Florida Office of Safe & Healthy Schools • Bureau of Student Assistance • Florida Department of Education SDDFS NOTES on B ullying VOLUME 8, ISSUE 2 APRIL 2005 Special Points of Bullying: A Growing and Serious Problem Interest: It may come as a surprise, but • Bullying in Cyberspace bullying and not a terrorist attack is the problem that "teens see as the • The Olweus Bullying biggest threat that most frightens Cycle them and interferes with their edu- cation. While the threat of interna- • Successful Anti-Bullying tional terrorism is real, the average Programs student will be much more affected • A Look at Statistics by the internal terrorism of bully- ing, violence in the community, and • Focus on Anti-Bullying the possibility that a troubled class- Efforts mate could attack the school."  This fact alone should make educa- tors and parents take notice that bullying ing graffiti, or even bullying through in our schools continues to be of grave electronic communications (cyber-bully- Inside This Issue: importance to our society. ing), a nuance made possible by the two- Despite the positive work that has edged sword of technology: websites, Bullying - A 1, 2 been done in this country to control and email, instant phone messaging, and dig- Growing Problem ital camera-phones.  diminish the problem over the past decade, the issue of school bullying still According to Norwegian researcher, Anti-Bullying 2 Dan Olweus [pronounced Ol-VEY-us], Legislation needs to command a greater emphasis, especially in view of the highly publi- bullying takes place when a person or a 3 cized school shootings of the 1990s. All group intentionally and without being Types of Bullying too often, beginning in elementary provoked commits, with repetition, hurt- Bullies in the Age of 3 schools, bullying may still be ignored or ful acts against other individuals or Technology viewed as a normal rite of passage that groups. Bullying can take the form of all children somehow must go through - physical acts, the use of inappropriate The Olweus’ 4 a process that has to be endured or out- words, or any number of other negative Bullying Cycle behaviors: name-calling, threats, or grown. There is much evidence to show that neither is the case. exclusion from a group or game. Successful Anti- 6 "Bullying also entails an imbalance in Bullying Programs Bullying is unprovoked and intention- ally aggressive physical action or psy- strength (or an asymmetrical power rela- 8 chological control exercised from a posi- tionship), meaning that students exposed National & Florida Focus on Anti- tion of power by one individual or group to negative actions have difficulty Bullying Efforts over another person or group. The prac- defending themselves. Much bullying is tice of bullying can include physical proactive aggression, that is, aggressive Facts & Statistics 9 aggression in its myriad forms, or it can behavior that usually occurs without be psychological, in the form of persist- apparent provocation or threat on the Resources 10 ent teasing, staring or glaring as intimi- dation, spreading rumors or tales, post- continued on page 2 PAGE 2 SDDFS NOTES VOLUME 8, ISSUE 2 Bullying: A Problem Anti-Bullying Legislation continued from page 1 part of the victim." There always Thanks to pio- mon to other states' exists this imbalance in real or imag- neers like Dan laws. Essentially, the ined power between the bullies and Olweus, law directs each dis- their victims, and it most always Scandinavian coun- trict school board: occurs "repeatedly over time".  tries have been • To adopt policies Most adults generally agree that it working on the bul- that define bullying is through experience that children lying problem and are designed to learn to interact effectively and con- since the early protect students siderately with peers. That is certainly 1960's, with the against bullies at true, but it is helpful to be aware of real push beginning school, in all school not only what bullying is, but also in 1982. "Norway sponsored or school- what bullying is not. Sometimes the then encouraged sanctioned activities, line between appropriate and inappro- school wide inter- at designated school priate behavior is blurred. In a bully- vention policies, bus stops, and on ing situation only the victim feels including classroom rules establish- school buses; emotional pain; whereas the bully ing limits to unacceptable behavior, • To post notices of what consti- may feel pleasure, excitement, or may the formation of teacher-develop- tutes bullying, prominently, in all have no emotional feelings at all.  ment groups, class meetings with areas of the schools; For example, in an children on peer relations and behav- • To send notices home to par- argument or physical ior, and counseling for bullies, vic- ents, stating that bullying is pro- altercation between tims, and parents." Evaluations in hibited and defining the conse- equals, each party 1985 revealed a decrease in school quences of harassing or bullying; will no doubt be in bullying by 50 percent. The • To require that staff report all emotional pain, but Norwegian Parliament "strengthened incidents of bullying to the build- such behavior is not efforts in 2002 by passing a mani- ing principal; bullying. Likewise, festo committing the central govern- • To hold school personnel harm- bullying is not good- ment to the effort."  less if incidents are not remedied natural, playful teasing According to the website of after they report them; among equals or peers. If "Bully Police USA, Inc., A Watch- • To provide protection from that same behavior intensifies, Dog Organization Reporting on State reprisal for complainants; becomes persistent or unwelcome, Anti Bullying Laws & Advocating • To provide staff training activi- and if it rises to such a level that the for Bullied Children," sixteen states ties to build skills to prevent bul- person being teased suffers physically have passed anti-bullying legislation: lying and harassment; and or psychologically, then the line is Arkansas, California, Colorado, • To file district policies with the crossed and bullying is taking place. Connecticut, Georgia, Idaho, state department of education, The activity has, at that point, ceased Mississippi, Louisiana, New Jersey, which will then review them and to be occurring between equals, since New Hampshire, Oklahoma, Oregon, provide technical assistance for the balance of power has changed in Vermont, Rhode Island, West their improvement.  favor of the perpetrator. Key to deter- Virginia, and the state of mining whether bullying is occurring Washington. In February, both hous- The State of Florida has not yet is identifying whether an act is es of the Virginia legislature passed passed legislation that specifically intended to be hurtful or whether the an anti-bullying bill which is await- addresses bullying, but many Florida act is interpreted to be so by the ing the governor's signature, accord- school districts support programs recipient of the behavior. ing to the website through Safe and Drug-Free Schools Adults should always remember www.bullypolice.org.  and other programs that attempt to that school children depend on them As an example of a state's anti- prevent or reduce the practice. The to provide an environment that is bullying law, the Arkansas anti-bul- 2003 Florida Legislature did howev- safe, free from fear, and within which lying statute is succinct and contains er amend the state's "Stalking most of the elements that are com- continued on page 8 continued on page 8 VOLUME 8, ISSUE 2 SDDFS NOTES PAGE 3 Bullies act directly, tain persons from groups and games; indirectly, physically, • Physically invading personal verbally, or psycho- Types of Bullying space, inappropriate touching and logically, and each brushing against, pushing, hitting, type of bullying can kicking, assaulting; and/or be committed by boys, • Carrying out psychologically either sex. Boys typi- offensive acts, such as staring, giv- cally bully directly, • Girls typically are more "subtle ing disapproving looks, making and girls are more and indirect in their harassment," faces, threatening looks, rolling of indirect and psycho- intentionally "excluding someone the eyes, forcing unpleasant acts or logical in their from the group, spreading rumors, coercing behavior, and extorting approach. and manipulating friendship rela- money or property. In his "A Profile of tions.Such forms of bullying can Bullying at School," certainly be as harmful and distress- Indirect bullying Olweus discusses the ing as more direct and open forms of • Verbally taunting, using slurs of differences in male harassment." various types, calling names, insult- and female bullying, ing, harassing; • Girls are clearly not "the most fre- saying that quent and worst bullies," according • Gossiping and spreading rumors • Boys "bully more often than girls to Olweus' research data from 1993. that will affect others' opinions of do," and "about 50 percent of girls  the victim; report that they are bullied mainly by boys,” • Excluding indirectly certain people Following are the two primary types from activities, games, clubs, or • A "higher percentage of boys are of bullying behavior: other groups; and/or victims of bullying, especially in the Direct or face-to-face bullying • Undermining a person's relation- junior high school grades," • Verbally taunting, using slurs of ships with others by spreading • Bullying "certainly occurs among various types, calling names, insult- untrue rumors about a person or girls," but "physical bullying is less ing, harassing; controlling others' friendships.  common among girls" than among • Actively and openly excluding cer- Bullies in the Age of Technology: "Cyberbullies" Cyberbullying has exploded Victims of Cyberbullying are frequently as a relatively new and increas- ing problem and is becoming the subjects of more serious as technology • Cruel, vicious, and/or threatening messages being posted becomes more sophisticated and about them, often with virtual anonymity; nearly universally accessible. • Web sites that ridicule them with stories, cartoons, pic- Currently, forty-five states tures, and jokes; (including Florida) have passed laws against this type of harassment. One of the most trou- • Pictures of classmates being posted online and asking bling facts is that most cyberbullying occurs off campus, so other students to rate them according to negative traits; schools are limited as to what they can do to prevent it;  however, educators can provide information to parents that • E-mail accounts being invaded and sending hurtful or will allow them to monitor more closely their children's use of embarrassing material to others; technology. • Tricking another through instant messaging to reveal per- A study done in 2000 by the University of New sonal information, then forwarding that information to oth- Hampshire's Crimes Against Children Research Center found ers; that 1 in every 17 kids ages 10 to 17 have been threatened or harassed online. Another study done in Britain in 2002 found • Taking a picture of a person in the locker room with a 1 in 4 students have been bullied online. The number of inci- phone camera and posting that picture on a website or dents appears to be growing quickly.  sending it to others.  PAGE 4 SDDFS NOTES VOLUME 8, ISSUE 2 The Olweus' Bullying Cycle: A look at Bullies, Victims, and Bystanders for an invitation or an roles is a comfortable fit, but opportunity to take an bystanders are often uncomfortable active part in the bul- and can become damaged in the lying activity, never process. instigating, but always The Bullying Cycle makes it obvi- following the bully's ous that any bullying prevention pro- lead. The Supporter gram must be adopted school wide or Passive Bully and that all staff and students must stands by also, relish- support it. So it must become every- ing the entertainment, one's responsibility to help build a but showing no direct school culture in which harassment support. Some, like and bullying are neither ignored nor the Disengaged supported. Incidents need to be halted Onlooker just tries to without exception and without delay; ignore it all, while the if not, then each person who witnesses Possible Defender the act - either willingly or unwilling- wants to help. Both ly - becomes complicit in the act of may fear the bully or bullying itself. may fear that others in the group may see them as an ally of the Roles of Bullies, Victims, victim and an attrac- According to Dan Olweus, "all stu- tive candidate for future bullying. and Bystanders dents become, willingly or unwilling- The Defender of the Victim may call ly, involved in bullying, with roles down the wrath of the bully on him- Contrary to what some may think, ranging from henchmen to passive self/herself and faces the danger of bullies have little or no problem with bystanders to defenders of the vic- becoming victimized by both bully self esteem. In fact they can and do tim."  Adults in the school setting and henchmen. Of course, any one of often make friends fairly easily, and parents play prominent roles in the bystanders may also be labeled a although those friends tend to be determining the extent to which bully- "snitch" or "tattle-tale" and may lose hangers-on who, while they will not ing problems will arise and grow into status in the group if they were to instigate bullying, enjoy watching and problem behaviors. Adults and stu- report the behavior to an adult. participating in it. Others may become dents alike need to be taught to inter- At one time or another, most of us a type of willing bystander out of fear, vene together when they see bullying as children found ourselves in more just being relieved that the victim is happening, so that bullying opportuni- than one of these other roles if we are someone else. Such onlookers can no ties and their subsequent rewards can honest with ourselves. None of the doubt carry guilt with them well into be limited.  adulthood.  Bystanders roles and Adults and students alike Signs of a potential bully are pres- need to be taught to ent if he or she characteristics • Harshly teases those unequal in intervene together when status, stature, or strength; The roles of the bystander are var- they see bullying happen- • Threatens, kicks, hits or other- ied, simply because most of the popu- ing, so that bullying wise physically dominates weaker lation falls into that group, from the Followers or Henchmen to the opportunities and their children; Possible Defender of the Victim. subsequent rewards • Is hot-tempered or impulsive, or The Henchman stands back, waiting can be limited. has a hard time following rules; VOLUME 8, ISSUE 2 SDDFS NOTES PAGE 5 • Is aggressive toward adults; where bullying often occurs, such • Is tough or shows no sympathy as bathrooms and hallways.  for children who are bullied; and/or Bullying harms the victim • Has been involved in other anti- Victims of bullying may well exhibit social behavior, such as vandalism problems that translate into human or theft.  suffering and in expending valuable resources that could be devoted to other issues, if only early prevention Bullying harms the perpetrator strategies were adopted, beginning in If bullies are allowed to continue elementary schools. their behaviors into the teenage years Students who are repeatedly bul- or adulthood, bullying acts can esca- lied frequently experience problems late into much more serious behavior, that can follow them throughout their even into sexual harassment or serious lives and affect their ability to interact criminal activity. with friends, family, co-workers, and • Bullies identified by grade six-to- society as a whole. They may suffer nine stand a strong chance of being Students who are repeat- • Guilt, thinking that the problem convicted of a crime by age 24, of bullying is somehow their prob- according to one study; edly bullied frequently lem, brought on by some flaw in • Forty percent of identified bullies experience problems that their own personality; had three or more arrests by age can follow them through- • Fear and stress over school atten- 30; out their lives and affect dance, leading to becoming a • Bullies are at even greater risk of school drop-out; suicide than their victims, accord- their ability to interact • Fear of even visiting the school ing to one study; with friends, family, bathroom or being anywhere there • Bullies often perpetuate family co-workers, and society is limited supervision; violence as they grow up.  as a whole. • Fear of the bus ride or the walk to and from school; Bullying harms bully/victims dents occurred. The attackers in these • Physical symptoms of illness; The student who is bullied and cases had undergone severe and long- and then bullies others is perhaps the most term bullying and harassment and one complicated role in the bullying • Fear and stress to the degree that was described as "the kid everyone behavior cycle, and the least is known it diminishes the ability to learn. teased."  about him or her. As older teenagers  or in adult life, this group may experi- Bullying harms the bystander or wit- ence serious problems that affect oth- ness ers as well as themselves. Bystanders often are deeply affect- One has only to view the Final ed. They may Report of the US Secret Service on • Feel anger and helplessness for the school shootings of the 1990s to not knowing what to do or not act- realize that bully/victims can pose ing to help the victim; serious problems for themselves and • Fear becoming the next target or society. The Final Report revealed an associate of the victim; that in 29 out of 71 cases of school violence, nearly 75% of the perpetra- • Suffer guilt for not taking action tors of school violence and attacks in or for enjoying their role as wit- the 1990s had been bullied, threat- ness; ened, or hurt by others before the inci- • Fear and avoid areas in school PAGE 6 SDDFS NOTES VOLUME 8, ISSUE 2 Successful Anti-Bullying Programs The (Olweus) Bullying social behaviors, such as vandalism about bullying and consequences Prevention Program and truancy.  of violating school rules and Identified by the US Department • meetings with class parents Program Delivery about bullying and its conse- of Education as the most successful School-wide interventions include anti-bullying program, it has been quences. • the administration of an anony- implemented in more than a dozen Individual-level interventions mous student questionnaire on countries around the world. The include individual meetings with bullying; SAMHSA Model Programs page bullies and with victims of bullying, describes it as a program that "seeks • formation of an anti-bullying meetings with parents of all involved to restructure the existing school coordinating committee; students, and the development of environment to reduce opportunities • training of all staff; individual intervention plans. and rewards for bullying through the • providing for effective adult actions of school staff." It is a "com- supervision during recess and Program Contact: prehensive, school-wide program lunch times; and Susan P. Limber, PhD, The Institute designed to reduce and prevent bul- on Family and Neighborhood Life at • posting of school rules against lying problems" in elementary, mid- Clemson University, which is lead- bullying. dle, or junior high schools that has ing efforts in the US to implement "reduced bullying among children, Classroom-level interventions the Olweus Bullying Prevention improved the social climate of class- include Program.  rooms, and reduced related anti- • class meetings with students The Aggressors, Victims, and middle school in Palm Beach • The program offers classroom Bystanders Program County, where the program was activities in which students use being implemented, four notes the Think-First Model in situa- This has been selected by the appeared in the school's warning tions and practice skills necessary United States Department of box only a few hours after a stu- for carrying out the steps in real Education as a Science-based dent arrived at school with a life situations.  Program for the Safe and Drug-Free knife. Bystanders had done the • Police officers are increasingly Schools program. right thing by alerting school delivering the Aggressors, officials. Victims and Bystanders program. • Evaluation found significantly One of the developers of the pro- reduced bystander support for Program Delivery gram, Ron Slaby, was initially aggression through either passive unsure about having law enforce- • The foundation of the acceptance of bullying or active ment officers deliver the pro- Aggressors, Victims, and encouragement of other children gram, but he has since become Bystanders is a "four-step Think- to bully. convinced of the officers' effec- First Model of Conflict • The program, delivered in 12 Resolution." The program advises tiveness. classroom sessions, emphasizes (1) Keep cool; (2) Size up the sit- • With the leadership of Palm the role of bystanders in prevent- uation; (3) Think it through; and Beach County School District ing school violence or bullying. (4) Do the right thing. These Police Chief, James Kelly, "a new • There is anecdotal evidence that steps provide students with a center in Palm Beach County, this program's emphasis on process model that helps them Florida, helps train officers, bystanders is valuable. At one deal with situations that can deputies and others."  result in violence. VOLUME 8, ISSUE 2 SDDFS NOTES PAGE 7 Linking the Interests of Families been listed as a Promising Program (3) parent management training. and Teachers (LIFT) by the Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence at the Program Delivery This program is "a research- University of Colorado. "The child social skills training is based intervention program designed "LIFT was designed to decrease comprised of 20 sessions of 1-hour to prevent the development of two major factors that put children at each across a 10-week period. The aggressive and antisocial behavior in risk for subsequent antisocial behav- parent training sessions are held con- children within the elementary ior and delinquency: (1) aggressive currently and are comprised of 6 ses- school setting. LIFT targets for and other negative behaviors with sions, approximately 2 ½ hours each. change those child and parent behav- teachers and peers at school, and (2) iors thought to be most relevant to ineffective parenting, including Program Contact the development of adolescent delin- inconsistent and inappropriate disci- John Reid, Ph.D., Oregon Social quent and violent behaviors, namely pline and lax supervision. LIFT has Learning Center, Eugene, OR. child oppositional, defiant, and three main components: (1) child Phone: (541) 485-2711. Fax: (541) socially inept behavior and parent social skills training, (2) the play- 485-7087. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org discipline and monitoring. LIFT has ground Good Behavior Game, and Bully-Proofing Your School ing program designed to meet one criterion: to make the school envi- This resource is a popular series for ronment safe for children both elementary and middle schools and physically and psychologically. is used as a first approach to bully- ing. The Bully-Proofing Your Program Contact: School program provides a "blue- Sopris West, Inc., Phone: 1-800- print" for an elementary or middle 547-6747 or (303) 651-2829.  school to implement a bully-proof- Steps to Respect: A Bullying parents: School staff is trained Prevention Program to recognize bullying and receive reports from students. Steps to Respect: A Bullying Select staff trains to work with Prevention Program™ is a research- children involved in bullying based, school wide approach to help incidents. Families are intro- foster a safe, caring, and respectful duced to the program during school environment in three phases: phase 2. • Phase 3: Teaching students to • Phase 1: Getting the whole recognize, refuse, and report bul- school on board by establishing lying. school wide anti-bullying poli- cies and procedures and deter- Program Contact: mining consequences for bully- Committee for Children, Seattle, ing behavior. WA. Phone: 1-800-634-4449 • Phase 2: Training of staff and  PAGE 8 SDDFS NOTES VOLUME 8, ISSUE 2 National and Florida Focus on Anti-Bullying Efforts The Stop Bullying Now! around bullying prevention; Campaign website (www.stopbul- www.stopbullyingnow.hrsa.gov/indexAdult.asp?Area=step lyingnow.hrsa.gov) has been bystepguide updated as of March 12, 2005, • Teacher's Corner includes a "teacher's kit" for educa- placing some new additions to the tors who may wish to begin teaching their students and website, making it easier to navi- staff about bullying; gate. It now contains much more www.stopbullyingnow.hrsa.gov/indexAdult.asp?Area=teac information for those involved in the herscorner, and prevention of bullying. • Partner Spotlight highlights individual success stories Developed by HHS' Health Resources by periodically featuring one of the 70+ partner organiza- and Services Administration (HRSA), the Stop Bullying tions that provided insights and contributed resources to Now! Campaign is designed to stop bullying, including ver- the Stop Bullying Now! Campaign. www.stopbullying- bal or physical harassment that occurs repeatedly over time, now.hrsa.gov/indexAdult.asp?Area=partnerspotlight that is intended to cause harm, and that involves an imbal- ance of power between the child who bullies and the child • A portion of the website will be available in Spanish who is bullied. later in the year, and the Stop Bullying Now! Campaign The new additions to the website are posted within the will maintain its partnership with NBC and its "The What Adults Can Do page and include: More You Know" campaign. Visit the website at • Using the Stop Bullying Now Site highlights ways that www.nbc.com/nbc/footer/tmyk/pgv_tmyk_overview.shtml different groups of adults (i.e. teachers, parents, media,  etc.) can use the site to get involved, and provides exam- ples of ways people can make a valuable contribution to For additional information about the stop bullying; Stop Bullying Now! Campaign www.stopbullyingnow.hrsa.gov/indexAdult.asp?Area=usingsite please contact: Health Resources and Services Administration. U.S. • Step by Step Guide offers tips for parents and other Department of Health and Human Services. concerned adults about how to work with local organiza- Website: www.hrsa.gov/ tions and effectively mobilize others in the community Bullying - A Problem In the final analysis, schools are Legislation directed at a specific continued from page 2 no safer, no freer from the fear of continued from page 2 person or the per- bullying or other violent behaviors son's child, sibling, children can interact comfortably. than the degree to which adminis- Statute," s. 784.048 spouse, parent, or They depend upon teachers whom trators, teachers, and parents are F.S., to include dependent, causing they can trust and talk with in an committed to make the school safe "cyberstalking," substantial emotion- unthreatening setting, adults who for the weakest, the least secure, which equates to al distress to that will lead them and set positive and the least confident of their electronic bullying person and serving examples for them. They depend charges. So, the unmistakable truth in cyberspace. The no legitimate pur- on adults to devise and to apply is that bullies do not stop their amendment defined pose." Penalties for policies and rules equitably. "The behavior for no reason. They per- the term "cyber- acts under this primary target for prevention and sist in it until they are confronted stalking" to mean statute range from a safer schools efforts should be the by adults who either change the "to engage in a first degree misde- peer culture of school. Since the environment in which the behavior course of conduct to meanor to a third norms, actions, beliefs, and values occurs or change the motivational communicate, or to degree felony. within broad sectors of today's mind-set of the perpetrator. The cause to be commu- Governor Jeb Bush peer culture are socially destruc- question is, how we as educators nicated, words, approved the tive and demeaning. . . , trans- and parents help to transform images, or language amendment on May forming this destructive peer cul- destructive elements in the culture by or through the 21, 2003, and the ture is perhaps the most formidable of our schools? Fortunately, pro- use of electronic amended statute task in the area of school safety." grams and activities are available mail or electronic took effect on  to us. communication, October 1, 2003.  VOLUME 8, ISSUE 2 SDDFS NOTES PAGE 9 Facts and Statistics from National Surveys According to the School Crime lied by other students; physical abuse: hitting, slapping, Supplement to the National Crime • Another 13% of them said they or pushing; Victimization Survey, 2003, students had bullied other students, but had • Girls, on the other hand, report across the U.S., ages 12-18, "were not been victims of bullying; being talked about and being made asked if they had been bullied (picked the subject of rumors and sexual • A total of 29.9% reported moder- on or made to do things they did not comments.  ate or frequent involvement in bul- want to do) at school in the past 6 lying, either as bullies (13.0%) or The Indiana White Paper on months. . . . Although the percentage as victims of bullies (10.6%); Bullying looked at that state and con- who had been bullied increased from • Another 6.3% said that they both cluded that "children who bully are 5 percent in 1999 to 8 percent in engaged in bullying and were more likely to become violent adults, 2001, no significant difference was themselves bullied; while victims of bullying often suffer detected between 2001 and 2003, from anxiety, low self-esteem, and dropping only to 7 percent of students • Bullying most frequently depression well into adulthood reporting that they had been victims occurred in grades six through (Banks, 2000, National Resource of bullying at school, meaning in the eight and varied little among Center for Safe Schools, 1999). Even school building, on school property, urban, suburban, or rural environ- students who are not directly involved on a school bus, or traveling to school ments; in bullying are affected: Children and and back home.  teens who regularly witness bullying As might be described as typical, at school suffer from a less secure grade level was inversely related to learning environment, the fear that the students' likelihood of being bullied: bully may target them next, and the as grade level increased, students' knowledge that teachers and other likelihood of being bullied decreased. adults are either unable or unwilling For example, in 2003, 14 percent of to control bullies' behavior (USDOE, 6th graders, 13 percent of 7th graders, 1998)."  9 percent of 8th graders, 7 percent of Results of Olweus' surveys in 9th graders, and 2 percent of 12th Norway of more than 150,000 stu- graders reported that they had been dents, published in 2001, "showed bullied at school."  that some 15% of pupils in elemen- Other surveys have been conduct- • Boys were more likely to bully tary and lower secondary/junior high ed in the United States, but, compared and to be bullied than were girls; schools (roughly corresponding to to Scandinavia and Australia, our • Victims and bullies alike were ages 7 to 16) in Scandinavia were country has a distance to go. One for- more likely to have problems involved in bully/victim problems midable survey was conducted by Dr. adapting socially and psychologi- with some regularity - either as bul- Tonya Nansel and was funded by the cally to their environments; and lies, victims or bully/victims. National Institute of Child Health and • Bullies were also more likely to Approximately 9% were victims, and Human Development (NICHD), the participate in other negative behav- 7% bullied other students with some biomedical arm of the National iors like smoking and drinking regularity. A relatively small propor- Institutes of Health. Its results were alcohol.  tion of the victims (15-20%) were reported in the Journal of the themselves bullied by others. Olweus American Medical Association The NICHD survey by Nansel, et believes that these figures underesti- (JAMA) on April 25, 2001. In this al, found that bullying in males and mated the problem and that indica- national survey, 15,686 public and females manifests itself somewhat dif- tions were that the bullying level had private school students in grades six ferently: increased over the last 10-15 years. through ten were asked if they had • Both sexes say on the survey that More worrying, it is the more frequent bullied or had been the target of bully- other youth make fun of the way and severe forms of bullying that have ing behavior. they look, talk or dress, but increased most.  • Over 16% of students surveyed • Boys are more likely to report in the U.S. said they had been bul- PAGE 10 SDDFS NOTES VOLUME 8, ISSUE 2 RESOURCES Florida Department of Education Safe and Drug-Free Schools Website on Bullying at http://www.unf.edu/dept/fie/sdfs/bullying.html. Bullying. The Hamilton Fish Institute. Administered by The George Washington University Graduate School of Education and Human Development and funded by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. This site provides a wealth of information and many links to other valuable resources. Visit the website at http://www.hamfish.org/topics/bullying.html#bul- lyingexamples. The National Training and Technical Assistance Center for Drug Prevention and School Safety Program Coordinators. Education Development Center, Inc. (2004). Exploring the Nature and Prevention of Bullying: a five day web-course. (Online) In the site index. Available: www.k12coordinator.org/onlinece/onlineevents/bullying/index.htm. (2005, March 16). This site and course, sponsored by the Safe and Drug-Free Office at the United States Department of Education, contains a wealth of useful information, links and resources. Indiana Department of Education. (2003, December 31). White Paper on Bullying Prevention and Education. (Online). In site Directory. Available: http://www.doe.state.in.us/legwatch/docs/Bullyingpaper2004session.doc. (2005, March 16). A thoughtful and well done paper that makes interesting reading.  National School Safety Center (2004), Safeguarding schools against terror (Online). In Site Directory. Available: http://www.nssc1.org (2005, Mar 15).  Cyberbullying (2005). Mobilizing educators, parents, students, and others to combat online social cruelty (Online). On Home Page. Available: http://cyberbully.org. (2005, Mar 15).  Olweus, D. (2003, March) A Profile of Bullying at School. Educational Leadership, 60(6), p. 12.  Beane, A.L. (1999). The Bully Free Classroom. Minneapolis: Free Spirit Publishing, Inc., p. 82.  Sprague, J., and Walker, H. (2002, September). Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (NWREL). Creating school wide prevention and intervention strategies: guide 1 (Online), p. 27. Link on Home Page. Available: http://www.safetyzone.org/pdfs/ta_guides/packet_1.pdf (2005, March 15).  Hurst, M. D. (2005, February 9). When it comes to bullying there are no boundaries. (Online). Education Week, 24, 22, p. 8. In the Directory, after registration. Available: http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2005/02/09/22bully.h24.html?querystring=bul- lies%20boundaries. (2005, March 16).  High, B. (2005). Bully Police USA, Inc., a website devoted to monitoring states' anti-bullying legislation. See the website at http://www.bullypolice.org. (2005, March 15).  Arkansas Statutes. (2005). Arkansas Code § 6-18-514 (Online). In site Directory. Available: http://arkleg.state.ar.us/ftproot/bills/2005/public/HB1708.pdf. (2005, March 15).  Florida Statutes. (2005). Chapter 784.048 F.S. (Online). In site Directory. Available: http://election.dos.state.fl.us/laws/03laws/ch_2003-023.pdf. (2005, March 15).  Center for Safe and Responsible Internet Use. (2004). Mobilizing educators, parents, students, and others to combat online VOLUME 8, ISSUE 2 SDDFS NOTES PAGE 11 social cruelty (Online). In site Directory. Available: http://cyberbully.org. (2005, March 16). As of March 15, 2005, forty-five states have enacted laws against "cyberstalking" and related behavior. See the websites: http://www.haltabuse.org/resources/laws/index.shtml. (2005, March 15)  MindOh! Foundation. (2005). Cyberbullying Resources for Youth, Families and Educators. (Online) Available: http://www.min- dohfoundation.org/bullying.htm. (2005, March 15)  Center for Safe and Responsible Internet Use. (2004). Mobilizing educators, parents, students, and others to combat online social cruelty (Online). In site Directory. Available: http://cyberbully.org. (2005, March 16).  Olweus, D. (2003, March). A Profile of Bullying at School. Educational Leadership, 60 (6), p. 12.  Sherer, M. (2003, March). Perspectives / uncivil liberties, Education Leadership. 60 (6), p. 5. (Online) At the site Directory, click on "Publications," then "Education Leadership," then "Archived Issues," then "March 2003": http://www.ascd.org/portal/site/ascd. (2005, March 15).  Sampson, R. (2002). Bullying in School (Online), U.S. Department of Justice. Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS). p. 36. Visit the website at http://www.cops.usdoj.gov. (2005, March 15).  Sampson, R. (2002). Bullying in School (Online), U.S. Department of Justice. Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS). p. 44. Available: http://www.cops.usdoj.gov. (2005, March 14).  National Education Association. (2005). National Bullying Awareness Campaign (NBAC) (Online). Visit the website at http://www.nea.org/schoolsafety/bullying.html. (2005, March 15).  Vossekuil, B, Fein, R. A., Reddy, M., Borum, R., and Modzeleski. (2002, May). The Final Report and Findings of the Safe School Initiative: Implication for the Prevention of School Attacks in the United States (Online). US Secret Service and US Department of Education. Washington, D. C. Page 21. Available: http://secretservice.gov/ntac/ssi_final_report.pdf. (2005, March 16).  National Education Association. (2005). National Bullying Awareness Campaign (NBAC). (Online). Available: http://www.nea.org/schoolsafety/bullying.html. (2005, March 15).  National Education Association. (2005). National Bullying Awareness Campaign (NBAC). (Online). Available: http://www.nea.org/schoolsafety/bullying.html. (2005, March 15).  Olweus, D. (2003, March). A Profile of Bullying at School. Educational Leadership. 60 (6), p. 13.  The Hamilton Fish Institute. (2005, March 5). Bullying (Online). In site Directory. Available: http://www.hamfish.org/topics/bullying.html#bullyingexamples. (2005, March 16).  U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2004, November) School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime, Victimization Survey, 2003. (Online). In site Directory. Available: http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2005/2005002.pdf. (2005, March 16).  U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2004, November) School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime, Victimization Survey, 2003. (Online). In site Directory. Available: http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2005/2005002.pdf. (2005, March 16).  Nansel, T. R., Overpeck, P. H., Pilla, R. S., Ruan, W. J., Simons-Morton, B., and Scheidt, M. D. (2001, April 25). Bullying behaviors among US youth (Online). Journal of the American Medical Association. 285, 16, pp. 2094-2100. In site Directory. Available: http://pubs.ama-assn.org/cgi/search?fulltext=Bullying+Behaviors+Among+US+Youth&submit.x=11&submit.y=4. (2005, March 16).  Nansel, T. R., Overpeck, P. H., Pilla, R. S., Ruan, W. J., Simons-Morton, B., and Scheidt, M. D. (2001, April 25). Bullying behaviors among US youth (Online). Journal of the American Medical Association. 285, 16, pp. 2094-2100. In site Directory. Available: http://pubs.ama-assn.org/cgi/search?fulltext=Bullying+Behaviors+Among+US+Youth&submit.x=11&submit.y=4. (2005, March 16).  Indiana Department of Education. (2003, December 31). White Paper on Bullying Prevention and Education. (Online). In site Directory. Available: http://www.doe.state.in.us/legwatch/docs/Bullyingpaper2004session.doc. (2005, March 16).  Olweus, D. (2001, March). Bullying at school: tackling the problem. (Online). Research Centre for Health Promotion, University of Bergen, Norway: March 2001. Available: http://www.oecdobserver.org/news/printpage.php/aid/434/Bullying_at_school:_tackling_the_problem.html. PAGE 12 SDDFS NOTES VOLUME 8, ISSUE 2 RESOURCES continued from page 11  Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Model Programs (SAMHSA). (2005, March). Olweus Bullying Prevention Program Overview. (Online). In site Directory. Available: http://modelprograms.samhsa.gov/pdfs/Details/Olweus Bully.pdf. (2005, March 16).  Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Model Programs (SAMHSA). (2005, March). Olweus Bullying Prevention Program Overview. (Online) In site Directory. Available: http://modelprograms.samhsa.gov/pdfs/Details/Olweus Bully.pdf. (2005, March 16). For more information also visit the Institute on Family and Neighborhood Life (IFNL) at Clemson University at the website: http://virtual.clemson.edu/groups/ifnl/Bully-IFNL/content.html. (2005, March 16).  Slaby, R. (2000). Description of Aggressors, Victims, and Bystanders. (Online). Teenage Health Teaching Modules. Available: http://www.thtm.org/special.htm#description. (2005, March 16).  Fox, J. A., Delbert E. S., Kerlikowske, R. G., Newman, S. A., and Christeson, W. (2003). Bullying Prevention Is Crime Prevention (Online). Fight Crime: Invest in Kids. Washington, D. C., p 15. In site Directory. Available: http://www.fightcrime.org/. (2005, March 16).  Sopris West, Inc. Proven and Practical Education Services. (2004). Bully-Proofing Your School. Program Description (Online). In the Directory. Available: http://www.sopriswest.com/ERP2Web/e2wItemMain.aspx?functionId=009000008&parentID=019000359. (2005, March 16).  Committee for Children. (1991). The Steps to Respect Program for Elementary Schools Overview. (Online). In the "Our Programs" Directory. Available: http://www.cfchildren.org/strf/str/strindex/. (2005, March 16).  National School Boards Association Website. (2005). Stop Bullying Now! Campaign website has been updated! (Online). Available: http://www.nsba.org/site/doc_micro.asp?TRACKID=&VID=38&CID=1120&DID=35454. (2005, March 16). The members of the SDDFS staff, as well as the staff of the Safe and Healthy Schools Office at the Department of Education, stand ready to provide support through training and technical assistance to schools and school districts. Please encourage educators to take advantage of our services. For additional information on these resources or to find out how to access these resources, please contact Patricia Elton at (850) 414-0236 (SunCom 994-0236) or by email at email@example.com. Florida Safe, Disciplined and The Department of Education, through the Drug-Free Schools Project Bureau of School Safety and School Support,funds the Florida Institute of Education's (FIE's) Safe, Disciplined and Drug-Free Schools Phone: (850) 414-9976 Project. FIE is an institute of the University of SunCom: 944-9976 North Florida. The Safe, Disciplined and Drug- FAX: (850) 414-9979 Free Schools Project offers technical assistance SunCom FAX: 944-9979 and support in the development and implementa- Website: www.unf.edu/dept/fie/sdfs tion of drug use and violence prevention strate- gies. For more information, contact the FIE/SDDFS Project. This publication was produced by the Florida Department of Education, Division of K-12 Schools, Bureau of Student Assistance, Office of Safe and Healthy Schools, using federal Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act, Title IV, part of the No Child Left Behind Act funds.