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					                      Florida Office of Safe & Healthy Schools • Bureau of Student Assistance •
                                           Florida Department of Education



                                SDDFS NOTES
                                            on B ullying
VOLUME 8, ISSUE 2                                                                                                 APRIL 2005



     Special Points of             Bullying: A Growing and Serious Problem
        Interest:
                                       It may come as a surprise, but
 •   Bullying in Cyberspace        bullying and not a terrorist attack is
                                   the problem that "teens see as the
 •   The Olweus Bullying           biggest threat that most frightens
     Cycle                         them and interferes with their edu-
                                   cation. While the threat of interna-
 •   Successful Anti-Bullying
                                   tional terrorism is real, the average
     Programs
                                   student will be much more affected
 •   A Look at Statistics          by the internal terrorism of bully-
                                   ing, violence in the community, and
 •   Focus on Anti-Bullying        the possibility that a troubled class-
     Efforts                       mate could attack the school." [1]
                                   This fact alone should make educa-
                                   tors and parents take notice that bullying   ing graffiti, or even bullying through
                                   in our schools continues to be of grave      electronic communications (cyber-bully-
     Inside This Issue:
                                   importance to our society.                   ing), a nuance made possible by the two-
                                       Despite the positive work that has       edged sword of technology: websites,
 Bullying - A               1, 2
                                   been done in this country to control and     email, instant phone messaging, and dig-
 Growing Problem                                                                ital camera-phones. [2]
                                   diminish the problem over the past
                                   decade, the issue of school bullying still       According to Norwegian researcher,
 Anti-Bullying                 2                                                Dan Olweus [pronounced Ol-VEY-us],
 Legislation                       needs to command a greater emphasis,
                                   especially in view of the highly publi-      bullying takes place when a person or a
                               3   cized school shootings of the 1990s. All     group intentionally and without being
 Types of Bullying
                                   too often, beginning in elementary           provoked commits, with repetition, hurt-
 Bullies in the Age of         3   schools, bullying may still be ignored or    ful acts against other individuals or
 Technology                        viewed as a normal rite of passage that      groups. Bullying can take the form of
                                   all children somehow must go through -       physical acts, the use of inappropriate
 The Olweus’                   4
                                   a process that has to be endured or out-     words, or any number of other negative
 Bullying Cycle                                                                 behaviors: name-calling, threats, or
                                   grown. There is much evidence to show
                                   that neither is the case.                    exclusion from a group or game.
 Successful Anti-              6                                                "Bullying also entails an imbalance in
 Bullying Programs                     Bullying is unprovoked and intention-
                                   ally aggressive physical action or psy-      strength (or an asymmetrical power rela-
                               8   chological control exercised from a posi-    tionship), meaning that students exposed
 National & Florida
 Focus on Anti-                    tion of power by one individual or group     to negative actions have difficulty
 Bullying Efforts                  over another person or group. The prac-      defending themselves. Much bullying is
                                   tice of bullying can include physical        proactive aggression, that is, aggressive
 Facts & Statistics            9   aggression in its myriad forms, or it can    behavior that usually occurs without
                                   be psychological, in the form of persist-    apparent provocation or threat on the
 Resources                    10
                                   ent teasing, staring or glaring as intimi-
                                   dation, spreading rumors or tales, post-                 continued on page 2
PAGE 2                                                SDDFS NOTES                                          VOLUME 8, ISSUE 2

     Bullying: A Problem                                   Anti-Bullying Legislation
          continued from page 1

part of the victim." There always               Thanks to pio-                                       mon to other states'
exists this imbalance in real or imag-      neers like Dan                                           laws. Essentially, the
ined power between the bullies and          Olweus,                                                  law directs each dis-
their victims, and it most always           Scandinavian coun-                                       trict school board:
occurs "repeatedly over time". [3]          tries have been                                            • To adopt policies
    Most adults generally agree that it     working on the bul-                                      that define bullying
is through experience that children         lying problem                                            and are designed to
learn to interact effectively and con-      since the early                                          protect students
siderately with peers. That is certainly    1960's, with the                                         against bullies at
true, but it is helpful to be aware of      real push beginning                                      school, in all school
not only what bullying is, but also         in 1982. "Norway                                         sponsored or school-
what bullying is not. Sometimes the         then encouraged                                          sanctioned activities,
line between appropriate and inappro-       school wide inter-                                       at designated school
priate behavior is blurred. In a bully-     vention policies,                                        bus stops, and on
ing situation only the victim feels         including classroom rules establish-        school buses;
emotional pain; whereas the bully           ing limits to unacceptable behavior,        • To post notices of what consti-
may feel pleasure, excitement, or may       the formation of teacher-develop-           tutes bullying, prominently, in all
have no emotional feelings at all. [4]      ment groups, class meetings with            areas of the schools;
                  For example, in an        children on peer relations and behav-       • To send notices home to par-
                  argument or physical      ior, and counseling for bullies, vic-       ents, stating that bullying is pro-
                    altercation between     tims, and parents." Evaluations in          hibited and defining the conse-
                     equals, each party     1985 revealed a decrease in school          quences of harassing or bullying;
                     will no doubt be in    bullying by 50 percent. The                 • To require that staff report all
                      emotional pain, but   Norwegian Parliament "strengthened          incidents of bullying to the build-
                     such behavior is not   efforts in 2002 by passing a mani-          ing principal;
                     bullying. Likewise,    festo committing the central govern-        • To hold school personnel harm-
                   bullying is not good-    ment to the effort." [6]                    less if incidents are not remedied
                 natural, playful teasing       According to the website of             after they report them;
             among equals or peers. If      "Bully Police USA, Inc., A Watch-           • To provide protection from
that same behavior intensifies,             Dog Organization Reporting on State         reprisal for complainants;
becomes persistent or unwelcome,            Anti Bullying Laws & Advocating             • To provide staff training activi-
and if it rises to such a level that the    for Bullied Children," sixteen states       ties to build skills to prevent bul-
person being teased suffers physically      have passed anti-bullying legislation:      lying and harassment; and
or psychologically, then the line is        Arkansas, California, Colorado,             • To file district policies with the
crossed and bullying is taking place.       Connecticut, Georgia, Idaho,                state department of education,
The activity has, at that point, ceased     Mississippi, Louisiana, New Jersey,         which will then review them and
to be occurring between equals, since       New Hampshire, Oklahoma, Oregon,            provide technical assistance for
the balance of power has changed in         Vermont, Rhode Island, West                 their improvement. [8]
favor of the perpetrator. Key to deter-     Virginia, and the state of
mining whether bullying is occurring        Washington. In February, both hous-          The State of Florida has not yet
is identifying whether an act is            es of the Virginia legislature passed    passed legislation that specifically
intended to be hurtful or whether the       an anti-bullying bill which is await-    addresses bullying, but many Florida
act is interpreted to be so by the          ing the governor's signature, accord-    school districts support programs
recipient of the behavior.                  ing to the website                       through Safe and Drug-Free Schools
    Adults should always remember           www.bullypolice.org. [7]                 and other programs that attempt to
that school children depend on them             As an example of a state's anti-     prevent or reduce the practice. The
to provide an environment that is           bullying law, the Arkansas anti-bul-     2003 Florida Legislature did howev-
safe, free from fear, and within which      lying statute is succinct and contains   er amend the state's "Stalking
                                            most of the elements that are com-
           continued on page 8                                                                 continued on page 8
VOLUME 8, ISSUE 2                                         SDDFS NOTES                                                           PAGE 3



                      Bullies act directly,                                                   tain persons from groups and games;
                  indirectly, physically,                                                     • Physically invading personal
                  verbally, or psycho-           Types of Bullying                            space, inappropriate touching and
                  logically, and each                                                         brushing against, pushing, hitting,
                  type of bullying can                                                        kicking, assaulting; and/or
                  be committed by
                                                 boys,                                        • Carrying out psychologically
                  either sex. Boys typi-
                                                                                              offensive acts, such as staring, giv-
                  cally bully directly,          • Girls typically are more "subtle           ing disapproving looks, making
                  and girls are more             and indirect in their harassment,"           faces, threatening looks, rolling of
                  indirect and psycho-           intentionally "excluding someone             the eyes, forcing unpleasant acts or
                  logical in their               from the group, spreading rumors,            coercing behavior, and extorting
                  approach.                      and manipulating friendship rela-            money or property.
                      In his "A Profile of       tions.Such forms of bullying can
                  Bullying at School,"           certainly be as harmful and distress-     Indirect bullying
                  Olweus discusses the           ing as more direct and open forms of         • Verbally taunting, using slurs of
                  differences in male            harassment."                                 various types, calling names, insult-
                  and female bullying,                                                        ing, harassing;
                                                 • Girls are clearly not "the most fre-
                  saying that
                                                 quent and worst bullies," according          • Gossiping and spreading rumors
   • Boys "bully more often than girls
                                                 to Olweus' research data from 1993.          that will affect others' opinions of
   do," and "about 50 percent of girls
                                                 [21]                                         the victim;
   report that they are bullied mainly
   by boys,”                                                                                  • Excluding indirectly certain people
                                              Following are the two primary types             from activities, games, clubs, or
   • A "higher percentage of boys are         of bullying behavior:                           other groups; and/or
   victims of bullying, especially in the
                                              Direct or face-to-face bullying                 • Undermining a person's relation-
   junior high school grades,"
                                                 • Verbally taunting, using slurs of          ships with others by spreading
   • Bullying "certainly occurs among            various types, calling names, insult-        untrue rumors about a person or
   girls," but "physical bullying is less        ing, harassing;                              controlling others' friendships. [22]
   common among girls" than among
                                                 • Actively and openly excluding cer-


                    Bullies in the Age of Technology: "Cyberbullies"

                                     Cyberbullying has exploded     Victims of Cyberbullying are frequently
                                 as a relatively new and increas-
                                 ing problem and is becoming        the subjects of
                                 more serious as technology            • Cruel, vicious, and/or threatening messages being posted
                                 becomes more sophisticated and        about them, often with virtual anonymity;
                                 nearly universally accessible.        • Web sites that ridicule them with stories, cartoons, pic-
                                 Currently, forty-five states          tures, and jokes;
                                 (including Florida) have passed
  laws against this type of harassment. One of the most trou-          • Pictures of classmates being posted online and asking
  bling facts is that most cyberbullying occurs off campus, so         other students to rate them according to negative traits;
  schools are limited as to what they can do to prevent it; [10]
  however, educators can provide information to parents that           • E-mail accounts being invaded and sending hurtful or
  will allow them to monitor more closely their children's use of      embarrassing material to others;
  technology.                                                          • Tricking another through instant messaging to reveal per-
      A study done in 2000 by the University of New                    sonal information, then forwarding that information to oth-
  Hampshire's Crimes Against Children Research Center found            ers;
  that 1 in every 17 kids ages 10 to 17 have been threatened or
  harassed online. Another study done in Britain in 2002 found         • Taking a picture of a person in the locker room with a
  1 in 4 students have been bullied online. The number of inci-        phone camera and posting that picture on a website or
  dents appears to be growing quickly. [11]                            sending it to others. [12]
PAGE 4                                                 SDDFS NOTES                                           VOLUME 8, ISSUE 2



                          The Olweus' Bullying Cycle:
                    A look at Bullies, Victims, and Bystanders
                                                           for an invitation or an    roles is a comfortable fit, but
                                                           opportunity to take an     bystanders are often uncomfortable
                                                           active part in the bul-    and can become damaged in the
                                                           lying activity, never      process.
                                                           instigating, but always        The Bullying Cycle makes it obvi-
                                                           following the bully's      ous that any bullying prevention pro-
                                                           lead. The Supporter        gram must be adopted school wide
                                                           or Passive Bully           and that all staff and students must
                                                           stands by also, relish-    support it. So it must become every-
                                                           ing the entertainment,     one's responsibility to help build a
                                                           but showing no direct      school culture in which harassment
                                                           support. Some, like        and bullying are neither ignored nor
                                                           the Disengaged             supported. Incidents need to be halted
                                                           Onlooker just tries to     without exception and without delay;
                                                           ignore it all, while the   if not, then each person who witnesses
                                                           Possible Defender          the act - either willingly or unwilling-
                                                           wants to help. Both        ly - becomes complicit in the act of
                                                           may fear the bully or      bullying itself.
                                                           may fear that others in
                                                           the group may see
                                                           them as an ally of the     Roles of Bullies, Victims,
                                                           victim and an attrac-
    According to Dan Olweus, "all stu-    tive candidate for future bullying.
                                                                                          and Bystanders
dents become, willingly or unwilling-     The Defender of the Victim may call
ly, involved in bullying, with roles      down the wrath of the bully on him-             Contrary to what some may think,
ranging from henchmen to passive          self/herself and faces the danger of        bullies have little or no problem with
bystanders to defenders of the vic-       becoming victimized by both bully           self esteem. In fact they can and do
tim." [13] Adults in the school setting   and henchmen. Of course, any one of         often make friends fairly easily,
and parents play prominent roles in       the bystanders may also be labeled a        although those friends tend to be
determining the extent to which bully-    "snitch" or "tattle-tale" and may lose      hangers-on who, while they will not
ing problems will arise and grow into     status in the group if they were to         instigate bullying, enjoy watching and
problem behaviors. Adults and stu-        report the behavior to an adult.            participating in it. Others may become
dents alike need to be taught to inter-       At one time or another, most of us      a type of willing bystander out of fear,
vene together when they see bullying      as children found ourselves in more         just being relieved that the victim is
happening, so that bullying opportuni-    than one of these other roles if we are     someone else. Such onlookers can no
ties and their subsequent rewards can     honest with ourselves. None of the          doubt carry guilt with them well into
be limited. [14]                                                                      adulthood. [15]

   Bystanders roles and                     Adults and students alike                    Signs of a potential bully are pres-
                                               need to be taught to                   ent if he or she
      characteristics                                                                    • Harshly teases those unequal in
                                             intervene together when
                                                                                         status, stature, or strength;
    The roles of the bystander are var-     they see bullying happen-
                                                                                         • Threatens, kicks, hits or other-
ied, simply because most of the popu-          ing, so that bullying                     wise physically dominates weaker
lation falls into that group, from the
Followers or Henchmen to the
                                              opportunities and their                    children;
Possible Defender of the Victim.               subsequent rewards                        • Is hot-tempered or impulsive, or
The Henchman stands back, waiting                 can be limited.                        has a hard time following rules;
VOLUME 8, ISSUE 2                                       SDDFS NOTES                                                      PAGE 5




   • Is aggressive toward adults;                                                        where bullying often occurs, such
   • Is tough or shows no sympathy                                                       as bathrooms and hallways. [19]
   for children who are bullied;
   and/or                                                                             Bullying harms the victim
   • Has been involved in other anti-                                                 Victims of bullying may well exhibit
   social behavior, such as vandalism                                                 problems that translate into human
   or theft. [16]                                                                     suffering and in expending valuable
                                                                                      resources that could be devoted to
                                                                                      other issues, if only early prevention
Bullying harms the perpetrator
                                                                                      strategies were adopted, beginning in
    If bullies are allowed to continue
                                                                                      elementary schools.
their behaviors into the teenage years
                                                                                          Students who are repeatedly bul-
or adulthood, bullying acts can esca-
                                                                                      lied frequently experience problems
late into much more serious behavior,
                                                                                      that can follow them throughout their
even into sexual harassment or serious
                                                                                      lives and affect their ability to interact
criminal activity.
                                                                                      with friends, family, co-workers, and
    • Bullies identified by grade six-to-
                                                                                      society as a whole. They may suffer
    nine stand a strong chance of being
                                               Students who are repeat-                   • Guilt, thinking that the problem
    convicted of a crime by age 24,
                                                                                          of bullying is somehow their prob-
    according to one study;                    edly bullied frequently                    lem, brought on by some flaw in
   • Forty percent of identified bullies       experience problems that                   their own personality;
   had three or more arrests by age            can follow them through-                  • Fear and stress over school atten-
   30;
                                               out their lives and affect                dance, leading to becoming a
   • Bullies are at even greater risk of                                                 school drop-out;
   suicide than their victims, accord-         their ability to interact
                                                                                         • Fear of even visiting the school
   ing to one study;                           with friends, family,                     bathroom or being anywhere there
   • Bullies often perpetuate family           co-workers, and society                   is limited supervision;
   violence as they grow up. [17]              as a whole.                               • Fear of the bus ride or the walk
                                                                                         to and from school;
Bullying harms bully/victims                dents occurred. The attackers in these       • Physical symptoms of illness;
    The student who is bullied and          cases had undergone severe and long-         and
then bullies others is perhaps the most     term bullying and harassment and one
complicated role in the bullying                                                         • Fear and stress to the degree that
                                            was described as "the kid everyone
behavior cycle, and the least is known                                                   it diminishes the ability to learn.
                                            teased." [18]
about him or her. As older teenagers                                                     [20]
or in adult life, this group may experi-    Bullying harms the bystander or wit-
ence serious problems that affect oth-      ness
ers as well as themselves.                     Bystanders often are deeply affect-
    One has only to view the Final          ed. They may
Report of the US Secret Service on             • Feel anger and helplessness for
the school shootings of the 1990s to           not knowing what to do or not act-
realize that bully/victims can pose            ing to help the victim;
serious problems for themselves and
                                               • Fear becoming the next target or
society. The Final Report revealed
                                               an associate of the victim;
that in 29 out of 71 cases of school
violence, nearly 75% of the perpetra-          • Suffer guilt for not taking action
tors of school violence and attacks in         or for enjoying their role as wit-
the 1990s had been bullied, threat-            ness;
ened, or hurt by others before the inci-       • Fear and avoid areas in school
PAGE 6                                                  SDDFS NOTES                                        VOLUME 8, ISSUE 2




                           Successful Anti-Bullying Programs

         The (Olweus) Bullying             social behaviors, such as vandalism         about bullying and consequences
          Prevention Program               and truancy. [29]                           of violating school rules and
     Identified by the US Department                                                   • meetings with class parents
                                           Program Delivery                            about bullying and its conse-
 of Education as the most successful       School-wide interventions include
 anti-bullying program, it has been                                                    quences.
                                              • the administration of an anony-
 implemented in more than a dozen                                                      Individual-level interventions
                                              mous student questionnaire on
 countries around the world. The                                                    include individual meetings with
                                              bullying;
 SAMHSA Model Programs page                                                         bullies and with victims of bullying,
 describes it as a program that "seeks        • formation of an anti-bullying       meetings with parents of all involved
 to restructure the existing school           coordinating committee;               students, and the development of
 environment to reduce opportunities          • training of all staff;              individual intervention plans.
 and rewards for bullying through the         • providing for effective adult
 actions of school staff." It is a "com-      supervision during recess and         Program Contact:
 prehensive, school-wide program              lunch times; and                      Susan P. Limber, PhD, The Institute
 designed to reduce and prevent bul-                                                on Family and Neighborhood Life at
                                              • posting of school rules against
 lying problems" in elementary, mid-                                                Clemson University, which is lead-
                                              bullying.
 dle, or junior high schools that has                                               ing efforts in the US to implement
 "reduced bullying among children,         Classroom-level interventions            the Olweus Bullying Prevention
 improved the social climate of class-     include                                  Program. [30]
 rooms, and reduced related anti-             • class meetings with students



  The Aggressors, Victims, and                middle school in Palm Beach              • The program offers classroom
      Bystanders Program                      County, where the program was            activities in which students use
                                              being implemented, four notes            the Think-First Model in situa-
    This has been selected by the             appeared in the school's warning         tions and practice skills necessary
 United States Department of                  box only a few hours after a stu-        for carrying out the steps in real
 Education as a Science-based                 dent arrived at school with a            life situations. [31]
 Program for the Safe and Drug-Free           knife. Bystanders had done the           • Police officers are increasingly
 Schools program.                             right thing by alerting school           delivering the Aggressors,
                                              officials.                               Victims and Bystanders program.
     • Evaluation found significantly                                                  One of the developers of the pro-
     reduced bystander support for         Program Delivery                            gram, Ron Slaby, was initially
     aggression through either passive                                                 unsure about having law enforce-
                                              • The foundation of the
     acceptance of bullying or active                                                  ment officers deliver the pro-
                                              Aggressors, Victims, and
     encouragement of other children                                                   gram, but he has since become
                                              Bystanders is a "four-step Think-
     to bully.                                                                         convinced of the officers' effec-
                                              First Model of Conflict
     • The program, delivered in 12           Resolution." The program advises         tiveness.
     classroom sessions, emphasizes           (1) Keep cool; (2) Size up the sit-      • With the leadership of Palm
     the role of bystanders in prevent-       uation; (3) Think it through; and        Beach County School District
     ing school violence or bullying.         (4) Do the right thing. These            Police Chief, James Kelly, "a new
     • There is anecdotal evidence that       steps provide students with a            center in Palm Beach County,
     this program's emphasis on               process model that helps them            Florida, helps train officers,
     bystanders is valuable. At one           deal with situations that can            deputies and others." [32]
                                              result in violence.
VOLUME 8, ISSUE 2                                     SDDFS NOTES                                                     PAGE 7



Linking the Interests of Families         been listed as a Promising Program        (3) parent management training.
     and Teachers (LIFT)                  by the Center for the Study and
                                          Prevention of Violence at the             Program Delivery
      This program is "a research-        University of Colorado.                      "The child social skills training is
  based intervention program designed         "LIFT was designed to decrease        comprised of 20 sessions of 1-hour
  to prevent the development of           two major factors that put children at    each across a 10-week period. The
  aggressive and antisocial behavior in   risk for subsequent antisocial behav-     parent training sessions are held con-
  children within the elementary          ior and delinquency: (1) aggressive       currently and are comprised of 6 ses-
  school setting. LIFT targets for        and other negative behaviors with         sions, approximately 2 ½ hours each.
  change those child and parent behav-    teachers and peers at school, and (2)
  iors thought to be most relevant to     ineffective parenting, including          Program Contact
  the development of adolescent delin-    inconsistent and inappropriate disci-     John Reid, Ph.D., Oregon Social
  quent and violent behaviors, namely     pline and lax supervision. LIFT has       Learning Center, Eugene, OR.
  child oppositional, defiant, and        three main components: (1) child          Phone: (541) 485-2711. Fax: (541)
  socially inept behavior and parent      social skills training, (2) the play-     485-7087. Email: johnr@oslc.org
  discipline and monitoring. LIFT has     ground Good Behavior Game, and




                                             Bully-Proofing Your School             ing program designed to meet one
                                                                                    criterion: to make the school envi-
                                            This resource is a popular series for   ronment safe for children both
                                            elementary and middle schools and       physically and psychologically.
                                            is used as a first approach to bully-
                                            ing. The Bully-Proofing Your            Program Contact:
                                            School program provides a "blue-        Sopris West, Inc., Phone: 1-800-
                                            print" for an elementary or middle      547-6747 or (303) 651-2829. [33]
                                            school to implement a bully-proof-




  Steps to Respect: A Bullying               parents: School staff is trained
      Prevention Program                     to recognize bullying and
                                             receive reports from students.
     Steps to Respect: A Bullying            Select staff trains to work with
  Prevention Program™ is a research-         children involved in bullying
  based, school wide approach to help        incidents. Families are intro-
  foster a safe, caring, and respectful      duced to the program during
  school environment in three phases:        phase 2.
                                             • Phase 3: Teaching students to
     • Phase 1: Getting the whole            recognize, refuse, and report bul-
     school on board by establishing         lying.
     school wide anti-bullying poli-
     cies and procedures and deter-       Program Contact:
     mining consequences for bully-       Committee for Children, Seattle,
     ing behavior.                        WA. Phone: 1-800-634-4449
     • Phase 2: Training of staff and     [34]
PAGE 8                                                     SDDFS NOTES                                           VOLUME 8, ISSUE 2


            National and Florida Focus on Anti-Bullying Efforts
                              The Stop Bullying Now!                   around bullying prevention;
                             Campaign website (www.stopbul-            www.stopbullyingnow.hrsa.gov/indexAdult.asp?Area=step
                              lyingnow.hrsa.gov) has been              bystepguide
                               updated as of March 12, 2005,           • Teacher's Corner includes a "teacher's kit" for educa-
                               placing some new additions to the       tors who may wish to begin teaching their students and
                               website, making it easier to navi-      staff about bullying;
                              gate. It now contains much more          www.stopbullyingnow.hrsa.gov/indexAdult.asp?Area=teac
                            information for those involved in the      herscorner, and
                        prevention of bullying.
                                                                       • Partner Spotlight highlights individual success stories
                      Developed by HHS' Health Resources
                                                                       by periodically featuring one of the 70+ partner organiza-
and Services Administration (HRSA), the Stop Bullying
                                                                       tions that provided insights and contributed resources to
Now! Campaign is designed to stop bullying, including ver-
                                                                       the Stop Bullying Now! Campaign. www.stopbullying-
bal or physical harassment that occurs repeatedly over time,
                                                                       now.hrsa.gov/indexAdult.asp?Area=partnerspotlight
that is intended to cause harm, and that involves an imbal-
ance of power between the child who bullies and the child              • A portion of the website will be available in Spanish
who is bullied.                                                        later in the year, and the Stop Bullying Now! Campaign
    The new additions to the website are posted within the             will maintain its partnership with NBC and its "The
What Adults Can Do page and include:                                   More You Know" campaign. Visit the website at
    • Using the Stop Bullying Now Site highlights ways that            www.nbc.com/nbc/footer/tmyk/pgv_tmyk_overview.shtml
    different groups of adults (i.e. teachers, parents, media,         [35]
    etc.) can use the site to get involved, and provides exam-
    ples of ways people can make a valuable contribution to                   For additional information about the
    stop bullying;                                                               Stop Bullying Now! Campaign
   www.stopbullyingnow.hrsa.gov/indexAdult.asp?Area=usingsite                            please contact:
                                                                       Health Resources and Services Administration. U.S.
   • Step by Step Guide offers tips for parents and other
                                                                          Department of Health and Human Services.
   concerned adults about how to work with local organiza-
                                                                                    Website: www.hrsa.gov/
   tions and effectively mobilize others in the community


  Bullying - A Problem                        In the final analysis, schools are      Legislation           directed at a specific
         continued from page 2
                                          no safer, no freer from the fear of       continued from page 2
                                                                                                            person or the per-
                                          bullying or other violent behaviors                               son's child, sibling,
children can interact comfortably.        than the degree to which adminis-        Statute," s. 784.048     spouse, parent, or
They depend upon teachers whom            trators, teachers, and parents are       F.S., to include         dependent, causing
they can trust and talk with in an        committed to make the school safe        "cyberstalking,"         substantial emotion-
unthreatening setting, adults who         for the weakest, the least secure,       which equates to         al distress to that
will lead them and set positive           and the least confident of their         electronic bullying      person and serving
examples for them. They depend            charges. So, the unmistakable truth      in cyberspace. The       no legitimate pur-
on adults to devise and to apply          is that bullies do not stop their        amendment defined        pose." Penalties for
policies and rules equitably. "The        behavior for no reason. They per-        the term "cyber-         acts under this
primary target for prevention and         sist in it until they are confronted     stalking" to mean        statute range from a
safer schools efforts should be the       by adults who either change the          "to engage in a          first degree misde-
peer culture of school. Since the         environment in which the behavior        course of conduct to     meanor to a third
norms, actions, beliefs, and values       occurs or change the motivational        communicate, or to       degree felony.
within broad sectors of today's           mind-set of the perpetrator. The         cause to be commu-       Governor Jeb Bush
peer culture are socially destruc-        question is, how we as educators         nicated, words,          approved the
tive and demeaning. . . , trans-          and parents help to transform            images, or language      amendment on May
forming this destructive peer cul-        destructive elements in the culture      by or through the        21, 2003, and the
ture is perhaps the most formidable       of our schools? Fortunately, pro-        use of electronic        amended statute
task in the area of school safety."       grams and activities are available       mail or electronic       took effect on
[5]                                       to us.                                   communication,           October 1, 2003. [9]
VOLUME 8, ISSUE 2                                      SDDFS NOTES                                                    PAGE 9


                     Facts and Statistics from National Surveys
    According to the School Crime             lied by other students;                   physical abuse: hitting, slapping,
Supplement to the National Crime              • Another 13% of them said they           or pushing;
Victimization Survey, 2003, students          had bullied other students, but had       • Girls, on the other hand, report
across the U.S., ages 12-18, "were            not been victims of bullying;             being talked about and being made
asked if they had been bullied (picked                                                  the subject of rumors and sexual
                                              • A total of 29.9% reported moder-
on or made to do things they did not                                                    comments. [26]
                                              ate or frequent involvement in bul-
want to do) at school in the past 6
                                              lying, either as bullies (13.0%) or        The Indiana White Paper on
months. . . . Although the percentage
                                              as victims of bullies (10.6%);         Bullying looked at that state and con-
who had been bullied increased from
                                              • Another 6.3% said that they both     cluded that "children who bully are
5 percent in 1999 to 8 percent in
                                              engaged in bullying and were           more likely to become violent adults,
2001, no significant difference was
                                              themselves bullied;                    while victims of bullying often suffer
detected between 2001 and 2003,
                                                                                     from anxiety, low self-esteem, and
dropping only to 7 percent of students        • Bullying most frequently
                                                                                     depression well into adulthood
reporting that they had been victims          occurred in grades six through
                                                                                     (Banks, 2000, National Resource
of bullying at school, meaning in the         eight and varied little among
                                                                                     Center for Safe Schools, 1999). Even
school building, on school property,          urban, suburban, or rural environ-
                                                                                     students who are not directly involved
on a school bus, or traveling to school       ments;
                                                                                     in bullying are affected: Children and
and back home. [23]
                                                                                     teens who regularly witness bullying
    As might be described as typical,
                                                                                     at school suffer from a less secure
grade level was inversely related to
                                                                                     learning environment, the fear that the
students' likelihood of being bullied:
                                                                                     bully may target them next, and the
as grade level increased, students'
                                                                                     knowledge that teachers and other
likelihood of being bullied decreased.
                                                                                     adults are either unable or unwilling
For example, in 2003, 14 percent of
                                                                                     to control bullies' behavior (USDOE,
6th graders, 13 percent of 7th graders,
                                                                                     1998)." [27]
9 percent of 8th graders, 7 percent of
                                                                                         Results of Olweus' surveys in
9th graders, and 2 percent of 12th
                                                                                     Norway of more than 150,000 stu-
graders reported that they had been
                                                                                     dents, published in 2001, "showed
bullied at school." [24]
                                                                                     that some 15% of pupils in elemen-
    Other surveys have been conduct-          • Boys were more likely to bully       tary and lower secondary/junior high
ed in the United States, but, compared        and to be bullied than were girls;     schools (roughly corresponding to
to Scandinavia and Australia, our
                                              • Victims and bullies alike were       ages 7 to 16) in Scandinavia were
country has a distance to go. One for-
                                              more likely to have problems           involved in bully/victim problems
midable survey was conducted by Dr.
                                              adapting socially and psychologi-      with some regularity - either as bul-
Tonya Nansel and was funded by the
                                              cally to their environments; and       lies, victims or bully/victims.
National Institute of Child Health and
                                              • Bullies were also more likely to     Approximately 9% were victims, and
Human Development (NICHD), the
                                              participate in other negative behav-   7% bullied other students with some
biomedical arm of the National
                                              iors like smoking and drinking         regularity. A relatively small propor-
Institutes of Health. Its results were
                                              alcohol. [25]                          tion of the victims (15-20%) were
reported in the Journal of the
                                                                                     themselves bullied by others. Olweus
American Medical Association                   The NICHD survey by Nansel, et        believes that these figures underesti-
(JAMA) on April 25, 2001. In this          al, found that bullying in males and      mated the problem and that indica-
national survey, 15,686 public and         females manifests itself somewhat dif-    tions were that the bullying level had
private school students in grades six      ferently:                                 increased over the last 10-15 years.
through ten were asked if they had             • Both sexes say on the survey that   More worrying, it is the more frequent
bullied or had been the target of bully-       other youth make fun of the way       and severe forms of bullying that have
ing behavior.                                  they look, talk or dress, but         increased most. [28]
    • Over 16% of students surveyed
                                              • Boys are more likely to report
    in the U.S. said they had been bul-
PAGE 10                                                     SDDFS NOTES                                              VOLUME 8, ISSUE 2




                                                      RESOURCES
                                             Florida Department of Education Safe and Drug-Free Schools Website on
                                             Bullying at http://www.unf.edu/dept/fie/sdfs/bullying.html.

                                             Bullying. The Hamilton Fish Institute. Administered by The George
                                             Washington University Graduate School of Education and Human Development
                                             and funded by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. This
                                             site provides a wealth of information and many links to other valuable
                                             resources. Visit the website at http://www.hamfish.org/topics/bullying.html#bul-
                                             lyingexamples.

                                       The National Training and Technical Assistance Center for Drug
                                       Prevention and School Safety Program Coordinators. Education
                                       Development Center, Inc. (2004). Exploring the Nature and Prevention of
                                       Bullying: a five day web-course. (Online) In the site index. Available:
www.k12coordinator.org/onlinece/onlineevents/bullying/index.htm. (2005, March 16). This site and course, sponsored by
the Safe and Drug-Free Office at the United States Department of Education, contains a wealth of useful information,
links and resources.

Indiana Department of Education. (2003, December 31). White Paper on Bullying Prevention and Education.
(Online). In site Directory. Available: http://www.doe.state.in.us/legwatch/docs/Bullyingpaper2004session.doc. (2005,
March 16). A thoughtful and well done paper that makes interesting reading.




 [1] National School Safety Center (2004), Safeguarding schools against terror (Online). In Site Directory. Available:
http://www.nssc1.org (2005, Mar 15).
 [2] Cyberbullying (2005). Mobilizing educators, parents, students, and others to combat online social cruelty (Online). On Home
Page. Available: http://cyberbully.org. (2005, Mar 15).
 [3] Olweus, D. (2003, March) A Profile of Bullying at School. Educational Leadership, 60(6), p. 12.
 [4] Beane, A.L. (1999). The Bully Free Classroom. Minneapolis: Free Spirit Publishing, Inc., p. 82.
 [5] Sprague, J., and Walker, H. (2002, September). Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (NWREL). Creating school wide
prevention and intervention strategies: guide 1 (Online), p. 27. Link on Home Page. Available:
http://www.safetyzone.org/pdfs/ta_guides/packet_1.pdf (2005, March 15).
 [6] Hurst, M. D. (2005, February 9). When it comes to bullying there are no boundaries. (Online). Education Week, 24, 22, p. 8. In
the Directory, after registration. Available: http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2005/02/09/22bully.h24.html?querystring=bul-
lies%20boundaries. (2005, March 16).
  [7] High, B. (2005). Bully Police USA, Inc., a website devoted to monitoring states' anti-bullying legislation. See the website at
http://www.bullypolice.org. (2005, March 15).
 [8] Arkansas Statutes. (2005). Arkansas Code § 6-18-514 (Online). In site Directory. Available:
http://arkleg.state.ar.us/ftproot/bills/2005/public/HB1708.pdf. (2005, March 15).
 [9] Florida Statutes. (2005). Chapter 784.048 F.S. (Online). In site Directory. Available:
http://election.dos.state.fl.us/laws/03laws/ch_2003-023.pdf. (2005, March 15).
 [10] Center for Safe and Responsible Internet Use. (2004). Mobilizing educators, parents, students, and others to combat online
VOLUME 8, ISSUE 2                                           SDDFS NOTES                                                         PAGE 11


social cruelty (Online). In site Directory. Available: http://cyberbully.org. (2005, March 16). As of March 15, 2005, forty-five states
have enacted laws against "cyberstalking" and related behavior. See the websites:
http://www.haltabuse.org/resources/laws/index.shtml. (2005, March 15)
 [11] MindOh! Foundation. (2005). Cyberbullying Resources for Youth, Families and Educators. (Online) Available: http://www.min-
dohfoundation.org/bullying.htm. (2005, March 15)
 [12] Center for Safe and Responsible Internet Use. (2004). Mobilizing educators, parents, students, and others to combat online
social cruelty (Online). In site Directory. Available: http://cyberbully.org. (2005, March 16).
 [13] Olweus, D. (2003, March). A Profile of Bullying at School. Educational Leadership, 60 (6), p. 12.
 [14] Sherer, M. (2003, March). Perspectives / uncivil liberties, Education Leadership. 60 (6), p. 5. (Online) At the site Directory,
click on "Publications," then "Education Leadership," then "Archived Issues," then "March 2003":
http://www.ascd.org/portal/site/ascd. (2005, March 15).
 [15] Sampson, R. (2002). Bullying in School (Online), U.S. Department of Justice. Office of Community Oriented Policing
Services (COPS). p. 36. Visit the website at http://www.cops.usdoj.gov. (2005, March 15).
 [16] Sampson, R. (2002). Bullying in School (Online), U.S. Department of Justice. Office of Community Oriented Policing
Services (COPS). p. 44. Available: http://www.cops.usdoj.gov. (2005, March 14).
 [17] National Education Association. (2005). National Bullying Awareness Campaign (NBAC) (Online). Visit the website at
http://www.nea.org/schoolsafety/bullying.html. (2005, March 15).
 [18] Vossekuil, B, Fein, R. A., Reddy, M., Borum, R., and Modzeleski. (2002, May). The Final Report and Findings of the Safe
School Initiative: Implication for the Prevention of School Attacks in the United States (Online). US Secret Service and US
Department of Education. Washington, D. C. Page 21. Available: http://secretservice.gov/ntac/ssi_final_report.pdf. (2005, March 16).
 [19] National Education Association. (2005). National Bullying Awareness Campaign (NBAC). (Online). Available:
http://www.nea.org/schoolsafety/bullying.html. (2005, March 15).
 [20] National Education Association. (2005). National Bullying Awareness Campaign (NBAC). (Online). Available:
http://www.nea.org/schoolsafety/bullying.html. (2005, March 15).
 [21] Olweus, D. (2003, March). A Profile of Bullying at School. Educational Leadership. 60 (6), p. 13.
 [22] The Hamilton Fish Institute. (2005, March 5). Bullying (Online). In site Directory. Available:
http://www.hamfish.org/topics/bullying.html#bullyingexamples. (2005, March 16).
 [23] U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2004, November) School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National
Crime, Victimization Survey, 2003. (Online). In site Directory. Available: http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2005/2005002.pdf. (2005, March
16).
 [24] U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2004, November) School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National
Crime, Victimization Survey, 2003. (Online). In site Directory. Available: http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2005/2005002.pdf. (2005, March
16).
 [25] Nansel, T. R., Overpeck, P. H., Pilla, R. S., Ruan, W. J., Simons-Morton, B., and Scheidt, M. D. (2001, April 25). Bullying
behaviors among US youth (Online). Journal of the American Medical Association. 285, 16, pp. 2094-2100. In site Directory.
Available: http://pubs.ama-assn.org/cgi/search?fulltext=Bullying+Behaviors+Among+US+Youth&submit.x=11&submit.y=4. (2005,
March 16).
 [26] Nansel, T. R., Overpeck, P. H., Pilla, R. S., Ruan, W. J., Simons-Morton, B., and Scheidt, M. D. (2001, April 25). Bullying
behaviors among US youth (Online). Journal of the American Medical Association. 285, 16, pp. 2094-2100. In site Directory.
Available: http://pubs.ama-assn.org/cgi/search?fulltext=Bullying+Behaviors+Among+US+Youth&submit.x=11&submit.y=4. (2005,
March 16).
 [27] Indiana Department of Education. (2003, December 31). White Paper on Bullying Prevention and Education. (Online). In site
Directory. Available: http://www.doe.state.in.us/legwatch/docs/Bullyingpaper2004session.doc. (2005, March 16).
 [28] Olweus, D. (2001, March). Bullying at school: tackling the problem. (Online). Research Centre for Health Promotion,
University of Bergen, Norway: March 2001. Available:
http://www.oecdobserver.org/news/printpage.php/aid/434/Bullying_at_school:_tackling_the_problem.html.
PAGE 12                                                    SDDFS NOTES                                              VOLUME 8, ISSUE 2



     RESOURCES         continued from page 11


 [29] Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Model Programs (SAMHSA). (2005, March). Olweus Bullying
Prevention Program Overview. (Online). In site Directory. Available: http://modelprograms.samhsa.gov/pdfs/Details/Olweus
Bully.pdf. (2005, March 16).
 [30] Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Model Programs (SAMHSA). (2005, March). Olweus Bullying
Prevention Program Overview. (Online) In site Directory. Available: http://modelprograms.samhsa.gov/pdfs/Details/Olweus
Bully.pdf. (2005, March 16). For more information also visit the Institute on Family and Neighborhood Life (IFNL) at Clemson
University at the website: http://virtual.clemson.edu/groups/ifnl/Bully-IFNL/content.html. (2005, March 16).
 [31] Slaby, R. (2000). Description of Aggressors, Victims, and Bystanders. (Online). Teenage Health Teaching Modules. Available:
http://www.thtm.org/special.htm#description. (2005, March 16).
 [32] Fox, J. A., Delbert E. S., Kerlikowske, R. G., Newman, S. A., and Christeson, W. (2003). Bullying Prevention Is Crime
Prevention (Online). Fight Crime: Invest in Kids. Washington, D. C., p 15. In site Directory. Available: http://www.fightcrime.org/.
(2005, March 16).
 [33] Sopris West, Inc. Proven and Practical Education Services. (2004). Bully-Proofing Your School. Program Description (Online).
In the Directory. Available:
http://www.sopriswest.com/ERP2Web/e2wItemMain.aspx?functionId=009000008&parentID=019000359. (2005, March 16).
 [34] Committee for Children. (1991). The Steps to Respect Program for Elementary Schools Overview. (Online). In the "Our
Programs" Directory. Available: http://www.cfchildren.org/strf/str/strindex/. (2005, March 16).
 [35] National School Boards Association Website. (2005). Stop Bullying Now! Campaign website has been updated! (Online).
Available: http://www.nsba.org/site/doc_micro.asp?TRACKID=&VID=38&CID=1120&DID=35454. (2005, March 16).




The members of the SDDFS staff, as well as the staff of the Safe and Healthy Schools Office at the Department of
Education, stand ready to provide support through training and technical assistance to schools and school districts.
Please encourage educators to take advantage of our services. For additional information on these resources or to find
out how to access these resources, please contact Patricia Elton at (850) 414-0236 (SunCom 994-0236) or by email at
sdfs_librarian@firn.edu.



Florida Safe, Disciplined and                                      The Department of Education, through the
Drug-Free Schools Project                                          Bureau of School Safety and School
                                                                   Support,funds the Florida Institute of Education's
                                                                   (FIE's) Safe, Disciplined and Drug-Free Schools
Phone: (850) 414-9976                                              Project. FIE is an institute of the University of
SunCom: 944-9976                                                   North Florida. The Safe, Disciplined and Drug-
FAX: (850) 414-9979                                                Free Schools Project offers technical assistance
SunCom FAX: 944-9979                                               and support in the development and implementa-
Website: www.unf.edu/dept/fie/sdfs                                 tion of drug use and violence prevention strate-
                                                                   gies. For more information, contact the
                                                                   FIE/SDDFS Project.

       This publication was produced by the Florida Department of Education, Division of K-12 Schools, Bureau of
       Student Assistance, Office of Safe and Healthy Schools, using federal Safe and Drug-Free Schools and
       Communities Act, Title IV, part of the No Child Left Behind Act funds.

				
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