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Chapter 4: PATROL backbone of policing: the visible symbols of the police (in 1997, about 63% of all officers) the decision makers (use more discretion) or the gatekeepers of the system because of: 1. interaction with people the most 2. lack of outside supervision 3. limited resource (Lipsky, 1980) in reality (the least assignment, low status due to the crime fighter image): is the first assignment for new officers who will learn all the street experience Three main Functions of Patrol (basic purposes): 1. Deterrence of crime (Sir Peel--traditionally viewed as the most important, which was the main object to have modern police) O.W. Wilson created an impression of omnipresence to eliminate the actual opportunity by focusing on covering more area - foot patrol to motor patrol - one-officer rather than two-officer units - assignments based on workload formula (reported crime and calls for service) crime vs. opportunity - study of the Washington DC zone of transition - confirmed the ecological approach of the Chicago idea - most victims live in transitional areas (zone 2, mixed people, demolition, construction) - most criminals live nearby the areas. Some commute to commit crime if they see the potential gain (types of crime, location). This leads to the combination between opportunity theory and economic theory --> the economic motivation to commit a crime may be related to the existing opportunities. - Oscar Newman (1972) introduces the concept of defensible space, the impact of environment on crime - modify the environment’s physical features to give the impression that the residents are in control. Ex. a well-lighted area is less likely to become a target of crime (in the house, corner of the stores) except for drug dealing - Lawrence Cohen and Marcus Felson’s (1979) routine activity approach - crime as the convergence of three elements: 1. motivated offenders (teenage boys, unemployed, drug addicts) 2. suitable targets (unlocked homes, expensive cars, easily transportable goods) 3. absence of capable guardians (police, homeowners, security systems) - opportunities result from legal activities (the more women work outside the house, the less women will be taking care of the house; two income family increases the number of desirable goods. - assuming that motivated offenders and suitable targets are out there, the absence of guardians will lead to increasing crime 2. The maintenance of a feeling of public security - to reassure law-abiding citizens and at the same time that it deters crime - people always want to have more police and patrol cars in their neighborhood 3. 24-hour availability for services (911calls) - police are dispersed throughout the community to help people (only few public agencies do this) Organization and Delivery of Patrol Services -- Refers to patrol deployment which involves a number of related issues: 1. Number of sworn officers - patrol carried out in different ways in different agencies - level of police protection measured by a police-population ratio--average for all cities is 2.3 per 1,000 people (6.48 for large cities) - be noted that most experts agree that, by itself, # of officers per 1,000 has no effect on crime Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment: - first testing the effectiveness of patrol (1972-1973) - 15 of 24 beats involved, 9 eliminated due to unrepresentative of the area - beats were computer-matched in terms of crime data, # of calls, ethnic composition, median income - three levels of patrol were employed: 1. reactive beats- no preventive patrol, wait for calls 2. proactive- patrolled by two or three times the normal number of marked cars 3. control- the normal level of patrol (one car per beat) - three separate issues: criminal activity, community attitudes, and police department practices - findings: no significant effect on either crime rate or citizen feeling of safety. Citizen fear of crime was not affected; people were not aware of police presence 2. Allocation of officers on patrol - majority of departments allocate over one-half of all officers to patrol duty although they can vary--larger departments seem to allocate about 60% of their officers to patrol 3. Distribution number of patrol officers (traditionally emphasis has been the national distribution of patrol officers according to workload formula (influenced by O.W. Wilson) - workload = geographical location and time of day - crimes and problems occur more in evening shift than night shift - assignments to shift can be based on seniority or bidding system and can rotate as frequently as every month 4. Number of officers available at any given moment (e.g., civil emergencies in hot spot areas like markets, taverns, or bars), especially if the resources are scarce. - routine police work is very skewed (e.g., about 5% of the addresses accounted for 65% of all calls, while 60% of the addresses never call the police) - policing hot spots is one of the most important innovations in policing, especially for COP and POP 5. Type of patrol - automobile (about 84%) - foot patrol (about 4%) - motorcycle (about 5%) - bike (about 5%) NOTE: motorized patrol allows officers to cover more area, but an unforeseen consequence was isolation from the community As a result, experts began to rethink the value of foot patrol (at least in high density and urban area) Ex. NY has vertical patrol who walk up to some buildings ---> Do not reduce crime but significant effect on citizens and patrol attitudes. Newark Foot Patrol Experiment (1978 - 1979): - resulted from the police crisis in 1960’s and developed due to the results of Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment - tested the effect of foot patrol on crime, arrest rates, and community attitudes - findings generally, crime rates are not affected by foot patrol has a significant impact on citizen attitudes-- people were aware of the different level of foot patrol (unlike the car patrol), and people believed that the severity of crime problems in their neighborhoods diminished people feel more supportive of police, and the police feel like they want to help the public, too. (a two-way street) One-officer vs. two-officer cars - line officers generally favor two-officer cars, and safety is the primary consideration - circumstances should determine whether a one-officer or a two-officer unit is more appropriate (e.g., high crime areas) - one-officer cars are rule rather than exception because of cost-effectiveness (89% of all patrol in police departments). Ex. two one-officer cars can patrol twice the area, twice the mobility, twice the power of observation. San Diego Police Department study comparing one-officer and two-officer patrol units found: a. more traffic citations were issued by two-officer units b. one-officer units were assaulted less often, were less involved in resisting arrest incidents, and made more arrests and wrote more crime reports. 6. Style of patrol tactics Individual styles (depending upon individual officers) - passive: wait until things happen - aggressive (officer-initiated actions): stopping, questioning, and frisking a suspicious person; it is a sign of the more highly rated officers Supervisor’s styles - Sergeants engage in close supervision and regular contact. Organizational styles (management style) - varieties of police behavior by J.Q. Wilson (watchman, legalistic, and service) - Watchman—emphasizes peacekeeping, without aggressive law enforcement and few controls over rank-and-file officers - Legalistic—aggressive crime fighting and attempts to control officer behavior (by the book style) - Service—emphasizes responsiveness to community expectation (middle to high class areas) Dominant Features of Patrol Work Mobilization (contact with a citizen) - calls for service (by citizen) - on view (officer-initiated activity) Reporting of crime is influencing primarily by citizen’s evaluation of seriousness of the crime and the probability that the police will be able to solve it (or want to claim for the insurance money) Dispatcher/complaint taker: is a key decision-maker in the police bureaucracy (information broker) Most calls are noncriminal in nature (83%), but over half are defined by citizens as being of a criminal nature Committed vs. uncommitted time - committed: time occupied handling a call (or called out-of-service time) - uncommitted: time available for dispatch to a call (in-service time) - Use of patrol time suggests that the “uncommitted” time is higher than what it should be (Kansas City Preventive Patrol study suggested 60%). However, uncommitted time varies from city to city, shift to shift. Improving Police Patrol Traditional approach (O.W. Wilson’s idea is still valid) - coverage (emphasis on maximum, foot patrol over automobile, one-officer unit over two-officer) - distribution (workload formula, geographical location and time - response time -- faster NOTE: Traditional approach is still valid but does suggest that we need to rethink about patrol New approaches (1) managing calls for service PERF (Police Executive Research Forum) studied on different police response strategies and found that patrol can be used more efficient by analyzing requests for service: - priorities (e.g., crime in progress) - providing different responses according to the seriousness of the incident (potential danger to citizens and levels of loss and damage to property) Ex. Some departments have a TeleServe division (take report over the telephone; or if it is an not important case like minor thing stolen, police can be there an hour later. Let the person know; do not keep them waiting. - others may be walk-in, mail-in, police assistant. (2) 311 nonemergency numbers - by 1997, about 6% of the city police have used this system (the request of COPS office) (3) Non-English 911 call services (due to an increase in immigration population) (4) Reverse 911 (when police have some information about some incidents, the GIS system allows police to identify phone numbers and call them) (5) Computers and video camera in patrol cars (6) Use of police aides or cadets (use nonsworn personnel to handle low-priority calls) (7) Directed patrol - give patrol with specific directions for their activities Ex. look for specific persons, types of crime, or patrol some areas more intensively. - key element is a crime analysis that analyzes crime data for certain areas, and specific patrol tactics can be developed PATROL IS THE BACKBONE OF POLICE, BUT IT IS LOW STATUS AND THE LEAST DESIRABLE ASSIGNMENT. THEREFORE, IT NEEDS TO BE ENRICHED. Chris Braiden’s (1992) Enriching Traditional Role Essence of patrol - patrolmen are people who produce the “moments of truth,” time when a person or a policy of the org. makes contact with a customer. People don’t care about crime rates or UCR, but they will remember the moments they contact with you - patrol work is the unknown by most police administrators who focus only on known figures such as UCR, crime rates, response time. These are quantity, not quality. - the problems 1. the “I’m all right Jack” factor Supervisors just give a police for patrolmen to do. Patrolmen just follow the order, no sense of ownership 2. specialization by function (inves, traffic, patrol etc.) Ownership of the wrong things. People like ownership, but when a boy owns his own room, he loses interest in the rest of the house. With ownership, agendas shift; investigation division will do everything for its division and forget the overall goal sometime. Similarly, just like the CJ system which has the same goal (e.g., keeping peace in society, but each element (pol, corrections, and court) does its own thing, never cooperate. 3. efficiency (doing things right) over effectiveness (doing the right thing) --> focus on the narrow at the expense of the broad picture, later it becomes a routine. efficiency is law enforcement, but effectiveness is problem solving 4. tunnel vision New specialization by function (animal, drug, community relation etc.) increases at the expense of patrol work (like to create a new bow, put a few people in it, and announce it something. These people would consider themselves as experts and may look down on patrolmen 5. the dumping factor Many specialists will have policy which requires patrolmen to implement that policy 6. empire building The empire-building phenomenon is the concept of Parkinson’s Law which says that when a new position is created, the work will grow to fill it until it takes two people to do what didn’t need to be done by anyone in the first place. Why?: In policing, people justify budgets and promotions by the size of their units. Ex. Some positions have 4 to 5 deputy. RESULT: nobody wants to be a patrolman even though it provides chances to help people. And this is why you want to become police in the first place. - the answers 1. a core value It is the primary task of the chief to find out what is the overall mission of the agency. Leadership (put-it-together skill) must take place and lead the agency to achieve that goal 2. ownership of turf The human element is important to everybody. This idea suggests that an officer should be able to do anything in his village that is a policing in nature 3. the family doctor idea According to the ownership idea, the police service provided to people, business, or family should come from a single police officer to whom those people know, trust, and respect. We always go to our family doctor whom we know and trust. Ex. Chinese people came to report to Sutham who can speak Chinese and is willing to help them. 4. Who owns the bike Everybody must help to get the job done even though it is your responsibilities sometime. Ex. an abandoned bike was chained to a post in front of the department for months, but nobody took care of it. 5. To care and to try hard People understand that crime is difficult to solve because it results from a combination of several factors. So if people have trouble and police care and try hard to help them, they will understand. Ex. don’t say “of course, because you are careless.” 6. Community policing The philosophy that police and the community can be partners to solve crime because police live and work in the community. Most crime cannot be solved without help from the public (e.g., the unibomber case) 7. A bureaucratic garage sale Garage sale helps us get rid of some of the old junk and earns us some money. In policing, we need to look at the org. chart to see which box can be deleted. There must be vision and leadership.
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