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					 Guidelines for Community-based Participatory Planning for IEM



                                                                    Contents
1 Acronyms............................................................................................................................... 2
2 Acknowledgments ................................................................................................................. 3
3 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 4
     3.1 The GEFOP12 Manuals.............................................................................................. 4
     3.2 Key Principles: Land Degradation, IEM, and Participation ....................................... 4
     3.3 Summary of the planning, implementation and monitoring process .......................... 6
     3.4 How to use the GEFOP12 manual.............................................................................. 8
4 Module 1: Participatory Planning Manual For IEM And village development..................... 9
     4.1 List of planning Aids in Module 1.............................................................................. 9
     4.2 Participatory planning process.................................................................................. 10
     4.2.1.1 Aids for the selection of the pilot village............................................................ 12
     4.2.2.1 Aids for project introduction............................................................................... 15
     4.2.3.1 Aids for participatory ecosystem and natural resources assessment................... 35
     4.2.4.1 Aids for land capability assessment and community development..................... 58
     4.2.5.1 Aids for micro-enterprise development .............................................................. 76
     4.2.6.1 Aids for the village development workshop – community development............ 87
     Additional Training Activities ........................................................................................ 88
     4.2.7.1 Aids for preparation of the draft village development plan ................................ 91
     4.2.8.1 Aids for delivery and ratification of the draft village plan.................................. 94
5 Mudole 2: Implementation of IEM and village development plans .................................. 100
     5.1 List of planning aids for Module 2 ......................................................................... 100
     5.2 Module 2 – Guidelines on implementation of Village Development Plans............ 100
     5.3 Implementation aids for Module 2 ......................................................................... 101
     5.3.5.1Mountain closure ............................................................................................... 103
     5.3.5.2 Livestock .......................................................................................................... 104
     5.3.5.3 Micro-Enterprises ............................................................................................. 106
     5.3.5.4 Energy............................................................................................................... 107
     5.3.5.5 Cropping and soil conservation ........................................................................ 109
     5.3.5.6 Infrastructure .................................................................................................... 110
     5.3.5.7 Community development...................................................................................111
     5.3.5.8 Technical training ............................................................................................. 112
     5.3.5.9 Monitoring ........................................................................................................ 113
6 Module 3: Participatory monitoring for IEM and village development ............................ 119
     6.1 List of planning Aids for Module 3 ........................................................................ 119
     6.2 Module 3 - Monitoring and village plan review ..................................................... 119
     6.2.2.1 Aid for developing project logframes ............................................................... 120
     6.2.3.1 Project implementation monitoring aids........................................................... 125
     6.2.4.1 Environmental impacts monitoring aids ........................................................... 132
     6.2.5.1 Social impacts monitoring aids......................................................................... 145


                                                                           1
1 Acronyms


ACWF         All Chinese Women’s Federation
CBCLD        Capacity Building to Combat Land Degradation
CD           Community Development
CDW          Community Development Workshop
EOI          Expression of Interest
FA           Farmer’s Association
FES          Fuel Efficient Stove
HH           Household
LC           Land Capability
M&E          Monitoring and Evaluation
ME           Micro-enterprise
NRA          Natural Resource Assessment
NRM          Natural Resource Management
PRA          Participatory Rural Appraisal
PMO          Project Management Office
PF           Provincial Facilitator
VDP          Village Development Plan
VIG          Village Implementation Group




                                            2
2 Acknowledgments
Firstly, the Project Management Office of the Karst Environmental Rehabilitation Project (KERP) are
acknowledged for their efforts in organising a valuable study tour for Provincial Facilitators and CPMO staff to
the project in Guangxi. The experience for all participants was immensely valuable. We also wish to
acknowledge the KERP team for the work they have done in developing Participatory planning processes.
Secondly, the project management teams at the CPMO are acknowledged for the effort they have put into
guiding the consultant team in the development of these manuals. Their timely and informed guidance was
critical to the successful completion of the three modules. In particular, we wish to acknowledge Dr Zhang
Fengchun and Ms Shen Xin.
Lastly, we wish to acknowledge the Provincial Facilitators of the GEFOP12 project. They have engaged in the
training program enthusiastically and have contributed to the development of an approach to PP that suits the
range of situations in villages and environments across their six Provinces of Northern China. The Provincial
Facilitators include the following people:
    •   Yu Weiping – Ningxia
    •   Bai Tong - Inner Mongolia
    •   Li Wenhua – Xinjiang
    •   He Yi- Gansu
    •   Li Yande – Qinghai
    •   Wen Zhen – Shaanxi




                                                       3
3 Introduction
3.1 The GEFOP12 Manuals
This manual is designed to provide guidance to GEFOP12 Provincial facilitators in the development of
monitoring plans for village development. It is the third of three modules produced through the GEFOP12
project “Capacity Building to Combat Land Degradation”. The full set of manuals includes:
Module 1: Participatory Planning for IEM and Village Development
This module provides a step by step guide to using Participatory Planning (PP) processes to produce a Village
Development Plan that includes Integrated Ecosystem Management (IEM). It takes the user through a sequence
of steps that:
•   Enables facilitators and participating communities to describe their current situation (e.g. ecosystems,
    natural resources, land use potential and constraints, and community aspirations);
•    Enables facilitators and participating communities to describe their preferred future and the actions that
    will be required to achieve this vision, and
•   Enables facilitators and participating communities to plan the actions they will need to undertake, including
    the physical actions (e.g. specific activities to be undertaken and their timing), associated villager training,
    and identification of a VIG or leadership group to implement and monitor the VDP.
Module 2: Implementation of IEM and Village Development Plans
This module provides a step by step guide to implementing of IEM and Village Development Plans (VDPs). It
takes the user through a sequence of steps that will enable users to:
•   Refine the implementation schedules developed in Module 1;
•   Undertake the actual implementation for the various activities contained within IEM and the VDP, and
•   Develop broad plans for monitoring IEM and VDP impacts and specific plans for monitoring
    implementation of the VDP.
Module 3: Participatory Monitoring of IEM and Village Development Plans
This module provides a step by step guide to monitoring both the implementation of the VDP with IEM and its
impacts. It takes the user through a sequence of steps that will enable users to:
•   Develop a project logframe which will form the basis of all subsequent monitoring plans and activities;
•   Develop a detailed plan for monitoring implementation of the IEM and VDP;
•    Develop a detailed plan for monitoring environmental impacts resulting from the IEM and VDP activities;
•   Develop a detailed plan for monitoring socio-economic impacts resulting from the VDP, and
•   Review the IEM and VDP in light of the findings from the M&E.

3.2 Key Principles: Land Degradation, IEM, and Participation
The planning, implementation, and monitoring processes described in the three modules are based upon the
following three core principles:
Land Degradation:
The PRC’s northern provinces have been adversely affected by land degradation resulting from processes such
as severe wind and water erosion, soil nutrient losses, water logging, salinization, river system sedimentation,
deforestation, grassland degradation and biodiversity loss. This has not only impacted on the lives of the
people, who reside in the area, but has also affected the quality of life for many more living in central and
eastern PRC through increased exposure to severe dust storms, originating in the north and west, as well as
reduced quality and quantity of water, especially in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River. The
GEFOP12 planning process aims to address land degradation and it’s causes as a matter of priority.


                                                         4
Integrated Ecosystem Management:
IEM is an approach to planning and land management that combines three fundamental components:
1. Integration – Integrated planning requires the consideration of all aspects of village development
    including environmental management, farming activities, energy and infrastructure development, enterprise
    development, and consideration of community aspirations. Integrated planning is multidisciplinary and
    requires the input and involvement of people from a range of disciplines. This ensures that the inputs and
    impacts of one type of action are considered in realtion to the other aspects of the ecosystem.
2. Ecosystem – IEM gives due consideration to local landscapes and to the environment. It recognizes that in
    nature everything is connected to everything else, balance and diversity are critical, and that intact
    ecosystems deliver us vital ‘services’ such as fresh water and the air we breath. Land management that is
    appropriate to the local environment is central to this, as is building knowledge and understanding within
    the community of local ecosystems, how they function in an integrated manner, their limitations and
    potential.
3. Management – IEM involves management of development plans by local communities. This includes not
    only community involvement in developing solutions to current problems, but community management of
    implementation and monitoring, and community led review of the results of this monitoring to adjust or
    strengthen actions within the development plans. It involves an ongoing process of improvement across the
    ecosystem rather than in one aspect at the detriment to another aspect.


Participation:
Participatory Planning (PP) processes are recognised as being critical to the success of VDP’s. It is only
through participation that VDP’s can produce sustainable outcomes. Community ownership of plans and
commitment to their implementation is therefore critical to the outcome. This is achieved by applying a
‘bottom-up’ approach to decision making and putting farming communities at the centre of the process, and by
valuing local knowledge, skills and expertise.




                                                      5
3.3 Summary of the planning, implementation and monitoring process
The various steps in the process of planning, implementation, and monitoring of GEFOP12 VDP’s involving IEM are described in detail in the three modules. 错误!
未找到引用源。, 错误!未找到引用源。, and 错误!未找到引用源。 below present a summary of the recommended process.
3.3.1 The Planning Process – Module 1
Step 1: Selection of the pilot village             Step 2: Introduction of the project to the target        Step 3: Participatory ecosystem and natural
                                                   village                                                  resources assessment
•   Applies a transparent and focused              • Begin introducing the selected community to            • Learn about village environment and constraints
    selection methodology                               participatory methods.                                  (field walks, discussions with villagers, etc)
•   Uses a structured biding and scoring           • Introduce community to the GEF and IEM                 • Participatory mapping of natural
    system                                              principals of development and broader objectives        environment ,ecosystems and land use activities
                                                        of the project                                      • Identify important areas of habitat/remnant
                                                   • Introduce activity sectors and look at                     vegetation, and regionally important
                                                        ‘overlapping needs’.                                    conservation targets.
                                                   • Undertake HH surveys                                   • Discuss IEM, Micro-Enterprise (ME) and PP
                                                   • Share initial ideas on sustainability                      concepts in more detail




Step 8: Delivery and Ratification of the Draft         Step 7: Preparation of Draft Village Development       Step 6: Village development - Workshop 2
Village Plan                                           Plan
                                                                                                              •    Village review of VDP
•   Identify any final areas in the VDP that may       •   Finalize VDP document
    be contentious and deal with them                                                                         •    Prepare training plan
                                                       •   Prepare implementation schedules
•   Obtain expenditure approval from project                                                                  •    VIG to confirm portfolio allocation including
    managers                                                                                                       monitoring of VDP implementation
                                                                                                                   (environmental, economic and social outcomes)
•   Meet with village to present final plan
•   Prepare farmer agreements
•   Prepare monitoring plan in detail




                                                                               6
 3.3.2 The Implementation Process - Module 2


Step 1: Brief the        Step 2: Commence             Step 3: Undertake        Step 4: Review
VIG on procedures        implementation   as          periodic                 implementation
for managing VDP         planned in the VDP           monitoring of VDP        procedures     and
implementation           imlementation                implementation           VDP in light of
                         schedule        and          and IEM outcomes         monitoring results
                         described        in          as planned
                         GEFOP12 Module 2




 3.3.3 The Monitoring Process – Module 3
   Step 1: Develop a            Step 2: Develop a              Step 3: Develop and
   project logframe             plan for monitoring            implement a plan for
                                project                        monitoring    project
                                implementation                 environmental
                                                               impacts




                Step 5: Review the     Step 4: Develop and
                VDP in light of        implement a plan for
                findings from the      monitoring project
                project monitoring     socio-economic
                                       impacts




                                                7
3.4 How to use the GEFOP12 manual
This manual has been written as a resource for Provincial facilitators on the GEFOP12 project. It is not
intended as an alternative to formal training in IEM and participatory VDP.
Modules 1, 2, and 3 of the manual outline each step of the process in detail. This includes detailed step by step
instructions on each part of the process along with practical examples of methodologies, each tested
successfully across China.
The contents of these modules represent a rigorous and participatory approach to planning, implementation and
monitoring. To begin with, users of this manual should review the process described in full. We recommend
that the process is adopted by planners in full. However, we recognise that each planner will face their own
unique set of constraints with respect to human and financial resources, time available to complete VDP’s, and
local environments within which the village development will take place.
Users of the manual should consider their own situation, and to what extent they can realistically hope to apply
the process as it is documented. It should be noted though that the omission of complete stages of the process
will make it less rigorous and may detract from the on-ground outcomes.




                                                       8
4 Module 1: Participatory Planning Manual For IEM And Village
Development
4.1 List of planning Aids in Module 1
 Ref. No.                       Title                    Ref. No                  Title
    0        Site Selection Score Sheet                     0      Review of Meeting
    0        Principles on which the Intervention will      0      Problem ranking matrix
             be Based
    0        Linkages Diagram- Linkages between            0       Pro forma for recording overlapping
             Environment Degradation, Energy and                   needs
             Poverty
 4.2.2.1.3   Meeting equipment                             0       Arrangements – Good and Bad
                                                                   Meetings
    0        Sample     Agenda     for     Community       0       Notes on Production of Maps
             Introduction Meeting
    0        Differences between Participatory and         0       Drawing Materials
             Conventional Planning
     0       Stakeholder Responsibilities                  0       Equipment for Field Mapping
     0       Map of the Greater Project Area               0       Mud Map
错误!    未找    Explanation of IEM                            0       Mud Map - Planning
到引用源。
 4.2.2.1.9 Explanation of ME                               0       Mapping Erosion Condition
     0     Decision Making Flow Chart                      0       Background principles on assessing
                                                                   trends in range condition
    0        Checklist for Discussion Groups               0       Terrace Classification Diagrams and
                                                                   Descriptions
    0        VIG Responsibilities                          0       Land Unit Maps
    0        VIG Nomination Form                           0       Using Land Unit Maps to Indicate LC
    0        Brief Descriptions of Possible Project      错误!未      Method of Calculation of Areas on a
             Activities                                  找到引用      Map
                                                          源。
错误! 未找 Hints on Conducting a Small Group                   0       Notes on How to Carry out a Wealth
到引用源。 Discussion                                                   Ranking
  0    HH Data Collection Form                             0       Sample Map – Present Land Use and
                                                                   Land Units
    0        Sustainable Long Term Land Uses               0       Mountain Management Plan
    0        Notes on Maps to be used at Community         0       Sample Set of Village Rules
             Meetings
    0        Sustainable Farming Systems                   0       Proposed Energy Plan
    0        Facilitator Checklist for Discussions on    错误! 未找    Finalising Infrastructure
             Environmental Issues                        到引用源。     Recommendations
    0        Sample Agenda for the NRA Meeting             0       Options for CD
    0        EOI Form                                      0       Training Needs Analysis
    0        How to Carry Out an Election of a VIG       错误! 未找    Data Sheet for use in Planning Water
                                                         到引用源。     Supply Works
    0        VIG Membership Certificate                    0       Water Supply Costing Sheet
    0        Landscape cross-section diagram and           0       Issues for Discussion in the Women’s
             SWOT                                                  Meeting
    0        Planning a Farmer Study Tour                  0       Checklist for Planning Team Review
                                                                   of the Village Development
                                                                   Workshop
  0          Analysis of Requests from Farmers             0       Sample Agenda for CD Meeting
错误! 未找       Presenting information on new ME              0       Analysing the Training Needs Data




                                                    9
 Ref. No.                    Title                            Ref. No                       Title
到引用源。 options for the village
    0     Draft Agenda for LC and CDW                            0         Additional Assistance to Poorest HHs
    0     Checklist for Draft Rules                              0         Schedule for Writing the Village
                                                                           Development Plan
     0        Ensuring the Involvement of Females                 0        Format for Village Development Plan
     0        Definition of Infrastructure                    4.2.7.1.3    Costing of Activities
     0        Infrastructure Options                              0        Map showing Proposed Intervention
                                                                           Sites
     0        Sample      Agenda       for     Village           0         Sample Agenda
              Development/ME Workshop
     0        Investment on an Individual HH Basis               0         Farmer Agreement

     0        Implementation Schedule                            0         Responsibility Sharing
4.2 Participatory planning process
4.2.1 Step 1: Selection of the pilot village Step 1: Selection of the pilot village
Objectives:
To select a group of Pilot villages that satisfy pre-determined criteria of eligibility using fair and transparent
processes.

                                          Planning
              Activities                                                          Note
                                             Aid
Pilot Village selection
Step 1: Identification of up to six      0             Selection of the counties or Townships will be based
counties or Townships to attend a                      upon the following criteria:
bidding process.                                       • The County comprises typical ecosystems within
                                                            the Province;
                                                       • The County comprises typical land uses within the
                                                            Province, and
                                                       • The County comprises representative socio
                                                            economic and ethnic structures.
Step 2: Each County or Township is       0             The nomination of each County’s or Township’s pilot
invited to prepare a bidding document                  site addressed the following criteria:
for a pilot site of their nomination.                  • Regional significance of the site’s ecosystem;
                                                       • Existence of a fragile ecosystem and serious land
                                                            degradation problems;
                                                       • Geographical significance (eg. Is the site within
                                                            proximity of geographically significant natural
                                                            sites);
                                                       • Strength of the local community’s aspirations to
                                                            make changes through the project;
                                                       • Degree of difficulty for Farmers/herders to address
                                                            the ecological and production difficulties by
                                                            themselves (due to various factors such as shortage
                                                            of funds, lack of technologies and information),
                                                            and;
                                                       • Strength of community leadership.
Step 3: The third stage of Pilot site    0             The bidding agency facilitates the bidding appraisal
selection involves an appraisal of the                 process and consultants from a number of organizations
bidding documents.                                     are involved in this appraisal process. A representative
                                                       from a ‘Discipline Inspection Committee’ must
                                                       supervise the whole process to ensure the bidding is
                                                       conducted in a fair and transparent manner.
                                                       The appraisal will focus on the following aspects of the
                                                       bidding documents:
                                                       • Issues and solutions relative to land degradation and
                                                            rehabilitation of ecosystem;



                                                       10
                                         Planning
              Activities                                                   Note
                                            Aid
                                                    • Level of assistance from local government, and
                                                    • Technical resources availability.
Step 4: As a result of this process up   0          The reasons for selection of these villages will be
to two Pilot sites will be identified.              recorded and successful bidders will be notified.




                                                    11
4.2.1.1 Aids for the selection of the pilot village
   Site Selection Score Sheet
                                                Score                      Village names
                Criteria                 1-low, 5-high,   0–                                                               Notes
                                                                 1    2         3          4              5
                                               Reject
                County or Township Name:
                 Proposed Pilot Village:
County or Township
Ecosystems
Land uses
Socio-economic structures
Ethnic groups
                           Sub - Total
Pilot Village
Regional         significance       of
ecosystems
Land degradation problems exist
Geographical significance
Strength of community aspirations
Degree    of        difficulty     for
community
Strength of community leadership
                           Sub - Total
  Villages Selected:                        Names of Planning Team:                            Date Selection Completed:




                                                                      12
4.2.2 Step 2: Introduction of the project to the target village
Objectives:
Once the pilot villages have been selected, the next step should be to increase communications with the
community including introducing the target community to the aims and methods of the project and the roles of
all stakeholders to ensure the community’s active involvement. In this process, it is essential that the Project
and government staff (planners) who are working with the community should alter their attitudes and
behaviours so a learning atmosphere comes into being. The planners should know as much as possible about
the life and production systems of the community, identify with the community what are the most stringent
needs, and understand the interdependence of environment, poverty, involvement, development, and
community organisation and systems.
The first step for the Project to work in a Village is to introduce the Project goals, objectives, methods and
processes to be employed. This objective is achieved by holding a community introduction meeting. An
example of an approach for such a meeting is described below.
                                                            Planning
                      Activities                                                         Note
                                                               Aid
Pilot Village Introduction Meeting
Preparation
Confirm date and venue of the meeting with the                         The Village Leader will have attended
VILLAGE leader.                                                        the VILLAGE Selection Meeting, and
                                                                       therefore will have some knowledge of
                                                                       the project. Planners should advocate
                                                                       meetings being conducted outside if
                                                                       weather permits or in the home of a
                                                                       “non-leader”. Meetings do not have to
                                                                       be held in a leader’s home.
Distribute any available pamphlet/brochure as widely                   Distributing a brochure does not have to
as possible within the target area and ensure that                     be restricted to giving it to farmers in
relevant stakeholders such as other levels of                          the selected village.
government (i.e. township and county governments)
are informed of the process being commenced.
Obtain appropriate hardware for display and meeting     0
purposes.
Develop agenda.                                         0
                                                        错误!未找
                                                        到引用源。
Ensure that all HHs in the community are invited to                    VILLAGE leader to be responsible for
send one representative.                                               this.
Prepare visual aides for use during the meeting:
•   Differences between conventional and PRA and
    conditions for each type of assistance              0
•   Stakeholder responsibility chart/table              0
•   Map of greater project area showing previous        0
    sites                                               错误!未找
•   Diagrammatic representation of linkages             到引用源。
    between poverty, energy and environmental

                                                       13
                                                             Planning
                      Activities                                                         Note
                                                                Aid
    management
•   Introduction to IEM                                  错误!未找
•   Micro enterprise case study and charts               到引用源。
•   Diagrammatic representation of decision making       0
    flow path
Prepare checklist for CD group discussions.              0
Prepare description of VIG responsibilities.             0
Prepare VIG nomination forms                             0
Holding the meeting                                      0
Introduce the planners who will conduct the meeting.                    Best done by either by the village leader
                                                                        or the planning team leader.
Describe the purpose of the planning and how it will     0
be conducted. Describe the differences between           0
PRA methods and conventional planning.
Describe stakeholder inputs and responsibilities.
Organise small groups for a facilitated problem          0
census discussion.                                       错误!未找
                                                         到引用源。
Collate results and draw up overlapping needs            0
analysis matrix. Present this to the group.
Describe the scope of the project in terms of other      0
villages where intervention has been completed or is
in progress.
Explain the concepts of sustainability and IEM, and      0
clearly state that although the community will be the
primary decision maker, all proposed activities will
have to be demonstrated as being sustainable in three
ways: environmental, social and economic.
Describe the linkages between            environment     错误!未找
condition, energy and poverty.                           到引用源。
Ask for general questions relating to what has been
said so far.
Ask for an indication of enthusiasm from the                            This show of enthusiasm must be
meeting.                                                                meaningful and should not be merely
                                                                        indicated by a show of hands or voices.
                                                                        A better way of doing this would be to
                                                                        ask for several people, one of which
                                                                        should be a woman, to speak for several
                                                                        minutes each on how the proposed
                                                                        intervention will affect them.
Describe any relevant linkages with other programs,
institutions etc.
Outline the Activity Sector Framework in terms of        错误!未找

                                                        14
                                                               Planning
                      Activities                                                           Note
                                                                  Aid
priority and expenditure limits, and explain the           到引用源。
integrated nature of the intervention.
Describe each of the Activity Sectors in terms of          错误!未找          It is important to stress the conditions
options, conditions imposed by the planning agency,        到引用源。          which will accompany the assistance,
and any other relevant bodies.                             0              and to briefly summarise them.
Animal husbandry and pastures.
Cropping and soil conservation
Forestry – timber, woodlots and horticulture
Water resources and efficient use
Energy – describe how demo units will be built and
the criteria for determining where these units will be
located.
Infrastructure. Be wary about raising expectations on
assistance for road construction works.
CD encourages the community to broaden its minds
and consider untrialled activities.
MEs – use the case study.
Group discussion centred on those activities that will     0
be included in the land and water management,              错误!未找
energy, infrastructure, and CD sectors.                    到引用源。
General meeting reconvened and leaders (not                               Planners should intervene as little as
planners) to report back to the meeting.                                  possible during these report back
                                                                          sessions.
Introduce the concept of the VIGs – responsibilities,      0
composition (number of members, gender, all                0              Pay particular attention to the wishes of
sections of the community represented etc), and the                       women and, if possible, avoid having a
appointment or election process. If appropriate                           vote if the women present are
distribute the nomination form and ask farmers to                         outnumbered by men.
consider who they would nominate, fill in the form
and bring it back to the next meeting. Explain the
electoral process and determine if a secret election is
desirable.
Explain the need to carry out a HH Survey and then         0
distribute the forms, one for each HH with a request
for them to be completed and returned at the next
meeting.
Hand out project brochures.                                               Do this at the conclusion of the meeting
                                                                          to avoid distractions during the meeting.
Review of Meeting
Planning team to informally review meeting.                0
4.2.2.1 Aids for project introduction
4.2.2.1.1 Principles on which the Intervention will be based
If the rules applying to the intervention are not explained at an early stage there will be confusion and disputes

                                                          15
later on in the process.
The following list can be used as a framework by planners:
      The objective is to establish demonstrations of appropriate technologies of IEM
Not all individuals will get all they wish. When the appropriate technology has been demonstrated at a limited
number of sites, other individuals who then wish to adopt the technology will have to seek the required
investment fund from some other source.
      All demonstrations will be part of an integrated package and relevant to IEM and rural development
Activities which are not relevant to IEM and rural development will not be supported and those that are must be
demonstrated to be part of an appropriate farming system.
      The poorer HHs will be given preference whenever possible
      IEM activities that target regionally important ecosystems and conservation objectives will be given
      preference.
      ME activities which involve groups of farmers working together in a co-operative manner will be given
      preference
      Group ownership of assets will be encouraged.
      Farmers who do not actively participate in the planning process will be considered as ineligible to receive
      assistance.
      Assistance will not be given to agents or any other people not directly involved in farming in the target
      area.
      Activities which will be part of a longer term development strategy will be given preference over those
      which are short term only. For example, a farmer accepting improved corn seed or an improved breed of
      pig for fattening will be expected to re-invest the profit into a similar activity in future years.
      Distribution of assistance may not be equitable.
While the planning team will attempt to ensure that the available assistance is distributed in a reasonably
equitable manner, the prime objective will be to establish sustainable demonstrations and to raise the living
standards of the poorer HHs to a level closer to the wealthier HHs. Therefore some HHs may think they have
not been treated fairly.
      Acceptance of assistance in one sector will require the recipient to accept the conditions that apply to all
      other parts of the package
This means that by accepting assistance in the cropping sector, a farmer must be prepared to comply with
conditions that apply to the animal management sector even though he/she is not receiving any assistance in
that sector. A recipient is also obliged to make the results of the demonstration available to other farmers in
order to increase every-ones knowledge.
      No activity which has the potential to significantly harm the environment will be undertaken.




                                                       16
4.2.2.1.2 Linkages Diagram- Linkages between Environment Degradation, Energy and Poverty

       老虎灶使用,烧掉很                                                      发展沼气池、省柴灶、
                                    能    源
       多的柴草                                                           利用电能
                                    (不同的解决方式导致不同
                                    的后果)


        过度砍伐、取
        走秸

                                                                                     减少柴草用量,

                       滥开荒、放牧,不注                        停止乱开荒乱放牧现                    封山育林

                       重坡地维护,火灾发                        象,修建梯田,防火




                                                                            山青水秀、地肥、
                                     环    境
                                                                            作物产量高
                                     (不同管理意识导致不同的结
           山秃、树木少、水土                 果)
           流失严重、土地沙化




                                                                                   卫生改善,腾出更多
                                                                                   时间从事创收活动增
                                                                                   加收入
 要柴草时间多,没时
 间从事创收活动,收
 入少




                                    贫    困
                                    (因生存环境恶劣导致贫困,
        钱少粮少,生活困难                   也因环境的改善而改善)
                                                                          粮多,钱多,生活好




                                               17
4.2.2.1.3 Meeting equipment
The following is a list of applied equipment and tools that may be used for village meetings.
Item                       Notes
Agenda                     Write the agenda on a sheet of paper and then put the paper on a board. The characters
                           must be big enough for villagers sitting at the back to be able to see. The agenda should
                           include the title of the meeting, contents of the meeting and the timing.
Name       list      of    Use a registration form. List of the names of the attendants, Village, occupation,
attendants                 nationality, and gender and contact number in the forms. Have several form sheets
                           ready so that when many people attending the meeting, they can fill out the forms at the
                           same time.
                           Collect the forms at the conclusion of the meeting.
Materials                  Any material about the Project that is helpful to group discussions during the meeting.
                           These include diagrams describing the processes of the Project, and other materials
                           collected from other agencies. These materials can be printed and handed out, or put up
                           on a big piece of paper hanging up in the meeting place. They are good for those who
                           come to the meeting place earlier to read before the meeting begins.
Note books and pens        At some occasions it is necessary that the planners prepare note-books and pens, and
                           hand them out to the attendants before the meeting starts.
Big paper sheets           Several big pieces of paper should be prepared in case written mistakes are made.
Board pens                 There should be board pens in black, red, blue and green with thick tips available for
                           use at the meeting, especially when there are discussions more of these pens should be
                           prepared.
                           Planners should check whether there is enough ink before leaving for the meeting and
                           collect them when the meeting is over.
Nails and a hammer         For a cloth (screen) that needs to be fixed on the wall.
Pins                       To fix small notes on the cloth.
A big piece of cloth       Used as a display board when the board has been used.
(used as a screen)
Clear plastic film         This is used when there is information added on a map or a diagram without change or
                           removing the original information.
Battery     for      the   Whether there is a need for photos should be taken into consideration. Photos can
camera                     increase villagers’ morale. A PMO member should be assigned to take photos and take
                           down the names of the villagers who want a copy of the photos.

Small     sheets     of     Used for voting or prioritisation.
paper
Feedback materials         Materials from last meeting including records, maps and photos for attendants to share.

Maps or pictures, drawing pins, sticky gums, sticky tapes, big clips, scissors, a knife to cut paper, colour chalks,
board eraser, a long ruler or a stick
The following picture shows a display board which is a very useful piece of equipment for village meetings. It
has the following features:
•   It folds up so that it is easily transportable in a car or on a motorbike.
•   The tripod legs allowed it to be set up on uneven surfaces.
•   The presentation surface is large enough to allow large charts, maps, diagrams etc to be displayed.
•   Loose sheets of paper could be fastened to it using large clips.

                                                           18
4.2.2.1.4 Sample Agenda for Community Introduction Meeting
The following format is appropriate for the meeting conducted to introduce the community to the proposed
intervention.
                                   Community Introduction Meeting
                                                  (Date)
               The meeting will be held at ………….House and will commence at 9.30am.
 Time                                         Item                                      Speaker/Organise
9.30am    Opening of the meeting, purpose of the meeting, project objectives,         Planning Team Leader
          introduction of speakers.
9.40      Comparison of conventional planning methods with participatory              Planning Team Leader
          planning; description of the proposed planning process.
10.00     General description of the stakeholders and their responsibilities.         Planner #1
10.30     Questions and response from the audience.                                   Planning Team Leader
11.00     Explanation of IEM and outline of linkages between environmental            Planner #2
          degradation, energy and poverty.
11.30     Outline of project structure in terms of activity sectors and location of   Planner #1
          other project village.
12.00     Group discussions on community needs and issues.                            Facilitators
12.45     Meeting reconvenes and nominated speakers summarise the findings of         Planning Team Leader
          each group.
1.00      VIG introduction.                                                           Planning Team Leader
1.15      Closure and general response from the Village leader.                       VILLAGE Leader
4.2.2.1.5 Differences between Participatory and Conventional Planning
Most farmers would be accustomed to planners from the various government institutions using conventional
planning methods. It is likely to take some time for farmers in target villages to accept that CBCLD planners
are using a different approach. A short informative session at an early stage during the planning process will
make the farmers more receptive to the PRA approach. The following chart can form the basis of explanations


                                                       19
by planners.

                          PRA                                             Conventional planning

     More motivation and active involvement, and            •   Passive participation and average enthusiasm
     more enthusiasm from farmers.                              from farmers.

     Bottom-up decision making.                             •   Top-down decision making.

     Humanity based development approaches.                 •   Attention paid to hardware investment, with
                                                                human resource development ignored.

     Planning is development of an action plan.             •   Planning is only an imagination picture.

     Use of poor community as planning unit.                •   Allocation of funds as defined with little
                                                                consideration for actual needs of the community.

     Diverse activities for planning.                       •   Fixed and singular activities for planning.

     Integration of planning objectives using IEM           •   Often only based on one objective such as grain
     principles for sustainable village development             or animal production without consideration of
                                                                the impacts of this on other village activites and
                                                                resources

     Cross – institutional cooperation.                     •   Little cooperation between institutions.

     Funds used strictly as planned.                        •   Loose linkages between fund allocation and
                                                                planning.

     Strong support from outside the community with         •   Weak support from outside the community, with
     market, environment and manpower input                     lack of feasibility studies at the community
     considered, and technicians and advisors involved          level.
     throughout the process.

     Vulnerable groups in consideration.                    •   Vulnerable groups not in consideration.

     Strong follow-up and sustainability.                   •   Problems with management after
                                                                implementation.

     Based on the needs of the community and the            •   Led by resource use and development.
     disadvantaged groups.
4.2.2.1.6 Stakeholder Responsibilities
All stakeholders coming to an agreement on the various responsibilities at the beginning of the project is
essential to successful implementation of the project. Implementation results will be affected or implementation
is not on track as planned if the stakeholders are not taking specific responsibilities and roles, even when the
planning has been successfully undertaken.
Responsibilities for all stakeholders should be clearly defined at an early stage of the planning process. It must
also be stated that responsibility is commitment not designated by the Project. Roles and assignments are
necessary but cooperation is equally important. In a PRA Project, it is especially important to develop a
responsibility structure based on all stakeholders’ comments and consultation.
An example of the linkages between stakeholders and the various responsibilities they hold is included in the
table below. Planners should modify this to suit their own circumstances and that of the pilot village.

                                                       20
                                                       Stake Holder
     Provincial                                                                                                       Pilot Village
                           Township Government                                  Donor
    Government                                                                                                        Community
•   Oversee project        •    Provide Planning            •        Provide materials for                    •   Positive input into
    progress                    staff                                Village Development Plan                     the planning process
•   Provide PMO            •    Conduct planning                     (VDP) implementation                     •   Provide labour for
    staff                       meetings                    •        Provide resources for                        implementation
•   Provide vehicle        •    Assist at technical                  planning and technical                   •   Seek investment
    running costs               training events                      training                                     funds from other
                           •    Assist with                 •        Provide resources to enable                  sources
                                organising                           planners to operate
                                implementation              Advise planning teams on technical
                                                            aspects
4.2.2.1.7 Map of the Greater Project Area
The CBCLD project has pilot villages across six Provinces of northern China. When explaining the project to
communities which have had no exposure to the project it is useful to have a map showing the location of
previous activities.This tends to make the community more confident that CBCLD is bona fide and can be
relied on to follow up on its program. This increased confidence will result in a greater level of enthusiasm and
willingness to participate in the PRA process.
CBCLD planners can also use the map to illustrate the demonstration nature of the project (i.e. the wide
geographic distribution of the sites). It is also useful when briefing senior managers on progress. Finally, it
helps staff working in each of the townships to the scopes of the project. Use a real map to show the local
geography.


                                  GEFop12示范点分布略图
                                                                                                                  7


                 19
                      20
                           21                                                                        4   03
                                                                                        06   6

                                                                                                 5
                                                                                  05
                                                                     04
                                                                22                                                    LADA示范点
                                                           2             08       16
                                                      10            02      3
                                                                14              17                                    1、宁夏盐池县;2、甘肃
                                                                  07   09 1                                           民勤县;3、内蒙鄂托克
                                                                 13              18                                   旗;4、内蒙翁牛特旗;5、
                                                 12        11
                                                                         01
                                                                                                                      河北丰宁县;6、内蒙正
                                                                   15                                                 蓝旗;7、黑龙江林甸县




01、甘肃平凉崆峒区纸坊沟;02、宁夏永宁闽宁;03、内蒙通辽奈曼白音塔拉;04、内蒙乌海乌兰矿区;05、内蒙达茂额尔登敖包+
四子王查干补力格;06、内蒙正镶白旗伊克淖;07、宁夏青铜峡邵刚镇;08、宁夏贺兰山东麓;09、宁夏灵武宁东永利村;10、青海
湟源胡旦流域;11、青海民和隆治乡白武家村;12、青海共和沙珠玉;13、甘肃靖远县永新;14、甘肃景泰草窝滩—正泰准绿洲;15、
甘肃定西安定区复兴流域;16、陕西榆阳沙焉;17、陕西靖边海则滩村;18、陕西吴旗张坪村燕子沟;19、新疆博乐夏热勒津村;20、
新疆精河托里乡南沙包;21、新疆玛纳斯包家店镇;22、内蒙阿盟哈图呼都格嘎查


4.2.2.1.8 Explanation of IEM
•   Ecosystem resource management objectives are a matter of society’s choice
•   Management decisions should be decentralised to the lowest appropriate level

                                                                21
•    Ecosystem managers should consider the effects (actual or potential) of all their activities on adjacent
     and other ecosystems
• IEM should be undertaken at the appropriate scales to enable consideration of impacts and benefits of
     all components
• IEM planning should be flexible and adaptive
• IEM should seek the appropriate balance between, and integration of, conservation and use of
     biological diversity with sustainable development
• IEM should involve all relevant sectors of society and scientific disciplines
4.2.2.1.9 Explanation of M E
It is important to introduce farmers to the concept of HH level MEs at an early stage in the planning process.
ME are important in considering sustainable village development because they can potentially improve the
financial situation of HH and thus enable them to be more involved in IEM objectives and activities where
trade-offs have to be made between production and conservation. Poor HH are less likely to participate in IEM.
The following example can be used by planners to demonstrate to farmers how various income earning
activities could be integrated into their normal farming activities.
What is an ME?
A HH ME is a small business undertaken in the community. It can be managed by a single HH or by a group of
farming families. An ME usually only requires a small investment of funds and is designed to:
1. Increase farmers’ income and help reduce poverty;
2. Replace any current land use that is not environmentally friendly to achieve sustainability in environment.
What are some examples of ME’s?
There are a range of options for developing an ME opportunity within a village community. The specific
options available to a particular community will vary depending upon their location, natural resources, climate,
market situations and personal preferences. Some typical examples for farming communities in northern China
might include:
•    New types of livestock using sustainable production systems (eg. stall feeding of sheep and cattle, and
     rabbit raising);
•    Fruit trees such as apple, persimmon, and chestnut;
•    Plantation species such as Poplar, Hua Shu, Willow, Pine and Spruce;
•    Agroforestry using shrubs such as Shaji and Rubinia, and
•    Value adding opportunities to existing production systems such as corn and wheat production with corn
     shucking and wheat flour production machinery.
•    New ranges of vegetables for special markets such as organic produce or out-of-season production in
     greenhouses using methane for heating
•    Aquaculture
•    Contracting for the provision of small agricultural machine where labour is limited
    What do we need to do to assess ME opportunities in our village?
•    Consider the opportunity for technical feasibility. Are our soils, climate and location suited to this new
     enterprise?
•    What will the costs of starting this new enterprise be and what on-going costs of production might we
     expect?
•    What is a conservative, best case, and worst case estimate of the income we might expect? How do these
     returns affect the profitability of the new enterprise?




                                                         22
•   What is the market potential for this new enterprise (eg. where will we sell our product, does the demand
    for this new product vary much from year to year or month to month, and is there much existing
    competition from other farmers)?
•   Is this something we really want to do and do we have someone who has the capability to learn the new
    skills required and to manage the enterprise?
4.2.2.1.10 Decision Making Flow Chart Decision Making Flow Chart




When carrying out planning of IEM and rural development using participatory methods it is important to
ensure that farmers are given adequate guidance to ensure that the decisions they make are both in their own
interests and will contribute towards achieving the objectives of the project.
Given that CBCLD village plans have the objectives of alleviating land degradation and poverty, it is important
to ensure that all the activities undertaken have a positive impact on at least one of these issues and a negative
impact on neither of them. At the same time planners have to give as much freedom as possible to the farmers
and encourage them to choose new technologies which could be suitable for demonstration purposes.
The development and use of a decision-making framework can be of great assistance in helping farmers
identify those MEs which are eligible for project assistance. Such a framework can also be used to assist
planners when assessing proposed activities. When carrying out planning of IEM and rural development using
participatory methods it is important to ensure that farmers are given adequate guidance to ensure that the
decisions they make are both in their own interests and will contribute towards achieving the objectives of the
project.
Given that CBCLD village plans have the objectives of alleviating land degradation and poverty, it is important


                                                       23
to ensure that all the activities undertaken have a positive impact on at least one of these issues and a negative
impact on neither of them. At the same time planners have to give as much freedom as possible to the farmers
and encourage them to choose new technologies which could be suitable for demonstration purposes.
The development and use of a decision-making framework can be of great assistance in helping farmers
identify those MEs which are eligible for project assistance. Such a framework can also be used to assist
planners when assessing proposed activities.
4.2.2.1.11 Checklist for Discussion Groups
Discussion groups of five – fifteen people are conducted at an early stage during the planning process to
identify the needs of the community. At this stage discussion on individual needs should be avoided. One way
of getting the group to focus on the issues is to pose a number of questions and then methodically discuss each
question. Some suggested questions (and answers to look for) are:
    1. What needs do all people in this village have in common?
       • Health care
       • Water
       • Physical access
       • Education for children
       • Source of income
    2. Are the people in this village acting as a group of individuals or are they acting as a group?
    3. If people are acting as a group of individuals, what can be done to get them to work more as a team
       and what could be achieved if they worked as a team?
         • Strengthen leadership
         • Undertake cooperative projects
         • Stop other people from grazing animals on “our hills”
         • Better infrastructure
         • Equal distribution of resources
         • Better access to markets
    4.   Of the items you have listed, which are required in this village?
    5.   Of these items, which could you have a positive impact on if you had the financial resources?
    6.   Can the needs be classified into physical infrastructure, community resources, and information sub
         groups? If so, classify them.
    7.   Are there any sub groups within the community which have particular needs?
       • Women – health, literacy
       • The poorest families – food, clothing, and shelter
       • Children – health care, closer education facilities
    8. Compile a list of all the community requirements discussed and then prioritise them.       A suggested
       format and some possible requirements are as follows:
    Community
                           Physical Infrastructure          Special help to sub sections        Information
   Strengthening
                                                                of the community

1.Better leadership    4. New domestic water supply       5. Literacy training (women)     11. Library
7. New set of rules    2. Internal road and drain         12. Repair houses of poor        8. Market info
6. Notice board        10. Repair irrigation channel      13. Craft training (women)       3. Technical info
9. Form Farmers
Association (FA)
4.2.2.1.12 VIG Responsibilities

                                                       24
It is a good idea to emphasise the importance of the VIG. If established properly, the VIG can ensure the
successful implementation of village development plan.
If the proposed intervention is going to maximise the role of the VIG it is very important to clearly state the
responsibilities. Some suggested responsibilities are as follows:
A. Roles in the Planning Stage
          Ensure that all community members are aware of proposed meetings.
          Ensure that all HHs that wish to participate are given the opportunity.
          Encourage minority groups to voice opinions.
          Organise meeting venues including seating, lighting etc.
          Organise distribution of literature and other materials.
          Act as communication point for the planning team.
          Resolve any disputes that arise during the planning process.
          When appropriate organise lunches.
B. Roles in the Implementation Stage
        Liaison of material and transport.
        Organisation of villager labour.
        Demonstration and training.
        Monitoring implementation progress and quality.
        Collect any necessary money from the community.
C. Roles in long term development
   • Play lead role in developing organisations such as FAs, Womens’ Associations etc.
   • Actively seek sources of further investment.
   • Ensure that long term management plans such as mountain management plans are developed and put
       into action.
     •   Maintain linkages with other govt (AV, township, and county) institutions.
     •   Assist the township and AV governments to resolve disputes within the community.
     •   Maintaining records of inputs and outputs plus outcomes so that reviews can be undertaken over time
         that will lead to improvements when required and result in continuous village improvement
D. Portfolios
It is a good idea to allocate portfolios to each VIG member. The number and type of portfolios will vary from
one community to another. Some possible portfolios are:
• Training                       • Implementation – animals               • External communications
• Future investment              • Implementation – revegetation          • Internal communications
• Womens’ affairs                • Implementation – fruit trees           • Library/publications
• FA formation                 • Implementation – infrastructure                 • Mountain management
• VIG leader                   • Implementation – mulberries/silk                • Cashier – account keeper
Obviously, many of these portfolios can be combined. The list gives some idea of what aspects of development
can be included in the VIG responsibilities.
Other Points Relevant to VIG Structure
Size: Between four and eight people
Gender Balance: There should be at least one male and at least one female. More than one female on the
VIG is desirable.
Eligibility for Appointment: It is a good idea to restrict eligibility to residents of the village only. This ensures
that VIG members are on-hand within the village at all times of the year.
4.2.2.1.13 VIG Nomination Form


                                                        25
A formal nomination form can be useful in the event that it is obvious that a community is split over the
membership of a VIG and wishes to conduct a formal election. In such cases it is desirable to make the
nomination and subsequent electoral process as transparent as possible.
Using a written nomination process is one way of doing this. The document shown below (or a modification
of it) is an example of a form which could be used by people wishing to nominate someone for a VIG position.
If used it would have to be copied in sufficient quantities to be distributed.
                           NOMINATION FORM FOR MEMBERSHIP OF THE
                                  ……………………………………………..




                       VILLAGE IMPLEMENTATION GROUP
I, (NAME), nominate………………….for membership of the……………….…..VIG
I, nominate …………… for the position of Leader/Deputy Leader/Womens’ representative
Signed………………………………………..                    Date……………………..

4.2.2.1.14 Brief Descriptions of Possible Project Activities
At this early stage of the planning process, it is appropriate to introduce the possible activities to the community.
This introduction should be an overview only and does not go into detail.
Planners can describe all proposed activities in terms of:
1、 The integrated nature of the assistance package.
2、 The need to establish a “partnership” between the community and CBCLD.
As well as describing the specific activities that the project will support, the planner should cover other aspects
which may not be so immediately obvious. To do this the following notes may be of assistance. CBCLD
planners may need to modify them to suit the local Provincial situation.
Mountain and grassland management
•   The ultimate (long term) objective is to have all mountain land and grassland managed sustainably.
•   To achieve this objective, communities will have to change their attitude to the uses of these lands.
•   The project’s intention is to encourage the sustainable use of mountains and grasslands- this will include
    “locking” up some land indefinitely, establishing sustainable rotations on other land, and establishing
    productive activities on other appropriate land.
•   Other management activities which are important for sustainable mountain and grassland use include fire
    management, water quality, and soil erosion control.
• Where cereals (corn) are grown on steep slopes which may or may not be terraced, a more sustainable land
  use will have to be introduced.
MEs
•   Farmers should use this opportunity to introduce new productive activities such as fruit, horticulture,
    animals and pastures, on a demonstration basis.
•   The project will not support activities which are currently carried out on a large scale in the area, nor will it
    support activities which are traditional and have never had a positive result in terms of poverty alleviation.
•   All activities to be supported must be consistent with IEM principles as agreed by the village and hence
    sustainable in terms of the physical, social and economic environments.
•   The project will give priority to ME proposals involving co-operative action in the village.

                                                        26
Cropping
•   Any project assistance given to allow farmers to grow improved cereal, oilseed, fibre or other crop varieties
    is conditional on them agreeing to carry out recommended soil management practices and agreeing to cease
    cropping steep slopes.
• Recipients of assistance are expected to re-invest the proceeds from the improved varieties in future crops.
Energy
• Activities will be very strongly integrated with other VDP activities.
• The project seeks to trial new designs of biogas tanks and other energy efficient devices.
Infrastructure
•   As many infrastructure projects are very expensive, the project will consider partial funding as long as the
    matching funds are guaranteed.
•   All infrastructure must be designed and constructed such that environmental impact is mitigated and social
    impact is consistent with village community objectives.
•   Most infrastructure developments require active community management if they are to be sustainable.
4.2.2.1.15 Hints on Conducting a Small Group Discussion
One of the methods employed in the PRA process is small group discussions. These are used when the
number of people at a meeting is too large to allow everyone to voice an opinion, and/or when the planner feels
there are some people at the meeting may have something important to contribute but are too shy to do so in
front of a large group of people.
When a planner uses this method she/he should take account of the following:
Role of the facilitator: The small group facilitator plays an important role at the small group discussions held
early in the planning process but diminishes as the participants became familiar with the concept.
Group size: This will vary according to the resources available. Ideally, groups should be between five and
12 people. If there are more than 12 people, the advantage of the small group will be lost.
Composition of the discussion group: The planner should attempt to ensure that a discussion group is not
dominated by any particular gender, family, or farming type sub group.
Locations of the group discussions: Wherever possible, groups should be out of earshot of each other.
Type of discussion: All discussion should be informal and the facilitator should ensure that everyone has an
opportunity to put their point of view.
Rules: It is important that all participants understand that each person contributing to the discussion should be
listened to without prejudice. Different opinions must be listened to and debated rationally. Resorting to
voting to determine the group’s position on a particular issue should be avoided whenever possible.
Topic/s for discussion: The topics should be carefully defined and the facilitator should ensure that the group
is not distracted by other “irrelevant issues”. If there is more than one topic, then the facilitator should ensure
that the available time is divided appropriately so that each topic can be addressed.
Document outcomes: In most cases it is valuable to document the outcomes of a discussion. Therefore the
facilitator should ensure that the group has the appropriate pens and paper.
Reporting back to the main meeting: A process to inform the rest of the meeting of the small group
discussion outcomes developed. This is best done by appointing a “presenter” at the outset of the discussion.
This person (who should not be a planner), will then give an account of the discussion and the decisions
reached when the main meeting is re-convened. This reporting back can be made more effective if
appropriate notes are prepared during the discussion.
4.2.2.1.16 HH Data Collection Form
Note: the following form is only an example designed to illustrate the way a data collection form can be
formatted.


                                                        27
No.                                                                            1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8

Name of HH
Main income source
Cash income/year
Expenditure/year
Fuel gas
How many tanks/year
Stove                                    Wood consumption/day
                                         Chimney available?
                                         Time of building
                                         How many stoves?
Willing to grow trees (species)
Willing to grow fruit trees(species)     Apple
                                         Persimmon
Willing to stall feed livestock
Energy                                   Biogas tanks available?
                                         Fuel efficient stove available?
4.2.2.1.17 Review of Meeting
It is important that the team review each meeting as soon as possible after the meeting. Such a review where
strengths and weaknesses can be honestly discussed will result in future meetings being more effective.
1. Logistical arrangements in terms of timing, location, seating arrangements, vehicle availability,
     lunch etc
      Were they appropriate or could they be improved?
2. Agenda
      Was it appropriate and did each speaker have too much/too little time?
      How can the speakers improve their performance?
      Was the agenda too long and was the audience able to absorb/understand the information?
3. Audience
      Was the attendance satisfactory and was every HH represented?
      Note how many women attended.。
      Did the audience actively participate?
4. The Result
      Did the discussion groups function as intended and were the suggested CD activities appropriate?
      What will now be done with the data collected as a result of the group discussions?
      Were there any occasions where some individuals were in obvious disagreement and if so what will you do
      about this?
5. VIG Appointment
      Will the team carry out an election to appoint the VIG or will the team appoint the VIG in consultation
      with the village leaders?




                                                     28
4.2.2.1.18 Problem ranking matrix
The problem ranking matrix is a very useful tool for collating the views of the village community with respect to the issues that they face. The information should be
collected from facilitated small group discussions. The order of priority should be decided by the village as a whole if there is wide variation between the small
groups.
问题                          问题的实质是什                 是否影响到           对村庄生态系             如果我们无动于             该问题对创造收               我们是否具有解决问                 优先顺序
                            么?                      很多人?            统有影响吗?             衷,情况会恶化             入的重要程度如               题的可能?
                                                                                       吗?                  何?
土地退化严重、周边环                  风沙、干旱、使用不               全村                                 会                   高                     封山育林、退耕还林、 1
境差                          当
农业产量低                       地力差                     全村                                 会                   高                     增加有机肥、坡改梯                 2
田间道路差                       缺资金                     全村                                 会                   中                     修路                        3
畜牧业发展滞后                     饲草少                     全村                                 会                   高                     圈养                        4
村级道路差                       缺资金                     全村                                 会                   低                     修路                        3
外出务工难                       文化素质低、信息闭               1 人/户                              不肯定                 高                     与政府联系
                            塞




                                                                                 29
4.2.2.1.19 Pro forma for recording overlapping needs
The overlapping needs matrix is a useful tool for managing community expectations. The output from the
problem census (0) is compared with the GEFOP12 project options to identify where a relationship can start
between participants and the project. This manages expectations and identifies opportunities for action. It
would usually be presented in either the first or second village meeting after the initial problem census
exercise has been completed.
It provides the basis for problem solving work, which is the next step towards implementation. An example
of overlapping needs identified with herder participants from Kürti Township, Fuyun County Xinjiang
Province held in Kuwe Valley on 26 June 2002 are presented in the table below.

COUNTY: ___________________________      TOWNSHIP: _____________________________ GPS :
______________
Community priorities outside GEFOP12 mandate
•
•


                       Overlapping interests
                       •
                       •




                       •
                       •
                                                   GEFOP12 project activities outside community interest
NOTES:
Community priorities outside project mandate
• Improve health of herders with settlements
• Reduce distance between winter & summer pasture
• Increased credit availability for herders
• Alternative livelihood opportunities for herders

                           Overlapping interests
                           • Halt decline in local biodiversity
                           • Reverse native grassland degradation
                           • Improving winter feed resources
                           • Developing land & water for alfalfa
                           • Improving productivity of livestock
                           • Increasing herder returns from meat
                           • Planned resource management

                                                                    Developing extension tools for herders
                                                             • Conduct pasture and wildlife inventories
                                                     • Establish grassland & pasture monitoring programs
                                                       • Institutional strengthening – AHB, FB, Institutes
                                                                    • Project management & evaluation
                                                                  • activities outside community interest




                                                    30
4.2.2.1.20 Arrangements – Good and Bad Meetings
During PRA meetings in China, it is common for the following tendencies to be observed:
•  Women tend to sit together often at the back of the room.
•  Women often have to care for children during the meeting.
•  People are used to sitting in rows facing the “official” table.
•  Meetings are most often held indoors.
•  Meetings are often dominated by a few people.
•  Younger people (age 18 – 30 years) have less to say than older people.
•  People sometimes shout and lose their temper.
•  Meetings are nearly always late to start.
•  Small group discussions are often conducted in close proximity to each other.
•  Meetings involving large numbers of people (>50 people) are sometimes conducted in places where some
   people cannot not see the speakers.
Some simple measures which the planner can take to avoid such problems are:
1、 Always have a female on the planning team and this female planner conducts some of the discussions.
2、 Make the starting time very clear to the village leader/s well before the planned meeting date, and always
   be on time.
3、 Suggest scheduling night meetings.
4、 As far as possible, place the chairs in a semi-circular arrangement – avoid straight parallel rows.
5、 Ensure that posters, maps and other visual aids are clearly visible.
6、 Ensure that the meeting agenda is displayed at the entrance to the meeting place.
7、 Where weather permits, conduct the meeting outdoors especially when large numbers of people means that
   not everyone will be able to see the speakers when it is conducted in a confined space.
8、 Arrange for smaller meeting places to be available when group discussions are part of the agenda.
9、 Schedule short breaks in the program so people could “stretch their legs”, smoke, and informally discuss
   the business of the meeting.
10、     Allocate times on the agenda when women and younger people will be scheduled to speak “from a
   female perspective” and from a “younger person’s perspective”.
11、      Make full use of aids such as posters, photos, samples of products, etc.
12、      Where the planner does not have the specific technical expertise to speak on a subject, invite an
expert who does have that expertise to attend the meeting.




                                                     31
4.2.3 Step 3: Participatory Ecosystem and Natural Resources Assessment
Objectives:
1. To gather data that will enable a comprehensive map of the natural resources present and the condition of
   those resources to be developed, and to collect information on the existing agricultural production systems
   and infrastructure in the village.
2. To map important areas of remnant vegetation and other important features of local ecosystems.
3. To gather data relating to the economic status, demography and social conditions of the village.
4. To begin thinking about the possible land use options for the village and to encourage farmers to
   commence thinking about these options through IEM.
After the village introductory meeting, the planners will start to assess the natural resources and collect social
economic data to understand the fundamental problems and needs in the community, which is the basis of the
village development planning.
To carry out a natural resource assessment it is necessary to collect both physical, environmental, social and
economic data. This is done by carrying out field inspections, interviewing leaders and a sample of farmers,
analysing the data and documenting it, and finally presenting the results to the community and analysing their
feedback.
                                                          Planning
Activities                                                            Note
                                                          Aid
Participatory Ecosystem and Natural Resource Assessment
Preparation
Obtain the following materials:                                       The scale of this map will depend on the
Map of the area selected for intervention. A 0                        size of the area and intensity of land use.
topographic map will be particularly useful if you can                The scale should be no greater than
acquire it.                                                           1:10000 (1cm=100m). ie 1cm on the map
                                                                      represents 100m on the ground.
Drawing materials including pencils, scale ruler,         0
tracing paper and coloured pens.
Map folder and compass.                                   0
Multiple copies of a form designed to collect data on a   0
HH basis.
List of all HHs living in and carrying out farming
activities in the village.
Field Work
Visit the village and get a group of farmers to draw a    0           In most cases this drawing should be done
representation of the area to be planned.                 0           on plain drawing paper and should not
                                                                      involve scale or other features which may
                                                                      confuse the farmers.
Transfer this information to your detailed map sheet      0           In most cases a number of “overlays” will
(topographic map if you have one) and then inspect all    0           be needed in order so that all data is
parts of the village confirming or amending the           0           mapped and represented clearly.
information. Identify and mark on the map areas of        0
land degradation, vegetation types, types of terraces,
land units, and any special features in local
ecosystems.


                                                       32
                                                           Planning
Activities                                                            Note
                                                           Aid
Select and interview a sample of HHs to carry out a        0
wealth ranking for each HH in the community.
Locate suitable field sites for illustrating sustainable              Areas of soil erosion, terraces on land that
and unsustainable land use, revegetation acitivities,      0          is too steep, good/bad soil management on
and potential land retirement options.                     0          cropping land as well as irrigation
                                                                      management,        good/bad       grassland
                                                                      management, and effective/ineffective
                                                                      tree planting are examples of the kinds of
                                                                      sites needed for demonstration. Potential
                                                                      for local wildlife and nature reserves
                                                                      should also be explored if possible.
Identify and brief, suitable farmers to speak at the                  Speakers should preferably be older men
next meeting.                                                         who can recall past social changes, land
                                                                      use changes (e.g.          tree clearing),
                                                                      infrastructure developments, catastrophic
                                                                      events (flood, fire), etc.
Data Collation and Preparation
Complete mapping to produce maps and typical cross         0
sections that can be used at the next meeting.             0
                                                           0
Prepare a diagrammatic representation of relationship      0
between land use, vegetation, soil loss, and water
quality.
Develop land use recommendations for the next              0
meeting.
Cross check the results from the wealth ranking and
HH survey with each other to confirm accuracy of the
HH survey
Prepare “checklists” for use by the group discussion       0
facilitators.
Prepare ME hand outs.                                      错误!未       Hand outs should describe typical
                                                           找 到 引      enterprise options for the region in which
                                                           用源。        the pilot village is located. It is no use
                                                                      providing villages with information on
                                                                      activities that are not feasible in their
                                                                      environment. The handouts will provide
                                                                      villagers with some ‘new’ ideas but be
                                                                      prepared for villagers to have their own
                                                                      ideas at later stages of the planning
                                                                      process which may be different.
Confirm time and date for the meeting with village
leader.
Prepare agenda.                                            0

                                                       33
                                                        Planning
Activities                                                         Note
                                                        Aid
Prepare EOI form to hand out at meeting.                错误!未       This will give villagers an opportunity to
                                                        找 到 引      express interest in finding out more about
                                                        用源。        one or more possible enterprise options.
Ecosystem and Natural Resources Assessment              0          It is desirable to conduct the first part of
Feedback and Resource Management Meeting                           this meeting in the field.
Describe the relationship between land use,             0          This is an important process that will help
vegetation, energy, and water quality and introduce     0          villagers understand the basic principals
the concept of a watershed or catchment, and IEM.                  of IEM and addressing the causes of land
                                                                   degradation. It will help them make good
                                                                   decisions in future planning stages about
                                                                   village     development       and      land
                                                                   management.
Explain the model for sustainable land use and point               Involve the farmers in a general
out examples of good and bad land use in the                       discussion on causes of the observed land
landscape.                                                         degradation.
Proceed to the meeting place and convene the formal
part of the meeting.
Open the meeting.
Collect the nomination forms for VIG membership (if     0
any).
Older village resident to speak on vegetation changes
and other trends/events in the village.
Present the current land use/veg condition/land         0
degradation map and get the farmers to discuss and
confirm/amend it.
Present the land unit map and cross section/s and       0
explain the concept of LC.        Identify areas of     0
incorrect land use on the current land use map and
describe the proposals for both short and long term
revegetation, mountain management measures, and
other     environmental     management    such    as
rehabilitating saline land.
Describe the principles of natural resource
management.
Provide results of the wealth ranking and HH survey.    0
Get an indication of whether the wealth ranking is
correct and propose the idea that resource allocation
should take wealth discrepancies into account.
Explain the approach to ME investment on a HH           0
basis.




                                                    34
                                                          Planning
Activities                                                           Note
                                                          Aid
Recap on the ME discussion held at the previous
meeting and hand out relevant technical information.
Get farmers to confirm observations/expectations on
what some of the appropriate MEs will be. Conduct
a basic analysis of the investment and operating costs,   错误!未
returns and likely profitability of a selected ME.        找 到 引
                                                          用源。
Hand out EOI forms to each HH and ask that they be        错误!未
completed in time for the next meeting.                   找 到 引
Advise the meeting of the intention to hold a farmer      用源。
study tour and ask for suggestions of where they
would like to go and what they would like to see.
Group discussions amongst the villagers to address        0          Each group should be of between five and
environmental degradation and the causes.                            ten people and the discussion should be
                                                                     facilitated by a planning team member.
                                                                     Answers to the questions should be
                                                                     written down.


Carry out the VIG election process.                       0          Secret ballots, declaration etc.
Representatives from each discussion group to
summarise their conclusions.
Closure of Meeting.
2.3.5 Review of meeting.                                  0


4.2.3.1 Aids for participatory ecosystem and natural resources assessment
4.2.3.1.1 Notes on Production of Maps
There are two features that all maps must have if they are to be useful. These are a scale and a north point.
Without these things a drawing ceases to be a map and becomes a sketch only. When the map has been
completed, and if the scale is accurate, it can be used for calculating areas and distances. In addition if a map
is to convey information it should have a key.
  The Scale
•   This can be varied according to the purpose of the map. Maps which are to be part of a planning
    document such as a VDP must be of a physical size which is suitable for inclusion in the final report, while
    maps to be used for discussion purposes must be of a size that can be seen by an audience of up to 60
    people.
•   The selected scale should be of an even number i.e. 1: 10000 is acceptable while
    1:11000 is more difficult to use.
•   Scale is usually written as 1cm (on the map): (is equivalent to) x cm (on the ground).   For example a scale
    of 1:5000 means that 1cm on the map equals 5000cm (or 50m) on the ground.
•  If planners are altering the scale of a base map by using a magnifying photocopier, they should be aware
   that the resulting map will have a different scale to that of the base map.
North Point


                                                       35
•   This is to enable the map to be oriented in the correct direction. It should be indicated by a simple symbol
    drawn on the map in a prominent position.
Key
The key enables particular features on the ground to be identified on the map. A sample key is shown below.
                                        Proposed land                                            Proposed land
                      Present                               Mapping             Present
Mapping Item                            use                                                      use
                      representation                        Item                representation
                                        representation                                           representation
Reservoir/pond        #                                                         G
                                                            Good
                                            #
                                                            vegetation

River                                                                           F
                                                            Average
                                                            vegetation

Water supply          W                                     Poor                P
                                                 W          vegetation
Vehicle road                                                                    L
                                                            Large        soil
                                                            erosion

Walking path                                                                    M
                                                            Medium soil
                                                            erosion

Location         of   AV                                                        S
                                                            Slight       soil
village
                                                            erosion
committee
Village location      V                                     Small slope         T1
                                                            degree, little
                                                            potential of
                                                            erosion
Timber                ▲                                     Terraced            T2               Ta/Tb
                                            ▲               fields,
                                                            moderate
                                                            potential     of
                                                            erosion
Fruit                 ●                                     Great slope         T3               Tc
                                                 ●          degree, poor
                                                            terraced
                                                            fields, great
                                                            potential of
                                                            erosion
Grazing area          ×                                     Dry land            C
                                             X

Irrigated land        I
                                             I



                                                      36
                                        Proposed land                                         Proposed land
                  Present                                  Mapping          Present
Mapping Item                            use                                                   use
                  representation                           Item             representation
                                        representation                                        representation


This is a sample only. Planners should develop appropriate symbols to suit each particular situation.
Planners should also note that vegetation and ecosystem types will vary as they move from village to village.
These must be identified in the mapping phase and can be recorded on separate map sheets to the natural
resources assessment.
Maps for display and demonstration purposes
• These maps should be large and clearly visible to the audience. As the important thing is that the audience
  understands the concept of what is being discussed, there is no need for an accurate scale. Different colours
  used to represent different features are very useful. The maps can be produced by villagers or planners by
  hand-drawing in accordance with the situation of the village, this process is called Draft Village
  Ichnography.
Maps for calculation and reporting purposes
• Maps must be accurately drawn.
There are a number of simple ways of measuring the areas represented on a map if the appropriate equipment is
not available. These methods are outlined in planning aid 错误!未找到引用源。.
4.2.3.1.2 Drawing Materials
Drawing materials that are commonly used include:
•   A number of colour pens
•   Two pencils (one for spare)
•   Erasers
•   Tracing paper
•   Clips
•   A pencil knife
•   A flat board or a table
•   A drawing board
     Planning Aid 0 shows pictures of some of the materials.
4.2.3.1.3 Equipment for Field Mapping




                                                      37
4.2.3.1.4 Mud Map
Mud Map Features
The purpose of community mapping is to help facilitators from outside, together with the community, to collect
information on the resource, public facilities, land use, livelihood and features of the community. Using maps is
a very helpful approach to decipher this information. At the same time, maps highlight the topics of most
concern for people to discuss and draw villagers into the participatory process.
The following are the steps for producing a community map:
1. Field observation with villagers in the community.
2. Select a flat field which is big enough for all participants to be involved actively and to view the drawing of
    the map throughout the process.
3. Using a community member who is a long term resident with moderate education and is familiar with the
    community as the main drawer of the map would increase the quality of the map.
4. Ask villagers to mark the main representations in the community such as houses, rivers and roads. These
    main features help the villagers recognise directions.
5. Use different colour pens to mark the village, public facilities, water source, vegetation (both remnant and
    introduced), cultivated land, and the names of the mountains, the approximate land area and the distance.
6. Review and modify the map, mark the date and the scale.
7. Community members use the map as a focus to tell the changes and the present situation of the community,
    and to discuss plans for the future, e.g. discussion and exchange of comments on land use of a mountain.
8. Lead the community into considerations of environmental degradation, poverty, livelihood and
    development from different points of views.
9. The facilitators record the main points of the discussions involved by the community.
Remember that this map will be drawn by farmers and will not be accurate in terms of scale. After it has been
completed the planner will have to adapt the information so that it is accurate.




                                                       38
4.2.3.1.5 Mud Map - Planning
When initial discussions about proposed land use changes have been carried out, these should be presented to
the community in a format which they can understand. This is best done using the base mud map (see planning
aid 0) as a base.
The map on the following page shows the proposed works superimposed on the base map. These proposed
works include:
•   A road to be repaired
•   A water supply and irrigation system
•   Areas to be planted with corn
•   Areas to be planted with fruit trees
•   Areas to be revegetated
•   Areas of proposed mountain closure
•   Others




                                                    39
4.2.3.1.6 Mapping Erosion Condition
Erosion condition and grading
                    Patch erosion                          striae or ravine erosion
Slight erosion                                                                 Slight erosion




                                                              <5m
                                                       < 10 cm




                           Medium erosion        Medium erosion




            2-5cm
            2-5cm                                      10-50cm
                                                                            5-50m




                                            40
                        Deep erosion
                                                                    > 50cm       eep erosion




4.2.3.1.7 Background principles on assessing trends in range condition
     Module 3 – Participatory Monitoring of Village Development includes some introductory notes on the
principles of assessing trends in range condition. See section 5.4.1.1.
4.2.3.1.8 Terrace Classification Diagrams and Descriptions
                                                             T1
                                                                      梯田

                                        平地
                                                                土壤厚度>60cm
                                                        T2

                       梯田

                                                       T2       好梯田

                                         非平地

耕地
                                                              土壤厚度<60cm
                                                       T3

                                  T1     平地
               非梯田



                                                       T2     土壤厚度 >60cm

                                       非平地

                                                             土壤厚度<60cm
                                                       T3




                                                  41
Mark   Note                Interpretation                               Picture   Principles for management

       Well built and
                           Land surface is level or only has a
       managed                                                                    Maintain the existing terrace structure; build
                           very small slope so that rainfall
       terraces or crop                                                           drains so that the run off drains steadily
 T1                        infiltrates the soil rather than
       land with less                                                             down to mountain; maintain the surface of
                           washing across it and causing
       than 1 degree                                                              the soil covered with vegetation
                           erosion
       slope

                           The surface is not able to control
                           the runoff so the soil is washed                       If the slope is greater than 25 degrees,
       Poor terrace        away when it rains. Soil fertility is                  cropping should be stopped and converted
       conditions, or      reduced and crop yields tend to                        into revegetation; if the slope is less than 25
       cultivation on      be poor. Soil washed down-slope                        degree, repairs should be made and drains
 T2    non terraced        can cause problems such as                             should be built; maintain the soil surface
       soils; soil depth   sedimentation of rivers leading to                     covered with vegetation all the time; crops
       greater than        greater incidence of flooding.                         and trees inter-growing could be considered;
       60cm                These soils are deep enough to                         if the slope is less than 15 degree, repairs need
                           build well constructed terraces                        to be made
                           which will protect local soils (T1).

       Poor terrace
                           The soil does not maintain run off
       conditions, or
                           and is washed away, leading to
       cultivation on                                                             Cropping must be stopped; convert land use
 T3                        soil erosion; the soil is not deep
       non terrace; soil                                                          into revegetation; repair erosion
                           enough to build terraces or to
       depth less than
                           crop.
       60cm




                                                                   42
4.2.3.1.9 Land Unit Maps
Introduction
When planning development activities it is essential that the land on which the activity will be carried out is
capable of supporting the proposed activity. For example corn should not be grown on land which has a
very steep slope (>25 degrees) or which has a soil depth less than 30cm as such an activity would lead to soil
erosion and would not be sustainable. Similarly it would be a waste of the land resource if a dryland herb
suitable for planting on steep stony soils was established on irrigated deep alluvial soils. To avoid such errors
in planning, the concept of the Land Unit has been developed.
Defining the Land Units
A land unit is an area which contains relatively uniform landform, geology, soils and vegetation. It is a useful
mapping unit in natural resource assessments because it allows the planner to identify areas within the village
environment that may be more suited to certain land use activities than others. For example, deep alluvial
plains are more suited to irrigation and cropping than are steep slopes. The image and accompanying table
below shows a landscape and its various land units.




           Symbo                                                       Name


              1                  Plateaux and breakaways
              2                  Low hills and ridges
              3                  Stony footslopes
              4                  Sandy plains
              5                  Stony plains
              6                  Alluvial fans and plains
              7                  Drainage floors
The planner faced with the task of developing a systematic description of the land resource is the person best
placed to define each land unit, after all, it is the planner who will carry out the field inspections and who is
familiar with the types of development activity options. Undertake this task by:
    •   carrying out a preliminary field inspection of the land under consideration, and relate it to the village
        map (topographic if you have it). Determine which land characteristics will be used to define the
        Land Unit. For example, you can use the slope of the land and/or soil depth to define the Land Units
        as shown in the table below. Another simple example for a typical village is included in 0.
    •   Confirm the land unit boundaries in the field.    Boundaries may have to be adjusted to take into
        account varying soil depth.
    •   Add in the Land Units which are not only based on slope (eg Land Units II and VII shown in 0) and
        produce a Land Unit Description to accompany the map (see 0).

                                                         43
                                                                           Description
 Symbol                        Name                       Slope (degree/%)     Soil Depth (cm)
      I       Alluvial plains                             0-3/0-5              >60
     II       Alluvial plains subject to water            0-1/0-2              >60 (clay)
              logging
    III       Foothills                                   3–5/5-10                  30-60
    IV        Moderate slopes                             5–25/10-47                0-60
     V        Steep slopes                                25–45/47-100              0-30
    VI        Very steep slopes                           >45/>100                  0-10
    VII       Rock outcrop areas                          5->45/10->100             Rock outcrop exceeded
                                                                                    50% of the area
    VIII       Land occupied by houses, roads, etc        Variable                  Variable
4.2.3.1.10 Using Land Unit Maps to Indicate LC
In Planning Aid 0 the process of mapping Land Units was described. This information can now be used to
determine what parts of the planning area can be used for a particular activity.
Before this can be done the area of each Land Unit should be measured. Planning aid 错误!未找到引用
源。 explains the methods for doing this. An example of how you can present the data is provided in the
following table:
     Note: all figures in the table have been entered to illustrate an imaginary example, and that the total
village area of the imaginary village is 1500 mu. It’s most unusual to find all Land Units in the one locality -
the example below describes each the eight units for demonstration purposes only.
                                                                Land Degradation
 Land      Area                                                      and other
                        Description      Present Land Use                                  Recommendations
  Unit     (mu)                                                   Management
                                                                     Problems
I         60         Good cropping Corn and assorted Soil fertility decline Continue cropping with
                     soils, with an vegetables                due to loss of organic improved pest control
                     area of 20 mu        Irrigated cotton matter        and      soil and introduce green
                     being suitable on 10 mu                  crusting                 manure crops
                     for irrigation                           Pests of corn – xxx, Introduce            improved
                                                              yyy                      irrigation practices to
                                                              Insufficient irrigation make more efficient use
                                                              water due to declining of available groundwater
                                                              water table              and to extend current
                                                                                       irrigated area to a
                                                                                       possible 20mu
II        4          Heavy clay soil Grazing            and Poorly drained             Establish water logging
                     with perennial collection           of                            tolerant native species
                     weeds              fodder                                         and protect from grazing
                     Some attempts
                     at draining it
III       340        Soils suitable for 110 mu of land Some T2 terraces in             Repair the T2 terraces
                     terracing      and unit is growing need of repair                 and      introduce       an
                     establishing       corn on T2 terraces Cereal cropping areas improved corn variety
                     perennial crops    200 mu is used for on the T3 terraces are      Cease cereal cropping on

                                                       44
                                                           Land Degradation
Land    Area                                                  and other
                 Description        Present Land Use                                   Recommendations
Unit    (mu)                                                 Management
                                                              Problems
               Vegetation  on       fodder         and    losing soil, crops are     the T3 terraces and
               the uncropped        collection            very low yielding          replace with fruit or nut
               area is in P/F       30 mu is used for     and subject to disease     trees or with perennial
               condition            cereal cropping on                               fodder shrubs
                                    T2 and T3 terraces
IV      166    Contains small       25 mu has T3          Soil loss from the T3      Introduce the concept of
               areas of soils       terraces growing      terraces                   “rotational grazing”
               deep enough for      cereals               Vegetation            is   Establish fruit trees
               terracing     and    The remainder is      dominated            by    and/or pastures on the T3
               growing      fruit   used for grazing      indigenous       woody     terraces
               trees          or    and collecting fuel   shrubs (shaji)
               establishing                               Bare areas in winter
               pastures                                   generate large runoff
                                                          which causes flooding
                                                          and siltation of good
                                                          land below
V       750    400 mu has           Grazing and fuel      Vegetation dominated       Rotational closure
               grasslands      in   collection            by native grasses with
               poor condition                             some shrubs
               and            the                         Moderate rill erosion
               remaining 350
               mu             has
               grasslands      in
               fair condition
VII     60     Roads, houses        Not Applicable        Road causes some soil      Improve drainage
                                                          erosion
Total   1380




                                                     45
4.2.3.1.11 Method of Calculation of Areas on a Map
During the planning process it often becomes necessary to calculate areas on a map. Areas which are given
to the planner by farmers or staff from government institutions are often wrong, so areas of existing and
proposed activities (e.g. pasture establishment, tree planting, land units, cropping etc) need to be measured.
If a planimeter (a tool for measuring areas on a map) is not available, then there are two other simple but
accurate methods of measuring the area on a map and then calculating the corresponding area on the ground:
    •    Counting Squares: Use a sheet of graph paper to produce a grid on a piece of transparent paper.
         Make a “dot” at each intersection of the gridlines. Commonly available graph paper is drawn so
         that each “square” on the graph paper will be
         1cm2. Therefore each intersection of gridlines will represent an area or 1cm2. If the transparent
         graph paper is placed over the area defined on the map and the number of gridline intersections
         appearing is counted, the result represents the area in cm2. This figure can then be converted using
         the scale of the map, to the corresponding area on the ground.
    •   Triangulation: Trace the area to be measured onto a piece of transparent paper (or make a
        photocopy of it). Divide the area into triangles. Measure the base line length and the height of
        each triangle and then calculate the area of each triangle using the formula Baseline/2 X height.
        Adding up all the triangle areas will give the area in square cm on the map. This can then be
        converted to the area on the ground using the map scale.
Conversion of the “on-paper mapped area” to an “on-ground area”
The following table demonstrates how this can be done.
 Area on the Map             Scale of the Map                           Area on the Ground
        45cm2                   1:10000                45cm2=45x100x100m2         450000m2 (45 ha or 720 mu)
                          1cm on map=100m on
                                 ground
        13cm2                   1:15000                13cm2=13x150x150m2             292500m2 (29.25ha or
                          1cm on map=150m on                                                468mu)
                                 ground
4.2.3.1.12 Notes on how to carry out a Wealth Ranking
Data on relative wealth is valuable when determining the way in which resources should be distributed.
Planners can direct resources such as demonstration (i.e. “free”) biogas tanks to the poorer HHs by referring
to the wealth ranking data. Wealth ranking data can also be useful in Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E)
phases:
•   Select a sample of say 10% of the HHs in the village.
•   Ask each of the sample HHs to rank all HHs in the village according to perceived wealth.
•   Analyse the data to arrive at a relative wealth ranking for each HH.
Casually select five-ten villagers from the village to rank all the HHs as Good, Average and Poor, following
income and living standards. Good scores 99, Average 66 and Poor 33. The HH that is scored lowest is
identified as the poorest HH. The following format could be used for this purpose.
              Rank by        Rank by         Rank by         Rank by         Rank by
Name of                                                                                       Mean       Final
             “Surveyor”     “Surveyor”      “Surveyor”      “Surveyor”      “Surveyor”
  HH                                                                                         Ranking     Rank
                 #1             #2              #3              #4              #5
    A             1               3               1               2               2             9           1
    B             11             10              12              12              10             55         12
    C             4               8               9              10              11             42          8
    D             7               5               6               8               8             36          7


                                                      46
             Rank by          Rank by         Rank by         Rank by         Rank by
Name of                                                                                       Mean        Final
            “Surveyor”       “Surveyor”      “Surveyor”      “Surveyor”      “Surveyor”
  HH                                                                                         Ranking      Rank
                #1               #2              #3              #4              #5
    E             2               1               3               3               1              10          2
    F             5               6               7               6               6              30          6
   G              3               7               4               5               5              24          4
   H              6               4               5               4               7              26          5
    I            12               11              10              9               12             54         11
    J             8               9               9               11              9              46         =9
   K             10              12               11              7               6              46         =9
    L             9               2               2               1               5              19          3
Therefore, if the project was targeted at the poorest 20% of HHs, the last eight poor HHs would be selected
for special attention with the knowledge that there is a good chance that they are among the poorest in the
community. On the other hand the planner would know the richest HHs and might be ineligible for certain
types of assistance.
4.2.3.1.13 Sample Map – Present Land Use and Land Units
When the present land use information given by the farmers in the form of a mud map (see planning aid 0)
has been confirmed and/or amended by field inspection, it can be combined with the Land Unit information
which has been mapped (see 0).
The resulting map will now give both the planner and the farmer an indication of whether the present land
uses are environmentally sustainable. To illustrate this refer to map 0.
In the hypothetical example provided in this manual, the following unsustainable land uses are occurring:
1、 Corn and cereals are being grown on T3 terraces which have been constructed on Land Unit IV (slopes
   greater than 47% or 25 degrees).
2、 Uncontrolled grazing and fuel collection is occurring on Land Unit IV and V (slopes greater than 100%
   or 45 degrees).
3、 Corn is being grown on T2 terraces (thin soils).
As well as these unsustainable land uses, there are a number of locations where the present land use is less
intensive than what it is capable of supporting. Some examples of this are:
1、 Much of Land Unit IV is used for grazing on unimproved pastures. This land is capable of supporting
   T2 terraces which have been planted to improved pastures.
2、 Apart from some small areas of irrigated potato, Land Unit I is used for dryland corn and wheat
    production. If the water use efficiency can be improved, the supply of irrigation water may extend to a
    larger area and more irrigated crop could be grown.
From these observations it is obvious that the present land use is too intensive and therefore unsustainable in
some areas, while in other areas the land is capable of supporting more intensive
land-uses.




                                                       47
4.2.3.1.14 Sustainable Long Term Land Uses
As well as planning activities to be implemented immediately (in the short term), it is vital that planners and
communities identify sustainable land uses which can be implemented in the long term when sufficient
investment funds become available. This strategic planning relies heavily on LC information which, if
gathered and recorded in an effective manner, can be extremely valuable to future planners and to the farmers
themselves. To illustrate this refer to the map below.
It is often tempting for planners to pay more attention to identifying rural development activities which are
attainable using the funds available at the time of plan development. However, this approach tends to result in
plans which give very little guidance on future or long term development. If planners and communities give
more consideration to the potential longer term development of villages, even though this information may
not be of immediate use to the community, it will be invaluable to future generations.
As well as showing the activities which can be undertaken in the short term, the hypothetical map
accompanying this planning aid shows activities which can be undertaken when investment funds become
available. Some of these activities are:
1. Expand the area of fruit trees, pasture, and timber plantations.
2. Expand the area of irrigated land by deepening the bore and increasing the water yield.
3. Establish indigenous shrubs and trees for their biodiversity and commercial benefits (i.e. commercial
     species).
If the plans produced merely state what is to be done in the short term, they cannot be regarded as meaningful
rural development plans. It is very important that planners recognise this and structure their plans to address
both the long and short term
situations.




                                                       48
4.2.3.1.15 Notes on Maps to be used at Community Meetings
During the planning process planners will be required to produce a wide variety of maps.       These maps will
fall into two categories:
1. Maps to be used at public meetings for demonstration and explanation purposes.
2. Maps to be included in the final plan.
This planning aid describes the type of map to be used at a meeting. Such maps have the following general
characteristics:
•   Physically large enough to be viewed and understood by someone sitting up to 8m (?) away – i.e. at least
    60 x 80cm in size.
•    Transportable i.e. it can be rolled up.
•    Use colours when appropriate.
•    It is not necessary that the map be drawn to scale.
In some cases there is a temptation to put too much data onto the one sheet. Planners should be aware of
this and instead should use transparent overlay sheets to present additional information.
        A sample of an appropriate style of map for use at meetings is illustrated in planning aid 0.
4.2.3.1.16 Sustainable Farming Systems
The relationship between the type of farming system or land use and the long term sustainability can be
explained in many different ways. This planning aid is one way of representing the relationship between land
use and profitability.
The following diagrams can be reproduced on a poster and the consequences of using System A can be
compared with consequences of using System B. This comparison is best done in a general discussion with
the farmers being asked questions such as:
•   Which of the two systems will result in better short term/long term crop yields and why?
•   Which system will cause greater damage to infrastructure?
•   Which system is the most sustainable in the long term?
                                                     49
•   Which system is most suitable for our village?
•   What changes do we have to make to land use in our village to achieve sustainable production?




4.2.3.1.17 Facilitator Checklist for Discussions on Environmental Issues
The facilitator for each discussion group should ensure that the group considers a wide variety of issues,
many of which will have never been discussed before in such an open manner. For example:
•   Are we happy with the environment in our village?
•   What types of environmental degradation are occurring in our village and what will our grandchildren
    think of us if we continue to allow it to continue?


                                                     50
•   What is the main environmental problem? (possible answers could include deforestation of hills, soil loss,
    water quality deterioration, pest plants/weeds, soil structure decline, water logging, biodiversity decline).
•   What are the causes of this degradation?
•   What can we do it about it (a) as individuals, (b) as a community?
•   What sacrifices are we prepared to make in order to achieve sustainable land use and a better
    environment in which to live?
•   How would we like the village to look like in 20 years time?
•   Do we agree/disagree with the conclusions of the planning team regarding areas of unsustainable land
    use in our village and their preliminary recommendations regarding ecosystem management? If
    disagree, document the reasons.
While the discussion should cover all of the above issues, the facilitator should resist the temptation to just
pose each question and ask for a show of hands as an indication of the communities feelings. Each person
should be encouraged to contribute.
The conclusions should be documented in a manner that can be used by the planner when writing the VDP.
4.2.3.1.18 Sample Agenda for the NRA Meeting NRA
The following format is appropriate for the meeting conducted to discuss Natural Resource Management.
 Project Letterhead
                                 Natural Resource Management Meeting
                                         23 August 2005
   The formal meeting will be preceded by a field inspection commencing at the bridge on the road to xxxx
                                  which is 300m west of the village office

Time        Item                                                            Speaker/ Organiser

9.30am      Discussion on the relationship between land use water           Planner #1      All participants to
            quality and energy.                                                             meet at the bridge
Participants return to the village where the meeting will be continued at JKL’s house.
10.45       Opening of the formal part of the meeting, purpose of the       Planning Team Leader
            meeting, introduction of speakers, and collection of VIG
            nomination forms
11.00       Description of changes to the village in the past 50 years.     Mr ABC (old resident)
11.15       Discussion on present land use                                  Planner #2
11.45       Explanation of the concept of Land Units and LC or              Planner #1
            sustainable land use.
12.15       Results and discussion on the wealth ranking survey             Planning Team Leader
12.45       Discussions on ME options and case study.                       Planner #1

12.30       Group discussions: environmental management                     Facilitators
1.45        Meeting reconvenes and nominated speakers summarise             Planning Team Leader
            the findings of each group.
2.00        Election process for VIG                                        Planning Team Leader
2.15        Close meeting                                                   Planning Team Leader
4.2.3.1.19 EOI Form
If it is intended to give assistance on an individual HH basis, it is important that each HH has an opportunity
to indicate which of the available ME option/s they wish to become involved with. This can be done by
asking them to complete an “EOI” form. It is important that at this early stage farmers realise that they are

                                                       51
only expressing interest and can change their minds at a later stage. One suitable format for such an EOI form
is: (this form is to illustrate the concept only – the activities listed are not drawn from any real situation).
Name of HH                                  Date Submitted          /         /
                                           Number of Units Applied for                    Office Use
Rehabilitation       of      remnant
vegetation and hillsides
Indigenous shrub seedlings
Indigenouse grasses
Poplar seedling
Spruce seedling
Rubinia seedlings
Other
Micro enterprises
Fruit tree seedlings
Corn shucking machine
Other
Energy
Biogas tank
Fuel efficient stove
Other
Animals and Pastures
Rabbits
Breeding cows
Breeding ewes
Other
Pasture 1. Rygrass
Cropping
Hybrid corn seed
Improved cotton seed
Other
Other activities
1.
2.
4.2.3.1.20 How to Carry Out an Election of a VIG
One possible way in which planners can conduct ballots is by asking for a “show of hands”. This method of
electing a VIG however, is flawed as the process permits both deliberate and unintentional intimidation of the
voters. A secret ballot is a good alternative and is simple to run and avoids the risk that some voters may vote
for candidate/s that they do not really support.
Secret Ballots
Before the process is commenced it should be carefully explained to the community and any questions they
have should be answered honestly.
1. Obtain written nominations from the community (Attachment 0).
2. Determine how many positions are to be filled. VIG’s will ideally comprise between five and eight
     members. The final decision on numbers should rest with the community.


                                                       52
3. Set out a number of containers (empty cans, cups or any other small containers) in a room or place set
    aside from the meeting room. Each container is labelled with a name of a candidate. The number of
    containers should be the same as the number of candidates. For demonstration purposes we will say that
    there are to be six positions on the hypothetical VIG.
4. Determine who is eligible to vote. For the purposes of this demonstration we will say that there are 50
    eligible voters.
5. Give each eligible voter a number of tokens. The number of tokens given to each voter should be the
    same as the number of positions to be filled. In our example each of the voters would be given six tokens.
    The tokens used can be anything that is small and easily handled. Many communities have use grains of
    corn or some other crop seed. Alternatively, slips of paper can be used as tokens.
6. A record should be kept of the number of tokens handed out. In our example 300 (six tokens per voter x
    50 voters) tokens would be distributed.
7. One at a time each voter should take his tokens into the “polling booth” and place one of his tokens in the
    containers of the candidates he/she prefers. This should be supervised by someone who is recognised as a
    disinterested party (e.g. a planner).
8. When each voter has placed his tokens in the containers, the number of tokens in each container should
    be counted in front of the entire audience and tallies written up on a board.
9. The six highest scoring candidates would then be declared elected to the VIG.
     The method outline above is appropriate if the objective is simply to fill a certain number of positions.
However, the process must be modified if for example, one of the positions is to be filled by a woman, or a
person from the poorest 10% of HHs.
4.2.3.1.21 VIG Membership Certificate
VIG members have a difficult job to do and one way of increasing their recognition by the community is to
issue an official membership certificate.
  Below is a sample which may be of use.

                                       NAME OF PROJECT

                             CERTIFICATE OF MEMBERSHIP

                                                     Of

                                 Village Implementation Group
                                             NAME of Member

                    has been elected to the (name) Village Implementation Group

                        The portfolios that (Name) will be responsible for are:

                           The term of office of (name) will expire on (date)

                                                Signed     :

                                                   Date:



                                                      53
4.2.3.1.22 Landscape cross-section diagram and SWOT
A landscape cross-section is a useful planning tool that helps:
•   Villagers and planners get a better understanding of the landscape and issues;
•   Identify how natural resource problems are caused and might be solved;
•   Indicate the interaction between various parts of the landscape;
•   Represent the resource assessment information in a different way (distance versus elevation) to that
    shown on the map (distance in two dimensions plus contour lines), and
•   Explain how possible solutions might interact to solve problems.
Planners can make use of the cross-section to:
    1、 Explain the natural resource issues to the village;
    2、 Work in the planning team to consider options for planning, and
    3、 Explain to villagers how the options will assist integrated village development and IEM.
An example of a landscape cross-section is shown on the following page.
The SWOT analysis is a simple tool to organise reflections on the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and
threats to sustainable resource management and participant livelihoods identified during field work,
structured interviews and problem census work with participants. An example using the landscape
cross-section for Kürti Township, Fuyun County as the underlying framework is shown in the following
pages.




                                                      54
        S                                                                                            220km
            冬季放牧区                                             春秋季放牧区                                   夏季放牧区




                                                                                          Koktokay




                                                                                                                         Kuwe
                                                                       Ertix He
                                                 Karatunggu




                                                                                  Fuyun




                                                                                                        Kurti
                  Ulungur He

                               Uzum Urja
 地质         蜿蜒火山岩                          花岗石               石英岩、花岗岩                                   花 岗 岩 、 micacious石 英 岩 、 石 英 岩 和
            基 岩 和 aolian                   崩积层               崩积层                                       片麻岩
 土壤                 褐色沙性粘土                 沙性鹅卵石,覆有粘土,含钠                                                   褐色沙性粘土                      褐色森林土壤
                                           土壤和塌积材料                                                     淤积层                               淤积层
生物多样性       草和非禾本草混合区                      过渡区               一些野山羊和原羊                                  过渡区                   高山草原
            瞪羚羊和干旱地区食草动物                                     栖息在阿尔泰山脚下                                                       高山野生动物
 降雨j              <200mm                       200-300mm         300-450mm                                  450-600mm                   >600mm
 海拔                950m                          1,000m            1,500m                                     1,850m                     2,300m
土地使用        冬季放牧、灌溉                        春秋季节放牧,                                                     夏季放牧,季节性牲畜放牧系统
            产生草料                           冬季和夏季区域内季节性牲畜移动                                                                   生态旅游
土地退化        牧场退化                                          牧场退化                                                                牧场退化
            盐度和钠度                                        生物多样性下降                                                           生物多样性下降
            片蚀和切沟侵蚀                                      片蚀和切沟侵蚀                                                           片蚀和切沟侵蚀
主要威胁        不可持续性灌溉                        过渡放牧、沙漠化以及                                                  过渡放牧、破坏栖息地和打猎场所
            过渡放牧                           侵蚀
 选项         牧场改善                           牧场改善,养殖牲畜                                                   牧场改善,养殖牲畜
            养殖牲畜                           和牲畜买卖                                                       和牲畜买卖
            买卖牲畜




                                                                55
S                                                                                                                                 N
                                                                            春秋放牧区域                      夏季放牧
                  冬季放牧区域      灌溉苜蓿土地




                                                                                     Ertix He
                                                                                                Fuyun




                                                                                                                           Kuwe
                                                                                                                   Kurti
                                                                                                        Koktokay
                                                               Karatunggu
       Sargazan




                               Ulungur He

                                            Uzum Urja
优势   良好的区域条件               灌溉用水                         饲养区                     靠近市场                    野生动物栖息地,稀有植物
     存在野生动物如西亚野驴           Xia Hou大坝                    生小羊区                    水                       多产山谷底部
     野生动物放养区               居住地                                                  良好的交通                   旅游潜力
                           苜蓿土地                                                                         牲畜供水和放牧
弱势   水资源有限                 含钠土壤                         区域资源较差                                          道路基础设施较弱
     不适合居住                 盐渍土                          区域水资源有限                                         一切都过渡放牧
     牧人不喜欢                 灌溉基础设施较弱                     区域资源没有休整                                        远离市场
     距离远                                                春秋两次放牧                                          公共服务较少
机会   提高可持续利用               适于含钠土生长的草                    开发拍卖市场体系                                        围地用于干草储存
     Preswalski马           尿素                           开发市场信息系统                                        延迟放牧
     范围监测                  改善WUE                        区域总量及监测                                         减少牲畜量j
     Range inventory       河流野生动物避难所                    循环放牧和牲畜路线                                       新储备管理计划
威胁   暴风雪                   河流水质下降                       荒漠化                                             太多牲畜
     太多牲畜                  盐度和含钠量                       农业和放牧的压力                                        牲畜和野生动物竞争
     野生动物竞争                太多牲畜                         太多牲畜
     土地荒漠化                                                                                              森林边缘和林下叶层也被放牧




                                                        56
4.2.4   Step 4: Land Capability Assessment and Integrated Ecosystem Management

Objectives:
1. To provide farmers with an opportunity to describe their own aspirations and ideas for managing natural
resources in a sustainable manner at the same time as increasing their incomes.
2. To provide specific information on the available development options.
3. To facilitate a decision-making process that supports the principles of IEM.
In most regions of northern China, unsustainable land management practices have been adopted by villagers
partly due to their lack of knowledge about sustainable land management. This has led to land degradation. To
address these problems there is a need to increase farmers’ awareness.
One means of achieving this objective is by firstly taking farmers on a study tour, and by then conducting a
meeting where the main item is discussion of sustainable enterprise (ME) options.
Activities                                                Planning Aid        Note
Land Capability and Community Development
Farmer Study Tour
Make arrangements for and carry out a farmer study 0
tour.
LC and CDW.
Preparation
Collect the ME EOI forms and assess the proposed 0                            The forms should be collected
activities in terms of suitability.                       0                   well before the meeting so that the
Tabulate the results and prepare notes on those                               planning team can analyse them in
proposed activities which the planner considers not                           time to report back to the meting.
viable.
Prepare agenda for the LC and CDW.                        0
Prepare a checklist for use in preparing draft rules for 0
the village.
Collect additional information on some of the likely                          This information needs to deal
MEs.                                                                          specifically      with      enterprise
                                                                              options that are likely to be of
                                                                              interest to the pilot village.
Workshop                                                  0
Outline agenda to the attendees.
Ask for oral reports on the study tour.                   0                   A minimum of two reports one of
                                                                              which must be from a female.
Presentation on assessment of land capability in the 错误!未找到引 Biodiversity, contour principle,
village and revisit IEM principles particularly with 用源。                      LC/sustainability etc.
regard to the integration of proposed activities and 0
specific aspects of the plan to address ecosystem 0
management.                                               0
Discuss ME technical information.                         错误!未找到引
                                                          用源。
Present/discuss the analysis of the ME options.           0
Farmer group discussion.
Mountain management plan - terrace conversion, 0
closure, revegetation.                                    0
Pasture plan – location/s, species, area (mu).
Animal plan – species, feed, housing, animal health,
Village rules.
                                                          0
Group leaders to present results of discussions.
A woman nominated by the community to provide an
overview from the female perspective of the proposed 0
plans.




                                                        57
Activities                                                Planning Aid          Note
Commence discussion on infrastructure proposal/s.         0                     Ensure that all sectors of the
Discussion to include “who will benefit” and who          0                     community are involved in this
will pay/cost sharing.                                                          discussion. At this stage do not
                                                                                commit      to    any    particular
                                                                                infrastructure proposal.
Review of Workshop                                                              To be held after the village
                                                                                meeting.
Planning team to confirm:
The mountain management, cropping and soil
conservation, and animal production plans have
reached an advanced stage and the relevant sections
of the VDP can now be drafted.
The village rules have been finalised and there is an
outline of CD plan.
The main MEs to be demonstrated have been
identified.
The community has reached agreement on future land
use and a final map can now be drawn showing
agreed land use for the entire demonstration area.
4.2.4.1 Aids for land capability assessment and community development
4.2.4.1.1 Planning a Farmer Study Tour
A farmer will learn more by talking to another successful farmer than he will by being talked to by an expert
technician.
If planned carefully, farmer tours can be an effective way of introducing farmers to land management and
income producing activities which may be applicable to their own farming situation.
In planning the tour, the following aspects should be considered:
     1. Timing
Farmers are busy people and the participatory planning process if carried out correctly, will take up a
substantial amount of their time. If the benefits of a tour are to be maximised, it should be carried out between
the NRM and the LC and CDW. This will enable farmers to have access to the available technical and
economic information for each of the possible activities before they have to make a selection. The tour should
not clash with any essential farming activity which can only be carried out in a narrow “window” of time.
     2. Participants
As many farmers as possible should be included on the tour. The number able to attend may be restricted by
available funding or by other requirements on their time. Ideally every HH in the village should be
represented, and a cross section of the community (i.e. gender, age groups and wealth groups should be
represented).
If the planning process is being carried out with a number of subgroups (e.g. three Villages) of a village, and if
the farmers have expressed interest in visiting a number of sites which cannot be accommodated on the basis of
“every person attends every site”, then two or more separate tours should be arranged to take place
concurrently.
If communities are to be divided, care should be taken to ensure that all parties are satisfied that they are seeing
what they want to and that each of the subgroups (i.e. Villages) are well represented on each tour.
     3. Logistics and Costs
It is unlikely that the funds available for the farmer tour will be sufficient to enable the tour to last for longer
than one day. Therefore, when planning a tour, planners should include the following costs:
                                                                                                          Cost
               Item                                             Details
                                                                                                         (RMB)
Bus hire                             2 buses @ RMB300 /day                                            600
Payment of host                      (say) 4 sites x RMB 25/site                                      100
Payment of technical expert to (say) 2 Technicians @RMB100/Technician                                 200
address the tour group
Lunch                                60 people (50 farmers, 4 planners, 2 technicians, 2 drivers,     300
                                     and 2 “others”) @ RMB5/person
Sundry items                         Water, notebook, pens; (say) RMB4/farmer                         200
                                     Total                                                            1400
Note that the above costs are purely hypothetical.




                                                        58
The total cost of RMB breaks down to RMB28/farmer.
     4. Inspection Sites
The sites to be visited:
• Must be relevant to the types of activities being proposed in the plan.
• Should reflect the situation that will apply if the farmer selects that particular activity to participate in.
     For example, taking a group of farmers to look at a high tech rabbit breeding centre is of little value if the
     individual farmers are going to be fattening small groups of rabbits at the same time as carrying out many
     other farming activities. In such cases it would be much more appropriate to take the farmers to a site
     where they can observe the way rabbit fattening is integrated into a general farm using “mid range”
     technologies.
• Must have a “host” who is able to address the farmers at the farmers’ level.
     5. Pre tour Briefing
In many cases farmers will never have attended a farmer tour arranged specifically for their benefit before so it
may be necessary to remind them why the tour is being conducted and to alert them to the opportunities that are
being presented to them.
     6. Post tour Re-enforcement
After the tour is completed, it is valuable to conduct a debriefing for the participants. This is an opportunity to
re-enforce points that came out of the inspections and to help farmers identify sources of further information.
A checklist for such a post tour discussion could be as follows.
1. Was the activity relevant to our circumstances in terms of:
• LC and soil type
• Water availability (i.e. irrigation)
• Capital investment needed
• Markets for produce
• Threats such as diseases
• Integration into our present farming system/s
2. Do we have the skills required to adopt such an activity, and if we do not have these skills, where can we
     get appropriate training?
      Do we have the time to conduct such an activity?
4.2.4.1.2 Analysis of Requests from Farmers
If the EOI process has been followed and all farmers have “applied” for particular types of assistance, decisions
must be made jointly by the planning team and the farmers regarding which of the requests can be fulfilled and
which cannot. If sufficient time is available to the planner(s), it is often easiest to do this by “one on one”
discussions (i.e. a planner talks to each farmer individually).
Another way of doing this task more efficiently is to present the findings of the EOI process to the village
group, describe the constraints of the activity sector framework, and to make suggestions on how the
community can resolve these issues by themselves.
The following notes provides some background principles for planners in the assessment of feasibility of
planning options.
Assessing the feasibility of individual activities
Village development plans focus on a range of activities. These include activities that involve protection and
restoration of village ecosystems, agriculture and forestry, development of renewable energy systems, and
poverty alleviation through micro-enterprise development. Each of these aspects need to be integrated with the
others (where there are linkages) so that they support each other and do not conflict or compete with each other.
The feasibility of each activity, and particularly the ideas for landuse change or micro-enterprise development
that villagers may have, needs to be carefully considered. To do this the planning teams and the villagers need
to investigate the suitability of the activity to the local village’s bio-physical and socio-economic environment.
That is what impact will the activity have on the soil, water and vegetation; whether it will have market
potential, what type of resources will be required, and are they available? By undertaking this type of
investigation, the chance of success for each individual activity will be understood.
However, to ensure that the entire village plan and not just a single activity will be successful, the planning
team and the villagers need to develop an integrated plan. (see section XX). This means that they work
together to consider each of the individual components within a plan as part of a whole system rather than
separate and distinct activities. An integrated plan has a better chance of achieving long term success for each
activity and for the total village goal. This section and the following section describe this in more detail.
The first step in developing integrated activities is to assess the feasibility of individual activities before
considering them together. To asses the feasibility of an activity the planner needs to work with the villagers to




                                                       59
ensure that the environmental, technical, social, financial, market and resource requirements have been
investigated thoroughly. When this information has been compiled for each activity the advantages and
disadvantages of combining the activities can be considered.
This assessment involves:
• Assessing the suitability of the local soils and climatic conditions for agricultural, silvicultural,
     horticultural activities or other activities;
• Investigating the potential environmental impacts (positive and negative) of the activity;
• Considering the market potential of any planned enterprises;
• Determining the resource requirements such as land, water, labour, finances and infrastructure and whether
     or not these are sufficient given all of the other activities that are being planned in the village, and。
• Identifying the type and timing of management inputs that will be required.
Boxes 1-5 describe the range of issues that need to be considered for each of the major activities which might
be planned for in the village. These issues are:
• Ecosystem management;
• Commericial grain, oil, fibre, vegetable or tree crops;
• Livestock and pasture or fodder;
• Alternative energy systems;
• Micro-enterprise development, and
• Related infrastructure.
Taking the time to make sure that each of these areas has been considered will help to ensure that the village
plans have more chance of success in the longer term. Some of these issues will be clear during the early stages
of planning, but in some more complex situations, the issues will not become apparent until the final stages
when the VDP is being considered from a broader perspective. This iteration of the planning steps is not a
failure but a recognition that IEM and its linkages with poverty reduction can be very complex.
If any additional requirements such as water, animal feed, electricity, buildings, machinery or roads that are
required, but haven’t yet been considered, further develop the plans to describe how they will be incorporated.
It will also be important to seek assistance from the local or provincial, or private sector experts when the
planner and villagers are unsure about technical or other details.
Box 1: Ecosystem management
Growing environment
• Local vegetation communities, threatened species (both flora and fauna), and soil biota
• Local surface and groundwater resources and water quality issues
• Technical assessment of the appropriateness of retiring village farming or grazing land permanently or
     temporarily
• Reserve areas for native plant or animal habitat.
Management options
• Use the above issues to fully consider the range of management options.
• Villager understanding and awareness of local ecosystems and their importance, and of local biodiversity.
• Villager understanding and awareness of links between poverty, energy and environment.
Land retirement policy requirements
• Type of closure (full, partial, or rotational)
• Timing of closure, and
• Barriers to successful closure.
Economic considerations
• Costs and benefits of the management options including an option to do nothing.
• Village needs for or marketability of produce from mountain land.
Human resource, technology and management inputs
• Identification of necessary technical skills and knowledge.
• Identification of management inputs with both quantity and costs.
• Identification of timing of inputs (development of enterprise management calendar).
• Identification of labour requirements including quantity, gender and timing of requirements (seasonal
     calendar), including fire management.

Box 2: Commercial grain, vegetable or trees crops
Growing environment
• Suitability and availability of local soils for different agronomic, horticultural or silvicultural species
   including the likely effect on soil erosion.




                                                        60
•   Suitability of local climatic conditions for different agronomic, horticultural or silvicultural species
    including the availability of irrigation if required.
• Sustainable use of local water supplies including access and distance to water.
Varieties
• Choice of appropriate varieties for local conditions and market opportunities, and
• Identification of sources of appropriate varieties and disease control requirements.
Infrastructure and physical requirements
• Consideration of infrastructure requirements related to harvesting, processing, transport, energy, storage
    and water.
• What are the alternative uses of the resources and will other arrangements need to be made for existing
    uses.
Economic considerations
• Consideration of market potential for different agronomic, horticultural or silvicultural activities.
• Consideration of benefits and costs for different agronomic, horticultural or silvicultural activities.
Human resources, technology and management inputs
• Identification of necessary technical skills and knowledge.
• Identification of management inputs with both quantity and costs.
• Identification of timing of inputs (development of enterprise management calendar)
• Identification of labour requirements including quantity, gender and timing of requirements (seasonal
    calendar).
• Identification of local village constraints related to labour including other planned labour requirements.
Inputs
• Identification of management inputs;
• Identification of timing of inputs (development of enterprise management calendar);
• Sustainable yields of local water supplies, and
• Access and distance to water.

Box 3: Livestock and pasture or fodder
Local environment
• Suitability of local climatic conditions for different types of livestock enterprises.
• Suitability and availability of local soils for production of different feed grain, pasture and tree fodder.
• Suitability of local climatic conditions for production of different feed grain, pasture and tree fodder
• Ensuring that livestock production does not damage the environment through overgrazing, desertification
    or water pollution.
Breeds (varieties)
• Choice of appropriate breeds for local conditions and market opportunities.
• Identification of sources of appropriate breeds including disease potential and control.
Infrastructure and physical requirements
• Consideration of infrastructure requirements related to energy, housing, transport of material in and
    products out, processing, storage and water.
Economic considerations
• Consideration of market potential for different livestock enterprises.
• Cost and availability of alternative feed inputs.
• Consideration of benefits and costs for different livestock enterprises.
Human resource, technology and management inputs
• Identification of necessary technical skills and knowledge;
• Identification of management inputs with both quantity and costs.
• Identification of timing or inputs (development or enterprise management calendar
• Identification of labour requirements including quantity, gender and timing of requirements (seasonal
    calendar).
• Identification of local village constraints related to labour including other planned labour requirements.

Box 4: Alternative energy systems
Operating environment
• Current and future village energy requirements
• Current energy supply systems, fuel wood, electricity, coal, charcoal, biogas, etc.




                                                      61
Alternative energy options
• Identification of alternative and future energy supply options and the technical feasibility of each.
• Consideration of the linkages of these options with other village activities such as labour, feed, supply, use
    of land and water.
Infrastructure and physical requirements
• Maintenance requirements and villager understanding of these requirements for each option.
• Requirements to plant, grow and maintain trees for fuel wood.
• Requirements for additional pigs or other livestock to maintain effluent supplies.
• Infrastructure required to obtain supply of coal, charcoal, gas or electricity to the village.
Economic considerations of alternatives
• Costs and benefits of each energy system.
• Alternative costs and benefits for use of animal effluent for fertiliser or fuel wood for timber and fooder.
• Idenification of periods of energy deficits (eg. spring time when effluent is used as fertiliser or when
    animals are sold).
• Other village benefits such as electricity for general useage or hygiene improvements through biogas.
Human resource, technology and management inputs
• Identification of necessary technical skills and knowledge to ensure supply and avoid accidents
• Identification of management inputs with both quantity and costs.
• Identification of timing or inputs (development or enterprise management calendar
• Identification of labour requirements including quantity, gender and timing of requirements (seasonal
    calendar).
• Identification of local village constraints related to labour including other planned labour requirements.
Box 5: Related infrastructure
Water
• Access and distance to water.
• Sustainable yields of local water supplies.
• Infrastructure requirements.
• Alternative uses for the water for household, micro-enterprise, aquaculture or agriculture
Roads
• Route selection, environmental impacts, health impacts and safety aspects.
• Compatibility of road design and construction with current and future traffic useage.
• Requirements for any specialist construction equipment.
Machinery
• Maintenance requirements and villager understanding of these requirements and the costs.
• Compatibility of equipment with required use or are other types more suitable.
• Opportunities for multiple use in two or more situations.
• Availability of parts and access to service providers.




                                                       62
An imaginary situation which illustrates some of the situations which can occur is shown below.
               No.       of Sustainability                                     Compliance
Requested                                                                                      Planning
               Requests                                                        with
Activity                     Environmental Economic              Social                        Recommendation
               HHs(units)                                                      Objectives
Shaji shrub 22 (60 mu) Enhances the Good market Good                           Complies        Approve           all
establishment                physical            outlook for                   totally         applications
                             environment by juice          from
                             stabilising         berries
                             mountain soils
Eucalypt       40 (1000 Questionable – Unproven                  Fair          Does        not Reject
plantations    mu)           biodiversity,       but probably                  comply
                             fire risk, soil     fair in the
                             loss, not suited mid term
                             to northern
                             China
Spruce         15      (150 Stabilises           Good        for Good          Complies        Offer to increase
establishment mu)        15 mountain soil        timber and                    totally         the     area     and
               (150                              fuel, but not                                 number of HHs to
                                                 an immediate                                  receive seedlings
                                                 cash crop
Grafting new 20 (30 mu) Acceptable               Good            Good          Complies        Approve 10 HH to
apples                                                                                         receive funds
Persimmon      10 (10 mu) Acceptable             Good            Good          Complies        Approve            all
establishment                                                                                  applications
Corn           7 (7 units)   Acceptable          Unacceptable Good             Does        not Approve             2
shucking                                         to introduce                  comply          machines
machinery                                        so       many
                                                 machines
Fuel efficient 34       (34 Good                 Acceptable      Good          Complies        Offer applicants
stoves         units) 34                                                                       the option of
               (34 个)                                                                          minimal
                                                                                               acceptance or
                                                                                               none at all
Hybrid corn 30 (90 mu) Good                      Good            Good         Complies         Approve           all
seed                                                                                           applications
Piglets    for 44       (60 Potentially bad Fair to poor Fair                  Does        not Approve 10 HHs
fattening      pigs)                             –     not     a               comply as the to get 1 piglet
                                                 proven                        number          each
                                                 income                        exceeds that
                                                 earner                        necessary for
                                                                               a
                                                                               demonstration
                                                                               of         new
                                                                               technology,
                                                                               and there is
                                                                               no      proven
                                                                               economic
                                                                               benefit
Sows       for 3 (3 sows)    Acceptable          Possible        Acceptable Complies           Approve
breeding                                         good
Rabbit         2         (4 Acceptable           Possibly        Potentially Complies          Offer to increase
               groups)                           good            good                          the number of
                                                                                               recipient HHs to
                                                                                               compensate        for
                                                                                               the loss of pigs.
                                                                                               If rabbit raising by
                                                                                               a group of women
                                                                                               is a possibility
                                                                                               increase the level
                                                                                               of assistance




                                                         63
When examining the above scenario, planners should remember that it has been constructed to illustrate how
some requests by farmers will be unacceptable on environmental grounds, others on economic grounds, and
others because the budgetary framework would not permit the levels of expenditure requested. The analysis
also shows how the level of some requested activities can be increased if they contribute to project objectives at
a higher level than normal.
4.2.4.1.3 A process for planning for Integration and Ecosystem Management in the VDP
Each one of the activities that is included in the Village Development Plan is intended to provide specific
benefits to households and to the village environment. However, there may also be other potential implications
associated with a given activity that planners sometimes overlook. These implications can often be serious
enough to threaten the long-term success of the village plan.
The reason for planners failing to consider these implications is that they often only ever consider the
individual components of a plan as separate activities, rather than as a combined group of activities within the
village that are inter-linked.
It is very important then, to ensure that all of the activities in the plan are considered as a part of a whole system,
that is they are integrated. This means the planning team needs to:
      • Analyse the interactions and linkages between each of the activities and the rest of the village plan (see
          Table 1 for some examples of these linkages and the impacts that they can have);
      • Identify the impacts that each activity will have on all other aspects of the plan, and
      • Ensure that any synergies that can be identified are maximised and that any negative impacts are
          avoided or minimised.
By maintaining a careful focus on village ecosystems as this process is undertaken, the planner will ensure IEM
principles are upheld. Box 6 describes a five step process that will assist planners to achieve this.
Table 1: Potential impacts and other implications related to land use changes
Plan activity             Planned impacts and Linkages                                Other potential implications
                          benefits
Ecosystem                 • Opportunity to            Links with other plan Other potential benefits:
management                     regenerate             activities:                     • Possibility of increased
(rehabilitation, Land          important              • Livestock and pasture             labour availability as a
closures/retirement)           vegetation                  production;                    result of reduced time spent
                               communities, and       • Introduction of                   looking after grazing
                          • Opportunity to                 alternative energy             livestock or tending crop
                               prevent any further         systems, and                   land.
                               loss of/improve        • New and improved              Other implications that may
                               biodiversity,               annual and perennial       need to be managed:
                          • Opportunity to                 cropping systems.          • Possible lack of
                               prevent further        Other important links:              understanding from
                               degradation of soil, • Village labour                      villagers of links between
                               water quality, or           resources                      poverty, energy and
                               riparian               • Household finances                environment and
                               functionality.              and financial security;        subsequent threats to the
                                                           and                            success of plans for land
                                                      • Any adjoining forest              retirement;
                                                           or nature reserve          • Possible loss of fuel wood
                                                           areas.                         and/or timber supplies;
                                                                                      • Possible loss of grazing
                                                                                          land and feed for existing
                                                                                          livestock numbers;
                                                                                      • Possible loss of land for
                                                                                          food production and/or
                                                                                          income generation from
                                                                                          annual cropping, and
                                                                                      • Requirement for enterprise
                                                                                          establishment and
                                                                                          management funds.
Introduction         of • Opportunity to              Links with other plan Other potential benefits:
alternative     energy         have reliable and      activities:                     • Reduction (or elimination)
systems                        on-going supplies      • Land                              in labour time devoted to
                               of energy;                  closures/retirement;           collection of fuel wood,




                                                         64
Plan activity       Planned impacts and       Linkages                      Other potential implications
                    benefits
                    • Reduction (or           •  Commercial grain,             and more time to spend on
                        elimination) of          vegetable or tree             income generating
                        need for fuel wood       crops, and                    activities;
                        to be collected       • Livestock and pasture       • Opportunity to use fertiliser
                        from mountains;          or fodder production.         from biogas tanks as an
                    • Opportunity to          • Micro-enterprise               additional benefit in the
                        regenerate remnant       development                   process;
                        vegetation, and       • Related infrasructure       • Improved disease control
                    • Opportunity to          Other important links:           through use of animal and
                        prevent any further   • Village biodiversity;          human waste in biogas
                        soil loss from        • Village labour                 systems;
                        mountains and            resources and              • Opportunity to improve
                        worsening                micro-enterprises;            local biodiversity.
                        problems of and       • Household finances          • Possible source of
                        sedimentation in         and financial security,       additional energy for
                        local rivers.            and                           micro-enterprise or other
                                              • Household hygiene              village/household
                                                 and improved living           development.
                                                 conditions.                Other implications that may
                                                                            need to be managed:
                                                                            • New need for pigs or other
                                                                               livestock to contribute to
                                                                               household biogas
                                                                               production by supplying
                                                                               effluent.
                                                                            • Possibility of accidents or
                                                                               energy loss if biogas
                                                                               system is managed poorly.
                                                                            • Requirement for energy
                                                                               system establishment and
                                                                               management funds.
Commercial grain,   •   Opportunity to        Links with other plan         Other potential benefits:
vegetable or tree       generate cash and     activities:                   • Opportunity to improve
crops                   raise household       • Livestock and pasture          soil fertility through
                        incomes;                  production or fodder         improved agronomic
                    •   Opportunity to        • Commercial grain,              practices, and
                        improve soil              vegetable or tree         • Opportunity to produce
                        conservation and          crops.                       grain and hay from
                        health through        • Ecosytem                       harvested crops as feed for
                        crop rotation and         management                   livestock and aquaculture
                        tillage systems,      • Alternative energy             enterprises.
                        and                       systems                   • Production of managed,
                    •   Opportunity to        • Micro-enerterprises            renewable fuel wood
                        diversify             Other important links:           supplies from pruning and
                        household income      • Village road networks;         thinning of timber and
                        sources and           • Village water                  fooder trees.
                        manage financial          resources;                • Opportunity to use waste or
                        risk.                 • Village labour                 surplus fruit as a feed
                                                  resources;                   source for livestock.
                                              • Food security;              • Potential to use
                                              • Long term soil                 agroforestry systems to
                                                  productivity.                stabilise terraces and
                                              • Household finances             mountain soils for cropping
                                                  and financial security.      systems.
                                                                            • Opportunity to establish
                                                                               low input enterprises such




                                                  65
Plan activity           Planned impacts and     Linkages                       Other potential implications
                        benefits
                                                                                  as timber, industrial or nut
                                                                                  trees in more remote parts
                                                                                  of the village.
                                                                               Other implications that may
                                                                               need to be managed:
                                                                               • Requirements for cropping
                                                                                  system establishment and
                                                                                  management funds
                                                                               • Potential displacement of
                                                                                  traditional household
                                                                                  cropping systems and its
                                                                                  impact on food security;
                                                                               • Potential new need for
                                                                                  vehicle access;
                                                                               • Potential new need for
                                                                                  labour;
                                                                               • Potential new need for
                                                                                  water (irrigation), and
                                                                               • Possible need for storage
                                                                                  facilities for fruit and other
                                                                                  crops to enable effective
                                                                                  marketing.
Livestock         and   •   Opportunity to      Links with other plan          Other potential benefits:
pasture or fodder           generate cash and   activities:                    • Supply of effluent for
                            raise household     • Ecosystem                       biogas and fertiliser
                            incomes;                management;                   production;
                        •   Opportunity to      • Commercial grain,            • Possible use of foliage
                            diversify               vegetable or tree             from timber/fuelwood trees
                            household income        crops;                        as fodder for livestock;
                            sources and         • Alternative energy           • Potential to use
                            manage financial        systems, and                  agroforestry systems to
                            risk, and           • Micro-enterprise                stabilise terraces and
                        •   Opportunity to          development.                  mountain soils for cropping
                            improve soil        Other important links:            systems, and
                            conservation.       • Water resources and          • Opportunity to establish
                                                    infrastructure;               low input enterprises such
                                                • Village labour                  as fodder or multipurpose
                                                    resources;                    trees in more remote parts
                                                • Household finances              of the village.
                                                    and financial stability;   Other implications that may
                                                • Food security, and           need to be managed:
                                                • Village road networks.       • Requirements for livestock
                                                                                  system establishment and
                                                                                  management funds;
                                                                               • Potential need for new
                                                                                  sources of feed and/or
                                                                                  areas to grow feed;
                                                                               • Need to manage vegetative
                                                                                  ground cover above
                                                                                  minimum levels to prevent
                                                                                  soil erosion and dust
                                                                                  pollution;
                                                                               • Potential displacement of
                                                                                  traditional household
                                                                                  cropping systems and its
                                                                                  impact on food security;




                                                    66
Plan activity           Planned impacts and       Linkages                      Other potential implications
                        benefits
                                                                                •   Possible need for animal
                                                                                    housing;
                                                                                •   Potential new / additional
                                                                                    need for labour;
                                                                                •   Potential new / additional
                                                                                    need for power, and
                                                                                •   Potential new / additional
                                                                                    need for water.

Box 6: A six step process for integrating the activities within the VDP

1. Use Stage 4 of the planning process to identify draft activities and options for village development. Some of
these will be designed to facilitate ecosystem management and others will be designed to reduce poverty.
2. Identify the activities that were previously taking place on the land where the new activity is being planned.
This information will be available from the village maps and data developed during Stage 3 of the planning
process.
3. Consider actions that can be planned to avoid any negative impacts that may result from displacement of
these activities that were taking place on an area of land. These negative impacts might include for example:
• the loss of livestock grazing land;
• the loss of land for growing household food crops;
• the loss of land that has been used to supply fuel wood; or
• increased pressure on water resources.
Consider how to improve any positive impacts that these new activities may bring to the area. These
considerations and discussions take place with technical staff and with villagers during Stages 5 and 6 of the
planning process.
4. Identify linkages that might exist between the new activity and the rest of the village environment and any
positive or negative impacts that may arise as a result of the linkage. Table 2 describes some of these linkages,
and will help to stimulate some thought.
5. Consider any actions that can be planned to avoid any negative impacts of these linkages. This may need to
include abandoning the activity if negative impacts are serious and can not be avoided. Consider how to
improve any positive impacts that these new activities may bring to the area. These considerations take place
during Stages 5 and 6 of the planning process.
6. Identify any synergies that might exist between the new activity and the rest of the village environment and
consider ways in which to maximise them. Table 2 describes some of these synergies or additional benefits, and
will help to stimulate some thought during Stages 5 and 6 of the planning process.
7. Raise awareness amongst villagers about these issues and synergies, and help them to consider their options
to avoid the negative impacts and maximise the positives. These discussions and any possible training
associated with this, should take place with technical staff and villagers during Stages 6 and 7 of the planning
process.
8. Review the whole draft plan again to identify and adjust for any new issues (positive or negative) arising
from the changes made as a result of the above considerations.




                                                       67
4.2.4.1.4 A hypothetical example of IEM planning considerations
Table 2: Planned impacts and other implications related to land use changes in Upper Hudan Village, Qinghai
Province
Plan activity           Planned impacts and        Linkages                      Other implications
                        benefits
Ecosystem                                          Links with other plan
management:             •   Rehabilitate           activities:                   Other benefits:
•   rehabilitation of       mountain               •   Livestock and pasture     •   Increased labour
    mountain                shrublands and             production;                   availability as a result of
    shrublands and          grasslands and         •   Introduction of               reduced time spent looking
    grasslands              improve                    alternative energy            after grazing livestock and
    through pasture         biodiversity               systems, and                  tending hillside crop land.
    and cropping            throughout village     •  New and improved           •  Production of managed,
    land retirement         area through land         annual and perennial          renewable fuel wood
    and targeted            retirement and            cropping systems              supplies from pruning and
    revegetation            revegetation              (including cropping).         thinning of timber.
•   riparian and        •   Improve soil           Other important links:        Other implications that will
    hillside                conservation on        •   Village labour            need to be managed:
    revegetation            hillsides and along        resources, and            •   Still some lack of
    with poplar and         river banks through    •   Household finances            understanding from some
    spruce                  targeted plantings         and financial security.       villagers of links between
    seedlings, and          of indigenous                                            poverty, energy and
    indigenouse             species and reduce                                       environment and
    shrub species           sedimentation in the                                     subsequent threats to the
•   Improved water          Hudan river.                                             success of plans for land
    use efficiency in   •   Contribute to                                            retirement;
    irrigated               regional efforts to                                  •   Requirement for enterprise
    cropping to             restore                                                  establishment and
    reduce water            environmental                                            management funds to offset
    draw down               flows to the Hudan                                       loss of prodctive land
    from Hudan              river                                                    through retirement.
    River               •   Diversify household                                  •   Need for training in flora
•   Monitoring for          incomes through                                          and fauna monitoring
    flora and fauna         planting indigenous
                            economic shrubs
Alternative energy                                 Links with other plan         Other benefits:
sources                 •   Eliminate the need     activities:                   •   Elimination in labour time
•   Introduction of         for fuel wood to be    •   Land                          devoted to searching for
    biogas to               collected from hill        closures/retirement;          fuel wood from hillsides,
    households              sides                  •   Commercial grain,             and more time to spend on
    throughout the      •   Rehabilitate               vegetable or tree             income generating
    village                 mountain                   crops, and                    activities;
                            shrublands and         •   Livestock and pasture     •   Opportunity to use
                            grasslands                 or fodder production.         fertiliser from biogas tanks
                        •   Prevent any further    •   Related infrastructure        on lowland cropping areas


                                                       68
Plan activity          Planned impacts and        Linkages                      Other implications
                       benefits
                           soil loss from         Other important links:            as an additional benefit in
                           mountains and          •   Village biodiversity;         the process;
                           sedimentation of the   •   Village labour            •  Opportunity to improve
                           Hudan river                resources;                   local biodiversity
                       •   Improved disease                                        particularly by regeneration
                           control through                                         of shrublands.
                           removal of human                                     Other implications that will
                           and animal waste to                                  need to be managed:
                           biogas tank                                          •   New need for pigs or other
                                                                                    livestock to contribute to
                                                                                    household biogas
                                                                                    production by supplying
                                                                                    effluent.
                                                                                •   Possibility of accidents or
                                                                                    energy loss if biogas
                                                                                    system is managed poorly.
                                                                                •   Requirement for energy
                                                                                    system establishment and
                                                                                    management funds.
                                                                                •   Need to train local villagers
                                                                                    in biogas construction.
Commercial grain,                                 Links with other plan         Other benefits:
vegetable or tree      •   More efficient         activities:                   •   Opportunity to improve
crops                      water use, improve     •   Livestock and pasture         soil fertility through
•   Better planning        yields and income          production or fodder          improved agronomic
    of crop areas to       from lowland           •   Ecosytem                      practices,
    match suitable         cropping areas by          management                •   Opportunity to produce
    land classes           using sustainable      •  Alternative energy             grain and trash from
•   Reintroduce            production systems        systems                        harvested crops for
    Shaji to           •   Diversify household    Other important links:            livestock stall feeding.
    hillsides as           income sources and     •   Village road              •  Potential to use
    indigenous             manage financial           networks;                    agroforestry systems to
    species in             risk by generating a   •   Village water                stabilise terraces and
    revegetation           more reliable cash         resources;                   mountain soils for cropping
    program and as         flow for               •   Village labour               systems.
    cash crop              households,                resources;                Other implications that will
•   Plant Karagana     •   Improve soil           •   Food security;            need to be managed:
    in key erosion         conservation on        •   Long term soil            •   Requirements for cropping
    control areas          hillsides                  productivity.                 system establishment and
•   Introduction of                               •   Household finances            management funds
    new annual crop                                   and financial security.   •   Potential displacement of
    varieties,                                                                      traditional household
    conservation                                                                    cropping system (corn) and


                                                      69
Plan activity          Planned impacts and          Linkages                     Other implications
                       benefits
    agriculture                                                                      its impact on food security;
    cropping                                                                     •   Need for more reliable
    methods,                                                                         vehicle access;
    terracing, and                                                               •   Potential new need for
    high water use                                                                   labour;
    efficiency
    irrigation on
    lowlands.


Livestock      and                                  Links with other plan        Other benefits:
pasture or fodder      •    Remove livestock        activities:                  •   Supply of effluent for
•   Stall feeding           from hillsides in       •   Ecosystem                    biogas and fertiliser
•   Improved breed          order to rehabilitate       management;                  production;
    types (sheep            shrublands and          •  Commercial grain,         •   Possible use of foliage
    and cattle)             grasslands                 vegetable or tree             from timber/fuelwood trees
                       •    Raise household            crops.                        along river as fodder for
                            incomes through         Other important links:           livestock;
                            improved animal         •   Village labour           •  Opportunity to establish
                            husbandry                   resources;                  low input enterprises such
                       •    Improve soil            •   Village water               as fodder or multipurpose
                            conservation on             resources;                  trees in more remote parts
                            hillsides               •   Household finances          of the village.
                                                        and financial            Other implications that will
                                                        stability;               need to be managed:
                                                                                 •   Requirements for livestock
                                                                                     system establishment and
                                                                                     management funds;
                                                                                 •   Potential need for new
                                                                                     sources of feed and/or
                                                                                     areas to grow feed;
                                                                                 •   Potential displacement of
                                                                                     traditional household
                                                                                     cropping systems and its
                                                                                     impact on food security;
                                                                                 •   Potential new need for
                                                                                     labour;
                                                                                 •   Potential new need for
                                                                                     power.
4.2.4.1.5 Presenting information on new ME options for the village
In the initial stages of planning, villagers may have only a limited idea of options for new ME’s. It is the job
of the planner to introduce some examples of relevant options that they can consider. In many instances this
will help stimulate other ideas from the villagers.
The information you present needs to be detailed yet simple enough for everyone in the meeting to


                                                        70
understand. Essential topics for a ME option include:
1. Compatibility with the local village – on what types of soils or in which parts of the village could this
    activity take place?
2. Production methods – basic details on the methods of production required for the enterprise (including
    labour requirements, infrastructure and land requirements, timing of activities, and inputs required).
3. Market potential – where can the product be sold, what is the demand like and what are the typical
    prices?
4. Investment and operating costs – what costs are involved with this enterprise?
5. Skills required – what type of skills are required and how might villagers get the necessary training?
     The information should be prepared on large sheets of paper before the meeting. Where possible, try and
use pictures to present your information and messages.
4.2.4.1.6 Draft Agenda for LC and CDW
This workshop will be held on (Date) at (name of location/HH).
Time                 Item                      Presenter/Speaker                          Notes
9.00    Outline agenda and review         Planning Team Leader
        the results of the last meeting
9.15    Reports on the study tour         Planning Team Leader and        Each speaker to have a maximum of
                                          nominated farmers               ten minutes to describe the
                                                                          activities inspected
9.45    LC of all land in the village     Planner #1                      Summarise in terms of soil erosion
        recommended       sustainable                                     risk, slope, vegetation, biodiversity
        land    uses,    and     land
        retirements
10.30   Small discussion groups           All Planners                    Each group to cover: mountain
                                                                          management, pasture establishment,
                                                                          animal management, cropping,
                                                                          horticulture, and village rules
11.15   Results of discussions            Group Leaders                   Brief reports to main meeting
11.30   MEs                               Planner #2                      Describe results of the EOI process
                                                                          and present relevant technical
                                                                          and/or market information
12.00   Infrastructure                    Planner #3                      Introduction of the various options
12.30   Closure                           Planning Team Leader and
                                          Village Leader


4.2.4.1.7 Checklist for Draft Rules
At some stage in the planning process it will be necessary for the community to develop (or amend) a set of
regulations which will apply to the implementation of the activity program and any future development
works. These regulations should be developed by the community which may need some guidance. The
planner should ensure that the regulations and the development process involves:
     All community members to be encouraged to contribute.
     The process to be transparent with no particular emphasis given to any “power brokers” in the
     community.
     An opportunity for the draft regulations to be reviewed before they are finalised.
Following is a set of draft rules in a format that may be appropriate for some situations:

                                                         71
        DRAFT ONLY: RULES AND REGULATIONS TO COVER THE FUTURE ASSISTED
                        DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES IN (NAME) VILLAGE
Preamble
These rules have been developed and approved by the community of (name) Village.                   They were
developed using participatory processes and will apply to all activities associated with the implementation of
the (name of project).
The community has agreed to review the regulations at the conclusion of the project intervention.
Regulations
Village Leadership:
•  Each participating family will recognise the authority of the VIG, and will willingly assist the VIG with
   the implementation of planned activities.
Conditions of Acceptance of Assistance:
•   Acceptance of assistance whether in cash or kind, places a HH under an obligation to conform to all
    other conditions. These conditions include preventing all stock from grazing in closed areas, refraining
    from gathering fuel and fodder from closed areas, and feeding livestock with cooked feed.
•   Recipients of assistance will be willing to share information gained with others particularly with those
    people who have not received such assistance.
•  Sharing of information and rendering of assistance with/to other non-recipients will be offered free of
   charge. That is, recipients will not seek payment for assisting in training activities, study tours etc.
Penalties for contravening any of the above Regulations:
•   Grazing on closed areas. The owner of any animal caught grazing in such areas will be required to pay a
    penalty of RMBxx for the first offence. For a second offence the owner will be required to pay a
    penalty equal to 30% of the value of the animal/s involved. For subsequent offences, the animals will
    be impounded and sold with the owner forfeiting any right to the proceeds of the sale.
•   Collecting fuel or fodder on closed areas. The VIG will determine appropriate penalties for those who
    contravene this aspect.
•  In addition to the above, the VIG is empowered to recommend to the institution overseeing the
   distribution of assistance that any further assistance to a particular HH be suspended (or cancelled
   entirely) if that HH has been responsible for an activity which has endangered the success of the
   intervention.
General:
•   Recipients of assistance recognize that failure for whatever reason of any activities, or financial losses
    due to implementation of the activities, will not be the responsibility of the implementing agency.
4.2.4.1.8 Ensuring the Involvement of Females
It is an accepted principle of the PRA process that gender issues are adequately addressed. To ensure that
this occurs, the planner should make adequate provision for females to be heard at all stages of the planning
process. In many cases this is not a problem as females are articulate and anxious to promote their
viewpoints, but in other instances the females are more reticent.
The following points are a sample of issues which may have particular relevance to females when planning
rural development work:
•   Sharing of labour
•   Infant mortality
        Incidence
        Causes and solutions
•   Village infrastructure

                                                        72
        Transport amenity
•   Education opportunities for girls
       School retention rates – post primary
•   Availability of healthcare services
       Pre and post natal
       Location of clinics
•   Opportunities for women to conduct productive enterprises at a village level
       Animal raising
       Craftwork
•   Village Leadership Committees
        Are women represented in an appropriate manner?
        Are women involved in all decision making processes?
•   HH Budgeting
       Do women participate in determining how the HH income will be spent?
•   Specific Training needs of women
•   Domestic Violence
         Incidence
         Causes
         Ways of rectifying it
     These and other issues can be used by the planner to facilitate discussions at either a general community
meeting or at “small group discussions”.
4.2.4.1.9 Definition of Infrastructure
Sometimes, planners will find that there is a tendency for some sections of the community to favour large
scale expenditure on projects they considered to be “infrastructure”. To maintain conformity it is worth
establishing a definition of ‘infrastructure’ which can be used to assist both planners and communities in their
decision making process. Such a definition could be as follows:
         Infrastructure includes all activities carried out primarily to advance the well-being of an entire
         community, and in most cases does not have an immediate impact on those productive activities
         undertaken to generate profit.
Some examples of infrastructure improvement activities that might be undertaken in a village development
include:
        Activity                             Primary Benefit                             Secondary Benefit
Road construction/repair   Increased access to education, health, materials and       Better prices for agric
                           markets                                                    produce
Water               supply Improved hygiene, reduced physical labour (women           Better            livestock
construction/repair        collecting water)                                          health/production
Electricity supply         Reduced environmental degradation, education               Increases options for
                                                                                      industrial production
Communications – notice      Access to information, assists leaders to manage the
boards                       community
Communications        –      Health care, general CD
electronic                   Market info
4.2.4.1.10 Infrastructure Options
It is vital that a thorough analysis of all infrastructure proposals are carried out by the community before a
final decision is reached. Failure to do this properly runs the risk of wasting large amounts of investment


                                                       73
funds.
If the PRA process is being carried out appropriately, it is likely that the community will put forward more
than one option during the initial discussions. In such cases the planner has to guide the community through
a decision making process to identify the best option. The following are some of the questions which should
be addressed during discussions.
1. How many people will benefit (directly and indirectly) and to what degree will they benefit?
Issue – planners may find that village leaders argue strongly in favour of the option which would benefit
themselves the most. For example, this can often involve a cement road that is located to serve a limited
number of people.
Solution – ensure that all people (particularly women and the elderly) are encouraged to participate in the
decision making process. If in doubt the planner should insist on a secret vote being conducted.
2. Will any group be disadvantaged by the proposal?
Issue - to carry out works such as road or channel construction it is sometimes necessary to permanently or
temporarily occupy land that is used for cropping or other activities. In such cases, fairness demands that
adequate compensation should be made to the disaffected people.
Solution – ensure the community is well informed and that where appropriate has set aside funds to meet
compensation claims.
3. How will the proposed works be integrated with existing infrastructure?
Issue - it is pointless to construct short distances of high quality roads (e.g. cement) if such roads do not join
up with similar quality roads. Similarly, complex HH water distribution systems are not sustainable if the
head works are inadequate.
Solution – use maps to explain the concept of integration of existing and proposed works.
4. Is the community aware of the operational management requirements?
Issue - communities are often unaware of the need to maintain infrastructure, or are unable to maintain it
because of a lack of financial resources or social cohesion, or are under the impression that “the government”
will take responsibility.
Solution - prepare maintenance schedules and budgets, and insist that the community appoint a management
committee which will be responsible for raising funds and ensuring that maintenance is carried out.
5. Can the community raise the local contribution necessary to complete the works satisfactorily?
Issue - if a community has to contribute cash to a proposal they will put a lot more value on the result than
one for which there is no such requirement. Frequently, poor communities (or the poorer HHs within a
community) are unable to raise the required funds.
Solution - there is no simple solution to such problems. Some solutions that might be appropriate are:
individuals to seek loans from family, friends or credit institutions, individuals to contribute in kind, or the
community to develop a “scaled level of contributions” whereby the richer families make greater
contributions.
6. Is the proposal technically feasible?
Issue - farmers and most planners have limited experience and skills in designing engineering works and, as a
result, many village roads have high maintenance costs and/or are causing soil erosion. Similarly, water
supply systems frequently have a limited life because of incorrect design.
      Solution - ensure that trained technicians are involved in the assessment, decision making and design
phases of the process.




                                                        74
4.2.5 Step 5: Village Development-Workshop 1
Objectives:
1. To finalise the Revegatation, Pastures and Livestock, Energy, and Cropping Plans.
2. To continue developing the ME and Infrastructure Plans.
3. To introduce the CD options and the proposed training methods.
These objectives are achieved by conducting a Village Development Workshop.
                                                      Planning
Activities                                                          Note
                                                      Aid
Village Development Workshop (MEs)
Preparation
Prepare agenda                                        0
Prepare Final Revegetation Plan as agreed at the      0            Map showing Land Units, areas to be
previous meeting.                                                  closed,    revegetated,     planted   with
                                                                   fruit/timber trees, pastures, new cropping
                                                                   technology, etc.
Prepare final pastures and Livestock Management       0            Chart showing numbers of animals,
Plan.                                                              location/s       of   new  animal
                                                                   raising/pasturing/lot     feeding
                                                                   demonstrations.
Prepare Final Village Rules.                          0            Handouts listing the agreed rules.
Prepare Final Energy Plan.                            0            Chart showing names of HHs and the
                                                                   types of assistance they will receive.
Prepare summary of the micro enterprises as           0
discussed at the previous meeting.
Prepare summary of the infrastructure options as      0     Chart showing cost sharing, beneficiaries,
discussed at the previous meeting.                    错误!未找 SWOT analysis.
                                                      到引用源。
                                                      错误!未找
                                                      到引用源。
Prepare CD Option Chart.                              0
Prepare TNA Questionnaire.                            0            List of available training activities/costs.
Workshop
Introduce purpose of the workshop and the issues to   0
be discussed.
Review the plans finalised after the previous         0
meeting (mountain management, cropping, pastures      0
and animals, and energy).
Summarise the ME technical information and                         Refer to any literature distributed, and
explain the conditions accompanying each activity.                 information received during study tours
                                                                   etc.
Summarise the infrastructure options.                 0
                                                      错误!未找
                                                      到引用源。
Introduce the CD Activity Sector.                     0


                                                      75
                                                        Planning
Activities                                                         Note
                                                        Aid
Describe the training methods to be employed, the       0
topics which can be covered, and inform the
community of budgetary constraints.
Distribute the questionnaire and demonstrate how it
should be completed.
Small group discussions covering the following:
Any new options for MEs.
Preferred infra structure option.
CD options.                                             0
Training needs.
Finalise the list of HHs and the MEs they wish to
select.
Small group leaders to present results of discussions
and the group recommendations to the reconvened
community meeting.
A woman to give a summary from the female
perspective.
Distribute the Training Needs Questionnaire.
Review of Workshop.
Make any appropriate amendments to the plans for
the Revegetation, Pastures and Livestock
Management, Cropping, and Energy Plans.
Confirm the cost list and compile budgets for each      0          It will be necessary to refer to standard
of the finalised activity sector plans.                            costs at many stages during the planning
                                                                   process.
Identify areas where the community seems hesitant
to make a decision, or where there is conflict
between sections of the community or between the
community and the planners.
Develop a strategy for addressing these conflicts.
4.2.5.1 Aids for micro-enterprise development
4.2.5.1.1 Sample Agenda for Village Development/ME Workshop
Meeting Number 4 Village Development
Meeting to be held on ( date ), starting at ( time ).
Location ……………………………….
Agenda
Time         Item                                                  Presenter                  Note
9.10         Finalisation of plans produced to date
             Mountain Management                                   Planner #1
             Cropping                                              Planner #1
             Pastures and Livestock                                Planner #1
             Energy                                                Planner #1
10.00        ME selection

                                                        76
Time    Item                                          Presenter        Note
        Summary of results of the EOI process         Planner #2
        Description of a relevant case study          Farmer
        Further technical information                 Planner #2
10.45   Infrastructure
        Analysis of options put up at last meeting    Planner #1
11.00   Introduction of CD options                    Planner #1
11.15   Technical training
        General description of the program            Planner #2
        Questionnaire                                 Planner #2
11.30   Small Group discussions                       Team Leader
12.15   Presentations from groups
        New options for micro enterprises             Farmer
        CD and infrastructure                         Female farmer
        Training needs                                Farmer
12.45   Meeting closure                               Village Leader




                                                 77
4.2.5.1.2 Revegetation Management Plan
1.   Tabular Summary of the Proposed Mountain Management Plan

                                                                                                  Cost Sharing
Map                                                                Amount/            Total
         Proposed Activity                                                                                                  Note
Ref                                                                Quantity           Cost        Commun       Project
                                                                                                  ity
A        Maintain present closure                                  50 mu              400         Nil          400          VIG to develop a monitoring system and ensure
B        Total closure (new)                                       150 mu                         Nil                       closure is adhered to. Allocation to be used for
C        Rotational closure (new)                                  300 mu                         Nil                       buying lime to mark closed area/s
D        Establish Shazi                                           200 mu             10000       Nil          10000        Individual farmers to prepare ground, plant and
E1       plantation Mountain existing, pine plantation             50 mu                                                    then manage trees
         Extend area of existing Pine plantation
E2                                                                 50 mu              1728        Nil          1728
F        Change present land use from cereal cropping to tree      70 mu              Nil         Locations within proposed rendou plantation and cost of seedlings covered
         growing                                                                                  by the D above. Farmers to cease cropping on the terraces

G        Area designated for fodder and fuel collection            400 mu             Nil
H        Establish Robinia                                         50 mu              Nil                   5200
I        Establish Robinia                                         10 mu              Nil                   1760
         Total                                                                                              19088
      Note: the costing figures used above are purely hypothetical and should not be taken as actual costs. By using the two maps and the table, the planner can make
it quite clear what has been proposed. At the same time as describing the proposed works, the planner should make it quite clear what is expected of the farmers in
return for the assistance.




                                                                                 78
2. A mud map of entire village showing:
The map should show: village boundary, roads, watercourses, residential area/s and proposed mountain
management activities etc.




                                                79
4.2.5.1.3 Sample Set of Village Rules
                                        XX 村的<<村规民约>>

    为了加强对我村生态环境的保护,恢复植被,并提高农业生产的经济效益,促进我村“两个文明”建
设的发展,经本村群众讨论一致通过,制定<<村规民约>>如下:
    1、封山育林
    1)实行封山育林,不许任何人在封山区域内开荒,不许到别人自留山砍伐林木、割草;不许在封
山区域内放牧。
    划定封山育林区域:山顶采取死封,山腰人工造林。
    暂时划定的放牧区域:上崩和岜崩山腰。
    2)发展沼气池,解决能源问题,杜绝上山砍伐,保护生态。
    3)荒山绿化管理:山腰为重点的荒山绿化区,任何人不准上山砍伐和放牧。集体种植集体管理,
收益归集体统一分配,用于道路修建、水利维修等公益开支。对于统一规划的荒山绿化区,涉及到的农
户都要按时按量完成造林任务。
    4)严禁在大于 25 度坡地开荒种植农作物,违者由实施小组责令其在开荒的山地上全部种上树木,
并保种保活,以恢复原有植被,保护村庄生态安全。对于新开荒的(2004 年 7 月 1 日起)每亩另外罚款
500 元。
    2、牲畜管理
    牛羊提倡圈养,严禁乱放马牛羊。由于乱放牧,破坏村民所种的树木、桑苗、水果、农作物的,除
赔偿经济损失外,损失农作物每株赔偿 2 元;树苗按 1 株补种 5 株,另外加罚每株 5 元。五天内赔偿清
楚。违者拒绝接受教育的罚款 100 元,罚款所得归集体所有,有意乱放马、牛、羊的农户严加重罚。
    3、村民自治
    1)实施好每个扶贫项目或其他争取到的项目,保质保量,不能半途而废。对已实施的每个项目要
保护好,实施一个,成功一个。各农户得到的项目资金要专款专用,对挪作他用的强制退赔给集体所有,
另按原价值的两倍罚款。
    2)村中道路,人人爱护,保持卫生。不要随便让马、牛、羊在村中拉粪便,如果有粪便立刻清理
掉,以免污染环境。
    3)全村动员起来修好村中道路,分段到小组管理,建好排水沟和水利设施。每年由村长组织对村
内道路进行集体维修一次。个人损坏道路的,由个人及时负责维修(特别是自有运输车由司机负责)          ,
否则按维修费的 2-3 倍处罚。
    4)对纵火烧山,报复糟蹋他人林果及农作物者,除赔偿经济损失外,外加罚款 200 元,情节严重
的交公安机关处理。
    5)严禁偷他人所种下的树木、果和农作物。违者按市场价处以 5-10 倍罚款。
    4、治安防范
    1)要服从执行小组成员管理和规范经营,有意打击执行管理人员和举报人员的,轻者进行批评教
育,重者除赔偿经济损失外,后交政法部门处理。
    2)对村中的公共设施  (如墙碑,电力设备等)进行破坏的,除赔偿经济损失外, 另外罚款 500-1000
元。
    3)严禁在本村内有偷盗行为,严禁赌搏,违者上报公安机关处理。
    4)严禁坏人进村偷盗,如发现全体村民一律行动,将其抓获并扭送公安机关处理。
    本《村规民约》,将刻印上墙以利管理。希望全体村民互相监督,严格遵守执行,不准违反。但《村
规民约》今后可召开村民大会修改完善和补充。本《村规民约》将从 2004 年 7 月 1 日起执行。执行小
组委员:罗号英、罗文康、罗文求、罗秀新、罗文先、罗志权、罗忠献、罗荣标。组长:罗号英。

    2004 年 6 月 25 日讨论通过




                                            80
4.2.5.1.4 Proposed Energy Plan
The proposed energy activities should be summarised and presented to the community. To avoid any
confusion or misunderstanding, the plan should clearly specify what is expected of each partner involved. The
following chart may be useful to planners when making such a presentation to the community. Each Provincial
planner will need to use this as a hypothetical example only and adjust for their own situation.
                     No to be
      Item                                 Recipient                Project                     Notes
                       built
Demonstration       1             Provide access to site both Supply          all The demonstration site must fit
Biogas Tanks                      during       and       after materials          the following criteria:
                                  construction to all farmers Closely             • Site must have good access
                                  intending to build a tank supervise the              with room for up to 20
                                  of their own                 construction            people to observe
                                  Provide unskilled labour                             construction
                                  to carry out construction                       • Recipient HH must be
                                  under supervision                                    amongst the poorest 10%
                                  Manage the tank in the                               of HHs in the village
                                  correct manner so that it is
                                  an ongoing demonstration
Biogas Tanks        26            Prepare site, purchase Supply                   All recipients to agree to cease
                                  materials to the approx materials to the collecting fuel from all closed
                                  value of Y750, Supply value of Y550 mountain areas
                                  approx     23    man-days (1            tonne
                                  labour                       cement         &
                                                               fittings)
                                                               Carry         out
                                                               training on the
                                                               construction
                                                               and
                                                               management of
                                                               the tank
Demonstration       1             Provide access to site both Supply          all The demonstration site must fit
Fuel     Efficient                during       and       after materials*         the following criteria:
Stove                             construction to all farmers Closely             • Site must have good access
                                  intending to build a stove supervise the             with room for up to 20
                                  of their own                 construction            people to observe
                                  Provide unskilled labour                             construction
                                  to carry out construction                       • Recipient HH must be
                                  under supervision                                    amongst the poorest 10%
                                                                                       0f HHs in the village
Fuel     Efficient 17             Prepare site, purchase Supply                   All recipients to agree to cease
Stoves                            materials to the approx materials to the collecting fuel from all closed
                                  value of Y150, supply approx value of mountain areas
                                  labour                       Y150
4.2.5.1.5 Finalising Infrastructure Recommendations
Planning aid 0 described a framework under which infrastructure could be discussed. This planning aid
describes a method of analysing the options put up by the community.
1. Discuss each alternative proposal in terms of its STRENGTHS
2. Discuss each alternative proposal in terms of its WEAKNESSES
3. Discuss each alternative proposal in terms of its OPPORTUNITIES
4. Discuss each alternative proposal in terms of its THREATS
5. Summarise these discussions in a tabular format.
The following analysis is based on a purely hypothetical situation.
     Proposal                Strengths                Weaknesses          Opportunities             Threats
1. Construct         75% of HHs will have 25% of HHs will Soft fruits grown Not all farmers will
300 m of 3m wide excellent access to the not benefit                     which may be contribute
concrete       road main road 75%的               All farmers will be grown on a large
between         the Travellers on the main required                  to scale in the future
Village     leaders road will gain a good contribute                     will suffer less




                                                       81
    Proposal                  Strengths                 Weaknesses            Opportunities            Threats
house and the         impression      of  the      substantial amount       damage    during
main road             village                      of cash and labour       transport      to
                      Drainage/sanitation          There are very few       market
                      will be improved in          vehicles in the
                      most of the village          village        which
                      Village     leader    is     require a 3m wide
                      strongly in favour           pavement
2. Construct          All HHs will benefit         Road will require        The      improved     Village leader does
750 m of unsealed     from improved access         ongoing                  road will form a      not agree and has
road between the                                   maintenance              very       suitable   threatened       to
far end of the                                                              foundation      for   withdraw from the
village and the                                                             future                planning process if
main road                                                                   development of a      proposal #1 is not
                                                                            sealed road           adopted
3. Construct          All HHs will benefit         Those HHs who            The      improved     Village leader does
200 m of 2m wide      from improved access         have wider vehicles      road will form a      not agree and has
concrete footpath     Drainage and sanitation      will not benefit as      very       suitable   threatened       to
within the village    in all of the village will   much as the other        foundation      for   withdraw from the
and 550m of           be improved                  HHs                      future                planning process if
gravel road           The 2m wide concrete                                  development of a      proposal #1 is not
                      section is just as                                    sealed road           adopted
                      beneficial to 90% of
                      the HHs who have
                      either motorbikes or
                      narrow width vehicles
4. Buy a new          Crop yields will be          Because of the site      A further 50 mu       Farmers are not
irrigation pump to    improved       for     all   topography,        the   will be able to be    prepared          to
replace the one       farmers                      pump      will      be   irrigated             contribute to a
damaged in the        All families will have       subject to future                              depreciation fund
last flood            access to water for          flood damage                                   and therefore there
                      washing during the           If the reticulation                            will be no way of
                      irrigation season            (pipe) system is not                           replacing the pump
                                                   replaced the full                              when it wears out
                                                   benefit of the pump
                                                   will not be realised
5. Extend the         An additional 15 HHs         There will be no         Nil                   None of the HHs
existing domestic     will have access to a        short term economic                            recognise that there
water        supply   clean water supply           gain      to       the                         is     a    problem
system so that all    The taps to be installed     community 社                                    associated with lack
HHs are covered,      at all latrines will                                                        of hygiene.
and install taps at   enable better hygiene                                                       No HH is willing to
all latrines          procedures which will                                                       contribute money to
                      reduce     the     high                                                     either           the
                      incidence of gastro                                                         construction      or
                      intestinal      disease                                                     maintenance of the
                      amongst children                                                            system

       In the above hypothetical situation, it is obvious that Options 4 and 5 are not viable at the moment as
neither will be sustainable. The community will then have to weigh up the first three options and make their
decision.
4.2.5.1.6 Options for CD
It is difficult to define “CD” in the context of a Village Development Plan. One example of guidelines to help
define activities which could be regarded as CD is as follows:
• Activities not primarily directed at achieving an immediate economic benefit.
• Activities with the objective of benefiting the community as a whole (with the exception of infrastructure
      activities).
• Activities which will result in greater social cohesion within a community.




                                                          82
If the planning process is conducted in an appropriate manner, there will be many activities suggested which
could be defined as “CD”. Some specific examples of activities that villagers may wish to discuss at the
meeting include:
                                         Cost
               Activity                                                     Comment
                                        (RMB)
Intra Village Communications
Construction of public notice board 1000-1500 Boards should be only included if they are really necessary
Construction of regulation boards     500          – often communities will state that they want one even
                                                   though many already have several recently constructed and
                                                   unused boards in the village.
Multiple copies of village rules      ~0.05
Gender based Activities
Training in hygiene                   2000         Training contracted out usually to China Women’s
Training in women’s craft work        2000         Federation
Literacy training for women           2000         Local teacher employed
Furthering of Technical Knowledge
Subscriptions to technical papers     90-250 pa There are several technical newspapers which farmers find
                                                   useful. Care has to be taken to ensure that these
                                                   publications are available to all community members
Provision of library cabinets

Construction of training facilities                   Multi purpose rooms managed by the community

Strengthening Village Leadership
Training for leaders                    Various       Training in all aspects of leadership and CD

Costs (partial) for      establishing   Various       Registration costs, and costs of introducing farmers to the
Farmer Associations                                   concept – tours and literature


Planners should provide ample opportunity for communities to discuss all of the above and any other CD
activity.
4.2.5.1.7Training Needs Analysis
When a farmer is asked if he/she wants training in a particular technical aspect, the answer will often be “yes”
regardless of whether it is relevant to the welfare of the farmer. Therefore, it is most important to develop a
training program in a logical manner. To do this it is recommended that planners follow the following steps:
1、 Establish what training can be provided: At a County level it is not always possible to identify experts in
     some fields.
2、 Determine what the needs of the farmers: It is very important to differentiate between “needs” and
     “wants”.
3、 Prioritise those needs: As it is most unlikely that all the needs can be satisfied, it is necessary to determine
     which are the most important and which are the least important.
4、 Determine the best way to satisfy farmer’s needs: It is possible to deliver training in more than one way.
The questionnaire on the following pages may be of assistance to planners when carrying out step 2. If
planners decide to use the questionnaire, it should be distributed to all HHs with instructions to complete it after
a meeting and to return it at a later date. The planner will have to decide whether the farmers will be asked to
rank training subjects in terms of “High” “Medium” and “Low”, or whether they will be asked to give numeric
scores for each subject. Often it is better to not ask for numeric scores as substantial proportions of the
community may become confused.
                                        QUESTIONNAIRE
                   Determining the Technical Training Needs of the (Name of Community)
The following training is available and can be included in your Village Development Plan if you wish. You
are asked to complete the questionnaire to enable the Planning Team to develop a training program that will
satisfy your needs in the most efficient manner. Complete the questionnaire by placing an H, M, or L in the
boxes according to whether you consider training in a particular aspect is of “high”, “medium” or “low”
importance to you. When you have done this, indicate your gender and age group. You can nominate a total of
15 topics for training with 5 High, 5 Medium, and 5 Low votes.
The following sample questionnaire shows how one farmer might have used his “votes”




                                                        83
Revegetation                                                    Animal Raising
Land retirement to protect regionally important areas of    M   Fattening pigs to maximise profitability    M
remnant vegetation
Ground preparation for tree planting                        M   Raising rabbits to maximise profitability
Planting trees for environmental sustainability             M   Raising poultry to maximise profitability
Managing trees for environmental sustainability             L   Disease prevention in animals
Planting & managing shrub and grass species for             H   Intensive housing of animals
biodiversity preservation
Managing forests sustainably                                L   Marketing of animal produce
Prevention and control of forest fires                          Managing breeding pigs to maximise
                                                                profitability
Other………………………………………………………                                      Other
Energy                                                          Cropping
Construction and management of biogas tanks                     Soil management for sustainable crop
                                                            H   production
Construction and management of fuel efficient stoves            Improved cereal varieties                   H

Other                                                           Other
Micro-Enterprises                                               Community Development
Establishment of (variety name) fruit trees                 H   Literacy for Women                          M
Management of fruit tree crops – pest control               L   Health issues for women                     L
Management of fruit tree crops – weed control                   Craft work (name of type of craft work)
Management of fruit tree crops – disease control            L   Hygiene in the farm household
Water management of fruit trees                                 Enforcement methods for mountain
Establishment of mulberries                                      l
                                                                Other
Grafting of mulberries                                      H
Production of silk
Marketing of (name of produce)                              M   Other
Other                                                           1.
                                                                2.
What is your Gender?         Male     Female.      How old are You? <20 years; 20-30; 31-50; >50 years
4.2.5.1.8 Data Sheet for use in Planning Water Supply Works
DATA SHEET FOR ……………………………..VILLAGE WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM
When a community indicates that it wishes to include the construction of a water supply system during the
planning process, the planning team should collect a certain amount of baseline data to enable an appropriate
design to be produced:
1. Background: Describe the history of the water supply – previous works (who funded it), reasons for
    failure/inadequacy, etc.
2. Water Requirement: To develop an efficient design, the water demand for water is needed. This can be
    calculated if the following data is collected. Only enter the data that is known. For example if you don’t
    know the recommended daily water requirements, leave the space blank.

Proposed Uses                Water Requirement                          Note
                    No
                             Maximum Daily     Total Daily
1. Humans
2. Animals
Cattle
Goats
Pigs
Other
3. Irrigation       Mu                                                  Type of crop
4. Other                                                                E.g. industrial use, wash down of
                                                                        animal housing




                                                       84
3. Proposed Water Source Tick the appropriate box and give a verbal description.
 Spring     River       Tank       Surface Run off        Channel        Existing Pipeline            Other

Description: in terms of seasonality, cost/management, risk of damage (eg floods), land ownership, location
with respect to the area where the water will be used.
4. Proposed Works
    Description: very brief verbal description
5. Number of beneficiaries and description of how they will benefit
6. Proposed Management
Description: (management committee, cost to community, preparedness to carry out repairs etc)
Data Collected By                      Date             People Consulted

                     SKETCH PLAN OF PROPOSED WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM
     Draw a sketch of the proposal showing locations of: the village, water source, roads, and any other
relevant features. Mark in the north point and approximate distances if known.
4.2.5.1.9 Water Supply Costing Sheet
Sub Village Name:
                                                      Total                  Cost Distribution
           Item             Quantity Unit Cost
                                                       Cost        CBCLD        Community         Other




       TOTAL
NOTES:
Compiled by:                                                    Date:
4.2.6 第六步: Step 6: Village Development – Workshop 2
Objectives:
1. To finalise the CD, ME, and Infrastructure Plans.
2. To finalise the training program.
3. To ensure that the plan takes special account of the needs of the women and the poorest HHs in the village.
4. To develop and ratify job descriptions and portfolios for the VIG.
These tasks can be accomplished by conducting a structured workshop. In some cases planners may chose to
combine this workshop with the previous one (Village Development Workshop – MEs). Planners should only
do this if they are confident that the objectives of both workshops can be achieved in one day.
                                                                Planning
Activities                                                                   Notes
                                                                Aid
Village Development Workshop
Preparation
Prepare agenda.                                                 0
Prepare draft plans for CD, Infrastructure, and ME.             0
                                                                0
                                                                错误!未
                                                                找到引用
                                                                源。
                                                                错误!未
                                                                找到引用
                                                                源。
Analyse the Training Needs Questionnaire and prepare 0
draft Training Program.
Identify the poorest five HHs and prepare proposals which 0
can be suggested to them, identify a planning team member
who will conduct the “poor HH” sub meeting.
Prepare a summary of the suggestions made at previous 0
meetings which address gender issues, and identify a
planning team member who will conduct the “gender” sub




                                                     85
                                                               Planning
Activities                                                                Notes
                                                               Aid
meeting.
Meeting
The meeting can be conducted in two phases with the first
phase addressing Objectives 1 and 2, and the second phase
addressing Objectives 3 and 4.
Phase 1
Outline the draft plans for CD, ME, and Infrastructure.
Resolve any questions, misunderstandings or disputes.
Obtain agreement from the meeting to adopt each of the
plans.
Describe the results of both the survey on training needs      0
and the subsequent analysis.
Present the draft training program and discuss the timing of
it.
Amend the plan if necessary and obtain the agreement of
the meeting to adopt it.
Adjourn the first part of the meeting and ask that all the                In this next phase, there will be
women adjourn to a separate meeting place, and that                       many people who are not from the
representatives from the five poorest HHs adjourn to                      poorer HHs, not VIG members, and
another meeting place and that the VIG adjourn to a third                 are not women.       The planning
venue.                                                                    team could organise another
                                                                          activity for these people while the
                                                                          three sub meetings are conducted.
Phase 2
Sub meeting 1 – Women.
This should be conducted as an informal discussion             0          If only one female has been
facilitated by a female planner. Males should not be           0          appointed to the VIG, a decision
invited. The objective is to give female villagers a final                will have to be made on which of
opportunity to express their views about the CD plan with                 the two sub-meetings she is to
particular emphasis on how it will affect women and                       attend. As it is vital that the female
children.                                                                 member of the VIG does not lose
                                                                          “status” at this early stage of the
                                                                          project intervention, planners may
                                                                          recommended that the single female
                                                                          VIG member attend the VIG sub
                                                                          meeting.
                                                                          If there is adequate time available,
                                                                          this problem can be circumvented
                                                                          by conducting the two meetings at
                                                                          different times.
                                                                          The same problem may arise if a
                                                                          member of one of the poorest HHs
                                                                          is also a VIG member.
Sub Meeting 2 – The Poorest HHs
As only the poorest 5 HHs will be represented at this          0
meeting, it can be conducted very informally. The
objective is to identify the most appropriate ways in which
the intervention can assist these HHs to improve their
standard of living.
Sub Meeting 3 – The VIG
This meeting should be chaired by the VIG leader assisted      0
by a planner. The objectives are to confirm portfolio
allocation, provide more details and explanations on the
duties of each member and to give members an opportunity
to express their views. Other specific issues that may be
addressed at this sub meeting are the proposed VIG




                                                      86
                                                             Planning
Activities                                                                Notes
                                                             Aid
training program and details of the Infrastructure and CD
Plans, and the use/administration of the management fund.
Reconvene the main meeting.
Explain any amendments to the plans that have resulted
from the “poor HH” and “women’s” sub meetings, and any
decisions reached by the VIG.
Before the meeting is closed outline the remaining steps.
Close the meeting.
Planning Team to review the meeting.                         0            To be held as soon as possible after
                                                                          the meeting.
4.2.6.1 Aids for the village development workshop – community development
4.2.6.1.1 Sample Agenda for CD Meeting
                                            Agenda for CD Meeting
                                                (Name of Village)
                     The above meeting will be held on (date) at (name of location/HH).
The objective of the meeting will be to finalise the CD, ME, and Infrastructure Plans. There will also be
opportunities for women and the poorest families to participate.
Time      Item                                                      Presented                     Notes
9.00      Opening of meeting and outline of agenda                  Planning Team Leader
9.05      Description of CD draft plan                              Planner #2
9.25      Description of ME draft plan                              Planner #3
9.45      Description of Infrastructure draft plan                  Planning Team Leader
10.05     Finalising Training Program                               Planner #2
10.30     Break into sub groups for the gender, poor HHs, and VIG meetings
11.30     Main meeting reconvenes
          Discussion on amendments to any of the plans resulting VIG Leader
          from the sub group meetings
12.00     Meeting closure                                           VIG Leader
          Lunch                                                     VIG leader
4.2.6.1.2 Analysing the Training Needs Data
Planning aid 0 showed one possible format for a questionnaire designed to find out what technical training
individual farmers considered important. This data should now be analysed to determine actual needs and
then an appropriate program developed to deliver the training. In the following example we have taken a
hypothetical community which has 30 HHs. Each HH has been given a questionnaire (See planning aid 0),
and asked to give an H to each of the five courses they consider most important to them, an M to the five next
most important, and an L to each of the final five.
1、 The numeric scores can be calculated using three points for each H, two for each M, and one for each L.
2、 These scores can be totalled and the resulting information used to identify those training activities most
    wanted by the community.
3、 Using local knowledge and giving due attention to the objectives of the project, the planner can then
    develop a training program.
The following worked example shows how a final training program has been arrived at.
                                                                     No of farmers           Total
                                                                                            Score
                                                                   H        M        L
                         Revegetation
Ground preparation for tree planting                              10         5        0       40       95
Planting trees for environmental sustainability                   10        10        5       55
Planting & managing Poplar and Spruce                             20        10        0       80       80
Managing forests sustainably                                      10        10       10       30       50
Prevention and control of forest fires                             5         0        5       20
                        Animal Raising
Fattening pigs to maximise profitability                          15         5        0       55       55
Raising rabbits to maximise profitability                          5        10        5       30       60
Raising sheep to maximise profitability                            5        10        5       30




                                                     87
                                                                        No of farmers         Total
                                                                                              Score
Disease prevention in animals                                       0         10        10     25
Intensive housing of animals                                        0         5         0      10
Managing breeding cattle to maximise profitability                  5          0         5     20
                             Energy
Construction and management of biogas tanks                         20        0         0       60      60
Construction and management of fuel efficient stoves                5         5         0       25
                       Micro-enterprises
Production of dried persimmons                                      10         5         0      40      105
Management of fruit tree crops – disease control                     5        10        10      45
Water management of fruit trees                                     0         5         10      20
Establishment and management of Shaji for juice production          10        5          5      45      110
Grafting of apples                                                  5         5          0      25
Establishment of (variety name) fruit trees                         0         15        10      40
                           Cropping
Soil management for sustainable crop production                       0        10      5        25       75
Improved cereal varieties                                             5        10     15        50
                              CD
Literacy for women                                                    0         0     15        15
Health issues for women                                               0         5     10        30       65
Craft work (name of type of craft work)                               0         5      5        15
Hygiene in the farm HH                                                5         0      5        20
Enforcement methods for mountain closure                              0         0      5         5
Using the above example the following training program would be appropriate:
(Note: For the purposes of this example we will assume that a total of ten formal training courses are desirable
and that each of these courses can address one or more related training activities).
Formal training activities budgeted at RMB2000* per course:
1、 Planting of Persimmon and production of dried fruits.
2、 Establishment and management of Shaji shrubs for juice production.
3、 Planting and managing Spruce and Poplar trees for environmental sustainability of mountains.
4、 Cereal cropping.
5、 Construction and management of biogas tanks.
6、 Raising rabbits and sheep (rabbits and poultry) for profit.
7、 Fattening pigs for profit.
8、 Women’s’ training to cover health, hygiene, craft and literacy.
9、 Sustainable forest management.
Additional Training Activities
The above analysis has resulted in all but five of the listed activities being included in the formal training
program. As each of these five activities (enforcement methods, women’s literacy, breeding pigs, intensive
animal housing, and disease prevention in animals), have received significant scores, the planner must attempt
to provide some training to address them. There are many forms other than formal lecture courses in which
training can be delivered. If properly designed and implemented the alternative training methods can be much
more cost effective. In our hypothetical example, the following activities could be included in the overall
training program:
1、 Select a number of farmers (say five) interested in intensive animal housing and disease prevention from
     this village to attend an inspection of a site where these issues are addressed. This visit could be
     organised so that representative groups from a number of villages take part.
2、 Distribute written literature on animal disease prevention and breeding sows to the farmers.
3、 Distribute appropriate literature to those HHs where an interest in women’s literacy was shown and
     request a local teacher to consider conducting classes at no cost.
     Include enforcement methods on the curricula for training village leaders.
4.2.6.1.3 Additional Assistance to the Poorest HHs
Even though CBCLD is working in villages where almost every family was poor, it is accepted that planners
should attempt to find ways of helping the poorest families in particular.
To do this the first step is to determine how many of the poorest HHs should be given special assistance. The
method of determining wealth ranking is described in planning aid 0. Planners can for example offer the



                                                      88
opportunity of special assistance to the five poorest HHs. In some there may be no distinction between HHs
for the purpose of determining levels of assistance.
When the poorest HHs have been identified, before they are then presented with an opportunity to nominate the
type of assistance they would like to receive, an attempt should be made to identify the reasons for their poverty.
As the subject can often be a sensitive one, it should be undertaken carefully and could involve using the
personal observations of the planning team and advice of village leaders. Any explanation given by other
farmers should be treated with caution.
Some possible causes of poverty are: family illness, physical disability, family trouble with the law,
membership of a minority group, old age, only one adult worker due to out migration or death, gambling losses,
and the imposition of high costs in the short term such as educational expenses. Planners may sometimes be
advised that a particular family is poor because they are all “lazy”. When such an explanation is advanced as
the reason for poverty, the planner should try and identify an underlying reason.
When reasons for the poverty are identified, the next step is to determine if any of the options offered by the
project are appropriate and will result in reducing the hardship on the poor family.
Some options considered appropriate by planners may include:
       Providing a greater level of assistance to make it possible for the HH to construct a biogas tank.
       Providing the full cost of animals such as pigs for fattening rather than the normal partial payment.
       Paying the families share of the local contribution for an infrastructure activity.
       Purchasing simple agricultural implements.
       Providing additional hybrid seed for cropping.
       It is not advisable for planners to organise cash payments to a poor family.
4.2.6.1.4 Issues for Discussion in the Women’s Meeting
Although the issues of gender were covered during the LC and CDW (see planning aid 0), it is important that
the women of the village are given a final opportunity to comment on and, if necessary, amend the plan before
it is finalised.
Once again, this meeting should be facilitated by a female planner who will most probably find it necessary to
guide the discussion so that it covers the appropriate issues.
Some possible topics for discussion are:
1. Village Leadership
         Are the women satisfied that the female member of the VIG is appropriate?
         Do the women think that the ratio of men to women on the VIG is appropriate?
2. Infrastructure Proposals
         Will the proposed infrastructure works benefit women just as much as they benefit men?
         What steps should be taken in the future to optimise the benefit from the proposed infrastructure works?
         What steps are necessary to ensure that the infrastructure works are maintained sustainably?
         What other infrastructure works are necessary and how can we as a group ensure that they are carried
         out?
3. CD Proposals
         Will the activities proposed under the CD plan advance the position of women in the village?
         Do the proposed village rules adequately protect the rights of women?
         Are there any changes that the women as a group wish to make to the plan?
4. Proposed Training Program
         Are women’s needs adequately addressed in the training program?
5. Co-operative Activities
         Have any of the women had any new ideas of co-operative activities which they think might be suitable
         for inclusion in the plan?
All of these issues should have already been discussed in an open forum, but if the planner feels that some
women may have held back in front of the men, the issues should be put on the table again before the planning
process is completed.
If some issues are raised which the planner thinks should be addressed by the planning team as a whole, she
should note them and bring them up at the planning team review.
4.2.6.1.5 Checklist for Planning Team Review of the Village Development Workshop
1. Conduct of the meeting.
      Did the concept of conducting three meetings simultaneously work or will it be necessary to run one of the
      sub meetings again?
2. Were logistical arrangements suitable (timing, venue, visual aids, etc)?
3. Was each planner capable of performing his/her tasks to a satisfactory standard?
4. Were all issues relating to the plans presented (CD, ME, and Infrastructure) resolved satisfactorily and what
      issues need further attention?



                                                       89
5.   What further work needs to be done to finalise the training program?
6.   Did any issues come out of the women’s meeting and how should they be addressed?
7.   Did any issues come out of the poorest HHs meeting and how should they be addressed?
8.   Allocate tasks for preparing for the next meeting.




                                                    90
4.2.7 Step 7: Preparation of Draft Village Development Plan
Objective:
To prepare a VDP which will describe the partnership agreement which has been reached between the
planning organisation and the demonstration community, outline future development which has not been
included in the partnership agreement, and provide strategic information to other rural planning bodies.
This process is best carried out progressively during the planning process. Planners, or planning teams
which wait until the planning process is completed before they commence writing the VDP, will usually find
that they require a minimum of two weeks to write the draft VDP. Those planning teams that draft and
update the plan continually during the planning process will take less than a week after the completion of the
last meeting to finish the task.
                                                                         Planning
    Step   Activities                                                                   Note
                                                                         Aid
Ref
2.7        Preparation of the Village Development Plan
           Using the information collected and the results of all        0
           negotiations with the community, prepare the village          0
           plan.                                                         4.2.7.1.3
4.2.7.1 Aids for preparation of the draft village development plan
4.2.7.1.1 Schedule for Writing the Village Development Plan
It is important that the information collected during the planning process is reproduced in a logical
framework which can be understood by a wide range of people. To do this effectively, the planning team
should adopt a disciplined approach as there is much data and documentation to be assimilated into a form
that will be most useful.
Planners can choose to produce the VDP in stages. The timing of these stages can be as follows:
Chapter                         Stage at which the Section or Chapter was written
      Foreword                  A standard foreword can be used for all VDPs.         This can be included at the
                                conclusion of the planning process.
      Introduction              This should be written at the same time as Sections 1 and 2.
      Table of Contents         Planners can use a standard framework. This can be amended at the conclusion of
                                the writing up stage if necessary.
1     Description    of   the   These two sections should be written during the planning process. Ideally they
      Village                   can be completed after the LC and CDW meetings are held, and before the Village
2     Planning Objectives       Development Workshop is held.
3     Integrated                These sections are written during and after the planning process.
      Demonstration       and
      Training Plan
4     Plan Implementation
      and Management
5     Monitoring
      Annexes                   Annexes are produced as the planning proceedes
The time taken to write a plan will vary according to the prior experience of the planner, the amount of
review the written plan is subject to, and the amount of time the planner has to spend on other unrelated
activities. Experienced Planners will need at least one week after the planning process is completed, to
finalise the written VDP.
For a detailed description of the format of the VDPs, see planning aid.0。

                                                          91
4.2.7.1.2 Format for the Village Development Plan
The objective of the VDP is to design a long term and short term strategy which integrated ecosystem
management and poverty alleviation. The VDP is the outcome of participation of the community in the
planning process and is relevant to interests of all HHs in community. Therefore, it must be easily understood
and clear details must be provided.
1. Summary of development of the VDP
The VDP is an action guide to future development and management of the community. The VDP comprises
five sections. The follow describes the contents in a formatted VDP:
A. Situation of the village before CBCLD intervention:
•   Location, population, labour force, gender and the structure of the village.
•   Social economic development of the village, income and expenditure structure, and analysis of poverty
    and causes.
•   Description of ecosystems and natural resources including land units and LC, water resource, climate and
    land degradation.
•   Detailed review and analysis of land use and problems including land use and conversancy, forest land
    management, horticultural land use, grassland and mountain land use and management.
•   Results of surveys of micro enterprise activities (e.g. crops and animal husbandry, processing) and
    management, profitability and marketing practices. Analysis of present and potential development
    activities using SWOT.
•   Survey of present energy systems and impact on the environment. Survey should include natural energy,
    commercial energy and renewable energy.
•    Description of infrastructure and constraints to social economic development of the community.
B. Long term and short term objectives of CD including social, economic and environmental (the three
elements for balanced development) objectives. These objectives must be identified by villagers in the
community.
C. Village development and training plans:
The VDP describes in details what activities CBCLD provided to support the CD. The activities proposed by
farmers need to be classified into different demonstration activities (eg. energy, cropping, ME, etc), which
will be explained in details in this section. For each activity, the following must be stated:
1、 What is the activity?
2、 The scale of the activity.
3、 How is the activity going to be carried out? What technical support is needed?
4、 Who will carry out the activity? Who is responsible? Who will manage it and how?
5、 How is the cost going to be shared? (e.g. the Project and the HH, other agencies maybe included).
6、 How is it going to be funded? (e.g. approaches to provide assistance).
D. Management of implementation
Guidelines need to be developed for village management in each VDP to ensure that the demonstration
activities are implemented effectively, e.g. management for the implementation fund, implementation
schedule for project activities, cost sharing of some of the activities, project management at the Village such
as establishment of VIG and villagers commitment. Module 2 of this planning guide provides details on how
to manage the implementation of the VDP.
E. Monitoring of project activities
     The VDP describes monitoring of the project activities in the village including how the activities would
be monitored and who would be monitoring; obligations for the community; the VIG’s recording of the time
and locations the activities were implemented; villagers’ involvement in environmental monitoring and
impact monitoring. Community monitoring activities must be simple and should not be time consuming
                                                       92
or they will not be carried out by villagers. Module 3 of this planning guide provides details on how to
monitor the implementation of the VDP and outcomes of the intervention.
4.2.7.1.3    Costing of Activities
When planning assistance to a large number of communities, it is essential to obtain and apply accurate cost
estimates during the planning process. Provincial planners can compile a standard list of costs to use when
compiling budgets for each Pilot village site. This list should be updated twice a year to ensure that VDP
budgets are as accurate as possible. A typical costing sheet used by planners is as follows:
             Item              Unit       Unit price               Item                   Unit     Unit price
Seedlings (Indigenous)                                  Animal husbandry




Seedlings (Timber trees)                                Processing machines




Seedlings (Fruit)                                       Energy equipment




4.2.8 Step 8: Delivery and Ratification of the Draft Village Plan
Objective:
To provide the community with the opportunity to review the complete package of proposed intervention
assistance and for the community to decide whether they are prepared to meet their obligations.
To achieve this objective it is necessary to conduct a meeting involving all HHs from the community. At
this meeting, all components of the plan are described and farmers will be asked to sign a declaration
indicating their intention to co-operate.

Activities                                                     Planning Aid        Note

Preparation
Review the plan and identify areas which are still or maybe,
contentious.
Obtain any necessary approvals for the proposed expenditure
from project managers.
Prepare visual aids for the meeting:
Map showing current land use, ecosystems and natural
resources.                                                     0
Map showing immediate (short term) land use changes and        0
infra structure proposals.                                     0
Map showing proposed long term land use changes.               0
                                                               0




                                                       93
Activities                                                       Planning Aid        Note

Table showing proposed assistance for each HH in the energy,
micro enterprise, animals, and cropping sectors.
Implementation schedules for both demonstration and training
activities.
Table showing activity monitoring process.
Prepare “Farmer Agreement” document.                             0
And prepare speaking notes on the sharing of responsibility.     0
Prepare meeting agenda.                                          0
Contact the VIG to determine if there have been any new
issues raised since the last meeting.
Meeting
Present the Plan and describe each activity in terms of scale,   0
cost sharing, timing, training, and conditions of acceptance.    0
                                                                 0
Invite farmers to comment on the proposals.
Describe the proposed procurement, delivery schedules and        0
monitoring arrangements.
Organise the signing of the Farmer Agreement document.           0
Outline the long term development proposals and invite           0
comments from the farmers.
Meeting closed.
Lunch.                                                                               As this is a “land mark”
                                                                                     occasion, a community
                                                                                     lunch is well justified.
Review of meeting, VDP revised and finalised
Make any final amendments to the draft.
Collate all remaining sections of the plan into the final                            Include   the    Farmer
document.                                                                            Agreement and monitoring
                                                                                     sheet.
Arrange for the appropriate senior managers to view the final
plan and, if appropriate, sign the foreword.
Arrange distribution of the Plan.
VDP photocopied and handed over to VIG.                                              It must be ensured that the
                                                                                     VDP distributed to the
                                                                                     relevant    people     and
                                                                                     agencies in a timely
                                                                                     manner
The VIG starts organising implementation of the planned
activities.
4.2.8.1 Aids for delivery and ratification of the draft village plan
4.2.8.1.1 Map showing Proposed Intervention Sites
When intervention proceeds in a village with an integrated multi sectoral aid package, it is important that the
village farmers understand how the various components are linked. It is also important the community is

                                                       94
kept informed of the actual locations of this short term assistance and that they can visualise how this short
term assistance forms the basis of a longer term program. This can be achieved by presenting the information
in the form of maps.
The hand drawn maps in sections 0 and 0 are examples of how this can be done.
4.2.8.1.2 Sample Agenda
(Name of village) Draft VDP feedback meeting:
Objective: to specify the proposed activities with the community
Timing
Participants: all farmers, PMO and township planners
Location: (name of village)
Agenda:
Item           Activity                                                            Speaker          Note
               Specifying land use plans:
                  • Land use plan frame, maps and diagram
1                 • Land retirement plan
                  • Revegetation plan
                  • Land use conversion plan
                  • Terrace repairs plan
                  • Improved species extension plan
                  • Key area management plan
               Specifying:
2                   •     Sustainable energy development plan
                    •     Pasture development and livestock management plan
                    •     Village management policies (e.g. village regulations,
                          VIG and responsible people)
               Specifying:
3                   •     HH micro enterprise and assistance standard
                    •     Infrastructure and cost sharing
               Specifying:
4                   •     Technical training needs and recommendations for
                          training
                    •     Gender development plan and assistance to the most
                          disadvantaged group
                    •     VIG roles and responsibilities
                    •     The amount of management fund and management
                          system
               Specifying:
5                   •     Implementation processes and schedule of all the
                          proposed activities
                  • Contact no of PMO and relevant agencies
6              Farmers’ signature on Farmer Agreement
               Farmers specify village regulations, sign and stamp
7              Closing and reviewing




                                                        95
4.2.8.1.3 Investment on an Individual HH Basis
The following table is an example of a section of a HH investment plan. A completed table would require ALL planned activities are included.
Investment on an Individual HH Basis
  Name of HH
                                        Individual revegetation (mu)                                                       Collective revegetation (mu)                                Terrace repairs               Land use                 Fruit (mu)
                                                                                                                                                                                             (mu)                 Conversion (mu)
                  Location     Species /         Location     Species /         Planting        Location        Species/         Location    Species/           Planting date         Location    Area
                               Area                           Area                Date                          Area                         Area




4.2.8.1.4 Implementation Schedule
The following table is an example of an implementation schedule. It is important to schedule for all labour requirements so that villagers can consider implications to their normal farming calendar, training activities and key implementation activities.

Activity         Schedule                                                                              Year 1                                                                                                        Year 2
                 details            1    2   3            4            5                 6              7                  8             9                10   11            12   1   2   3              4   5   6        7   8   9               10   11   12
Activity 1 –     Training
Tree planting    Labour
                 Implementation
                 Details                                  Seedling     Planting          Irrigation     Maintenance
                                                          arrive       completed                        &
                                                                                                        Management
Activity 2 –     Training
Shrub planting   Labour
                 Implementation
                 Details                     Mid-March    Seedlings    Maintenance
                                                          arrive       &
                                                          Planting,    management
                                                          completed
Activity 3 –     Training
Track            Labour
rebuilding       Implementation
                 Details                                               Preparation       Rebuilding,    Continue           Completed     Maintenance           Maintenance                Maintenance                             Maintenance
                                                                       community         planting       rebuilding
                                                                       meeting           Karagana
Activity 4 –     Training
Cropping         Labour
demonstration    Implementation
                 Details                                  Material     Demonstration                                                     Monitoring
                                                          arrive       completed

Activity 5 –     Training
Perennial        Labour
pasture          Implementation
demonstration    Details                                  Material     Completed         Weeding        Cutting                                                                                                  Cutting
                                                          arrive
Activity 6 –     Training
Stall feeding    Labour
and     animal   Implementation
husbandry        Details                                               Designing         Activity
                                                                       finished,         completed
                                                                       material arrive
Activity 7 –     Training




                                                                                                                                96
Activity        Schedule                                                   Year 1                                                              Year 2
                details          1   2   3             4           5   6    7       8               9   10   11   12   1   2   3   4   5   6        7   8   9   10   11   12
Technical       Labour
training        Implementation
                Details


Activity 8 –    Training
Environmental   Labour
awareness       Implementation
training        Details                  Preparation   Training                     Participatory
                                                       completed                    Integrated
                                                                                    Ecological
                                                                                    Monitoring




                                                                                         97
4.2.8.1.5 Farmer Agreement
A number of purposes are served by asking the recipients of planned assistance to indicate their agreement with
the plan by signing a letter of agreement.
     • The serious intent of the project is emphasised.
     • Farmers who have reservations about their participation are given a final chance to withdraw.
     • Chances of future co-operation are increased.
     • It demonstrates that all community members are under the same obligation.
A copy of the farmer agreement with the names of all farmers who have “signed” it should be produced. If it is
not possible to include the signatures, the Agreement should be still included.
The following is an example of a typical farmer agreement.
Letter of Commitment
This is to confirm my acceptance of the following clauses and that I am ready to apply for CBCLD activities in
training and, village development, and demonstration.
I agree to assist the VIG in the implementation of various CBCLD activities at village level with high
enthusiasm, to take part in integrated interventions to improve the village environment, and to generate incomes
through improved production.
I will follow the relevant PMO regulations on project management during the implementation of the CBCLD
plan. I will use this assistance properly and will not sell off the assistance or change the use of assistance
without the prior permission. I will study the new techniques and use them properly, and will make good the
fines imposed by the PMO issued due to an infringement on the implementation rules by myself or anyone
from my house hold.
I will actively assist the VIG to conduct project activities, such as M&E, technical demonstration etc. I will also
commit to extending the influence of the project to villagers outside the project area.
I commit to provide labour, funds and materials on top of the assistance received where necessary. I will carry
out the implementation work at the specified times, in the specified places and with due regard to the technical
requirements.
I promise to answer for any failure of the implementation of the activities I am involved with during the life of
the project including, but not limited to, financial losses resulting from faults in implementation by myself, paid
labourers, or contractors. CBCLD will have no liability with respect to such losses.

Signature (the farmer)

Address:          Village                                 Township


Date: Year/month/date

4.2.8.1.6 Responsibility Sharing
The “partnership” between the recipient of the aid and the donor organisation should be continually stressed
during the planning process. If the planner wishes to give a detailed description of the mutual obligations of the
primary stakeholders at any stage of the planning process, this planning aid which shows the responsibilities
that apply in a hypothetical situation, can be used as a guide. Planners will need to adjust the content to suit
their own situations.
There is too much information on the following table for it to be suitable for using as a chart at a meeting. The
planner should use the table as a checklist when preparing his/her speaking notes.
 Type           of Stakeholder
                                                                                      Notes
Assistance           Farmer/Recipient                        Donor
Animals              Provide satisfactory housing; manage Training       on      all Housing must be checked
                     the      animal       according      to management               and    approved       before
                     recommendations.                        aspects.                 animals are delivered.
                     Recipients of animals to stop all Supply the animal at Any group particularly
                     fodder collection and grazing on the village, pre women who wish to operate
                     designated areas.                       delivery health care. as co-operatives should be
                     Recipients of pigs to agree to cease                             encouraged.
                     cooking feed for all of their animals.
                     Recipients are expected to re-invest
                     profits in similar activities.
Crop seed            Carryout soil preparations and Provide               certified Under                  normal




                                                        98
 Type            of   Stakeholder
                                                                                         Notes
Assistance            Farmer/Recipient                          Donor
                      management          according        to   hybrid           seed    circumstances farmers who
                      recommendations.                          sufficient for one       are already using the
                      Cease cropping on specified areas.        crop, and training on    improved seed would not
                      Repair and maintain terraces.             all aspects of crop      be given the assistance.
                      Establish crop only on designated         management.
                      areas.
                      Be prepared to purchase similar seed
                      for future crops.
Fruit trees and       Plant trees in the designated areas       Supply      seedlings
timber trees          and manage them according to              and           relevant
                      recommendations.                          training.
Land retirement       Develop and implement a set of            Supply materials for
                      regulations relating to grazing and       sign posting.
                      fuel/fodder collection on selected        Carry      out      an
                      areas.                                    awareness/
                      Clearly mark closed areas.                training program.
                      Ensure that all farmers are aware of
                      the regulations.
Revegetation          Plant indigenous speicies and             Supply      seedlings
                      manage the resultant forest in a          and training.
                      sustainable manner.
Pasture               Prepare the land and establish the        Supply
establishment         pasture.                                  seed/seedlings    and
                      Maintain the pasture for a minimum        training.
                      of four years.
Biogas tanks and      Prepare the site and construct the        Supply training and      Demonstration tanks and
Fuel     Efficient    tank/stove      according      to   the   some materials.          stoves to be constructed at
Stoves (FES)          specifications.                                                    the houses of two of the
                      Supply some materials.                                             poorest 10% of families.
                      Cease      collecting     fuel    from
                      designated areas.
Technical             Leaders to ensure that all farmers        Pay     subscriptions
newspapers            have access to any literature             and/or buy reference
                      supplied.                                 books.
Notice boards         Prepare the site and construct the        Supply materials.        Before approving such an
                      notice board.                                                      activity, planners should
                      Leaders to manage the board in a                                   confirm the notice board is
                      “pro-active” manner.                                               necessary/will be used.
Infrastructure    –   Supply agreed materials.                  Supply        design
roads                 Construct and manage the road so          assistance and some
                      that it provides service to the           materials.
                      maximum number of residents and
                      does not cause soil loss or other
                      environmental degradation.
Infrastructure    –   Supply agreed materials.                  Supply        design     The importance of the
water supply          Construct and manage the system in        assistance and some      subsequent management of
                      a sustainable manner.                     materials.               the water supply system
                                                                                         must be emphasised.




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5 MODULE 2: IMPLEMENTATION OF IEM AND VILLAGE
DEVELOPMENT PLANS
5.1 List of planning aids for Module 2
  Ref. No.                                                  Title
错误!未找          Stakeholders – roles and responsibilities
到引用源。
5.3.2          Stakeholders – roles and responsibilities
错误!未找          Village implementation budgets
到引用源。
0              Monitoring and evaluation
0              Activity sector implementation procedures
0              Notes on infrastructure implementation
0              VDP implementation schedule
0              VDP implementation monitoring sheet
5.2 Module 2 – Guidelines on implementation of Village Development Plans
Objectives:
The objective of VDP implementation is to undertake the various activities described with the VDP as planned
and according to schedule. VDP implementation monitoring will be an important part of the process, and where
results show negative impacts occurring with respect to the local environment, the VIG and PF will modify the
planned activities.
Village Development Plans (VDPs) have been produced by village communities with the assistance of the
GEFOP12 project. A transparent procedure that is understood and accepted by all stakeholders is required to
enable the implementation of these VDPs in an efficient manner. This procedural manual has been produced
to provide a framework on which all future implementation can be based.
Given that each Provincial situation is different, facilitators that use this manual will need to use it as a
general guide only. Procedures and protocols may vary from Province to Province.
The remainder of section 错误!未找到引用源。 provides a basic introduction to the principles of VDP
implementation.
                                           Planning
Activities                                              Note
                                           Aid
Implementing the VDP
Step 1: PF’s brief the VIG on the process 0             Key aspects of this briefing should include the
of implementation                          0            importance of::
                                           错误!未 • IEM principles
                                           找到引用 • The implementation schedule;
                                           源。
                                                        • Implementation monitoring and impact
                                                             monitoring;
                                                        • Procurement procedures, and
                                                        • Financial management.
Step 2: Commence implementation as 错误!未
planned in the VDP and described in 找到引用
GEFOP12 Module 2                           源。, 错
                                           误!未找
                                           到 引 用
                                           源。, 0, 0,
                                           0, 0, 0
Step 3: Undertake periodic monitoring 0 and 0           Frequency of monitoring will need to be determined
of VDP implementation as planned                        according to the nature of activities in the VDP.
Step     4:    Review     implementation                Where results indicate poor progress, problems with
procedures and VDP in light of                          implementation and/or impacts from planned
monitoring results                                      activities, the VIG and PF should review
                                                        implementation procedures and plans and modify if
                                                        necessary.


                                                      100
5.3 Implementation aids for Module 2
5.3.1 IEM principles
Village Development Plans (VDPs) are based upon the principals of IEM. This introduces a number of
peculiarities to the rural development focus that will be new to many farming communities. This will have been
raised during the planning process, but needs to be re-emphasised at the commencement of the implementation
phase. Important issues to raise with VIG’s will include:
• IEM encourages communities to consider actions within the village environment that positively impact on
     ecosystems (both local and regional where possible).。
• To achieve this, implementation needs to take place at a scale that is significant enough to make a
     difference. It also involves implementing activities in parallel, many of which will generate benefits for the
     village in the longer term rather than the short term.
• Importantly then, IEM will involve trade-offs between production and conservation. It will be important to
     remember as implementation progresses that IEM objectives of improved water quality, biodiversity
     conservation, and enhanced ecosystem functionality for example, will be critical to the long term
     sustainability of the village.
• Lastly, biophysical monitoring for impacts as a result of the VDP will provide an important feedback loop
     for the VIG. It will be important to use this feedback to adjust implementation activities from time to time.
5.3.2 Stakeholders – roles and responsibilities
    There are 5 stakeholders in the implementation phase of the GEFOP12 Village Development Plans.
These stakeholders and their roles in the implementation process are as follows:
5.3.2.1Individual Farmers
The farming family is one of two major beneficiaries of the GEFOP12 project. Consequently, each household
will be expected to take on a major role in the implementation process with most physical works being
implemented by the farming households themselves.
In addition to carrying out the physical implementation of works on his own land, the farmer will be expected
to contribute his labour and time to those works that are carried out in the interest of the community as a whole.
Such works will include unloading delivery trucks, storage of materials, and works carried out on publicly
owned land。
When a farmer is to be a direct or indirect beneficiary of a GEFOP12 investment, that farmer should make
every attempt to acquire the required skills by attending technical training activities conducted by GEFOP12 or
other County institutions. In addition, farmers will be required to pay attention to other technical information
disseminated from time to time by the technical experts involved with GEFOP12.
The other major beneficiary in the GEFOP12 project will be the natural environment. All activities will be
carried out in a sustainable manner with the impact of each activity on the environment assessed before it is
incorporated in the VDP. In the event that a particular activity is found to have a detrimental impact after it
has been included in a VDP, that particular activity will be deleted from the VDP and other more appropriate
activities substituted.。
5.3.2.2 Village implementation groups
Each village participating in the GEFOP12 is represented by a VIG which has been elected by the community.
The number of members of VIGs varies but is generally between four and six with each member having one or
more portfolios.
VIGs are such an important link in the communication chain that without an effective VIG, implementation of
the VDP will not be effective.      They perform roles in all phases of the project, but the most important one is
their role in the implementation phase. They will perform this role in close co-operation with the Provincial
Facilitators (PF).
They are responsible for collecting information and alerting the PF’s/PMO on the preparedness of the
community for implementation of the various activities, organising the community to receive materials such as
seedlings, machinery and livestock. They are also responsible for organising the logistics for technical
training activities in co-operation with the PF.
VIGs will play an important role in the monitoring of activity implementation by keeping an account of
planned activities as they are implemented. This will be done by entering data onto the monitoring sheet
included as an annex in the VDP. They will also assist in the environmental monitoring and the project impact
monitoring.
VIGs will perform these tasks in an honorary manner and will receive no payment.
5.3.3 Village implementation budgets
After VDPs are approved and signed by the CPMO, they should be carried out accordingly and must not be
changed without permission.


                                                       101
Each Village Development Plan specifies the amount of money that has been allocated for expenditure on a
number of activities. These amounts have been calculated using the best information available at the time and
it is realised that some changes may be desirable between the finalization of the VDP and the implementation
of the various activities.
Any change to a budget must receive the approval of the PF’s and the CPMO. The procedure to be followed
will generally involve the VIG discussing the proposal with the PF who will then present the request to the
CPMO. After discussion at CPMO level, the PF will be advised of the decision. The PF will then pass the
decision onto the VIG
All stakeholders should be aware that the CPMO considers the approved VDPs as being final, and that any
proposed change will have to be supported by particularly strong reasons. The CPMO will not accept any
change that will result in an increase in the total cost of implementation.
If exceptional circumstances arise, the CPMO may agree to change the allocations. Such changes may be made
only after careful consideration and full consultation with t he community.
5.3.3.1 Financial Management
Allocated budgets
After VDPs are approved and signed by the CPMO or Provincial PMO and the Local County PMO, they
should be carried out accordingly and must not be changed without permission.
Changes to the Budget Allocations
Each Village Development Plan specifies the amount of money that has been allocated for expenditure on a
number of activities. These amounts have been calculated using the best information available at the time and
it is realised that some changes may be desirable between the finalization of the VDP and the implementation
of the various activities.
Any change to a budget must receive the approval of the CPMO and the Provincial PMO. The procedure to
be followed will generally involve the VIG discussing the proposal with the County PMO who will then
present the request to the Provincial PMO. After discussion at Provincial and CPMO level, the County PMO
will be advised of the decision. The County PMO will then pass the decision onto the VIG.
All stakeholders should be aware that the CPMO considers the VDPs as approved by the Provincial PMO as
being final, and that any proposed change will have to be supported by particularly strong reasons. The
CPMO will not accept any change that will result in an increase in the total cost of implementing the VDP’s.
Financial Management
Each Province will have it’s own protocols for financial management. These protocols will describe how
project funds are to be managed and must be followed closely by all stakeholders involved in the
implementation of the VDP.
5.3.4 Monitoring and evaluation
M&E in implementation of planning is to ensure the progress and quality, identify the issues in time and solve
them, and collect relevant information for necessary adjustments and improvements of the planning. The
commitment and involvement of villagers are very important. VIGs should have routine meetings to have
villagers review the implementation of planning, learn lessons, exchange experiences discuss and solve
problems in the implementation together. Major issues that can’t be solved should be transferred to PF
immediately.
Monitoring information collected by the VIG should be entered on the standard sheet contained in section 0.




                                                    102
5.3.5 Activity sector implementation procedures
5.3.5.1Mountain closure
Activity       Examples     of                                                          Role of stakeholders
Sector         activities

                                         Farmers                         VIG                                           PF                              CPMO
Mountain       Mountain          Exclude livestock and        Develop and enforce rules        Oversee closure;                                    Support      PF
Management     closure           cease fuel collection        regarding    closure      of     Support VIG in enforcement of regulations.          with       their
and                              from areas as directed by    mountains. Report violations     Monitor and evaluate effectiveness of closure.      activities
Revegetation                     the VIG.                     to PF

               Planting      &   Carry        out     land    Oversee ground preparations      Develop composite lists of species that are to be   Support      PF
               management of     preparation                  for planting and check that      sourced and carry out procurement including         with       their
               environmental     Prepare the holes before     areas, species and tree          ordering, quality control, transport arrangements   activities
               and commercial    seedlings arrive at the      numbers is in accordance with    and payment.
               species           village                      VDP.                             Advise CPMO of progress with ground
                                 Supply labour at the         Ensure that storage and          preparations, and prepare lists of numbers and
                                 request of the VIG for       management of the seedlings      species to be planted.       Check that proposed
                                 the recieval and storage     prior to planting is in          planting is in accordance with the VDP.
                                 of seedlings                 accordance               with    Inspect areas to be planted and advise CPMO when
                                 Carry out planting           recommendations.                 ground preparation is complete and when seedlings
                                 Carry out subsequent         Allocate      seedlings     to   will be planted.
                                 management such as           individual farmers and record    Advise the nursery of requirements, obtain the
                                 fertilising, pest control,   distribution.                    required money and arrange for transport to the
                                 pruning etc                  Resolve any disputes over        Village.
                                 Comply the village rules     village level responsibilities   Manage and carry out the technical training
                                 not to cut down trees and    and allocations                  program
                                 graze.                       Complete activity monitoring     Carry out follow up training when required. Take
                                                              sheet (Section 0)                effective measures with VIG to ensure the tree
                                                                                               survival rate
                                                                                               Monitor and evaluate effectiveness of plantings.
                                                                                               Report findings to CPMO. Update Activity
                                                                                               monitoring sheet (Section 0)




                                                                               103
5.3.5.2 Livestock
Activity         Examples     of                                                             Role of stakeholders
Sector           activities

                                            Farmers                              VIG                                         PF                                CPMO
Procuring        Prepare animal    Confirm that those HHs          Compile aggregate lists of        PF to schedule the appropriate technical training     Support      PF
and              housing           nominated in the VDP to         species/types of animals and      course before animals are delivered.                  with       their
introducing      facilities        receive animals are still       confirm that housing and feed     For those animals that are to be purchased outside    activities
various                            willing to accept them.         arrangements are appropriate.     the township area, arrange for purchase and
species     of                     In instances where the          Confirm       that     proposed   delivery.
livestock.       Responsible for   HH is required to               distribution of animals is in     When appropriate arrange for animals to be
                 all management    contribute a portion of         accordance with the VDP           inspected by the appropriate technician to certify
                 of animals once   the purchase cost, collect      For those animals that are to     that they are in good condition and that all animal
                 they have been    the agreed amount of            be purchased locally, collect     health requirements are met.
                 delivered.        money and pass it on to         money from the PF (and
                 Report      any   the PF                          where applicable, from the
                 mortalities  in   Check that housing              individual     recipient)   and
                 the first month   facilities are appropriate      arrange purchase and delivery.
                 to the VIG        and report to the PF            When appropriate arrange for
                                   when HHs are ready to           animals to be inspected by the
                                   receive animals                 appropriate     technician   to
                                   Resolve any disputes            certify that they are in good
                                   over      village      level    condition and that all animal
                                   responsibilities         and    health requirements are met.
                                   allocations. Record the
                                   allocation.
                                   Complete            activity
                                   monitoring            sheet
                                   (Section 0)
                                   Confirm        that       the
                                   individuals designated in
                                   the VDP have reserved
                                   appropriate land for
                                   pasture

Pasture          Carry out land    Confirm that the land           Confirm that the arrangements     Arrange purchase and distribution of seed to          Support   PF
establishment    preparation,      has been prepared in the        are in accordance with the        appropriate Townships in consultation with the VIG.   with    their


                                                                                    104
Activity     Examples      of                                                           Role of stakeholders
Sector       activities

                                         Farmers                          VIG                                          PF                              CPMO
             sowing and be      prescribed manner and       VDP and that the land is ready.     Deliver/arrange extension advice in a timely       activities
             responsible for    that it is protected from   Advise the PF of the total          manner
             all subsequent     grazing animals.            amount of seed to be                Facilitate communication between the VIG and the
             management.                                    purchased, or if it is to be        Animal Husbandry Bureau.
                                Advise the PF of the        purchased locally obtain the
             Report        on   amount of seed required     money allocated and buy the
             unsatisfactory     Resolve any disputes        seed.     Before purchasing
             germination and    over     village    level   ensure that the seed is certified
             growth rates to    responsibilities      and   and of good quality.
             the VIG            allocations and record
                                the allocation.             Arrange for small local
                                Complete         activity   demonstrations of sowing to
                                monitoring         sheet    be carried out.
                                (Section 0)                 Report any unsatisfactory
                                                            aspects    of   the  pasture
                                                            establishment to the Animal
                                                            Husbandry bureau

Livestock    Breed              Provide    housing    for   In consultation with PF, select     In consultation with VIG, contact Animal           Support      PF
production   improvement        animals,    raise    and    suitable livestock varieties.       Husbandry Bureau to identify suitable animal       with       their
and                             manage.                                                         breeds.                                            activities
management   Animal raising                                 Assist in material procurement
             and managing       Construct sheds for         and distribution                    Supervise implementation and arrange technical
                                livestock                                                       training ahead of implementation activities.
                                Use      Best    Practice   Strengthen      communication
                                methods      of   animal    among villagers to enhance
                                husbandry        Choose     group learning.
                                suitable land and forage
             Forage planting    to plant according to the   Supervise       and   guide
                                household size and land     implementation
                                status.                     Allocation and management of
                                                            forage seedlings.



                                                                               105
5.3.5.3 Micro-Enterprises
Activity    Examples     of                                                           Role of stakeholders
Sector      activities

                                      Farmers                           VIG                                           PF                                CPMO

MEs         Establishment      Prepare planting sites      Check VDP to determine who         Confirm that planting sites are prepared in terms of   Support      PF
            of fruit and nut   Ensure that material is     will receive planting material     soil preparation, disease prevention and pest          with       their
            trees, medicinal   stored appropriately        and what locations the material    control.                                               activities
            plants, and any    Carry out planting          will be planted.                   Order planting material
            other non cereal   Carry out all post          In consultation with the PF        Arrange for any technical training in the village
            crops.             planting management         determine when the material        prior to delivery
                                                           will be planted.                   Act as intermediary between the VIG and the
                                                           Organise the storage of            Bureau
                                                           planting material in a manner      Arrange for transport of planting material from the
                                                           according                     to   Township or the AV to the Planting locations
                                                           recommendations.                   Confirm that the material has been planted and
                                                           Supervise the distribution and     advise the CPMO.
                                                           planting of the planting           Update the VIG implementation monitoring sheet
                                                           material, and record the           (Section 0) and forward information to the CPMO
                                                           allocations                        Advise the CPMO of any problems encountered.
                                                           Complete        the     activity
                                                           monitoring sheet in the VDP
                                                           (Section 0)

            Processing of      Individual farmer to        VIG to confirm that the            Obtain an advance of money to cover the PMO’s          Support      PF
            agricultural       advise the VIG when he      proposed     recipient     has     commitment.                                            with       their
            produce            possesses his share of      understood the conditions          Make the purchase and arrange transport to the         activities
            (includes corn     the purchase price and is   under which the item is being      Village.
            husking,           ready to purchase the       given.                             Obtain the contribution from the farmer(s)
            noodles, brick     item of equipment           Record the allocation and
            making,                                        update the Activity Monitoring
            craftwork, etc)                                sheet.




                                                                              106
5.3.5.4 Energy
Activity    Examples     of                                                           Role of stakeholders
Sector      activities

                                      Farmers                            VIG                                            PF                              CPMO
Energy      Bio gas and       Prepare excavations and      Check VDP to determine             Confirm proposed sites/recipients with the VDP.       Support      PF
            stove             stockpile          locally   which HHs will receive bio         Ensure that all excavations are located at the        with       their
            construction      obtained materials           gas digestor materials.            appropriate sites                                     activities
                              At the request of the        Ensure that farmers have           In consultation with the VIG, calculate the amounts
                              VIG assist with the          stockpiled           appropriate   of materials required
                              recieval and handling of     amounts of materials               Manage the procurement process and arrange
                              materials                    Determine the most suitable        delivery of the materials to the SV.
                                                           time for construction to           Manage the training program which will involve the
                              Attend training courses.     commence and advise PF.            construction of 1 unit at an approved site.
                              Construct according to       Inspect and approve proposed       When requested, assist the VIG supervise
                              the specifications of the    sites. Confirm the site where      construction.
                              design drawing to ensure     the demonstration/training unit    When construction is complete, check all units to
                              the quality of the biogas    will be constructed.               see that they comply with design specifications.
                              pools                        Ensure that all proposed           Ensure that all biogas users are implementing
                                                           recipients attend the training     correct management and safety procedures
                                                           courses.
                                                           Ensure that materials are
                                                           stored in a secure manner
                                                           where they will suffer no rain
                                                           or other damage.
                                                           During construction, ensure
                                                           that all builders are following
                                                           the agreed procedure.         If
                                                           technical     difficulties   are
                                                           experienced, seek advice from
                                                           the PF.
                                                           Record the allocation of
                                                           materials and update the
                                                           Activity Monitoring sheet
                                                           (Section 0)




                                                                             107
Activity   Examples        of                                                         Role of stakeholders
Sector     activities

                                       Farmers                           VIG                                          PF                              CPMO


           Fuel-wood            Carry     out     ground    Check VDP to confirm sites        Advise the CPMO of tree species and numbers of
           plantation           preparations.               for planting. Confirm that        seedlings required.
           establishment        At the request of the       nominated recipients are still    Carry out procurement and arrange transport
                                VIG assist with the         prepared to carry out the         Deliver extension advice in a timely manner
                                recieval and handling of    plantings       and      future   Ensure that transport and storage requirements are
                                material                    management.                       met.
                                Carry out planting          In consultation with the PF
                                Carry     out     routine   determine the most appropriate    Organise training on routine management
                                management                  time/s for planting.              procedures for fuel-wood plantations.
                                                            Ensure that approved sites are
                                                            prepared and arrange for
                                                            seedlings to be received at the
                                                            Village and stored in the
                                                            appropriate manner.
                                                            Record the allocation of
                                                            materials and update the
                                                            Activity Monitoring sheet.

           Introduction of                                  Where recipients of pigs for      Procedures, roles and responsibilities to be the same
           pigs to HHs                                      energy purposes have no           as for pigs that are supplied under the Livestock
                                                            previous    experience    in      Management activity sector.
                                                            managing pigs, the VIG is to
                                                            ensure that these farmers
                                                            receive appropriate advice
                                                            from those who have such
                                                            experience.




                                                                               108
5.3.5.5 Cropping and soil conservation
Activity       Examples      of                                                            Role of stakeholders
Sector         activities

                                             Farmers                           VIG                                           PF                           CPMO
Cropping &     Introduction of     Advise the VIG of their         Check VDP to confirm sites        Confirm proposed sites/recipients with the VDP.
Soil           new cropping        preferred sowing varieties.     for sowing.    Confirm that       Calculate the total amount of seed to be purchased
Conservation   varieties           (Note:     only     varieties   nominated recipients are still    and advise the CPMO of the type and amount of
                                   considered       to        be   prepared to carry out the         seed to be purchased and from which source they
                                   “improved” should be            cropping programme.               will come.
                                   eligible for GEFOP12                                              Manage the technical training program
                                   assistance).                    In consultation with the PF       Carry out procurement and arrange for delivery to
                                   Carryout the sowing and         determine         the    most     the SV
                                   subsequent              crop    appropriate time/s for sowing     Deliver extension advice in a timely manner
                                   management                      and the most appropriate
                                                                   varieties to be sown.             Facilitate communication between the TPT/VIG
                                                                                                     and the Bureau of Agriculture
                                                                   Ensure that approved sites are    Report progress to CPMO
                                                                   prepared and arrange for seed     Where necessary, reinforce the importance of these
                                                                   to be received at the SV and      activities and advise communities of the
                                                                   stored in the appropriate         consequences of not carrying them out.
                                                                   manner.

                                                                   Record the allocation of
                                                                   materials and update the
                                                                   Activity Monitoring sheet.




               Changing Land       Carry out land preparation      Duties of the VIG are the         Duties of the PF are the same as those for tree
               Use on Steep        in accordance with the VDP      same as those for tree planting   planting activities as described in the Mountain
               Slopes                                              activities as described in the    Management section.
               (“grain       for                                   Mountain          Management      Where necessary, reinforce the importance of these
               green”      type                                    section.                          activities and advise communities of the
               tree planting)                                                                        consequences of not carrying them out.


                                                                                   109
Activity         Examples      of                                                                Role of stakeholders
Sector           activities

                                               Farmers                              VIG                                          PF                            CPMO

                 Terrace              Carry       out      terrace     Oversee                            Where necessary, reinforce the importance of these
                 stabilisation        construction/re-construction     construction/re-construction       activities and advise communities of the
                 and                  in accordance with the VDP       of terraces in accordance with     consequences of not carrying them out.
                 construction of                                       the VDP
                 stable                                                Update        the     Activity
                 waterways                                             Monitoring sheet as works are
                                                                       completed (Section 0).
5.3.5.6 Infrastructure
Activity         Examples       of                                                               Role of stakeholders
Sector           activities

                                              Farmers                              VIG                                             PF                          CPMO
Infrastructure   Repair      roads,   Individuals to contribute      Collect data and organise an        PF to support VIG in liaising with relevant Bureau
                 domestic water       to cost according to           appropriate design to be            Overall responsibility for organising the
                 supply systems       agreed commitments.            carried out. (For further details   development of an appropriate design and
                 and irrigation       Supply labour to carry         of this requirement see note        specifications
                 systems.             out construction               below).                             Advise the VIG on which quote to accept.
                 Install                                             Collect contributions from the      When appropriate, organise bulk purchase and
                 Electricity                                         community and advise PF             delivery of of materials.
                 supplies                                            when the planned community          Inspect works under construction to ensure
                                                                     contribution       has      been    appropriate standards are observed
                                                                     obtained.
                                                                     Settle any disputes over
                                                                     contribution rates
                                                                     Investigate     the     possible
                                                                     sources of materials and where
                                                                     possible obtain written quotes
                                                                     from 2 or more potential
                                                                     suppliers.
                                                                     Advise the PF of these quotes.
                                                                     When appropriate, carry out



                                                                                        110
Activity      Examples     of                                                         Role of stakeholders
Sector        activities

                                       Farmers                          VIG                                          PF                            CPMO
                                                           the purchase process using an
                                                           advance of money from the
                                                           PMO. Such purchases will
                                                           have to be acquitted.
                                                           Arrange for receival and
                                                           storage of the materials.
                                                           Mobilise the community to
                                                           supply all necessary labour
                                                           and organise rosters etc
                                                           Supervise construction.
                                                           Update Activity Monitoring
                                                           Sheet and forward to TPT

5.3.5.7 Community development
Activity      Examples     of                                                         Role of stakeholders
Sector        activities
                                       Farmers                            VIG                                          PF                          CPMO
Community     Establish   and   Conform to Village         Regularly consult with the            Advise and assist the VIG with enforcement
Development   enforce village   Regulations                community to review and amend         procedures.
              rules                                        the Village Rules.                    Assist the CPMO in producing appropriate
                                                           Establish      and       implement    publicity material.
                                                           appropriate           enforcement     Seek County level intervention in extreme cases
                                                           procedures that will address issues   or where regulations are persistently
                                                           such as detecting non compliance,     contravened.
                                                           penalties, and management of
                                                           revenue resulting from the
                                                           imposition of penalties.

              Construction      Supply      labour   for   Determine the purposes for which      When requested, advise the VIG on the location,
              and               handling of materials as   a board may be used.                  and use of the boards.
              management        directed by the VIG        Determine locations of the boards     Arrange for purchase and delivery of materials
              of notice and     Supply      labour   for   Advise PF of the quantities           Pass on brochures and information sheets to the



                                                                             111
Activity     Examples      of                                                         Role of stakeholders
Sector       activities
                                        Farmers                             VIG                                        PF                           CPMO
             rule boards        construction as directed    required for their construction.     VIG for display.
                                by the VIG                  Accept delivery of materials.
                                                            Oversee construction.
                                                            Update the Activity Monitoring
                                                            sheet as works are completed.
                                                            Ensure that the use of the board
                                                            for communication purposes is
                                                            maximised.

             Purchase      of   Reading                     Ensure that all HHs have access to   Arrange and pay for subscription
             technical                                      the newspapers.                      Arrange for distribution of the newspaper to the
             newspapers                                     Ensure that all HHs receive copies   SV.

             Management of      Participate in elections.   Carry out all VIG functions          Support the VIG in its activities.
             the VIG            Assist the VIG carry out    according to the Terms of            Carry out capacity building activities, and
                                its tasks                   Reference                            support the VIGs on specific issues when
                                                                                                 requested


5.3.5.8 Technical training
Activity     Examples      of                                                         Role of stakeholders
Sector       activities

                                         Farmers                         VIG                                         PF                             CPMO
Technical                       Attend       appropriate    Advise      community       of   Pass on information regarding technical training
Training                        technical        training   technical training events and    from the PMO to the VIG
                                activities                  ensure that appropriate people   Assist county and township units to provide
                                                            attend                           technical training.
                                                                                             Manage the technical training program




                                                                             112
5.3.5.9 Monitoring

Activity        Examples     of                                                      Role of stakeholders
Sector          activities

                                         Farmers                         VIG                                          PF                           CPMO
Activity                          Actively cooperate with   After each GEFOP12 is made       Collect the activity monitoring sheets at 6 month
Monitoring                        the M&E activities        update the activity monitoring   intervals, and issue new sheets to the VIG
                                                            sheets                           Analyse the results form the activity monitoring
                                                                                             sheets and pass on results to CPMO
                                                                                             Maintain a register where activity implementation
                                                                                             is kept up to date.
Impact                            Attend     the   M&E      Summarize the successes in       Reinforce the project propaganda to help to attract
Monitoring                        meetings and feed back    planning and implementation      more funds and projects
                                  the changes in living     and      extend    them   to     Assist VIG to undertake impact monitoring
                                  and environment.          neighboring villagers            activities.
                                                            With assistance from the PF,
                                                            undertake impact monitoring
                                                            activities.
Environmental                     Actively cooperate with   With assistance from the PF,     Assist VIG to undertake planned monitoring
Monitoring                        the M&E activities        undertake impact monitoring      activities.
                                                            activities.                      Analyse the results form the monitoring and pass
                                                                                             on results to CPMO. Maintain a central monitoring
                                                                                             record.




                                                                            113
5.3.6 Notes on infrastructure implementation
It is necessary to improve both the planning and implementation of infrastructure works. Works such as water
supply systems require certain levels of technical input if they are to be cost effective and if they are to be
operative for considerable periods of time.
VDPs will either contain adequate design information, or they will describe how this information will be
obtained. For water supply systems, the minimum acceptable information will be:
• A description of the source in terms of yield, reliability, quality, and distance from the delivery point.
• An hydraulic analysis of the proposed mainline
• A description of the demand in terms of peak demand and seasonal variation.
• A description of any secondary reticulation systems either proposed or existing
• For systems being replaced or repaired, the reasons for the repair/replacement should be stated.
• A description of the construction techniques for the mainline (eg depth of burying pipe, measures to be
      taken to prevent land degradation, type of joints, method of protecting pipe, and measures to protect water
      quality).
• A description of the water management system to be implemented (cost to user, method of determining
      water rate, responsibility for maintenance, and the name of any institution that will be responsible for
      managing the system).
• A set of specifications or a list of parts to be used in the construction of the system.




                                                      114
5.3.7 VDP implementation schedule

The following table is an example of an implementation schedule. It is important to schedule for all labour requirements so that villagers can consider implications to their
normal farming calendar, training activities and key implementation activities.
Activity Schedul                                                Year 1                                                                       Year 2
          e details 1 2 3              4        5         6        7           8       9         1 11          1 1 2 3               4 5 6        7 8 9            1 1 1
                                                                                                 0             2                                                   0 1 2
Activity Training
1 – Tree Labour
planting Impleme
          ntation
          Details                      Seedl Planting Irrigat Mainte
                                       ing      complet ion        nance
                                       arrive ed                   &
                                                                   Manag
                                                                   ement
Activity Training
2–        Labour
Shrub     Impleme
planting ntation
          Details            Mid-      Seedl Mainten
                             March ings         ance &
                                       arrive manage
                                       Planti ment
                                       ng,
                                       comp
                                       leted
Activity Training
3      – Labour
Track     Impleme
rebuildi ntation
ng        Details                               Preparat Rebuil Contin Compl Mainte                   Mainte             Mainte                          Mainte
                                                ion       ding,    ue          eted    nance          nance              nance                           nance
                                                commu planti rebuild                                                     维护                              维护
                                                nity      ng       ing
                                                meeting Karag
                                                          ana
Activity Training


                                                                                    115
Activity    Schedul                                          Year 1                                                  Year 2
            e details   1 2 3   4        5          6          7         8     9        1   11   1   1 2 3   4 5 6       7 8 9   1   1   1
                                                                                        0        2                               0   1   2
4      –    Labour
Croppin     Impleme
g           ntation
demonst     Details             Mater    Demons                                Monito
ration                          ial      tration                               ring
                                arrive   complet
                                         ed
Activity    Training
5       –   Labour
Perenni     Impleme
al          ntation
pasture     Details             Mater    Complet    Weedi      Cutting                                           Cutt
demonst                         ial      ed         ng                                                           ing
ration                          arrive

Activity    Training
6 – Stall   Labour
feeding     Impleme
and         ntation
animal      Details                      Designi    Activi
husband                                  ng         ty
ry                                       finished   compl
                                         ,          eted
                                         material   活
                                         arrive
Activity    Training
7       –   Labour
Technic     Impleme
al          ntation
training    Details

Activity    Training
8      –    Labour
Environ     Impleme
mental      ntation


                                                                             116
Activity    Schedul                                            Year 1                                                               Year 2
            e details     1 2 3         4        5    6          7          8         9        1    11    1   1 2 3         4 5 6       7 8 9              1   1   1
                                                                                               0          2                                                0   1   2
awarene     Details           Prepar    Traini                              Partici
ss                            ation     ng                                  patory
training                                comp                                Integra
                                        leted                               ted
                                                                            Ecolog
                                                                            ical
                                                                            Monito
                                                                            ring

5.3.8 VDP implementation monitoring sheet
Note: The following VDP implementation monitoring sheet is an example only. PF’s will need to modify the table for each VDP as activities are likely to vary. This
table should be completed by the VIG on an ongoing basis and reviewed by the PF periodically.
                                       Monitoring Form                                        Village Development Plan
                                                                                      Progress in                (month)                   (season)
                                                                        Quantity of       Quantity of         Results             Issues              Resolution
     Activity Sector                 Activity          Scale             material       implementation
                                                                         delivered        completed
                                                                                       compared to plan
Cultivated land use          Terrace repairs                Mu
                             Improved cropping –            Mu
                             conservation
                             agriculture
                             Improved      maize            Mu
                             variety
                             Improved      cotton           Mu
                             variety
Livestock                    Stall cattle                  Head
                             Replacement    ewes           Head
                             (new variety)
                             Pasture                        Mu

Revegetation activities      Shaji                          Mu


                                                                                 117
                                       Monitoring Form                                     Village Development Plan
                                                                                Progress in              (month)               (season)
                                                                  Quantity of      Quantity of        Results         Issues              Resolution
      Activity Sector            Activity           Scale          material      implementation
                                                                   delivered       completed
                                                                                compared to plan
                        Spruce                              Mu

                        Willow                            Mu

Energy                  Biogas tanks                 Tanks

                        Fuel efficient stove         Stoves

Micro enterprise        Rabbits                          Head

                        Geese                            Head

Infrastructure          Road                              M
                        Canal                               M
Others                  Subscriptions          to    Papers
                        technical papers
                        Technical videos                 Videos
                        Notice board                  Boards
Filled by
Reviewed by




                                                                           118
6 MODULE 3: PARTICIPATORY MONITORING FOR IEM AND
VILLAGE DEVELOPMENT
6.1 List of planning Aids for Module 3
    Ref. No                                                    Title
0                 Aid for developing project logframes
0                 VDP implementation monitoring sheet
0                 VDP Implementation Schedule
0                 Background principles on assessing trends in range condition
0                 Environmental Monitoring
0                 Indicators of ecosystem health for use in participatory monitoring of village development
                  plans
0                 Specifications for using photo-point monitoring sites
0                 Step test for monitoring grassland biodiversity
0                 Quadrats
0                 Using satellite imagery to monitor environmental change
0                 Field walks
0                 Monitoring gully erosion
0                 Assessing the incidence of sheet erosion
0                 Soil testing
0                 Assessing the depth to groundwater and water quality
0                 Household surveys

6.2 Module 3 - Monitoring and village plan review
6.2.1 Introduction to monitoring Village Development Plans
Effective monitoring is an important part of the project cycle. It allows planners and communities to assess
progress with respect to project implementation and in terms of project impacts (eg. Environmental,
social, and economic outcomes).
Monitoring enables planners and communities to assess the need for adjustment of one or more plan activities
in the event that results are unexpectedly negative or slow in eventuating. Monitoring of IEM and village
development plans also provides planners with information that may be shared with funders and/or other
communities who are interested in the results that are being achieved in VDP’s.
The exact nature of monitoring activities will depend largely upon the nature of the specific projects being
implemented (eg. the type of activities, the local environment, and the scale of the project). Sections 6.2.4.2,
6.2.4.3,6.2. 4.4,6.2.4.5 outline some general principals for monitoring project implementation, and
environmental, socio-economic outcomes. Each section contains specific monitoring tools that can be used
by planners.
Importantly, planners and VIG’s need to remember that because the Village Development Plan is based upon
the principles of IEM, much of the monitoring being undertaken will need to be long term. Rehabilitation of
local ecosystems is not something that will be achieved in the short term.
It must be noted that the specific approach to monitoring will need to be tailored very closely to the
circumstances of the specific project being implemented. The resources contained within this section of


                                                      119
the manual therefore are a guide only.
6.2.2 Step 1: Developing the project Logframe
Objectives:
The first step in the process of developing the monitoring plan is to produce a project logframe.
Logframe stands for 'Logical Framework', and is a simple method of linking goals and objectives to inputs,
outputs and outcomes. It is valuable monitoring tool and is widely used by development agencies such as the
ADB and World Bank, government agencies, and project managers to describe project objectives, indicators
for each, how the indicators will be monitored, and any important assumptions that are made about indicators
and the project process more generally.
Outcomes represent the end product of an investment and are therefore considered the most important
criteria in performance evaluations. They are the impacts that the program of work has generated.
Outputs are management tasks completed or commitments fulfilled.
Inputs may include financial, time or other resources.
As an example, commitment of funds to a village planning process is an input that may lead to the output of
a completed planting of new fruits trees on the hillsides. This may, in turn, contribute to an outcome of
improved soil conservation within the village and improved incomes.
                                           Planning
Activities                                              Note
                                           Aid
Developing and implementing a plan for monitoring project implementation
Review the      VDP     implementation     0            The information contained within the implementation
schedule.                                               schedule will inform PF’s and VIG’s of what is to
                                                        happen and when it is to happen.
Incorporate each component of the 0                     The implementation monitoring sheet is likely to vary
implementation schedule into a VDP                      for each VDP. PF’s and the VIG should be prepared to
implementation monitoring sheet                         modify the layout of the sheet as required.
Provide the VIG with a copy of the         0            This will need to include a briefing on monitoring of
VDP implementation monitoring sheet                     not only implementation but impact monitoring as
and brief them on their responsibilities   0            well. The VIG will play a central role in this work and
with     respect    to      monitoring                  needs to be familiar with the processes and
implementation.                                         procedures. Seek external expert assistance if
                                                        necessary.
With the VIG determine the timing of                    Timing of monitoring activities will depend upon the
future VIG/PF meetings to review                        nature of the monitoring itself. The VIG and the PF
progress with implementation.                           should meet at least every 3 months during the first
                                                        year of implementation and then 6 monthly form then
                                                        on.
Implement monitoring and review as
planned.
6.2.2.1 Aid for developing project logframes
The following table is an example of a project logframe from a VDP in Qinghai Province.
Summary of outcomes,        Performance Indicators      Means of measuring indicators       Notes
outputs, and inputs
Long term Outcomes
(3-10 years)


                                                      120
Summary of outcomes,       Performance Indicators         Means of measuring indicators       Notes
outputs, and inputs
•   Measurable             •   Increased ground           •   Photo point monitoring sites    Monitoring budget
    improvements in            cover                                                          item 2
    range condition on                                    •   Observation and records at
    grasslands             •   Increased palatable            photo point monitoring site
                               grass species
                           •   Decrease in Landu
                               species
•   Shrublands at top of   •   Increased ground           •   Photo point monitoring sites    Monitoring budget
    catchment intact and       cover                      •   Observation and records at      item 2
    stabilizing land       •   Increase in shrub              photo point monitoring site
    surface                    species diversity
•   Major areas of gully   •   Changes/stability of       •   See performance indicators      Monitoring budget
    erosion on grazing         gully face/head                for shrublands and              item 2
    and cropping lands                                        grasslands adjacent to
    stabilized                                                gullies.
                                                          •   Marker posts installed and
                           •   Stability of periphery         measurements taken
                               of gully                       annually


                                                          •   Monitor survival of trees and
                                                              shrubs planted in/around
                                                              gully
                                                          •   Assess survival rates and
                                                              ongoing growth
                                                          •   Photo point monitoring sites
•   Total grazing          •   Change in total            •   Household survey of grazing     Monitoring budget
    pressure reduced on        number of animals              practices                       item 1
    grasslands and             grazing on the             •   Observations from village
    shrublands                 grassland area of the          grazing inspectors over time
                               village
•   Increase in number     •   Number of lambs            •   Household survey                Monitoring budget
    of lambs surviving         weaned per 100 ewes                                            item 1
    through to weaning
•   Measurable             •   Increases in prices        •   Household survey                Monitoring budget
    improvements in            received for sale                                              item 1
    quality of sheep           sheep
    flock.
•   Increased              •   Increases in grazing       •   Household survey                Monitoring budget
    profitability of           enterprise net income                                          item 1
    grazing enterprises
•   Further retirements    •   Total area retired         •   Check records of Project
    of cropping land           from cropping                  Implementation Group.


                                                        121
Summary of outcomes,        Performance Indicators       Means of measuring indicators       Notes
outputs, and inputs
                                following                •   Field inspections
                                commencement of
                                plan implementation
•   Perennial pastures      •   Total area of land       •   Household survey                Monitoring budget
    and fodder crops            planted to perennial     •   Field inspections               item 1
    increased                   pastures and fodder
    significantly               crops
•   Major reduction in      •   Reduced incidence of     •   Annual field inspections and    Monitoring budget
    the incidence of            signs of sheet erosion       records of inspection kept      item 3
    sheet erosion on            on designated sites          and compared over time
    cropping lands              (pedestaling around
                                base of plants, soil
                                deposition at lower
                                parts of landscape)
•   Improved soil           •   Measure OM               •   Soil testing by local Bureau    Monitoring budget
    fertility on cropping   •   Assess incidence of          conducted bi-annually.          item 4
    lands                       soil crusting
                            •   More detailed soil
                                tests (pH, EC, and
                                soil nutrients)
•   Community has           •   Monitoring program       •   Environmental data is being     Monitoring budget
    capacity to monitor         in place and                 collected and assessed by the   item 2
    environmental trends        community is using it        villagers.
                                effectively
•   Community has           •   VDP assessed and         •   Land management decisions       Monitoring budget
    capacity to reassess        revised regularly in         are being based on the          item 2
    and modify land             response to                  results from monitoring data.
    management in               monitoring results
    response to             •   Decline in negative
    environmental trends        environmental trends
                                over time
Medium term outcomes
 (1-3 years)
•   Major increase in       •   Total houses using       •   Household survey of grazing     Monitoring budget
    number of                   stall feeding and no         practices                       item 1
    households using            grassland grazing        •   Count of animal houses built
    stall feeding in                                         in village
    livestock production                                 •   Observations from village
                                                             grazing inspectors over time
•   Widespread use of       •   Total cropping area      •   Household survey of             Monitoring budget
    organic fertilizers         receiving regular            cropping practices              item 1
    and manure as soil          input of organic


                                                       122
Summary of outcomes,       Performance Indicators        Means of measuring indicators     Notes
outputs, and inputs
    treatment by               fertilizer
    households
•   Decreased demand       •   Household                 •   Household survey              Monitoring budget
    on household labor         perceptions on                                              item 1
    as a result of track       changes in labor
    building                   demand since track
                               building completed
Outputs
•   Revegetation and       •   Trees and shrubs          •   Inspect revegetation area.    Monitoring budget
    tree planting              planted as planned            Check trees, shrubs, and      item 2
    activities completed                                     fences against plan


•   Monitoring sites       •   Monitoring record         •   Check availability of         Monitoring budget
    established and            book                          monitoring record book        item 2
    monitoring             •   Monitoring sites          •   Inspect sites
    underway               •   Monitoring tools          •   Check availability of tools
                               (camera, etc)
•   Technical training     •   Record of training        •   Check records
    implemented                and attendance
    (animal husbandry
    and tree planting)
•   Environmental          •   Records of                •   Check records
    awareness training         training/field days
    underway and               and attendance
    ongoing
•   Cropping and           •   Results assessed and      •   Check availability of
    pasture                    detailed in simple            extension leaflet
    demonstration –            extension leaflet         •   Check record of field day
    results extended to    •   Field days held by
    community                  local agriculture
                               Bureau experts and
                               participating villagers
•   Animal husbandry       •   Results assessed and      •   Check availability of
    demonstration –            detailed in simple            extension leaflet
    results extended to        extension leaflet
    community              •   Field days held by        •   Check record of field day
                               local animal
                               husbandry bureau
                               experts and
                               participating villagers
•   Road rebuilding        •   Tracks completed as       •   Check tracks
    completed                  planned.


                                                      123
Summary of outcomes,         Performance Indicators       Means of measuring indicators     Notes
outputs, and inputs
                             •   Tracks functional        •   Check tracks
Inputs
•   Finalised village        •   Village plan available   •   Check availability of plan
    development plan
•   Project funds paid to    •   Funds made available
    village
•   Village                  •   Detailed plan for        •   Check availability of plan
    environmental                biophysic and
    monitoring system            project monitoring
    finalized                    available
•   Implementation           •   Filing system            •   Check filing system
    committee                    established              •   Check that schedules are
    management system        •   Implementation               posted.
    in place                     schedules on public
                                 notice boards
•   Cropping and             •   Sites pegged out and     •   Check map
    perennial pasture            recognized on village
    demonstration sites          map
    established
•   Animal housing           •   Animal houses built      •   Check demonstration
    completed                    and being used               households
6.2.3 Step 2: Develop a plan for monitoring project implementation
Objectives:
Monitoring the progress of project implementation by the VIG helps to ensure that project activities are
completed on schedule and on budget.
The following pages should be read in conjunction with GEFOP12 Module 2: Implementation of Village
Development Plans.
                                           Planning
Activities                                                Note
                                           Aid
Developing and implementing a plan for monitoring project implementation
Review the      VDP       implementation   0              The information contained within the implementation
schedule.                                                 schedule will inform PF’s and VIG’s of what is to
                                                          happen and when it is to happen.
Incorporate each component of the 0                       The implementation monitoring sheet is likely to vary
implementation schedule into a VDP                        for each VDP. PF’s and the VIG should be prepared to
implementation monitoring sheet                           modify the layout of the sheet as required.




                                                       124
                                            Planning
Activities                                                  Note
                                            Aid
Provide the VIG with a copy of the          0               This will need to include a briefing on monitoring of
VDP implementation monitoring sheet         0               not only implementation but impact monitoring as
and brief them on their responsibilities                    well. The VIG will play a central role in this work and
with     respect    to      monitoring                      needs to be familiar with the processes and
implementation.                                             procedures. Seek external expert assistance if
                                                            necessary.
With the VIG determine the timing of                        Timing of monitoring activities will depend upon the
future VIG/PF meetings to review                            nature of the monitoring itself. The VIG and the PF
progress with implementation.                               should meet at least every 3 months during the first
                                                            year of implementation and then 6 monthly form then
                                                            on.
Implement monitoring and review as
planned.
6.2.3.1 Project implementation monitoring aids
6.2.3.1.1 VDP implementation monitoring sheet
Note: The following VDP implementation monitoring sheet is an example only. PF’s will need to modify
the table for each VDP as activities are likely to vary. This table should be completed by the VIG on an
ongoing basis and reviewed by the PF periodically.
             Monitoring Form                                                 Village Development Plan
                                                              Progress in                    (month)
                                                                              (season)
                                                Quantity      Quantity of      Results      Issues      Resolution
Activity Sector      Activity       Scale       of material implementation
                                                delivered     completed
                                                            compared to
                                                                 plan
Cultivated   land Terrace
use               repairs            Mu
                  Improved
                  cropping     –     Mu
                  conservation
                  agriculture
                  Improved
                  maize variety      Mu
                  Improved
                  cotton variety     Mu
Livestock         Stall cattle
                                    Head
                  Replacement
                  ewes     (new     Head
                  variety)



                                                        125
            Monitoring Form                                                   Village Development Plan
                                                               Progress in                   (month)
                                                                               (season)
                                                 Quantity      Quantity of      Results     Issues       Resolution
Activity Sector     Activity         Scale       of material implementation
                                                 delivered     completed
                                                             compared to
                                                                  plan
                  Pasture              Mu

Revegetation      Shaji                Mu
activities
                  Spruce                Mu

                  Willow               Mu

Energy            Biogas tanks        Tanks

                  Fuel efficient      Stoves
                  stove
Micro enterprise Rabbits               Head

                  Geese               Head

Infrastructure    Road                      M
                  Canal                      M
Others            Subscriptions
                  to technical      Papers
                  papers
                  Technical
                  videos           Videos
                  Notice board       Boards
Filled by
Reviewed by




                                                         126
6.2.3.1.2 VDP Implementation Schedule
The following table is an example of an implementation schedule. It is important to schedule for all labour requirements so that villagers can consider implications
to their normal farming calendar, training activities and key implementation activities.
Activit Schedul                                                 Year 1                                                                 Year 2
y          e details 1 2 3            4        5          6       7        8          9     1 11           1 1 2 3            4 5 6          7 8 9          1 1 1
                                                                                            0              2                                                0 1 2
Activit Training
y 1 – Labour
Tree       Implem
plantin entation
g          Details                    Seedl Plantin Irrigat Mainte
                                      ing      g          ion     nance
                                      arriv complet               &
                                      e        ed                 Manag
                                                                  ement
Activit Training
y2–        Labour
Shrub      Implem
plantin entation
g          Details          Mid-      Seedl Mainte
                            Marc ings          nance
                            h         arriv &
                                      e        manage
                                      Plant ment
                                      ing,
                                      comp
                                      leted
Activit Training


                                                                               127
Activit    Schedul                                     Year 1                                                               Year 2
y          e details   1 2 3   4       5          6        7         8       9        1   11       1   1 2 3        4 5 6       7 8 9         1   1   1
                                                                                      0            2                                          0   1   2
y 3 –      Labour
Track      Implem
rebuildi   entation
ng         Details                     Prepara    Rebui    Contin    Compl   Maint        Maint            Maint                     Maint
                                       tion       lding,   ue        eted    enance       enance           enance                    enance
                                       commu      planti   rebuild
                                       nity       ng       ing
                                       meeting    Karag
                                                  ana
Activit    Training
y 4 –      Labour
Croppi     Implem
ng         entation
demons     Details             Mate    Demon                                 Monit
tration                        rial    stration                              oring
                               arriv   complet
                               e       ed
Activit    Training
y 5 –      Labour
Perenni    Implem
al         entation
pasture    Details             Mate    Comple     Weedi    Cuttin                                                       Cut
demons                         rial    ted        ng       g                                                            ting
tration                        arriv
                               e


                                                                         128
Activit    Schedul                                 Year 1                                          Year 2
y          e details   1 2 3   4   5          6        7    8     9   1   11   1   1 2 3   4 5 6       7 8 9   1   1   1
                                                                      0        2                               0   1   2
Activit    Training
y 6 –      Labour
Stall      Implem
feeding    entation
and        Details                 Designi    Activi
animal                             ng         ty
husban                             finished   compl
dry                                ,          eted
                                   materia
                                   l arrive
Activit    Training
y 7 –      Labour
Technic    Implem
al         entation
training   Details

Activit    Training
y 8 –      Labour
Environ    Implem
mental     entation




                                                                129
Activit    Schedul                                  Year 1                                              Year 2
y          e details   1 2 3        4       5   6     7      8         9   1   11   1   1 2 3   4 5 6       7 8 9   1   1   1
                                                                           0        2                               0   1   2
awaren     Details         Prepa    Train                    Partici
ess                        ration   ing                      patory
training                            comp                     Integr
                                    leted                    ated
                                                             Ecolo
                                                             gical
                                                             Monit
                                                             oring




                                                                   130
6.2.4 Step 3: Develop a plan for monitoring project environmental impacts
Objectives:
One of the central aims of village development plans in the CBCLD project is the alleviation of land
degradation and the facilitation of IEM. Monitoring the impacts of project activities on the local environment
over time is therefore an important part of the project cycle.
The remainder of section 0 provides a basic introduction to the principles of environmental monitoring and
includes a range of monitoring tools that can be used in different environments.
Planners must be aware that although the basic principles of environmental monitoring remain the same
across different environments, the choice of monitoring tools and indicators will vary depending upon the
nature of the intervention and the local environment. Planners and villagers must give this choice careful
consideration when establishing their monitoring program and should seek local expert advice if necessary.
                                            Planning
Activities                                               Note
                                            Aid
Developing a plan for monitoring project environmental impacts
Using the completed project logframe,       错误!未
make a list of all of the environmental     找到引用
indicators.                                 源。


Group the indicators according to the                    For example, the incidence of gully erosion, species
methodology required to measure them.                    diversity and vegetative cover can all be assessed
                                                         using photo-point monitoring sites.
Classify each group of indicators
according to whether or not you have the
skills and knowledge to establish and
assess monitoring sites.
For those groups of indicators which you
do not have sufficient skills to proceed
further with, obtain expert advice and
assistance.
For those groups of indicators which you
do have sufficient skills to proceed
further    with,     carefully     choose
appropriate sites within the village area
and with the input of other villagers.
Follow the instructions provided in         0
relevant planning aids in the remainder
of section 0, in establishing the sites.
Once sites are established, mark on the
village map where they have been
located.




                                                       131
                                            Planning
Activities                                               Note
                                            Aid
During subsequent assessments of the
sites and indicators, consider what
change has occurred, whether it is an
improvement or decline in condition,
and how, if at all, the VDP might need to
be modified as a result?
6.2.4.1 Environmental impacts monitoring aids
6.2.4.1.1 Background principles on assessing trends in range condition
The following notes provide some very basic introductory principles that should be kept in mind when
assessing trends in ecosystem health on open rangelands such as those found on the grasslands and
mountain regions of northern China. These notes ARE NOT comprehensive and users of this manual
who do not have formal training in environmental management and monitoring should seek expert
advice on this subject when developing monitoring plans for their Provinces.
Soil and vegetation processes
•   The better the condition an area of land, the more effective it can be at trapping and retaining scarce
    resources and therefore able to retain or improve on that condition.
•   On a soil in good condition, a fall of rain of 15mm may be sufficient to stimulate plant growth, but 30mm
    may be needed on degraded soil where water penetration or retention qualities are reduced. (In
    rangelands soil moisture not soil nutrients are normally the limiting factor).
•   Existing vegetation and ground litter is also vitally important in conserving soil moisture by shading and
    mulching effects. It also helps create an important niche for germination of more plants so that the
    process can continue, protects soils from extreme temperature variations and erosional forces of wind
    and water, and provide soils with valuable nutrients as plants die and breakdown in the soil.
•   As soils degrade, the forces of wind and water can act to seal the surface of the soil and make it more
    inclined to water run-off or ponding during rainfall as opposed to penetration and retention. As this
    process continues, soils become less fertile.
•   Plant diversity is critical to rangeland vegetation communities. Different plant species respond in
    different ways to rainfall events. Diversity gives a vegetation community resilience to variations in
    rainfall an climatic events generally. There is always at least one species deriving benefit from the
    rainfall event.
Landscape processes
•   When country is in good condition which usually means that vegetation communities are close to their
    optimum density and diversity, the soil, water and nutrients essential for life are recycled within the
    system. As country degrades, they tend to lose material (water, soil and nutrients through erosional
    processes. These tend not to be replaced. Land that is allowed to become severely degraded can be very
    difficult to restore.
•   Where land degradation does occur, the extent will depend upon the soil type and the position in the
    landscape. Flat deep soils on valley floors will tend to be much more resilient over time to the erosional
    forces of water for example than hillsides.
•   One of the distinctive features of many rangeland land systems is the existence of fertile patches. These
    are often described as ‘sink’ zones and act as traps for water and soil nutrients. They can be depressions
    in the landscape or plant thickets for example. Changes to the condition of these patches can be a good
    indication of changes to the condition of land systems generally.


                                                       132
•   In grasslands, individual plants often form fertile patches/sinks where litter, nutrients and moisture are
    held. These plants over time often form mounds. Distance between mounds, or the density of mounds can
    be a good indicator of range health in the grasslands.
•   If litter is actively being incorporated into the soil surface then it is a good sign that the system is in
    reasonable health. If it is being transported away then it can be a sign that there are problems.
•   As plants are lost from an area, wind erosion increases in the greater open spaces and leaves sandy
    hummocks underneath the larger remaining plants over time. This is a sign of degradation.
•   Lichens and mosses are critical in surface crusting and protect soils from erosion.
Plants
•   Increaser species – Those plants best able to improve their positions after heavy grazing or pressure
    from erosion or other landscape disturbance. They are often less palatable and ignored by grazing stock.
•   Decreaser species – Plants whose numbers and/or size decline with heavy grazing or declining soil
    health. They are often highly palatable and preferred by grazing stock.
•   We refer to both increaser and decreasers as indicator species. They tell us something about range
    condition and measured over time can show us the trend in range condition.
•   The predominance of increaser species is normally a sign of declining range condition.
•   Each Province will have a unique set of indicator species for different vegetation communities and
    ecosystems. Local experts should be consulted in the initial stages of setting up monitoring programs so
    that people responsible for monitoring have at least a basic understanding of what these species are.。
Assessing range condition
•   Good – When perennial plant species include all or most of the species expected, there is recruitment of
    younger plants, good plant densities, and limited erosion.
•   Fair – Most original species are still present but there has been some moderate loss of certain perennials
    (decreasers) and some increase in increaser species. There is little or no recruitment, and less than
    optimum density of plants. There may be some minor problems of erosion.
•   Poor – Pant densities and species diversity have been significantly reduced from optimum levels. There
    may be very few decreaser species remaining and significant numbers of increasers. There is likely to be
    significant erosion taking place.
•   Severely degraded and eroded – Severe problems of erosion and very few plants remaining.

•   Range monitoring and condition assessments over time can help land managers monitor trends in the
    health of vegetation communities and landscapes generally.
•   Most land systems will have a distinct threshold beyond which plant loss and erosion increase
    significantly. These thresholds will vary between different land systems, with some showing gradual
    declines over time and others being more sensitive and at risk of sudden collapse once a threshold is
    reached/surpassed.
6.2.4.1.2 Environmental Monitoring
Methodology
It is essential that monitoring and evaluation is participatory. That is, not only should data collection be
participatory, but the collected data must also be capable of being understood by the local community and
immediately related back to land management activities. A long or overly technical analysis of monitoring
data, requiring external expertise, is not appropriate.
The role of the ecological monitoring is to support the implementation of the land management strategies and
ensure continued sustainable land use. It must be designed to provide feedback on the success or failure of
the various land management strategies adopted in the village area. It focuses on the outcomes of the
implementation of the management strategies.
                                                      133
Environmental monitoring should be:
•   Developed from an understanding of the land units and ecological land systems in the village area (Land
    Systems are tracts of land within which there is a repeating pattern of geology, topography, soils and
    vegetation. Different land systems often demonstrate their own unique responses to different land
    management strategies );
•   Undertaken at regular intervals, and
•   Should measure simple features of soil and vegetation which will indicate whether the landscape is
    recovering or whether it is deteriorating.
Monitoring Data Collection
Permanent monitoring sites should be selected and established in areas representing important vegetation or
soil types under specified management regimes identified in the village area. A sampling method should be
selected (for example, a quadrat, transect, photo-point or a combination). The method should be chosen by
the people undertaking the monitoring and must be well understood by them. Recurrent monitoring should
occur at set intervals (eg. annually in higher rainfall regions or every 5 years in semi-arid regions) with data
collection occurring in the same season.
Indicators to be measured at each site depend upon the local landscapes, vegetation types, and interventions
being monitored. Basic monitoring should at least assess plant species diversity and cover, soil condition,
and where it exists, active erosion should be monitored. Other indicators may be project specific and can
include such things as water quality, depth to ground water, soil fertility (eg. nutrient content, organic matter,
and EC-electrical conductivity which is a measure of salinity in the soil).
Evaluating and Using the Ecological Monitoring Data
The table on the following page shows how the combination of results from monitoring environmental
indicators gives an overall performance summary for each year. This performance summary then gives rise
to ongoing management recommendations for the vegetation type or land unit being monitored by the village.
This feedback is critical to the success of the village plan and to IEM generally.

Table 1: Land Management Recommendations from Monitoring Results
Category
                   Photographic monitoring sites       Transect                    Recommendations              for
(Land unit and                                                       Quadrats
                                                       sites                       Management
vegetation type
Mountain shrub
                                                                                   Maintain sustainable (seasonal)
山                  Recovery                            Recovery      Recovery
                                                                                   grazing and/or fodder gathering
Site 1
Mountain shrub
山                  Decline                             Decline       Decline       Tighten grazing controls
Site 2
Mountain desert                                                                    Maintain shrub plantings and
                   Recovery                            Recovery      Recovery
Site 1                                                                             enforce grazing ban
                                                                                   Increase shrub plantings and
Mountain deser
                   Decline                             Decline       Decline       maintenance    and    enforce
Site 2
                                                                                   grazing ban
Degraded
                                                                                   Maintain sustainable (seasonal)
natural            Recovery                            Recovery      Recovery
                                                                                   grazing and/or fodder gathering
grassland
Degraded           Decline                             Decline       Decline       Introduce shrub plantings and

                                                       134
Category
                  Photographic monitoring sites   Transect              Recommendations       for
(Land unit and                                               Quadrats
                                                  sites                 Management
vegetation type
natural                                                                 enforce grazing ban
grassland




                                                  135
6.2.4.1.3 村庄发展规划参与式监测生态系统健康状况监测指标

Indicators of    Indicator                                       Methodology                                                 Relevant section of manual
ecosystem
health     for
use         in
participatory
monitoring
of     village
development
plans
Vegetation       Species diversity                               Photo-point monitoring, step tests (transects), quadrats    0, 0, and 0

                 Vegetative cover                                Photo-point monitoring, quadrats, satellite imagery         0, 0, 0
                 Changes         in       prevalence        of   Photo-point monitoring, step tests (transects), quadrats    0, seek local expert advice
                 increaser/decreaser species
                 Grazing pressure                                Calculation of sheep or cattle units per mu
Soil             Incidence of sheet and gully erosion            Field walks, gully monitoring, satellite imagery            0, 0, 0, and 0
                 Extent of scalding from salinity                Field walks, satellite imagery                              0 and 0
                 Soil organic matter, pH, EC, and nutrient       Soil testing (both laboratory and visual assessments for    0
                 content                                         OM)
                 Organic soil cover (eg. lichens)                Quadrats                                                    0
                 Soil compaction                                 Penetrometer                                                Not covered
Water            Depth to groundwater                            Assess at local wells or from piezometers if they exist     0
                 Water quality (ground and surface water)        Laboratory analysis of nutrient content, salinity, and pH   0




                                                                                   136
6.2.4.1.4 Specifications for using photo-point monitoring sites
1. The equipment needed is:
• 35 mm camera or digital camera if available. Note: use the same focal-length lens camera each time, so
     the fields of view do not change, else it will be more difficult to compare between years. 35 mm
• Print film if using a 35 mm camera.
• Monitoring folder (a ring binder containing these instructions, details of each site, previous photographs,
     record sheets) as outlined below.
• Portable herbarium of pressed specimens to identify the key plant species (if available).
In grassland environments, record sites in the first two weeks of early Spring (between late April and early
July depending on altitude). This will capture the spring growth, which is normally the most reliable
production of feed for the year, and it is the time of year (when livestock are moved to summer pastures)
when management decisions are made about stock numbers to be carried for the next year.
Take photographs around the middle of the day (10.00 am - 3.00 pm), when there are few shadows and the
light is good.
2. At each site go through the following steps:
     • Holding the camera horizontal, take a photo standing at one star picket, looking to the second picket
          10 m away, with the top of the second picket lined up so that it is in the middle of the picture.
     • Walk slowly to the second picket, observing the vegetation carefully, to get information for the
          record sheet.
     • Holding the camera horizontal, take a photo standing at the second star picket, looking back to the
          first picket, again with the top of the picket in the centre of the picture.
     • Fill in the record sheet for that site (as per attached pro forma) with the key observations and
          information to help interpret the photograph, especially in years to come.
3. Get the film developed immediately. Copy the record sheets. Insert the prints into your monitoring folder,
and compare with previous years to determine changes and trends. Record any comments or observations you
make on the record sheet.
Review the findings in the light of trends emerging from the records for that site, and your knowledge of the
climatic conditions and other factors that influence the condition of the grasslands. Then consider whether
and how you might need to adjust your land management as the result of your findings, and act accordingly.




                                                     137
Photo-Point Site Description

County: ___________ Township: _______________ Date: _______/____/200__
Location identity: __________________________________________________
Name of person(s) who set up this site: ____________________________________
Directions to site: _______________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
GPS Reference ________________________________________________________

Details of site management & history _______________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Site Location Map
(show general location, distances from key features, direction of North; and show details of the site)




Photo-Point Monitoring Record

County: ___________ Township: _______________ Date: _______/____/200__
Location: _____________________GPS Reference: _______________________
Date of last photograph: _______/____/200__
Name of recorder: _________________________________________________
Numbers and type of stock carried since last recordi
Photograph taken on this occasion
6.2.4.1.5 Step test for monitoring grassland biodiversity
A step test is a simple and rapid tool that can be used to monitor grassland biodiversity. Farmers and
herders, as well as technicians can easily use the tool.
It should be used as an initial activity during group formation and then used every spring and autumn as an
ongoing monitoring effort in pasture management activities. A pro forma step test recording sheet is
presented below along with an example of a completed form.
To use the step test you will need the following equipment and arrangements:
• a blank copy of the step test recording sheet presented below;
• a piece of board and the blank recording sheet attached with a clip;
• a clearly defined transect (a straight line that you walk along through the grassland so that you cut across
     the area to be monitored); and


                                                      138
•        a nail, sharpened stick or paint brush and white paint to make a point on your boot.

To implement the step test monitoring technique you need to:
First –The transect should be about 1km long and should be a straight line through an area that has been
managed in the same way or has similar conditions. For example it may be an area where grazing
management has been practiced, or it may be the area where project activities have focussed on fertilising or
reseeding grasslands. It may also be an area where no grazing management or grassland rehabilitation
activities have been implemented to help you compare with and without project outcomes.
Second – stick a small nail or stick into the tip of your boot so that there is a definite point at the end of your
boot. If this is not possible, paint a white point on the tip of the boot. This is to provide a point on your
boot that will help you decide what to record when you conduct the step test in the grasslands.
Third – walk along the agreed transect line with wide steps (or paces). At each step record what the nail or
stick or white dot on your boot touches first. It is important to record exactly what the point touches first,
rather than what you would like to think was touched first. Put a cross on the recording sheet in the
appropriate box. Make your next step and record on the sheet what the point touches with this next step.
Take your next step and record the result – and keep doing this until you have between 200 and 300 points
recorded.
Fourth – complete the step test recording form by adding up the records and calculating the % composition
of the grassland for that site. Compare any changes from previous step tests at the same site and combine this
information with other monitoring information to determine if the relevant land unit/vegetation type is
improving or declining in condition.
Fifth – add the results from the transect that you have just monitored to the village monitoring folder for
future reference.
Grassland Step Test Monitoring Record

County: ___________ Township: _______________ Date: _______/____/200__
Location: _____________________GPS Reference: ______________________
                           Grass                  Legume                  Other                 Bare Ground
 Tally




Tally Sub-total


Total Tally


% composition


Comments ________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Management this season ___________________________________________________


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________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________


Grassland Step Test Monitoring Record

(Example of completed form)
County: __Fuyun__ Township: ___ Kürti _____ Date: __24/ July_/2004
Location: 50mu grassland north of Kürti treated in first year of project
                      Grass                     Legume              Other                 Bare Ground
                      XXXXX                     XXXXX               XXXXX                 XXXXX
                      XXXXX                     XXXXX               XXXXX                 XXXXX
                      XXXXX                     XXXXX               XXXXX                 XX
                      XXXXX                     XXXXX               XXXXX
                      XXXXX                     XXXXX               XXXXX
                      XXXXX                     XXXX                XXXXX
                      XXXXX                                         XXXXX
                      XXXXX                                         X
                      XXXXX
                      XXXXX
 Tally




                      XX
Tally Sub-total       52                        29                  36                    12


Total Tally           (52+29+36+12)             129                 129                   129
                      = 129
% composition         (52/129)x100              23%                 28%                   9%
                      = 40%
Comments: Early spring with some late rains. Monitoring conducted by Grazing Management Association
with support from Grassland Monitoring Station staff from Kürti Township.
Management this season: Phosphorus and nitrogen fertiliser spread by Grazing Management Association on
15 July 2003. Grazing delayed for 3 weeks from normal start to allow plants to establish and grassland to
grow to 5cm height before commencing grazing.
6.2.4.1.6 Quadrats
Quadrat sampling consists of recording the organic soil cover (in cm), the overall vegetative coverage of the
quadrat (as a percentage of the quadrat’s area), and the coverage for each plant species. This method of
monitoring can be used within a range of different environments.
Quadrats are usually 1m2 or 2m2 and are used along set points of a transect. Transects can be those that are
used for the step test as described in 0.
To implement the quadrat sampling:
1、 Locate your established step-test transect (see 0. above).
2、 Place the quadrat at defined intervals along the transect. These can be at 0m, 250m, 500m, 750m, and
    1000m for example.
3、 Assess the area contained within the quadrat border for total vegetative cover and record the results on
    the quadrat record sheet (eg. What percentage of the total area is covered by vegetation of one kind or
    another?).



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4、 Assess the area contained within the quadrat border for species cover and record the results on the
   quadrat record sheet (eg. If the vegetation within the quadrat comprises more than one species, what
   percentage of the total area is covered by species 1, species 2, and so on?).
5、 Assess what area within the quadrat is NOT covered by vegetation and record the results on the quadrat
   record sheet.
6、 Of this area NOT covered by vegetation, what percentage is covered in organic soil cover and record the
   results on the quadrat record sheet (eg. Lichens or mosses such as those shown in the images below)?




Quadrat Monitoring Record
County: ___________ Township: _______________ Date: _______/____/200__
Transect Location: _____________________GPS Reference: ______________________
                 Total            Species            Area          not     Area         with     Bare Ground
                 vegetative       breakdown          covered        by     organic       soil
                 cover                               vegetation            cover


Quadrat 1
Quadrat 2
Quadrat 3
Quadrat 4
Average of 4
quadrats
Comments ________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Management this season ___________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
Quadrat Monitoring Record
(Example of completed form)
County: __Fuyun__ Township: ___ Kürti _____ Date: __24/ July_/2004
Location: 50mu grassland north of Kürti treated in first year of project
                Total           Species breakdown          Area       not     Area       with     Bare Ground
                vegetative                                 covered     by     organic     soil
                cover                                      vegetation         cover


Quadrat 1       40%             Grasses 100%              60%                 0%                  60%


Quadrat 2       80%             Grasses 70%               20%                 10%                 10%
                                Legumes 30%
Quadrat 3       100%            Grasses 70%                0%                 0%                  0%

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                                Legumes 20%
                                Other 10% (undesirable)
Quadrat 4       70%             Grasses 80%                30%                20%               10%
                                Legumes 20%
Average of 4    73%             Grasses 80%                28%                8%                20%
quadrats                        Legumes 17.5%
                                Other 2.5%
Comments: Early spring with some late rains. Monitoring conducted by Grazing Management Association
with support from Grassland Monitoring Station staff from Kürti Township. Most sites seemed to be in
reasonable condition with quadrat 1 being the exception. This transect has improved since the last
assessment.
Management this season: Phosphorus and nitrogen fertiliser spread by Grazing Management Association on
15 July 2003. Grazing delayed for 3 weeks from normal start to allow plants to establish and grassland to
grow to 5cm height before commencing grazing.
6.2.4.1.7 Using satellite imagery to monitor environmental change
The use of satellite imagery is now well established in rangeland environments. In Northern China for example,
high resolution satellite imagery is readily available and can provide information on:
     • Sand deposition and dune movement;
     • Erosion;
     • Scalding and salinity;
     • Changes to woodland cover, cropping areas, grasslands;
     • Vegetation greenness;
     • Biomass, and
     • Livestock numbers and movement between satellite overpasses.
Satellite data/imagery is relatively expensive however. The cost per data set from satellite remote sensing can
be about 10,000 RMB or greater. Nevertheless, detailed resolution at a 1:10,000 scale can be comparable to
low level color aerial photography and vividly illustrates fine scale landscape features within the landscape.
The geodetic accuracy of data also means that any point located on the ground with a hand-held GPS can be
exactly located on the image display.
Given the cost of high resolution satellite imagery, it goes without saying that the technology is not well
suited to monitoring small scale VDP’s with their very limited budgets. It is however, a useful tool for larger
scale monitoring, say for example at a County, Prefecture, or Provincial scale.
PF’s can access satellite imagery through a range of commercial providers or may be able to liaise with local
Forestry Survey Institutes.
6.2.4.1.8Field walks
A field walk specifically for the purpose of assessing the village farming areas for signs of gully erosion,
sheet erosion, and scalding can be an affective educational and monitoring exercise. This is especially the
case if done in the company of a local expert and with the village natural resources map (see Module 1).
Using the village map, set out to areas that have been marked as having signs of gully erosion, sheet erosion,
and scalding. As you proceed around the village area, carefully note the incidence of any areas of gully
erosion, sheet erosion, and scalding that have not been mapped. Whilst these may be areas that were simply
missed during previous mapping exercises, they are more likely to be new problem areas. Mark these new
areas down on the map.
When inspecting sites that are identified on the map, carefully consider whether the scale of the problem area
has increased since the initial mapping. If you have either photo-point monitoring site records (0), marker


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pegs for monitoring erosion (0), or satellite images (0), take these with you to make the assessment more
reliable.
As you proceed with the assessment, discuss possible options for improving the success of current
interventions and consider alternatives in the event that the current intervention is not working. When you are
able to, review this discussion with the village community and consider altering the VDP if necessary.。
6.2.4.1.9 Monitoring gully erosion
Gully erosion occurs when concentrated flows of water move over sloping land with little or no perennial
plant cover. It tends to be highly visible, can restrict land use and threaten roads, tracks and even buildings.
Gully erosion can be monitored through the installation of marker pegs and/or photo point monitoring sites.
Monitoring changes to the stability of the gully using photo-point monitoring sites
Photo-point monitoring is a simple way of assessing the stability of a gully. Comparison of photo’s taken
from one year to the next can give a good indication of whether or not the gully has stabilised or is growing.
Sites can be installed inside and around the gully. These can be used to assess changes to plant density and
gully size. Increasing plant density (particularly inside the gully) will be a good indication that the gully is
becoming more stable.
For a description of photo-point monitoring refer to monitoring aid
Monitoring changes to the stability of the gully face/head and periphery of the gully using marker posts
Marker posts should be installed several meters upslope from the head of the gully. The distance from the
post to the head of the gully should then be measured annually (or more frequently in the event that extreme
rainfall events are experienced). A decrease in the distance to the gully head indicates that the gully is not
stable and is increasing in size.
Additional marker pegs can be placed several meters away from either side of the gully mid-way down it’s
length. These will aid the measurement of changes to the width of the gully. As with the gully head, the
distance from the posts to the sides of the gully can be measured annually (or more frequently in the event
that extreme rainfall events are experienced). A decrease in the distance to the side of the gully from either
post indicates that the gully is not stable and is increasing in size.6.2.4.1.10 Assessing the incidence of
sheet erosion
Sheet erosion is the process by which transportation of soil particles (or erosion) begins. Sheet erosion occurs
as water runoff travels over bare or poorly covered ground, picking up and transporting soil particles.
The process of sheet erosion can be difficult to detect. Long slopes, steep slopes, and slopes that carry higher
volumes of runoff are more susceptible to sheet erosion than others.
Signs that sheet erosion is occurring include pedestaling around the base of plants and soil deposition to
lower parts of the landscape.
6.2.4.1.11 Soil testing
Laboratory testing
Many VDP’s will include plans to improve soil management practices. Laboratory testing of soil offers the
most comprehensive means of assessing the changes to soil fertility as a result of new soil management
techniques. However, it is also an expensive process. Soil testing can for example, measure changes in:
• Soil macro-nutrients such as Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and Potassium which are important for healthy
     plant growth;
• Soil electrical conductivity which is a measure of the soils ability to conduct electrical current and a
     measure of salinity (eg. as the salts in the soil increase, so too does the EC);
• Soil Ph which is a measure of the alkalinity or acidity of the soil, and a good indicator of soil fertility (eg.
     fertile soils are generally considered to have a pH range of between 5.5 and 7.5).



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•   Soil organic matter which includes any living or dead animal and plant material (eg. living plant roots
    and animals, plant and animal remains at various stages of decomposition, and micro-organisms and their
    excretions).
    Organic matter contributes to plant growth through its effect on the physical, chemical, and biological
    properties of the soil. It has a nutritional function in that it serves as a source of Nitrogen and
    Phosphorous for plant growth; a biological function in that it affects the activities of soil organisms; and
    a physical function in that it promotes good soil structure.
Field based visual assessments
With some basic training, farmers can quickly and easily assess the village’s soils for different characteristics
of soil fertility at little or no cost.
Following is a brief list of some of the key aspects of soil fertility that can be assessed visually in the field
along with the underlying principles 1.
Soil surface conditions::
•     Positive indicators include: crop residue cover left lying horizontal over the field, crop stubble left
      standing in the field, designated tracks for feet or vehicles.
•  Negative indicators: hard setting surface or crust, poor crop growth in patches or strips, water ponding on
   surface.
Sub-surface soil characteristics (approximately top 0-40cm):
•     Soil structure – this is a critical characteristic of soil fertility. Soil structure reflects the way in which
      individual soil particles bind together affecting pore space in the soil. A dense structure will affect water
      and air infiltration, and will also affect root penetration.
      Structure can be assessed visually for type, size and grade, existence of tillage pans, and aggregate size
      distribution.


•     Soil texture – texture refers to the relative proportions of sand, silt, and clay in a soil. Texture has a range
      of important effects on a soil’s fertility including water holding capacity, aeration and porosity, hydraulic
      conductivity, compaction potential, and nutrient holding capacity.
•     Soil color – color reflects both soil organic matter status and current soil water status. See notes in
      section on ‘Laboratory testing’ above for a description of the importance of organic matter.
•     Worm populations – soil organisms such as worms are a strong indicator of soil health. They actively
      incorporate soil organic matter, improve aeration, and fertilise soils via their caste material. As such,
      earthworm numbers are a good indication of the general ‘well being’ of a soil.
•     Roots – root development within a soil profile is indicative of soil condition. Unrestricted root
      development for example indicates good soil health, whilst root systems showing evidence of restriction
      due to pans, or other factors such as soil chemistry are generally indicative of poor soil health.
•     Soil pH – with the aid of cheap field kits, farmers can assess soils for pH. The tests are based on a visual
      assessment of sample soils mixed with liquid from the test kit. Resultant colors of the ‘mixture’ are
      compared with field kit charts providing accurate assessments of soil pH. Soil pH will provide a good
      indication of soil fertility, particularly with respect to chemistry, microbial activity, and potential for
      crusting.
6.2.4.1.12 Assessing the depth to groundwater and water quality
Depth to groundwater can be easily assessed from village wells. A declining water level will indicate


1
    McGarry, D (30 March 2007) ftp://ftp.fao.org/agl/agll/lada/vsfast_methodology.pdf, A Methodology of a Visual
          Soil – Field Assessment Tool. FAO

                                                          144
reductions in groundwater available for future consumption by village communities and for irrigation
purposes.
Assessment of water quality is a more complicated procedure and requires laboratory testing. Some of the
key items that should be assessed in water include the incidence of Nitrates, pesticides, and inorganic
constituents.
6.2.5 Step 4: Develop a plan for monitoring project socio-economic impacts 4
Objectives:
As well as focusing on arresting the trend of land degradation in pilot villages, CBCLD pilot projects also
aim to improve socio-economic conditions for villagers. The assessment of HH social and financial
circumstances at the commencement of the project, and over time is an important means of measuring the
success of the intervention.


                                            Planning
  Activities                                             Note
                                            Aid
Developing a plan for monitoring project socio-economic impacts
Using the completed project logframe,       0
make a list of all of the socio-economic
indicators.
Group the indicators according to the                    For example, many of the indicators will be assessed
methodology required to measure them.                    using a HH survey. Such indicators can be organised
                                                         into a single group.
Classify each group of indicators                        In many cases, the implementation of a comprehensive
according to whether or not you have the                 HH survey to assess changes in village
skills and knowledge to design an                        socio-economic conditions is an undertaking best
approach to monitoring.                                  completed by a specialist.
For those groups of indicators which you
do not have sufficient skills to proceed
further with, obtain expert advice and
assistance.
For those groups of indicators which you    0            Follow the instructions provided in relevant planning
do have sufficient skills to proceed                     aids in the remainder of section 0, in establishing the
further    with,     carefully    choose                 methodologies.
appropriate methodologies with the
input of other villagers and record your
plans for undertaking the monitoring.
During subsequent assessments of
village   socio-economic      indicators,
consider what change has occurred,
whether it is an improvement or a
worsening of the general situation for
households, and how, if at all, the VDP
might need to be modified as a result?
6.2.5.1 Social impacts monitoring aids
6.2.5.1.1 Household surveys
Note: the following form is only an example designed to illustrate the way a data collection form can be

                                                       145
formatted.
No.                                      1         2   3   4   5

Name of HH

Ethnic group

Number of people in HH


HH Income and expenditure:

Cash income/year

Expenditure/year

Main income source (note whether
these are new or existed prior to the
VDP)


Other sources of income (note whether
these are new or existed prior to the
VDP)

HH Labour:

HH permanent year-round labour force
(male/female)

HH labour force available during busy
period (male/female)

Number in HH working away from
village

Energy


Annual quantity of coal purchased

Number of      gas   tanks   purchased
annually

Time spent collecting fuel wood

Biogas tanks available?

Fuel efficient stove available?

Gender (to be answered by female
respondents):


                                             146
No.                                     1         2   3   4   5

In your opinion, is there an even or
uneven sharing of workloads in your
HH?

In your opinion, has the VDP resulted
in positive or negative outcomes for
you?

Please elaborate:



General:

In your opinion, has the VDP resulted
in positive or negative outcomes for
your HH?

Please elaborate:




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