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					Construction Education in USA
Huanqing (Happy) Lu, Ph.D.
Dept. of Construction Management
East Carolina University
Luh@ecu.edu

                                   1
Content
  My Background
  Define “Construction Education”
  Construction Programs Analyzed
  Accreditations, ASC, and School Rankings
  A Typical Academic Program
    People, Degrees, Curriculum, Student
    Organization, Scholarships …
  Construction Management in East Carolina
  University
                                             2
Why This Subject is Important
  A Better Understanding of US Construction
  Education System Help Us
    Minimize confusions while working with US institutions
    Improve our education system by learning from US
    experiences.
  My Sources of Information
    Unique perspectives as an international student in US and
    a faculty member: teaching, research and other
    professional activities
    But it did start with a book called “Peterson’s Guide”.
        http://www.petersons.com/

                                                           3
My Background
  Engineer by Training:
    Bachelor, Civil Engineering, 1992, Tianjin Univ.
    3 years of design experience as a structural engineer.
  Master Degrees
    Project Management, 1997, Tianjin Univ.
    Computer Science, 2002, Univ. of Florida
  Doctoral Degree
    Ph.D., Construction, 2002, Univ. of Florida
  Teaching and Research
    Various Research Projects
    Teaching various courses in Department of Construction
    Management, East Carolina University.
                                                             4
Define Construction Education
  Definition:
     an academic discipline and educational system specifically
     created to promote the successful execution of capital
     construction projects.
  It is an Interdisciplinary Subject with Elements in
  Architecture, Engineering, and Business
  Management
     This explains the diversified origins of the existing
     construction programs in US.
  This is Determined by the Fact that Construction
  Professionals Must Have a Comprehensive Skill Set.

                                                              5
Construction Program Overview
  Associated School of Construction (ASC, see details
  later) is an organization supported by 109
  Construction Programs in US
    It covers all major construction programs.
  This list is a mixture of programs that differ in many
  aspects.
    Origins
    Research Focuses and Capabilities
    Teaching Philosophy
    Student Population
    Accreditations.
  But all serve the Construction Industry.
                                                      6
Colleges with Construction Programs
  Four Major Types
    College of Engineering                 46
    College of Architecture                18
    College of Technology                  27
    College of Business                    5
  Other Colleges
    Design, Construction and Planning      4
    Applied Science                        4
    Science                                3
    Architecture, Civil Engineering and Construction   3
    Architecture, Design and Construction              2
                                                       7
Engineering vs. Technology
  Compare Two Common Degree Programs
    Civil Engineering
    Civil Engineering Technology
  There is a group of degree programs called
  “ Industry Technology”
    Considered lower in hierarchy comparing to engineering
    Google “NAIT”
  Other technology programs
    Construction Management Technology
    Architectural Technology

                                                         8
Programs with Engineering Origins
  Typical Name: Construction Engineering &
  Management
  A Branch of Civil Engineering Program:
    The “premium brand”
    Vigorous academic programs and research oriented.
    Most of them have Ph.D. and Master degrees.
    However with shrinking student population.
  A Sample of Better Ones:
    Stanford, Iowa State, Michigan, SUNY at Buffalo
  ABET Accredited (explained later)
    Graduates are eligible to get professional engineer
    registration.
                                                          9
Programs with Architecture Origins
  Typical Names: Building Construction or
  Construction Management
    Represents many construction programs in US
    Well balanced curriculums
    Relatively strong research backgrounds
    Many with master degree programs
    Some with PhD programs
  Examples:
    University of Florida, Texas A&M, Arizona State,
    Michigan State, Auburn
  ACCE Accredited
    A professional exam is being developed and promoted.

                                                           10
Programs with Technology Background
  Typical Names: Construction Management or
  Construction
    It covers many programs with varied conditions.
    Large number of undergraduate students
    Relative weak research capabilities
    Close ties to the industry
  Examples
    Clemson, East Carolina, etc.
  Most are ACCE Accredited.

                                                      11
Programs with Business Background
  Typical Name: Engineering Management
    Usually Part of Business Schools
    Focus on the management aspect of construction
    and study an abstract view of construction
    projects
    Many engineering management program serves
    engineering in general rather than the
    Construction Industry specifically.
  Examples:
    George Washington University
                                                12
Accreditations
  Accreditation Board for Engineering and
  Technology (ABET), www.abet.org
    Accreditor of academic programs in applied science,
    computing, engineering, and technology, including
    construction program with engineering origins.
     2700 accredited programs in 550 universities
  American Council for Construction Education
  (ACCE) , www.acce-hq.org/
    Accrediting agency created by ASC specifically for
    construction programs
    Currently has _____ accredited programs        13
Associated Schools of Construction
  ASC is the professional association for the
  development and advancement of
  construction education
    Represents 109 construction programs in US
  Activities
    A forum for many issues regarding construction
    education
    It publishes a journal and hosts an annual
    conference.

                                                 14
Rankings of Construction Programs
 No Official Rankings from Princeton Review
 A Question from the ASC Doctoral Survey




                                              15
A Typical Academic Program
   People
     Faculty and Students
   Degree Programs
     Bachelor Degree
     Graduate Degrees: Master’s and Ph.D.
   Construction Curriculum
   Taking Courses and Internships
   Student Organizations
                                            16
Faculty & Staff
   Job Titles of Faculty
      Professor:
      Associate Professor:
      Assistant Professor: See next slide
      Lecturer:
      Adjunct Professor:
      Instructor: a general term for whoever teaches.
      Teach Assistant:        , student, not faculty
   Staff: secretary, academic advisors and others

 UK has a completely different system.
                                                        17
Tenure: Assistant vs. Associate
  Tenure: a status granted after a trial period
  to a teacher that gives protection from
  summary dismissal (Merriam-Webster
  Dictionary)
    Pros: protection of academic freedom
    Cons: hard work before promotion and once
    tenured …
  Tenure Promotion
    After promotion “Assistant Professors on tenure
    track” becomes “Associate Professor with
    tenure”.
                                                  18
Degree Programs
  Undergraduate Degree
    Typically 4 years, 130 credit hours
  Not All Construction Programs Offer Graduate
  Degrees
  Master’s:
    Less than two years, 30 credit hours, sometimes with
    thesis and exam options
  Ph.D.
    90 credit hours after bachelor degree, up to 7 years?
  Online Degree Programs?

                                                            19
Undergraduate Curriculum
  Introductory and Architectural Courses
    Construction Materials
    Interior and Exterior Systems
    Plan Reading and Design
  Project Management Courses
    Construction Contract
    Construction Estimating and Scheduling
    Construction Supervision and Equipment
  Engineering Courses
    Concrete and Steel Structure: Structural Design
    Mechanical and Electrical Systems
    Soil and Foundations, Construction Surveying
                                                      20
Taking Classes




                 21
Internships
  Temporary Positions Offered by Government
  Agencies and Private Companies to College
  Students
    Usually during the summer
    Usually paid
  Two Benefits for the Students:
    Work experiences
    Funds to support their study.
                                        22
Scholarships and Assistantships
  Graduate Assistantships: TA and RA
    Most international students have these.
    Most of the time with tuition waivers
  Lump Sum Scholarships are also Available.
    Offered by individuals (alumni), private
    organizations, professional organizations, and
    government agencies.
  Fellowships are often for Ph.D. Students.
                                                     23
Student Organizations
  Student Chapters of Professional
  Organizations
    ASCE, AGC, NAHB, CMAA, etc.
  Honorary Societies
    Chi Epsilon for Civil Engineering Student
    Tau Beta Pi for Engineering Students
    Sigma Lambda Chi for Construction Students


                                                 24
East Carolina Construction
Management
   Name and Location
     Department of Construction
     Management
     College of Technology and
     Computer Science
     Greenville, North Carolina
   ACCE Accredited
   Member of ASC
   13 Faculty, 600 Students, 1500
   Alumni
   Undergraduate and Graduate
   Programs
                                    25
Faculty



  Dr. Doug Kruger,
                        Dr. David Batie       Dr. C. Ciesielski    Dr. Ihab Saad
  Department Head




Dr. Eric Connell         Dr. H. Lu          Mr. Danny Morton      Mr. Ron Sessoms




Mr. Jack Patterson   Ms. Donna Hollar     Mr. Gregory Starzyk     Mrs. Sue Williams   26
Students




           27
Strength of the Program

  Diversity of the Faculty
    3 Architects, 5 Engineers, and 4 Contractors
    From 6 countries, 5 continents
  Team Spirits among the Faculty
  Supports of the Industry
    An advisory board that consists of 40 industry
    members.


                                                     28
Questions Anyone?




                    29
Information Technology in
Construction

    Huanqing (Happy) Lu, Ph.D.
    Dept. of Construction Management
    East Carolina University
    Luh@ecu.edu

                                       1
Content
  Island of Automation and the Integration
  Problem
  Process Model and Product Model
  CAD vs. BIM
  My Ph.D. Research
  The Next Step
  Some Integration Solutions



                                             2
Information Technology in Construction
 Software
   AutoCAD: drawing
   Primavera: scheduling
   Timberline: estimating
   Others
 Web Applications:
   Online Collaborations: Construcware, e-Builder
   e-Commerce Solutions: bidding, estimating, etc.
   e-Learning
 Hardware
   RFID, PDA, Tablet PC, Sensors, GPS, etc.
                                                     3
Islands of Automation in Construction




                                                                    4
                        http://www.vtt.fi/cic/hannus/islands.html
Moving towards Integration
  Needs of Construction Industry
    relatively slow in using new technology
    comparing to manufacturing industry
  Changing Style of Construction Project
  Management
    From traditional methods to design-build:
    increased level of collaboration among
    stakeholders
  Availability of Information Technology
    Many Possibilities


                                                5
Integration Research for Building
Construction
 Trying to resolve the collaboration problem
 among the information systems of project
 stakeholders.
 Many Research Efforts in the Past Decade
   North America: Stanford, British Columbia
   UK: Salford and Others
   Finland: VTT Building Technology
   Institutions in France, German and other EU
   Countries.

                                                 6
Information Models for Construction
Projects
 Common Application Models
   2D and 3 D geometric models: drawings, etc.
   Structural Analysis Models
   Estimating and Cost Analysis Models
   Scheduling and Activities
 Redefine Project Model with Integration in
 Mind
   Process Model: activities on a project
   Product (building) Model: subjects of these
   activities.

                                                 7
Process Model
 A Model with Pre-defined Tasks, Roles,
 Rules, and Procedures.
  It describes contractual relationships as well as
  business processes.
 Salford University, UK mapped out a detailed
 process model for the UK construction
 Industry.
 Two Benefits:
  Support designs of information systems for
  construction.
  Improve construction processes through “process
  reengineering”.
                                                      8
Product (Building) Model
 Information about Buildings and Their
 Components:
   Geometric information as in 2D or 3D models
   Cost and Scheduling Information: so called 4D
   Other Information: specs, contractual parties,
   crew info, etc.
 Benefits
   Provide an integrated view of project information
   rather than allowing information scattered in
   traditional project documents.

                                                       9
CAD vs. BIM
 BIM – Building Information Model
  A concept promoted by Bentley, a major software
  company in the Construction Industry
 Sell Point: replace CAD with BIM
  BIM represents both “graphic and non-graphic
  aspects of building life cycle”
  CAD contains only geometric information
 BIM is One of the New Concepts that may
 Bring Significant Changes to the Construction
 Industry.

                                                    10
Information Exchange Standards
 International Alliance for Interoperability (IAI)
   Dedicated to specify a universal language to
   facilitate communications in the Construction
   Industry (or AEC Industry).
   The Standard: Industry Foundation Class (IFC)
 aecXML
   Another evolving information exchange standard
   developed by IAI
 Pitfalls:
   Extreme Complex.
   Industry Acceptance.

                                                     11
Frustrations
 Conservative Nature of Construction Industry
                    Acceptance by
                      Industry
                                                    A “Catch 22”, but
                                                    innovation has to start
  Verification of                   Large Scale     from somewhere.
   the Benefits                     Applications




 Greedy Nature of Software Companies
                     Company A
                                                   They work against each
                                                   other rather than with each
   Company B                        Company C      other. Everyone wants to
                                                   take over the world.


                                                                                 12
My Ph.D. Research – System Architecture




                                          13
Collaboration Mechanisms




 Nice Ideas, but …
                           14
Depressed …
 Too Much Unanswered Questions
  Would anyone actually find this useful?
  How does this relate to the real world?
  What is the real world like?
 A Change of Course of My Journey
  Study of Nuts and Bolts of the Industry
  Understanding of the Current Status of
  Information Technology in Construction



                                            15
Upcoming Integrated Solutions
Integration Solutions from Bentley
  BIM naturally leads to an integrated solution
A Similar Solution from Oracle
  A business software giant may take them all.
Little Guys: Computer Guidance, inc.
  A Solution that Integrates project management
  and business management




                                                  16
P
      Field Offices
                                                                    ARCHITECT
                              The
                              The
U                          Internet
                            Internet
B
L                                                                    OWNER

I
C                                 Router


    VPN                                         Firewall


P                                                                     Mainframe

R                     Internal
                       Internal                 Servers
I                     Network
                      Network              PA     Email    http /
                                                           web
V
A
T                                                   Printer/

E                                                   Fax/
                                                    Copier/
                                                    Scanner                     17
The Next Step
 Innovations in Construction
   How to Make Things Really Happen
 Integrated Solutions will Prevail
   We don’t want another monopoly.
 Visualization of Project Information
   4D, VR, etc.
 Connecting the Computer World and the Real World
   Input Devices: pen computing, tablet PC, voice
   recognitions, fancy VR gears
   Communications: network, wireless technology of all
   different kinds.
   Robotics and Automated Construction
                                                         18
ASCE Information Technology Survey




                                     19
Research Methods and Resources

Huanqing (Happy) Lu, Ph.D.
Dept. of Construction Management
East Carolina University



                                   1
Content
  Research Methods
    Literature Review
    Hypothesis and Models
    Data Collection and Analysis
  Publications: Journals and Conferences
  Search for Information
    Information in General

                                           2
Research in General
   A Series of Logically Connected Steps
Problems
and Ideas
            Literature                          Publications
             Reviews

                   Hypothesis

                                Verifications

   A Critical Process for Most Gradate Studies:
      Masters and Ph.D. degree research.
                                                               3
Discovery of Knowledge
                           Interact
        Researchers                   Practices
             Editors and
 Read        Peer Review
                                      Industry Practices

                                      Experiments

 Body of Knowledge                    Simulations
    (Literatures)
                                      Others



                                                      4
Literature Review
  Academic Publications
    Journals and Conferences
  Industry News
    ENR, and others
  Peers
    Identify People with Similar Research Interests



                                                      5
Hypothesis
  No General Systematic Methods Exist to
  Find Hypotheses (creativity needed):
    try induction, abduction, wild guess, dream, etc.
  It Comes after Reviewing Existing Work and
  Analysis of Current Problem.
    A hypothesis has to be verified.



                                                        6
Verifications
  Models and Simulations:
    Proof of concepts, eventually may lead to
    prototype systems
  Data Collection and Analysis
    From experiments and surveys.
    Statistic tools are often used.
  Issues
    Not all hypothesis can be verified easily.

                                                 7
Publications
  Conference Paper
  Journal Paper
  Professional Organizations
    ASCE
    UK Organizations.




                               8