.1.9    Work with provincial governments towards launching the plan during an official ceremony.


Output 3.2      National policy framework, structures, processes and staff skills to prevent
trafficking in girls and young women for labour exploitation reviewed and improvements
suggested - based on sub-national experiences and realities (output 3.1) and new conceptual
understanding (output 1.1)                                                                 .

3.2.1    Consult with key donors such as DFID, USAID, German Embassy/GTZ, and UNICEF, SCF-
         UK, Beijing based think tanks, and the Sub-regional Project Office (SRO) in Bangkok to obtain
         their ideas and recommendations on the development of a national policy framework and
         implementation (& monitoring) mechanism to prevent trafficking in girls and young women
         (and/or more broadly trafficking in humans – though the project would focus on the smaller
         ‘niche’);
3.2.2    Expose National Steering Committee members occasionally to activities ongoing in target
         sites (see objective 2) and periodically review with them learning points to be used to improve
         national and provincial level frameworks. Also review with them documented learning from
         pilot projects in the 5 provinces and those resulting from the TICW-project in Yunnan, along
         with possible learning from other projects (e.g. SC-UK, UNICEF, ACWF/DFID);
3.2.3    Review – with the National Steering Committee - the existing government efforts to combat
         trafficking in girls and young women so as to have a baseline with a view to improve these
         efforts39;
3.2.4    Work with ministerial focal points (see under output 1.1) and core members of the 5 provincial
         steering committees to set up a technical team that reviews the following on the issue of
         trafficking: (1) inter-ministerial co-ordination, (2) provincial – national links, (3) links between

38
   The plan to be implemented should: (a) be financed through local resources (government & civil society); (b)
link up with and be integrated into national and provincial development strategies (including government efforts to
urbanize and industrialize rural areas); (c) be embedded in the framework of the Millenium Development Goals;
(d) be based on learning resulting from anti-trafficking work in the five selected project provinces and Yunnan
province, and possible learning from other anti-trafficking projects such as SCF-UK; (e) address and have
considered views and perspectives of girls and young women at risk of trafficking – and be based on a thorough
gender analysis; (f) consider learning on maximizing benefits of migration and reducing risks of exploitation and
trafficking – as documented in the statements of conclusions of recent conferences such as the DFID-funded
meeting in Dhaka (‘Migration, development and pro-poor policy choices’, June 2003) and the ILO Regional tri-
partite meeting on labour migration in Asia (July 2003) – see annexes for details; (g) pay attention to the nature of
urbanization (and industrialization) and the political and social implications of rural to urban migration; (h) have
horizontal links with related provinces – in particular links between ‘sending’ and ‘receiving’ provinces; (i) identify
relevant social protection mechanisms including access to low cost credit for poor migrants; (j) have trafficking
mainstreamed into the priorities of all key provincial bureaus through provincial actions/interventions to combat
trafficking, and through conducting ‘trafficking impact assessments’ on provincial priorities so as to determine
possible negative side-effects on trafficking of the various policies; (k) include a clear division of roles and
responsibilities, time-frame, budget, and indicators of achievement; (l) feed into national level planning efforts; (m)
capitalize on possible learning with regards to inter-provincial anti-trafficking arrangements in Northern Thailand.
39
   The review will amongst others cover the extent to which national anti-trafficking efforts are embedded in
national development policies (e.g. poverty eradication programmes), are linked to provincial plans, and are
based on a process of engagement of villagers at risk of trafficking.

ILO-IPEC proposal                                                               34                 January 2004
        sending and receiving provinces, and (4) pro-poor needs based planning – all with a view to
        identifying possible improvements in these structures and mechanisms (and compare the
        results with similar efforts undertaken under output 3.1);
3.2.5   Following identified gaps, discuss ways of addressing these to the extent possible through
        national resources – and ensure that improved linkages between sending and receiving
        provinces are covered. Where necessary arrange for necessary technical assistance to
        address identified concerns, and capitalize to the extent possible on learning from the TICW-
        project and relevant TBPs;
3.2.6   Where necessary offer training to build ‘process management’ capacity in selected key
        ministries such as ACWF, Ministry of Labour & Social Security, Ministry of Public Security and
        the Ministry of Education40.
3.2.7   Organize occasional follow-up meetings for monitoring, information sharing and further
        consultation with DFID, USAID, German Embassy/GTZ, and UNICEF, SCF-UK, Beijing based
        think tanks, and the Sub-regional Project Office (SRO) in Bangkok for continued collaboration
        in lobbying national authorities;
3.2.8   Work with the key ministries whose capacity was built (and others including the State
        Planning Commission) towards the development of a national plan41 to prevent trafficking in
        girls and young women - following the learning under all outputs42.
3.2.9   In all the above be ready to modify the intervention strategy when government driven
        opportunities arise;

3.2.10 Work with the government towards launching the plan during an official ceremony.


5.3     INDICATORS
Indicators for each of the Immediate Objectives are given in the logical framework (see below, Annex
1). Indicators for specific pilot projects in the 5 provinces are to be developed with local stakeholders
during the implementation of the overall project. These indicators will have to be ‘SMART’ - Specific,
Measurable, Achievable and realistic, Relevant, Time-bound.




40
   Capitalize on tools developed under the TICW-project, and ensure follow up in terms of modifications in the
policy framework, structures, mechanisms and processes.
41
   The ACWF already suggested the following title for the future plan, namely: ‘Multi-Sectoral Cooperative
National Advocacy Strategy on Anti-trafficking’.
42
   See footnote 38.


ILO-IPEC proposal                                                         35               January 2004
6       MANAGEMENT, MONITORING AND EVALUATION
6.1 SUPERVISON, APPROVAL PROCEDURES AND REPORTING

Supervision

Management and supervision of the project will be carried out according to regular ILO procedures.
ILO-IPEC in Geneva will have overall responsibility for effective project implementation.

The China Project Manager/Chief Technical Advisor (CTA) to the project will be under the
administrative supervision of and report to the ILO Area Office Director in Beijing. The Project
Manager/CTA will receive technical guidance and draw experience from SRO Bangkok, in particular
the CTA of the TICW-project and the Child Labour Specialist. Detailed annual work-plans will be
drawn up for the CTA and submitted to ILO-IPEC management in Geneva. An analysis of tasks and
human resources foreseen to carry out the activities outlined in section 5 of the project document is
included in Annex 4.

A National Project Co-ordinator (NPC) who is already in place will be absorbed by the new China
project. She will report to the Project Manager/CTA and will directly work with the five Provincial
Project Co-ordinators (PPCs)43. The PPCs in each province will supervise all project activity in their
respective province and report to the CTA (and NPC). The NPC will be responsible for project
activities at national level and report to the Project Manager/CTA. The NPC and PPCs will work under
the day-to-day supervision and guidance of the Project Manager/CTA.

Upon completion of project baselines in the first year of the project life-cycle, a Project Monitoring Plan
(PMP) will be prepared modifying the list of indicators where appropriate to ensure that the indicators
are detailed, quantifiable, and result-oriented - and are based on the results of baselines and an
assessment        of        the     feasibility      of       the         means        of      verification.

Approval and reporting procedures

In each of the 5 selected provinces, Provincial Steering Committees (PSC) will be set up – along with
the already existing National Steering Committee on trafficking within China.

The implementation of project activities will be sub-contracted in part to implementing agencies44. In
line with regular ILO-IPEC procedures, agreements between the implementing agency and the ILO,
including an Action Programme Summary Outline (APSO, i.e. a project proposal in logical framework
format) and a detailed budget will be drawn up by the implementing agencies in consultation with
project staff (and will to the extent possible engage girls and young women in the design process).

Each APSO developed at provincial level will need the endorsement from the relevant PSC before
being submitted for ILO-IPEC final approval – following a model that was set up under the TICW-
project in Yunnan Province. National level Action Programmes will need the endorsement of the NSC
before being submitted for ILO-IPEC approval.

ILO-IPEC will obtain the approval of relevant ILO departments on the basis of the APSOs. On
signature of sub-contracts between the implementing agencies and the ILO, the agencies will submit a
detailed work plan. Progress and financial reports, and expenditure forecasts will be prepared by the
implementing agencies (i) on a four-monthly basis for agencies that need frequent monitoring and
assistance to comply with the reporting requirements; (ii) on a six-monthly basis for agencies, which
demonstrate they can comply with reporting requirements without difficulty. Twice a year participatory
project monitoring will be undertaken with relevant project stakeholders including children and young
people. All reports will be presented in standard ILO-IPEC format.

Prospected partner agencies and new project staff will receive training in ILO-IPEC reporting,
participatory monitoring and administrative procedures. Such training will be offered in collaboration
with ILO office staff in Beijing (in particular on financial and administrative procedures). For technical
training the management team in Beijing will use the newly developed Programme Operations Manual,

43
  Who will likely not speak English.
44
  Such as line ministries and mass organizations at national level, and provincial bureaus and/or workers’ and
employers’ organizations at provincial and lower levels.

ILO-IPEC proposal                                                         36               January 2004
and will to the extent possible draw on specific tools developed under the TICW-project. Continued
support in working with ILO-IPEC procedures will be offered to project partners by the respective
PPCs, or the NPM in case of national level APSOs.

In addition to interventions through implementing agencies, project staff will undertake other activities
to achieve outputs and objectives. These will include meetings, workshops, training sessions,
networking and advocacy activities, studies and consultancies.

Project staff will prepare a report to DFID-Beijing twice a year – covering progress towards achieving
project objectives (both through activities of project staff and work by implementing partners).


6.2     INTEGRATED SYSTEMS OF PARTICIPATORY MONITORING AND EVALUATION

Participatory monitoring and evaluation (PM&E) for assessment of progress and learning

The project will stress an approach that encourages stakeholder participation at all stages, from
planning to implementation to evaluation and documentation of learning. Particular emphasis will be
put on participatory monitoring mechanisms – not only to check project progress but also to stimulate
learning and empowerment of increasing numbers of project stakeholders. Part of this will revolve
around active use and review of indicators. Participatory monitoring will be undertaken at the lowest
possible level while engaging ‘higher’ levels in the analysis and sharing of learning (see ‘proposed
project approaches’ in section 2.3 for more details).

At the level of the community, systems will be developed with stakeholders through participatory
methods, identifying the key areas for assessment and appraisal, key data collection needs, and key
participants in the process. Formal agreement is reached between the stakeholders on their roles and
responsibilities in the PM&E process and on how the information and understanding generated will be
used to inform planning at local and other levels. At county and higher levels, PM&E can be used to
facilitate coordination and convergence of the planning process and ensure that relevant information
and understanding is shared across sectors and organizations.

Collaboration with SC-UK’s anti-trafficking interventions in China is expected to provide an opportunity
to assess and, if necessary, improve the participation of children and young people in PM&E. The
capacity building efforts on gender equality promotion to be undertaken as part of the GECL project
(see section 2.4.3) are also expected to improve the range and quality of the information being
provided.

Self Evaluation

Self evaluations will be undertaken by the project once per year (except in the years of the mid term
and final evaluations) in accordance with ILO-IPEC methodology. Further internal appraisals of
progress will also be made with the participation of national stakeholders and, where necessary and
appropriate, with external expertise in specific substantive areas. These appraisals will provide an
opportunity to the project team for learning and assessing the project’s impact on target groups. In
case the project proceeds slower than anticipated ‘early warning’ will be opted for and may lead to
further review to determine the need for possible amendments to the project document.




ILO-IPEC proposal                                                     37               January 2004
Independent, external review

The project strategy presumes that near the mid-way point of TICW Phase II (i.e. at the end of 2005),
an independent, external mid-term review exercise will be undertaken to assess progress of that
project, and a review of the outlined strategy. Given that the China project capitalizes to a large extent
on the learning to date in the TICW-project and runs more or less in sync (time-wise) with Phase II of
the TICW-project, it is envisaged that the independent external review could be a combined exercise
with considerable potential for cross-learning.

The independent external review of the China national project will be aimed at assessing progress
with regards to ‘output to purpose’ (or ‘output to immediate objectives)’45. The exact nature of the
review exercise (purpose, timing, issues to be addressed, approach and methodology etc.) will be
decided in consultation with partners, including DFID-Beijing. The Design, Evaluation &
Documentation section (DED) at IPEC headquarters will manage the review. The review will also be
an opportunity to more broadly assess progress in terms of combating trafficking in China beyond the
5 provinces and will consider the possible need for continued interventions beyond the currently
planned life-span of the project.

Final Evaluation

A final project evaluation will be undertaken in the final year of project implementation (in late
2007/early 2008) with the primary aim of maximizing learning from project experiences and to
disseminate these as appropriate. The exact nature of the final evaluation (purpose, timing, issues to
be addressed, approach and methodology etc.) will be decided in consultation with partners, including
DFID-Beijing three months prior to the scheduled evaluation date.

NB. The Design, Evaluation & Documentation section (DED) at IPEC headquarters will coordinate the
consultation and planning of all independent evaluations. Appropriate partners, stakeholders and
DFID-Beijing will be involved in the process including the option of participating in the evaluations, and
will receive a copy of evaluation reports.




45
  The review will include a focus on the location of the project office in the premises of the ILO office in Beijing,
and the extent to which conditions have been met for a transfer of premises to the ACWF.

ILO-IPEC proposal                                                             38                 January 2004
7       INPUTS – ERASED EXCEPT THE FOLLOWING:
Human resources

Human resource requirements are detailed in Annex 4.

Infrastructure

Provincial project offices in Anhui, Guangdong, Henan, Hunan and Jiangsu will be established and fully
equipped with necessary computers, printer, photocopier, telephone and fax. Having project staff
located in the premises of the provincial ACWF is expected to facilitate close backstopping. ACWF
agreed to offer office premises and meeting room facilities to the project at no cost.

The ILO-IPEC project office in Beijing will initially46 be located in the premises of the ILO Area Office.
This will facilitate mainstreaming of the project into ILO country programme planning and provides it
easy access to expert services by a range of staff, political support by the Area Office Director, and
direct access to a computerized financial system 47 . The area office has made provisional
arrangements for the necessary office space, but will only be able to formalize the arrangement upon
receiving confirmation from DFID with regards to approval of the project proposal. The project office in
Beijing will be fully equipped as described before under provincial project offices




46
 The situation will be reviewed during the mid-term evaluation (see section 6.2).
47
 Other arguments for initially being located in the ILO Office were tabled during a recent UN Heads of Agency
meeting and were communicated by phone to DFID-Beijing by ILOs Area office Director on 20 January 2004.

ILO-IPEC proposal                                                        39                January 2004
8       BUDGET
DFID-Beijing will donate USD 2,250,000 through ILO for project activities. In addition it will provide
ILO with a budget to manage and technically backstop the project according to UN standards –
including coverage of 13 full-time staff. The Chinese government has committed upfront an amount
of USD 316,000, and will provide free space for five provincial project offices (by ACWF), and may
contribute additional funds during the course of implementation of the project.

Key budget items in USD in ILO financial years as funded by DFID (except the amounts in red)

Description of budget   Total   Total USD wm USD20 wm USD20 wm USD20 wm USD20 wm USD20
line                     wm                04   04 05    05 06    06 07    07 08    08

1. BUDGET ITEMS THAT DIRECTLY COVER COSTS OF PROJECT ACTIVITIES:

1.1 INTERVENTIONS (INCLUDING MONITORING) BY PARTNERS
Strategic reserve                 100,000 9 25,000 12 25,000 12 25,000 12 20,000 3                  5,000
National level *                  100,000 9 20,000 12 20,000 12 25,000 12 30,000 3                  5,000
Anhui Province *                  200,000 9 40,000 12 70,000 12 70,000 12 20,000 3                      0
Guangdong Province *              180,000 9 30,000 12 60,000 12 60,000 12 30,000 3                      0
Henan Province *                  220,000 9 45,000 12 75,000 12 70,000 12 30,000 3                      0
Hunan Province *                  220,000 9 45,000 12 75,000 12 70,000 12 30,000 3                      0
Jiangsu Province *                180,000 9 30,000 12 60,000 12 60,000 12 30,000 3                      0
Component total                 1,200,000      245,000    375,000       370,000    200,000         10,000
NB In addition partner agencies will contribute a minimum of 10 % - valued at USD 120,000 in total

1.2 TRAINING, MEETINGS, CONFERENCES
Strategic resource                  100,000 9 20,000 12 20,000 12 20,000 12 40,000 3                       0
National level *                    200,000 9 50,000 12 50,000 12 40,000 12 55,000 3                   5,000
Anhui Province *                     80,000 9 20,000 12 20,000 12 18,000 12 18,000 3                   4,000
Guangdong Province *                 80,000 9 20,000 12 20,000 12 18,000 12 18,000 3                   4,000
Henan Province *                     80,000 9 20,000 12 20,000 12 18,000 12 18,000 3                   4,000
Hunan Province *                     80,000 9 20,000 12 20,000 12 18,000 12 18,000 3                   4,000
Jiangsu Province *                   80,000 9 20,000 12 20,000 12 18,000 12 18,000 3                   4,000
Component total                     700,000       170,000       170,000     150,000     185,000       25,000
NB In addition Women’s Federations and various government departments at both provincial and
national levels will cover travel costs of their staff to meetings, conferences and training – valued at
USD 196,000 in total (an estimated 40 % of meetings and trainings will be to build capacity, and an
estimated 70 % of the cost of such events is travel).

1.3 TECHNICAL ADVISORY SERVICES – for consultancies
Component total            350,000      90,000      70,000                100,000       90,000            0

GRAND TOTALS                     2,250,000      505,000      615,000      620,000      475,000       35,000

* = Any proposals under these budget items need endorsement by the National Steering Committee.



9       RISKS AND UNDERTAKINGS - ERASED




ILO-IPEC proposal                                                        40                January 2004
     ANNEX 1: LOGICAL FRAMEWORK ANALYSIS

OVERALL OBJECTIVE                     OBJECTIVELY VERIFIABLE INDICATORS (OVIs)                          MEANS OF VERIFICATION                   RISKS/ ASSUMPTIONS
(GOAL)                                                                                                         (MOV)
To contribute to the                                                                                                                   • No recurrence of SARS
elimination of labour                                                                                                                  • Socio-economic stability in urban areas
exploitation of children and                                                                                                             despite migrant influx combined with
women, and in particular the                                                                                                             local lay-offs from State Owned
trafficking in girls and young                                                                                                           Enterprises
women for labour
exploitation in China,
through the development,
implementation and
monitoring of effective and
integrated national and
provincial strategies and
actions.


  IMMEDIATE OBJECTIVE
                                                             OVIs                                                                                      RISKS/
      (PURPOSE) 1                                                                                                 MOV
                                                                                                                                                    ASSUMPTIONS
 [Advocacy & Mobilization]
                                  •   Statements by policy makers and policy documents             •     Public statements and press   • Willingness within the Chinese
By the end of the project,            that refer to the down-side of migration (including                coverage                        government to broaden their trafficking
key stakeholders will have            trafficking) and include trafficking for labour                                                    understanding (and their recognized
been mobilized effectively to         exploitation;                                                •     Partner progress reports        definition)
prevent trafficking in girls      •   Workers & Employers organizations initiatives that                                               • Continued commitment at national and
and young women for labour            address trafficking;                                         •     Project progress reports,       provincial level to work with the project
exploitation                      •   Government initiatives that address trafficking beyond             NSC committee minutes
                                      kidnapping of babies and trafficking for marriage;           •     Media coverage
                                  •   Media interest in trafficking for labour exploitation        •     Policy statements, speeches
                                      (quantity and quality)
                                  •   Perspectives of girls and young women appreciated by
                                      policy makers

Output 1.1                       •    Pilot projects that address trafficking for labour            •     Pilot project progress       • Cooperation of NSC members to co-
Strategy developed and                exploitation                                                        reports;                       opt new members
implemented within each          •    Policy makers that recognize the down-side of                 •     Speeches & public            • Interest and engagement of workers
project province and                  migration (including trafficking) in public statements              statements                     and employers
nationally for sound             •    Composition of National Steering Committee                                                       • National and Provincial financial
conceptual understanding of
           48
                                      (rationalized/enlarged)                                       •     NSC minutes                    contributions for coordination
trafficking and its effective    •    Functioning Provincial Steering Committees
interventions by key             •    Functioning inter-ministerial arrangements (in particular     •     PSC minutes and PM&E
stakeholders                          between PSB, MOLSS and ACWF)                                  •     Minutes of relevant inter-

48
  This should include common understanding of the international definition of trafficking including the labour dimension, and an understanding that trafficking can take place in
a broader labour migration framework where ‘blind’ or non-informed migration may result in trafficking.


ILO-IPEC proposal                                                            41                   January 2004
                                 •   Collaboration with Ministry of Education on trafficking           ministerial meetings;
                                 •   Approved research plans focus on the down-side of             •   Reports by focal points
                                     migration                                                     •   Research plan
                                 •   National officials that report on target site visits in
                                     meetings                                                     •    Minutes of meetings
Output 1.2                       •    Baseline on incidence, situation of trafficking in girls    •    Progress reports of               Sufficient support and clearance for
Gaps in research and                  and young women for labour labour migration in                   partners, PM&E                    good quality research on the sensitive
information relating to               selected sending areas documented and disseminated                                                 issue of trafficking
trafficking in girls and young        to concerned parties
                                                                                                                                         Cooperation of target audiences in
women for labour                 •    Sex and age disaggregated data;                             •    Data sets
                                                                                                                                         receiving and sharing information
exploitation identified          •    Perspectives of girls and young women that are              •    Available research reports
(including baselines for              included in research findings                                                                      Government officials appreciate
focused interventions), and      •    Baseline on incidence, situation of trafficking in girls    •    Progress reports of               perspectives of target groups
responses to these                    and young women for labour labour migration in                   partners, PM&E
identified and addressed by                                                                                                              Government officials appreciate good
                                      selected receiving areas that are documented and
key stakeholders                                                                                                                         qualitative information
                                      disseminated to concerned parties
                                 •    Quality information on migration dynamics including         •    Policy papers, minutes of
                                      role of recruitment agencies that is used by planners            meetings
                                 •    Number of national and provincial meeting held to           •    Minutes of meetings
                                      share experience and discuss on the research and
                                      information that has become available
                                 •    New information on trafficking for labour exploitation      •    NSC/PSC minutes, PM&E,
                                      that is accessible and used by policy makers at                  Government policy
                                      different levels                                                 documents, Migration
                                                                                                       publications by MOLSS,
                                                                                                       State Planning Commission,
                                                                                                       CASS, etc
   IMMEDIATE OBJECTIVE
                                                            OVIs                                                                                      RISKS/
         (PURPOSE) 2                                                                                            MOV
                                                                                                                                                   ASSUMPTIONS
      [Direct Assistance]
By the end of the project,       •   Interest in pilot tested models by non-target counties       •    Documented requests             • Partners’ commitment to learning
integrated, effective and            and non-target prefectures within target provinces                and/or exposure trips by          through sharing continues and barriers
sustainable responses to                                                                               non-target counties and           are not erected
trafficking in girls and young                                                                         prefectures for project         • Partner agencies are willing to improve
women for labour                 •   National and/or other provinces interest in replicating           learning;                         access by girls and young women to
exploitation are in place            the models that has been developed                           •    Documented requests by            existing services (including education,
both in sending and                                                                                    non-target provinces and          training, and credit facilities)
receiving areas and serve as                                                                           national government officials   • Vast numbers of girls and young
‘models’                                                                                               for documented project            women will continue to want to migrate
                                                                                                       learning;                         to urban centers along the east coast
                                 •   Other organizations’ interest in documented project          •    Reports of exposure               given current population pressures and
                                     learning as expressed in meetings and                             trips/study tours to project      economic development
                                     communications                                                    target sites                    • Partner agencies develop sufficient
                                                                                                  •    Inter-agency meeting              understanding of the role of pilots as
                                                                                                       minutes                           catalysts for changes in larger


ILO-IPEC proposal                                                           42                   January 2004
                                                                                                                                   catalysts for changes in larger
                                                                                                                                   frameworks
Output 2.1                     •   Incidence of trafficking in girls and young women in the    •   PM&E, (updated) baselines   •   Community members support a
                                   target areas of sending provinces                                                               specific focus on girls and young
Pilot projects of community-
                               •   Community initiatives and volunteer mechanims that          •   Partner progress reports        women
owned preventive
                                   prevent trafficking                                                                         •   Sufficient information available to make
interventions undertaken
and monitored for impact,      •   Outreach of existing government services to girls and       •   PM&E                            informed decisions on target sites
evaluated, and documented          young women at risk                                                                         •   Stakeholders agree to work in most
for replication within         •   Awareness and understanding on the risk of traffickers      •   PM&E                            problematic geographical (sending)
sending provinces (Anhui,          among girls, young women and parents groups                                                     areas
Henan and Hunan Province)      •   Functioning partner backstopping mechanisms;                •   Partner progress reports    •   Cooperation of target audiences in
                               •   Documented learning that is quoted and used by policy                                           receiving and sharing of information
                                   makers                                                      •   Policy statements and       •   Communities and local officials willing
                                                                                                    speeches                       and able to work holistically (linking
                                                                                                                                   services)

Output 2.2                     •   Accessibility of existing government services to girls      •   PM&E                        •   Sufficient information available to make
                                   and young women at risk                                                                         informed decisions on target sites
Pilot projects of ‘city
                               •   Statements from public figures concerning non-              •   Public statements &         •   Stakeholders agree to work in most
neighbourhood-owned’
                                   employment of under-age girls and decent                                     speeches           problematic geographical (receiving)
preventive interventions
                                   employment for young women                                                                      areas
undertaken and monitored
for impact, evaluated, and     •   Worker & employer initiatives that prevent trafficking;                                     •   Cooperation of target audiences in
documented for replication     •   PSC awareness of pilot initiatives                          •   W&E progress reports            receiving and sharing of information
in urban centers of Jiangsu    •   Functioning partner backstopping mechanisms;                •   Minutes of PSC meetings     •   Workers and Employers organizations
and Guangdong Province         •   Volunteer mechanisms that prevent trafficking in girls      •   Partner progress reports        are willing to reach out to the informal
(receiving provinces)              and young women;                                            •   PM&E                            sector
                               •   Documented learning that is quoted and used by policy                                       •   Local informants are able to reach out
                                   makers                                                      •   Policy documents and            to victims of trafficking without
                                                                                                    statements                     jeopardizing their safety



  IMMEDIATE OBJECTIVE
                                                          OVIs                                                                                  RISKS/
       (PURPOSE) 3                                                                                           MOV
                                                                                                                                             ASSUMPTIONS
    [Capacity Building]
                               •   National policies against trafficking reflect               •   National policy documents   • National Government abides by the
By the end of the project,         commitments under ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour               and Plans of Action           spirit of ratified International
national and sub-national          Convention (No.182), Forced Labour Convention                                                 Conventions (e.g. CRC, TNC, ILO
policy frameworks and              (No.29), and Palermo Protocol on trafficking                                                  C182 and 29)
implementation capacity to     •   National and provincial governments that commit             •   Government plans and        • Cooperation of other agencies (eg
prevent trafficking in girls       budget allocations and other resources (staff, time,            budgets                       UNICEF, donors) in lobbying for
and young women for labour         information) to prevent trafficking for labour                                                development of National plan of action
exploitation will have been        exploitation                                                                                • MOU between ILO and MOLSS is
strengthened                   •   Provincial and national policy and legal frameworks         •   National and provincial       widely acknowledged
                                   address trafficking for labour exploitation                     policies and directives,    • ILO role on labour issues is widely



ILO-IPEC proposal                                                        43                   January 2004
                                                                                                      Annual reports of line           acknowledged
                                 •   Government officials that express trafficking for labour         ministries                     • National Steering Committee
                                     exploitation                                                 •   Speeches and public              recognized at highest policy making
                                                                                                      statements                       levels (i.e. State Planning Commission
                                                                                                                                       and Standing Committee of People’s
                                                                                                                                       Party)
                                                                                                                                     • Continued political commitment to
                                                                                                                                       mainstream project approaches

Output 3.1
Provincial and lower level                                                                        •   PM&E, partner progress         •   Continued Provincial Government
                                 •   Number of key officials in relevant institutions who
policy frameworks,                                                                                    reports, NSC meeting               commitment to prevent trafficking
                                     have received ‘process’ training use acquired skills
structures, processes and
                                 •   Inter-provincial migration networks (sending –
                                                                                                      records                        •   Provincial government budgets
staff skills to prevent                                                                           •   Documented communication           available to prevent trafficking
trafficking in girls and young       receiving) that function
                                 •   Number of provinces that did not have a provincial
                                                                                                      among provinces                •   Sense of need for collaboration
women for labour                                                                                                                         among provinces is stronger than
                                     plan against trafficking now have a plan or are
exploitation reviewed and                                                                         •   Provincial plans                   sense of competition among
improvements suggested –             developing one
                                                                                                                                         provinces
                                 •   Functioning implementation mechanisms that
including sound migration                                                                         •   PSC meeting records,           •   Sending and receiving provinces see
management arrangements              accompany plans in all project provinces
                                                                                                      PM&E                               collaboration as a ‘win-win’ situation
between sending and              •   Provincial policy that recognizes voice of girls and
                      49                                                                          •   Provincial government
receiving provinces                  young women at risk of trafficking
                                                                                                      papers, PM&E

                                 •   Number of key officials in relevant national institutions    •   PM&E, partner progress
Output 3.2                           who have received ‘process’ training use acquired                reports, NSC meeting           •   Continued National Government
National policy framework,           skills                                                           records                            commitment to prevent trafficking
structures, processes and        •   Inter-provincial migration networks (sending –               •   Documented vertical
staff skills to prevent              receiving) that function and involve national level              communication with             •   National authorities respect provincial
trafficking in girls and young                                                                        provinces, partner progress        level perspectives
women for labour                 •   National policy that is grounded by pilot learning from 5        reports                        •   National government budget available
exploitation reviewed and            selected provinces                                           •   National policy documents,         to prevent trafficking
improvements suggested -         •   National policy that recognizes voice of girls and young         PM&E
based on sub-national                women at risk of trafficking                                 •   Government policy papers,
experiences and realities        •   Job descriptions of ministry focal points reflect                and public speeches
(output 3.1) and new                 responsibilities on anti-trafficking coordination            •   Job descriptions of focal
conceptual understanding                                                                              points and TORs for national
(output 1.1)                                                                                          coordination mechanisms




49
     I.e. between Anhui and Henan & Jiangsu; and between Hunan & Guangdong.


ILO-IPEC proposal                                                            44                  January 2004
Annex 2:         Socio-Economic Analysis Annex
1       Main project stakeholders

China has a population of more than 1.27 billion people – with two-thirds of the nation’s inhabitants
living in the countryside, including a rural workforce of more than 490 million (China Migration
Country Study, Huang, P. & Pieke, F.).

As the world’s most populous country moves towards a market-based economy, its people are
rushing forward, either by choice or necessity, to ensure they are not left behind in what many see
either as a chance to dramatically improve their financial futures or simply stave off utter destitution.

Television images of extravagance, wealth and modernity – the products of a decade of blistering
economic activity, primarily along the eastern seaboard – have reinforced both the desire and in
some cases urgency to migrate in order to take part in this economic development. Many rural
residents feel they have little choice but to seek work in the growing cities, as prospects for work in
their rural communities diminish. The result has been a huge movement of people from rural to
urban areas.

In human terms, the figures are staggering. In China’s most populous province Henan, 28% of its
96 million inhabitants are presently on the move.

In China’s traditionally agrarian society, the rapid development of urban areas is creating an ever-
widening gap in the standards of living between the inhabitants of town and country.
Disproportionately affected are the poorer central and western provinces of China. The provinces
of Anhui, Henan and Hunan are among the most densely populated ones – often resulting in very
small plots of land per family. Though the rural population is still growing, employment
opportunities in agriculture are decreasing (See Institute of Labour Studies, 2002). For some non-
agricultural work in rural areas would be an option if proper skills training would be provided, but
current skills training is very much geared towards vocational training for wage employment in
State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs) that face dramatic lay-offs. This has resulted in a surplus work
force that must migrate to survive.

The employment situtation is complicated since China’s overall labour absorption capacity is
declining – in particular in agriculture and SOEs. Employment creation is mainly driven by the
tertiary industry (such as retailing, catering, and services) in particular in the rapidly developing
coastal provinces that also benefit from massive foreign investment. The major cities along the
east coast furthermore face a growing informal economy in which many migrants find work (e.g.
street traders, domestic workers, carpenters, etc.). An ILO study on employment policy (2003)
states further that discrimination against women and rural migrant workers in urban areas is severe.
Dr Ping states in this context that ‘more and more migrants will develop a stronger awareness of
their marginal status and of the violations of their legal and civil rights and entitlements. At stake
here is the risk that rural migrant labourers may well become a permanent underclass’.

Young girls from Anhui, Henan, Hunan and other provinces are drawn in increasing numbers, and
at ever-younger ages, to the glamorous image of the cities portrayed in the media. Most of these
girls and young women have low education and skills levels as a result of discontinuing schooling
at a young age – which in turn results from gender discrimination (or more specifically a son-
centred family culture). Most often they are not well prepared and informed of the danger of
migrating through irregular channels, and are hence vulnerable to the lure of traffickers.

In order to prevent trafficking, this project will target entire communities in areas of Anhui, Henan
and Hunan provinces. Efforts will furthermore be made to work towards decent job creation for at
risk girls in two of the main receiving provinces that are economic ‘engines’ that create
employment - Guangdong and Jiangsu province. Given their particular vulnerabilities to trafficking,
girls and young women in the five mentioned provinces will be the main target groups of the
project’s interventions.

2       Socio-cultural aspects of the development problem addressed by the project




ILO-IPEC proposal                                                       45                January 2004
Globalization and the phenomenal growth of China’s economy along the eastern seaboard have
raised hopes, expectations and alarm for literally hundreds of millions of rural Chinese who see the
socio-economic changes taking place around them and, vicariously through television, in the big
cities of the east.
Though such migration may well result in families being better off as a result of earnings by labour
migrants, and though the development potential of such remittances is huge, such movement does
have a down-side if it is not well-prepared: Migrants that leave villages non-informed of risks and
with few useful skills are vulnerable to trafficking for labour exploitation – in particular if they use
non-registered recruitment agencies or other ‘dark’ channels. While this phenomenon affects all
Chinese, it disproportionately affects young women – and particularly younger teenaged girls –
given their lower level of education.

Girls are often left at home in the village, after completing only primary education, usually by the
age of 12, while boys, traditionally, receive preference for secondary education. With little to do,
and even less to look forward to, many girls are attracted to the cities, and, when migrating, run a
high risk of being trafficked given that they are often not prepared and lack awareness on the
dangers ahead of them. Increasing numbers of girls are at risk: A survey published in 2002
estimated that 76% of girls and young women (16-20) had become migrant labourers, a five-fold
increase from a decade earlier (China Daily October 8, 2002/Chinese Academy of Sciences).

In one of the more egregious examples, some girls were found to be working in the ‘entertainment’
business in order to support their brothers’ education (China Migration Country Study, Huang, P. &
Pieke, F.).

The project addresses the problem of trafficking in children and women, with an emphasis on
teenaged girls and young women, given that societal and cultural values make these groups more
vulnerable to human traffickers for the purpose of exploitative labour.

Although there is some recognition by Chinese authorities that girls and young women are
trafficked for a variety of reasons, a rather narrower view of trafficking is predominant, one that
tends to focus primarily on the kidnapping of baby boys, and trafficking in women for marriage
purposes.

Because boys are valued more than girls in Chinese society, and because of China’s one-child
policy, infant males are at risk of being kidnapped by traffickers and then sold to wealthy families.
The purpose is to create an heir and continue the family line.

Also a result of China’s one-child policy is a shortage of women, which has resulted in kidnapping
of women for marriage purposes. Although both these forms are clearly abduction for the purposes
of trafficking, they are not areas directly addressed by this project, which, administered by the ILO,
focuses on the prevention of trafficking in order to preempt the exploitative labour of its victims.
With a one-child policy, and a tradition that children (or now ‘the child’) will care for their parents in
old age, marrying and producing a child – especially a male child – is seen as crucial. Relatively
poor rural men, unable to afford a dowry to pay to the family of a prospective bride, have often
used the ‘services’ of traffickers who will ‘provide’ them with a wife for a substantial fee but still a
fraction of the cost of a dowry.

In reality, the threat of kidnapping baby boys and women for marriage – although very real – tends
to overshadow the present and growing industry of trafficked teenaged girls for exploitation in the
‘entertainment’ industry and other exploitative work.

3       Main points from relevant social research to date

There is a dearth of reliable data on trafficking within China. Anecdotal evidence suggests however
that despite the narrow understanding of trafficking, the numbers are huge.

Although there are indications the number of women and girls trafficked for forced marriage is
decreasing (formerly 80% of cases known to the MPS), there are more recent indications that
trafficking in girls and young women for ‘entertainment’ reasons is on the increase (50-60% of
recent cases known to the MPS).



ILO-IPEC proposal                                                        46                January 2004
The percentage of children migrating is low compared to that of adults, but the magnitude and
sheer numbers involved provide no solace. For example, in Guangdong Province, the incoming
migrant population totals more than 25 million people, and although only 6 per cent are children
below the age of 14, in sheer numbers they total more than 1,500,000 youngsters – a figure
greater than the combined totals of all school-aged children in Scotland and all children presently
attending private schools in the UK (Scottish Office Education Dept, Roughsedge, E. & UK Dept
for Education and Skills DfES). These youngsters are at risk of working at a pre-mature age.
Research by the Ford Foundation found that according to official statistics on 12.5 percent of the
more than 100,000 migrant children aged 6-14 in Beijing was enrolled in school (in 1997).

While not wanting to conflate migration with trafficking, statistics on the former do provide some
proxy indicators on the latter. In absence of data with regards to trafficking for labour exploitation
the following offers some insights into movement of people from the selected sending provinces,
and information on migration movement into selected receiving provinces. The intention is to
zoom-in further (in future research) on movement of girls and young women within the numbers
given below (for reasons that were explained above):

     •   Anhui Province has an annual outflow of 5 to 7 million migrants with 90 % coming from
         rural areas. It is one of the earliest and biggest ‘sending’ provinces. According to
         government representatives to the roundtable meeting in November 20003, trafficking for
         marriage is decreasing, while trafficking into the ‘entertainment’ industry is increasing.

     •   Guongdong Province received 25.3 million labour migrants in 2000 (or 35.5 % of all
         migrants in China), including 6.1 % children below 14 years of age, and 49 % women.
         Over 90 % of these incoming migrants end in urban areas, particularly Shenzheng and
         Dongguang. The main reasons for trafficking are (1) marriage, and (2) commercial sex;

     •   Henan is the province with the biggest population in China - 96 million. Annually 27.9 % of
         its population migrates for work within the province or to other provinces. A big transit
         point is Zhenzhou (16 million pass through per year);

     •   Hunan Province has a population of million and 10 % is a labour migrant. 80 % of labour
         migrants is below 25 years of age, and 33 % is between 16 and 20 years old. 53.59 % is
         women. Hunan representatives to the roundtable meeting in November 2003 confirmed
         large numbers of ‘blind’ migrants. The main reasons for trafficking are (1) commercial sex,
         and (2) marriage.

     •   Jiangsu Province is among the top four of Chinese provinces in turn of the number of
         migrant labourers it receives annually (6.0 % of migrant labourers) (Asian Monthly,
         January 2003) 50 . The migrant population is 9 million, accounting for 13% of the total
         population. In some cities of Jiangsu, the migration population reaches to 30%. About
         80% of the migrant population lives and works in the Southern part of Jiangsu, mainly the
         economically developed areas along the Yangzi River and the East Sea coast. In Nanjing
         alone there are an estimated 120,000 to 180,000 migrant women. Records of the public
         security indicate that 143,000 of these ‘working sisters’ have requested a temporary pass
         to stay there. From January to October 2003, 15,729 cases of organizing, forcing and
         harboring prostitution were put on file for investigation and prosecution (Reseach paper by
         the Nanjing Women’s Federation). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

     •   Migration links among the selected provinces are apparent as per the situation analysis
         undertaken by the Ministry of Agriculture (in 2000). It concludes that Anhui, Henan and
         Hunan were among the nine big sending areas of inter-provincial migration. From Anhui,
         20.3% of its inter-provincial migration was to Jiangsu – which is geographically and
         culturally close – and 11.6% of its migrant workers went to Guangdong51. From Hunan,
         91% of inter-provincial migration was to Guangdong, and from Henan, 40.9% of inter-

50
   Other provinces with the greatest of influx of migrant workers are: Guangdong (35.5%), Zhejiang (8.7%),
Shanghai (7.4%), Beijing (5.8%) and Fujian (5.1%), (Asian Monthly, January 2003)
51
   The only other ‘destination’ province with a high percentage is Shanghai with 23.8 %.



ILO-IPEC proposal                                                            47                 January 2004
        provincial migration was to Guangdong…………………………………………………………

    •   A study by the Institute of Labour Studies indicates that 49 % of all interprovincial
        migration in 2000 was from central provinces including Anhui, Henan and Hunan, to east
        coast provinces including Guangdong and Jiangsu (up from 46 % in 1997).

4      Potential for stakeholder participation in project design, implementation &
monitoring

The ILO Mekong TICW project has focused heavily on participation of stakeholders at the village
level. TICW encouraged participation of children and young people in public forum. In some cases
it was the first time children were able to publicly speak their minds to adults. The valuable lessons
learned during Phase I of TICW will be replicated in the China project. Indeed participation was a
key part of the success of TICW Phase I in Yunnan Province of China.

In order to properly facilitate and sustain the environment for active participation, a meeting place
needed to be established in a target village. In the past, villagers had no revenues for collective
activities and seldom had the chance to exchange information and ideas. Young people also had
no collective activities.

The TICW project, through the efforts and resources of its partners, established a place in the
target villages of Yunnan Province where women and girls could meet to discuss social issues that
concerned them. These ‘Women’s Homes’ also provided a venue and focal point where training
could easily be provided on matters of gender equality, trafficking prevention; sustainable
livelihoods; and social activities to fight boredom. Crucially, following discussions between county,
township and village authorities, all levels joined in to make the project a success, supplying
buildings and materials.

Participatory monitoring techniques were used to not only check on progress made, but most
importantly to stimulate learning for empowerment. Such efforts require skilled facilitators and it
hence considered crucial to have active backstopping and facilitation mechanisms in place to
continue building local ownership for participatory monitoring.

5       Factors that make primary stakeholders vulnerable and disadvantaged

The fact that central Government ministries have a narrow understanding of the concept of
trafficking, (i.e. not the much broader internationally accepted definition) underscores the
vulnerability of the stakeholders and the specific target groups this project will focus on, namely
girls aged 12-15 and 16-17 (who are legally allowed to migrate for work), and women aged 18-25.

The Chinese Government continues to press ahead with popularizing its system of nine years
compulsory education. However, more than 400 counties are not covered by this initiative.
Peasants in TICW-project sites of Yunnan coined the working phrase: ‘The dropout of today is the
poor household of tomorrow’. Still, girls tend to dropout before boys and the tradition of favouring
boys over girls aggravates this situation.

The project will endeavor to prolong the education of young girls. Those aged 16 and over will be
provided with training to improve their skills for self-employment or to find non-hazardous and non-
exploitative employment, and their awareness will be raised on the danger of non-informed
migration.

Although government registered recruitment agencies exist, and can help migrant workers in their
search for work, surveys have indicated the majority of migrant workers don’t’ use them and, in any
event, these agencies tend to be located in bigger towns. Furthermore, lax enforcement of labour
regulations has allowed illegal recruitment agencies to open, compounding the risk of trafficking by
unscrupulous proprietors.

Girls and young women that have already migrated to the cities of Guangdong and Jiangsu
province are thought to be valuable sources of information for future awareness raising




ILO-IPEC proposal                                                      48               January 2004
programmes in sending areas, and may possibly be involved in mobilization effort to prevent
further trafficking.

6        Expected socio-economic outcomes of successful project implementation

With an emphasis on prevention by reducing the vulnerability of children – especially girls – to
trafficking, the project will stress the importance of keeping girls under the age of 15 in school and
their parents in decent work.

For girls 16 to 17 and young women18 to 25 the emphasis will be to raise awareness about
migration and the risk of trafficking, and encourage those who would internally migrate to do so
through safe ‘legal’ channels.

For the latter age groups, the ILO project, working together with our partners including the All
China Women’s Federation, will provide training and where appropriate direct assistance to create
decent work alternatives for older teens and young women who would otherwise migrate. ILO
technical support may include: rapid market appraisal techniques; training and employment needs
assessment; skills and small business training that is geared towards non-agricultural work in rural
areas52; and improved access to credit and markets. Only in exceptional cases will ‘project’ credit
be considered to create village funds. Such funds are believed to make a significant difference and
promote positive change in poor people’s livelihood opportunities, and the need for this kind of
intervention will continue for a considerable time given existing poverty levels.

Overall, there will be an emphasis on raising the awareness of all stakeholders, including
governments, of the potential ‘downside’ of ‘blind’ internal migration.

It is expected the project would replicate the ‘good practices’ established in TICW Phase and work
in tangent with Phase II of TICW - and capitalize on its prospected work towards engaging
employers’ and workers’ organizations, addressing the demand-side of trafficking, and articulating
trafficking in a broader labour migration framework.

Where possible the project will coordinate and collaborate with other international organizations.
An initial list of possible partners for collaboration has been drawn up in the institutional annex
(Annex 3) and further institutional analysis at the start of the project is thought to help ensure
value-added partnerships amongst international organizations.

In all project interventions efforts will be made to document learning, and particular emphasis will
be placed on the contributions that interventions make to poverty alleviation – so as to generate
arguments for replication and mainstreaming.

7        Conclusions

Despite good will and a desire by Chinese authorities at all levels to tackle the issue of human
trafficking, there is a wide-scale lack of understanding of the definition of trafficking, the process by
which people fall victim to traffickers, and who is at greatest risk of being trafficked.

During the last decade, with the rapid development of the economies of the provinces along the
eastern seaboard, the regions in the centre and west have faced (and are facing) huge population
movements to urban areas to take advantage of the increased demand for labour and to escape
the poverty and diminishing labour prospects in rural areas.

Although the Chinese authorities welcome the increasing internal migration as a sign of economic
and industrial progress and expansion, the mass-movement of people is also creating an
environment for human traffickers, with teen girls the most vulnerable group.


52
   Research in rural areas by ILO and the Institute for Labour Studies of MOLSS suggests to invest in skills
training for self-employment in non-agricultural work rather than vocational training that is currently geared
towards wage employment in State Owned Enterprises that face massive lay-offs. Also, ILO Gender
Specialist recently completed a training manual to develop women entrepreneurship. The manual will soon
be released in Chinese for future project partner’s possible use.



ILO-IPEC proposal                                                            49                January 2004
Because of the preference for male children and the corresponding tradition of educating sons to a
higher level than daughters, girls – particularly teenaged girls – are more likely to migrate to the big
cities at a younger age, in search of work and a break from village boredom. However, because
their migration is often ill prepared, many become vulnerable to the lure of traffickers, and end up
unwilling participants in China’s sizeable ‘entertainment’ industry or other exploitative work.

Trafficking in girls and young women in the target provinces can be prevented through better
awareness about the risks of human trafficking and who is at risk, a change of attitudes among
family members regarding the value of girls, and alternative forms of income generation for parents
to enable their daughters to receive a higher education, are all keys to preventing ill-informed and
ill-prepared migration.

Mobilization of workers and employers organizations in receiving provinces is thought to help
furthermore in reaching out to the informal sector, and to create more decent jobs for arriving
migrant workers – girls and young women in particular. Such outreach efforts may enable project
partners to also learn from victims of trafficking for more effective future interventions.




ILO-IPEC proposal                                                       50               January 2004
ANNEX 3: Institutional annex

Political will to work together in the context of this new proposal project appears to be high
following the consultative design process of the project document entitled ‘Project to prevent
trafficking in girls and young women for labour exploitation within China’. The project document is
very much based on opinions of Chinese stakeholders from a range of line-ministries in Beijing
and representatives from five selected provinces (Anhui, Guangdong, Henan, Hunan, and Jiangsu),
and learning opportunities of a pilot project in Yunnan (operated through ILO-IPECs TICW-project).
Most of the 55 participants to a roundtable meeting to design the project proposal provided written
feedback to it. The supportive cover letter to their consolidated feedback (see Annex 8) exemplifies
this support further.

1       Government machinery in China - Capacity, focus & opportunities

1.1     All-China Women’s Federation (ACWF)

Established in March 1949, the All-China Women’s Federation is a mass organization for the
advancement of Chinese women of all walks of life. It aims to represent and safeguard the rights
and interests of women and promote equality between men and women. The ACWF has
branches at the provincial, municipal, prefectural, county and township levels and representatives
at village level. At headquarter levels, there are 9 departments, including the Department of
Children’s Affairs, of Women in Development, of Publicity, and of Law and the International Liaison
Department, and more than 10 affiliated institutes such as Women’s Studies Institute, Chinese
Women’s News, Women of China Magazine and China Women’s College.

The highest power of organ of the ACWF is the National Women’s Congress, which takes place
every five years. During the Ninth National Women’s Congress held in August, 2003, one of the six
tasks identified as main ones for the next five years reads that more substantial efforts will be
made to keep increasing women's working opportunities and posts, and better the distribution and
variety of their job opportunities; a major method to that end is to guide and support excess rural
women labourers into non-agricultural sectors or cities or towns, which would bring them more
employment and development opportunities.

Article 36 of the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Rights and Interests of
Women stipulates that ‘abduction of and trafficking in, or kidnapping of women shall be prohibited;
buying of women who are abducted and trafficked in, or kidnapped shall be prohibited. People's
governments and relevant departments must take timely measures to rescue women who are
abducted and trafficked in, or kidnapped. If such women have returned to their former places of
residence, nobody may discriminate against them, and the local people's governments and
relevant departments shall well settle the problems arising thereafter’.

In close cooperation with the Ministry of Public Security, the All-China Women’s Federation has
taken an active role in combating trafficking in women and children within China since the early
1980s. It participated in the formulation of relevant laws, which called for action to criminalize
trafficking in women and children; gave women education in legal legality and provide legal
counselling services at the places where women and children are mostly affected; participated in
the rescuing and rehabilitation of trafficked women and children; and, assisted women in
eliminating poverty and rural women migrants in finding jobs.

The International Liaison Department of the ACWF serves as the focal point for ACWF’s
international exchanges and cooperation.

The Legal Department of the ACWF is responsible for responding to women’s appeals through all
channels, participating in the investigation of important cases against women and children and
providing legal aid and services to victims of trafficking; representing the ACWF in the formulation
and revision of state policies, laws and decrees with regards to women and children’s interests and
rights; participating in popularising knowledge of national laws, and providing guidance and



ILO-IPEC proposal                                                    51               January 2004
promoting the work for the protection of women and children’s interests to the local level women’s
federations.

The Department of Children’s Affairs plays a key consultative role in policy and legislative
processes in the formulation of laws and policies with regards to children’s welfare. It covers all
children between the age of 0 to 18.

1.2     The National Working Committee on Children and Women under the State Council

The National Working Committee on Children and Women under the State Council is the main
central government body coordinating and promoting relevant government departments for the
development and implementation of programs policies and laws revolving women and children’s
development.

It consists of representatives of 32 government ministries/commissions and mass organizations,
meets once a year, and has offices established at the provincial, municipal and county levels with
full-time staff. Since its founding, it has assisted the State Council to draw up and promulgated the
National Development Program for Women and Children in China, and established monitoring and
evaluation system for the implementation of these programs.

The National Program for Women (2001-2010) aims amongst others at the following: ‘to prevent
effectively and crack down sternly on various offences against women's right of the person and
their right to property, to reduce the incidence of rape and trafficking and other criminal cases in
violation of women's right of the person, and to raise the rate of lawsuit settlement; prevent and
curb domestic violence against women; crack down sternly on whoring and prostitution, and work
to eliminate pornography, gambling and drug-abuse and other hideous social phenomena’.

1.3     National Steering Committee on Children and Women

A National Steering Committee on the Project to Combat Trafficking in Women and Children has
been formed through ILO-IPECs TICW Project Phase II. Members include representatives of 11
ministries/commissions and mass organizations that deal with issues of migration and trafficking.
Membership is currently heavily geared towards ‘legal departments’ of various line-ministries and
does not yet include the participation of workers’ and employers’ organizations.

1.4     National Co-ordination Group on Rights and Interests of Women and Children

The National Co-ordination Group on Rights and Interests of Women and Children was set up in
2001 as a national coordination and consultation committee working through multi-sectoral
cooperation, including 14 key ministries. One of its priorities is trafficking issue. The Group
formulates and suggests improvements to relevant laws, organizes special consultation meetings,
investigates rights and interests of women and children, conducts law enforcement monitoring,
and enhances cooperation among ministries concerned. Its chair is the President of the ACWF
who also is Vice-Chair of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress.

1.5     Ministry of Labour and Social Security (MOLSS)

The MOLSS is ILOs natural counterpart ministry. The most relevant departments are the ‘legal
department’ and the ‘department of employment and training’. The department of legal affairs is
responsible for labour and social security laws and monitoring of labor market dynamics,
recruitment practices by agencies and inspection and law enforcement over illegal practices. The
department of employment and training is responsible for employment and training in rural and
urban areas, policies and strategies revolving around the development of the labour market, and
monitoring of labour market dynamics and policy implementation.




ILO-IPEC proposal                                                     52               January 2004
1.6     Ministry of Education

The Ministry of Education is responsible for promoting 9-years compulsory education at a macro-
level and is directly focused on one of the main target groups of the project – girls aged 12-15 that
are at risk of dropping out of school (and that are hence at risk of trafficking). The Chinese
Government continues to press ahead with popularizing its system of nine years compulsory
education. This effort continues to be important as more than 400 counties are not yet covered by
this initiative. Though relevant to the issue of trafficking – in particular from a preventive
perspective – it is currently not yet represented in the National Steering Committee on trafficking.

1.7     Ministry of Public Security

The Ministry of Public Security has been addressing trafficking in humans since the early 1990s,
mainly through formulating and improving laws and regulations to combat trafficking crimes,
protect the personal rights of women and children through legislation, and punish traffickers.

1.8     The All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU)

The ACFTU, founded on 1 May 1925, is a mass organization for Chinese workers and staff
members. It mainly covers government staff and workers of State Owned Enterprises. Under the
leadership of ACFTU, there are 31 federations of trade unions of provinces, autonomous region
and municipalities directly under the Central Government and 16 national industrial unions. It now
has a membership of 134 million in more than 650,000 primary trade union organizations. For a
long time, it only embraced workers with city or township resident identification.

Trade unions at different levels have set up more than 4,000 job centers in recent years and have
assisted 3 million unemployed to find jobs.

New opportunities have arisen in recent times: The ACFTU announced in a Circular on 9 August
2003 that ‘it would recruit as many migrant workers as possible’. It also indicated that it intends to
‘reach out to sectors such as construction, catering, transportation, medium and small sized
manufacturing factories and other enterprises outside the state-owned economy’.

Within the ACFTU ‘Women workers committees’ are thought to offer an opportunity for
mobilization as they can be contacted through the ACWF of which they are also a member.

1.9     State Administration for Commerce & Industry (SACI)

The SACI registers and monitors private enterprises in the informal economy and offers
opportunities for mobilization and outreach. It could also be involved in guaranteeing decent jobs
for migrant workers.

1.10    Provincial governments – Provincial bureaus of ACWF, MOLSS, PSB, MoE

Provincial governments in Anhui, Guangdong, Henan, Hunan and Jiangsu are crucial to making
the project a success. Partnerships are envisaged in particular with the provincial ‘wings’ of the
ACWF, MOLSS, PSB and the Ministry of Education. Representatives of all five provinces that
participated in the roundtable meeting in November 2003 (see Annex 6) seem keen to collaborate
with the new project and provided constructive feedback to the draft project proposal.


2       Issues of concerns with regards to institutional capacity of Chinese counterparts

The definition of trafficking in China (and the resulting understanding) is ‘kidnapping’ and ‘selling’
of sons to families without sons, and women for marriage purposes. There is increasing
recognition of trafficking into the ‘entertainment’ industry, but trafficking into other forms of labour
exploitation has not yet been touched upon in China;

The relationship between migration and trafficking has not yet been fully acknowledged and
recognized by Chinese stakeholders. This may have contributed to the traditional way of working



ILO-IPEC proposal                                                       53                January 2004
which tends to see migration and trafficking as two separate issues that are addressed in
independently of each other.

The partnership and co-operation on the issue of trafficking is confined to government
departments dealing with legal issues or law formulation, as the general public, media and
government officers have long seen trafficking as a crime issue. Traditional entry points for
dealing with trafficking have therefore been legal departments in ACWF and MOLSS, and the
Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of Public Security. Given this ‘legal and crime’ understanding
of trafficking in combination with an understanding of trafficking of sons or for marriage purposes
only, the Ministry of Education has so far not shown an interest in collaborating on trafficking
prevention.

Apart from some inter-ministerial committees, there is currently very little horizontal coordination
among line-ministries on cross-cutting issues such as trafficking - not even among departments
within line-ministries. Co-ordination tends to be vertical within the line of a particular department.
Work is needed to define the roles of ministerial representatives as ‘co-ordinators’ in inter-
ministerial committees. In order to increase the chance of project success, attention is needed to
ensure inter-departmental co-ordination within the ACWF.

Management of the over 100 million migrant workers within China is currently undertaken by the
following three ministries who work in a rather compartmentalized rather than integrated manner:
Ministry of Agriculture (out-flow), Public Security (residential registration and security) and Labour
and Social Security (labour markets and work place monitoring).

There seems to be no link on migration management flows between ‘sending’ and ‘receiving’
provinces, and provincial data-bases are linked partially at best.

Despite the many legal instruments in China there is no comprehensive law against trafficking.
Various appearances or elements of trafficking are covered in different laws and are perceived as
different crimes to be addressed through separate laws. PSB staff stated that one simple crime
may                 involve             many                 different               departments;

Provincial level representatives seemed very pleased to participate in the roundtable meeting to
design the project proposal. For many it was a rare occasion to debate actively with national level
colleagues.

The traditional culture in line ministries is one of top-down planning based on little information.
Participatory planning methods that aim at engaging target groups in planning processes have
seldomly been tried and policy frameworks as a result do not necessarily meet the needs of the
target groups.

Staff of government agencies tend to think more in terms of activities, rather than longer term
goals with indicators on progress towards achieving these. This hampers effective interventions
and complicates monitoring and opportunities for learning.

‘Learning’ is often seen as describing what one has done rather than having critically analysed
success and failure factors that influenced the outcome of particular interventions;

Within provinces, townships and villages seem to have insufficient financial resources to cover
basic services. This has resulted in a proliferation of fees and charges placed on the poor who
cannot afford these. Such local government initiatives may place certain families’ kids at risk of
trafficking, and may limit the scope for meaningful holistic interventions in these areas. County and
Prefectural government ‘buy-in’ to prevention of trafficking seems essential therefore in bringing
about changes that affect poor people whose girls and young women are at risk of trafficking.

All the afore-mentioned issues point to a considerable need for capacity building and
backstopping mechanisms in order to be able to gradually hand over increasing levels of
responsibility to Chinese counterparts. Section 2 of the project document describes the
approaches and strategies envisaged to ensure ownership building.




ILO-IPEC proposal                                                      54               January 2004
3       Relevant international organizations active in China

The number of international organizations that address trafficking within China is rather limited
(compared to the plethora of projects in for instance the Mekong sub-region).
The following international organizations are known to offer the following services that touch upon
trafficking directly and/or indirectly:
     • SCF-UK offers action-oriented research and interventions in selected provinces including
          Yunnan Province & its regional office signed a partnership agreement with ILOs Asia
          regional office to address trafficking. SC-Uks child-centered approach to development is
          thought to be important to capitalize on;
     • UNICEF funds a range of pilot interventions in Sichuan and Yunnan Province – including
          a manual on risks of non-informed migration for youth from Sichuan that is currently being
          pilot tested;
     • UN-IAP conducted research in Yunnan and Jiangxi province (results awaited) and plans
          to develop a database and information management system on trafficking;
     • DFID-Beijing sponsored a high-level government delegation to a regional conference on
          ‘Migration, development and pro-poor policy choices’ in Dhaka (in June 2003). The
          Chinese delegation contributed actively to a useful Final Conference Statement, and an
          informative ‘China Migration Country Study’ was presented at the conference by the
          Chinese Academy of Social Sciences;
     • DFID-Beijing funds a partnership framework agreement with the Children’s Department of
          the ACWF on skills training for adolescent girls in rural areas of Yunnan, Sichuan and
          Gansu;
     • UNDP has just started a comparative review of international law (CEDAW and ILO core
          Conventions) with Chinese law. Results are expected in March 2004;
     • UNDAF has 4 theme group meetings including one on gender and one on health. The UN
          Theme Group on law currently focuses on rights-based approaches to development and
          may be a possible forum to address trafficking. There is no joint country programming
          system amongst the UN system agencies in China;
     • UNESCO is conducting a survey on young migrant workers in 8 Chinese cities.
     • Oxfam/Hong Kong operates women migrant worker service centers;
     • The Ford Foundation has undertaken studies on labour mobility in China;
     • At sub-regional level (and also covering China) the new project is thought to be able to
          meaningfully tap into learning resulting from meetings by the Subregional Advisory
          Committee for the TICW-project (SURAC) and work by the Regional Working Group on
          Child Labour (RWG-CL);
     • ILO-IPECs Yunnan based project to combat trafficking in children and women (TICW-
          project) will continue to operate until 2008 and learning from that project is expected to be
          useful for properly targeted interventions under the new China project.

4       Issues of concern with regards to collaboration among international organizations

Where possible, possibilities for collaboration will be capitalized on. However, despite the
expressed willingness to co-ordinate and collaborate it is not guaranteed that other agencies
approach matters similarly. All agencies have their particular mandate and internal pressure
related to separate budget and planning cycles. However, given the sheer magnitude of the
numbers to be dealt with and the relatively limited number of organizations dealing with issues of
trafficking in China, it is not expected that competition among agencies will be a major stumbling
block.

Collaboration with SC-UK is not expected to cause any problems however, in particular following
the recent signing (in June 2003) of a collaboration agreement (between SC-UK and ILOs regional
offices) regarding joint anti-trafficking work by SC-Uks and ILOs regional office.




ILO-IPEC proposal                                                       55               January 2004
ANNEX 4: RESOURCES AND TASKS REQUIRED

To implement the activities outlined in Section 5 of the project document it is anticipated that the
following human resources will be required (loosely grouped here under broad headings:
 Overall project management in Beijing
 Overall management of the China project; technical and financial reporting to Area   China Project
 Office, SRO Bangkok & Geneva; human resources management; supervision of             Manager/CTA
 project NPC and PPCs; technical & political backstopping of the overall project;
 advocacy; stakeholder relations; networking and consultation.                        (P4/5)

                                                                                      National Project
 Management of national component of China project including technical and
                                                                                      Co-ordinator
 financial reporting, and overall technical backstopping to PPCs.
                                                                                      (NO-B)
                                                                                      Associate
 Analysis of data, backstopping of documentation on the learning from pilot           Expert
 projects                                                                             (externally
                                                                                      funded)
                                                                                      1 Admin/
 Administrative and financial tasks including backstopping PPCs and/or partner
                                                                                      Finance
 agencies in financial and progress reporting.
                                                                                      assistant (GS5)
 Project management in the 5 provinces (Anhui, Guangdong, Henan, Hunan, Jiangsu)
                                                                                      5 Provincial
 Management of provincial component of China project, including technical             Project
 backstopping of provincial project interventions                                     Coordinators
                                                                                      (NO-A)
                                                                                      5 Admin/
 Administrative and financial tasks of provincial projects including backstopping     Finance
 partner agencies in financial and progress reporting                                 Assistants
                                                                                      (GS4)
 Tasks requiring external input
 Legal advice to review Chinese legislation (in international context) and
 enforcement practices and identify solutions to address possible gaps (1.1.6;
 1.1.11; 1.2.9; 1.2.10; 1.2.11;)                                                      1 consultant
 Required: Expertise in Chinese law and international law & sound understanding
 of trafficking definition(s)
 Mobilization and communication services (activity 1.1.1; 1.1.9 and 1.1.11; 2.1.8;
 2.1.9; 2.2.8; 2.2.9)                                                                 1 consultant
 Required: Expertise in advocacy and communication strategies
 Desk review of relevant research to date and planned research (1.2.1 and 1.2.2)
 Required: Expertise in research methods; well connected to the main                  1 consultant
 organizations including State Council research units and National Statistics
 Bureau
 Co-ordination of baseline research in 3 sending provinces followed by validation
 workshop (1.2.3 and 1.2.4)
 Required: Statistical knowledge (for sampling techniques), anthropology          1 consultant
 knowledge (for action-oriented research and youth perspectives), economic
 knowledge including labour market dynamics, functioning of the informal economy,
 and sustainable livelihood strategies
 Co-ordination of baseline research in 2 receiving provinces followed by validation
                                                                                      1 consultant
 workshop (1.2.5 and 1.2.6)



ILO-IPEC proposal                                                     56              January 2004
 Required: Statistical knowledge (for sampling techniques), anthropology
 knowledge (for action-oriented research and youth perspectives), economic
 knowledge including labour market dynamics and functioning of the informal
 economy, and sustainable livelihood strategies
 Migration expert to coordinate a study on recruitment practices followed by
 validation workshop (1.2.7 and 1.2.8)
 Required: Combination of anthropological perspective on migrant workers,             1 consultant
 knowledge on functioning of migration management systems, and economic
 perspective on labour market dynamics including the informal economy
 Migration expert to co-ordinate a review of inter-provincial migration man-agement
 systems followed by technical advice (3.1.4; 3.1.5; 3.2.4; 3.2.5)
 Required: Combination of anthropological perspective on migrant workers,             1 consultant
 knowledge on functioning of migration management systems, and economic
 perspective on labour market dynamics including the informal economy
 Training support in Design, Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation (2.1.3; 2.1.5;
 2.1.7; 2.2.3; 2.2.5; 2.2.7; 3.1.7; 3.2.8)                                            1 consultant
 Required: Expertise in monitoring and evaluation
 Training support in Process management and co-ordination (2.1.7; 2.2.7; 3.1.2;
 3.1.6; 3.2.6)                                                                        1 consultant
 Required: Management and training skills, knowledge of UN and ILO procedures
 Coordination of documentation of learning and sharing (2.1.8; 2.2.8)
                                                                                      1 consultant
 Required: Analytical skills, Editorial skills, Advocacy skills




ILO-IPEC proposal                                                     57              January 2004

								
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