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History of Surfing

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									             History of Surfing
  (The main source of facts is Stoked: A History of Surf
              Culture by Drew Kampion)

• Origin and development
  – No one knows who caught first wave
  – Evidence of surfing in South Pacific prior to
    contact with Europeans
  – Significant part of Hawaiian life in early 1800s
  – ―Surf riding was one of the favorite Hawaiian
    sports,‖ wrote Thomas G. Thrum in his 1896
    Hawaiian Almanac and Annual
         Who Surfed What?

• Chiefs, men, women, and youth surfed in
  Polynesian society in Hawaii
• Chiefs rode a long, narrow, wood board
  called olo (18 feet)
• Common people rode short, wide, thin
  wood board called alaia (6-8 feet) or small
  belly board called paipo

• Best surf spots were reserved for chiefs
• Violators could be put to death in
  unpleasant ways
• Wagering was common in Hawaiian society and
  accompanied surfing
• ―Canoes, nets, lines, kapas, swine, poultry, and
  all other property were staked,‖ wrote Thrum.
  ―In some instances . . . Personal liberty, or even
  life itself, sacrificed according to the outcome of
  the match, the winners carrying off their riches
  and the losers and their families passing to a life
  of poverty or servitude.‖
           Early Rituals          (1)
• Royal surfboards
  – Kahuna (priest) placed a red kumu fish at tree
  – Tree was cut down
  – Prayers were offered
  – Kumu was placed in a hole in roots
  – Tree cut with adzes (bone tools) to rough
  – In canoe shed final shaping with coral and
    rough stone
           Early Rituals (2)

• During long flat spells, natives would
  ritually beat the ocean‘s surface with kelp
  and chant in order to ―coax up‖ swells
Hawaiian Surfing Diction (1)
• Aloha: commonly used to mean hello,
• Haole: foreigner, white man
• He‘e nalu: to surf, surf rider
• Kai emi, nalu miki: receding wave
• Kai pi‘i, nalu pú: high wave
• Kai po‘l, nalu ha‘l: breaking wave
Hawaiian Surfing Diction (2)

•   Nalu: surf, ocean, wave
•   Nalu h‘i lala: wave that breaks diagonally
•   Nalunalu: rough wave
•   Pae: to mount or catch wave
•   Pae I ka nalu: to ride wave into shore
•   Papa he nalu: surboard
•   Wahine: woman, female surfer
Captain James Cook (1)

• 1728-1779
• British Navigator and Explorer
• In 1776, on third voyage he sought
  northern sea route between Europe and
  Asia for British Royal Navy
• In 1778, Cook became first known
  European to reach Hawaiian Islands
Captain James Cook (2)
• Impressed with Hawaiians riding waves on
  boards and canoes
• Noticed Hawaiians‘s penchant for theivery due to
  curiosity and unfamiliarity with ownership
• Cook and his men occasionally shot Hawaiian
• Hawaiians stabbed cook to death in self-defense
  at Kealakekua Bay on February 14, 1779
The Dark Years (1)
• Cook and early European arrivals brought
  the following: metal (1 nail was traded for
  1 pig), guns, cannons, uniforms, venereal
  disease, other diseases, alcohol, and new
• Hawaiian cultural disintegrated
• Between Cook‘s arrival (1778) and 1890,
  estimated population decreased from
  400,000 to 40,000 from European viruses
  and bacteria
The Dark Years (2)
• Protestant paradigm: modest attire; new
  language; discouraged casual sex,
  gambling, and playing in ocean
• Drew Kampion writes, ―Sufing‘s
  association with nakedness, sexuality,
  wagering, shameless exuberance,
  informality, ignorant joy, and freedom
  were counterproductive to the designs of
  the church fathers, who, curiously, wound
  up owning most of the land in the
The Dark Years (3)
• Mark Twain visited Sandwich Islands in
  the mid-1860s as a reporter for
 Sacramento Daily Union
• Twain claimed that the missionaries were
  ―ignorant of all white human nature and
  natural ways of men,‖ and Twain
  introduced ―surf bathing‖ to world
  audience through a book of his travels,
  Roughing It (1872)
The Dark Years (4)

• As the Hawaiian culture disintegrated, the
  surfing culture also disintegrated
• One Maui resident noted the decline in
  surfing in 1853, ―Lahaina is the only place
  were surfriding is practiced with any
  degree of enthusiasm, and even there it is
  rapidly passing out of existence.‖
The Renaissance (1)
• By 1900, the Islands had become U.S. territory
• Growing number of haoles (white people or
  foreigners) came to Islands to visit or live
• Three men got together to surf in Hawaii and
  resurrect surfing in 1907
  – Alexander Hume Ford (businessman, writer)
  – Jack London (famous author of adventure literature)
  – George David Freeth (best surfer at Waikiki and
The Renaissance (2)
• In 1907 in ―A Royal Sport: Surfing at Waikiki‖ in
  A Woman‘s Home Companion, London published
  a description of Freeth on a wave, ―I saw him
  tearing in on the back of it, standing upright on
  his board, carelessly poised, a young god
  bronzed with sunburn.‖
• Ford created the Outrigger Canoe and Surfboard
  Club (haole organization)
• Three years later predominantly native
  Hawaiians created Hui Nalu
• Two clubs competed often
• By 1911 Outrigger Club had 1200 members
• Surboard riding was the local craze
          Surfing in California
• In 1907, Henry E. Huntington hired Irish-
  Hawaiian Freeth to give surfing demonstrations
  at Redondo and Venice Beaches to promote
  Huntington‘s Los Angeles-Redondo Beach rail
• Thousands watched in awe
• The introduction of trains and cars made
  California‘s coast an accessible playground
• Freeth is credited with introducing surfing to CA
       Duke Kahanamoku (1)
• Freeth enlisted ―beach boys‖ to teach tourists
  how to surf in Hawaii, including Duke
  Kahanamoku (born in 1890), not royalty
• Duke was a phenomenal waterman and athlete
  and remembered as the father of modern
• Duke won 100-meter freestyle at Olympic games
  in Stockholm, Sweden in 1912
• No Olympiad in 1916 due to WWI
• Duke won 100-meter freestyle in Olympic games
  in Antwerp, Belgium in 1920 (age 30) in 60.4
        Duke Kahanamoku (2)
• Revealed surfing to crowds in Atlantic City and
  Nassau (NY) and Corona Del Mar and other
  beaches in CA
• Introduced surfing to Australians in 1914 at
  Freshwater (now Harbord) near Sydney
  – Demonstrated headstand and tandem surfing
  – Victorian values: knee-to-neck costumes
• Duke played minor roles in 7 films and 2002
  stamp commemorates him
• Contribution: Ambassador for the sport of
  Hawaiian kings through exhibitions
Duke Kahanamoku (3)
    Tom Blake: 1902-1994 (1)

• Pre-Blake surboards were heavy slabs of
  timber (usually California redwood):
  – Hard to manuever
  – Poor flotation
  – No fin
              Tom Blake (2)
• 1922 - set the world swimming record in the ten
  mile open.
• 1926 - first person to surf Malibu, along with
  Sam Reid.
• 1926 - invented the hollow surfboard (adopted
  by American Red Cross Lifesaving Division)
• 1928 - won the first Pacific Coast Surfriding
• 1928 - invented the hollow paddleboard.
• 1929 - invented the water-proof camera
• 1931 - invented the sailboard.
• 1931 - patented & manufactured the first
  production surfboard.
              Tom Blake (3)
• 1932 - won the Catalina Paddleboard Race.
• 1935 - invented the surfboard fin, a.k.a. skeg, or
• 1935 - published the first book solely devoted to
  surfing, Hawaiian Surfboard.
• 1937 - produced & patented the first torpedo
  buoy and rescue ring, both made of "dua-
• 1940s - first production sailboards.
• Leader in physical fitness, natural foods and
  healthy diet.
• Virtually began the surfing lifestyle as we know
• San Onofre (Hawaiian roots, palm shack left by
  Hollywood movie studio, relaxed)
• Malibu (creative edge of the sport, territorial)
• First California surfing clubs
  – Palos Verdes Surfing Club
  – Carona Del Mar Surfing Club
• ―Hot curl‖ boards (tapered to v-shaped tail on
  bottom, pre-fin board)
• Robert Wilson Simmons developed
  ―hydrodynamic planing hulls‖: fiberglass skin,
  plywood deck and bottom, balsa rails, Styrofoam
             1940-1960 (1)
• Haitus during WWII
• Lifeguards and surfing
  – Lifeguards are among best surfers
  – Lifeguards began ―surfwear‖ with trunks
  – Lifeguards promote positive image of surfing
  – Bill Butz designed first tower in 1933 (no top)
  – Butz designed first tower with cover and ramp
    in 1944
             1940-1960 (2)
• Balsa boards
  – Easier for constructing boards than redwood
  – Lighter (9‘6‘‘ and 25-30 lbs)
  – Looked like potato chips (Malibu chips)
  – Fiberglass fins
  – Rounded outline shape
  – Rocker (lift in nose and tail)
  – Reduced time to learn to surf (2 yrs to 4 wks)
  – Maneuverability promoted ―hotdog‖ surfing
  – Magnified surfable terrain (beach break)
             1940-1960 (3)

• Makaha (west side of Oahu)
  – Big waves
  – Mix of hawiian-born and haole surfers
  – 1954 first Makaha International Surfing
    Championships (George Downing: champ)
    • Surfing
    • Bellyboarding
    • Paddling
    • Tandem surfing
            1940-1960 (4)
• Growth spurt of surfing in 1950s came
  from balsa boards, ―surf film,‖ and photo
  – Bud Browne was first surf cinematographer
  – Hawiian Surfing Movie by Bud Browne in 1953
  – Cat on a Hot Foam Board by Bud Browne in
  – One-man show: filmed, edited, publicized,
    took tickets, narrated, and swept up
  – Films show small-wave hotdogging, big-wave
    thrills, surfaris, gag scenes
           1940-1960 (5)
– Tom Blake created first waterproof camera
  housing and took shots of surfers at Waikiki
  from paddleboard in 1929
– Blake‘s shots were published in National
  Geographic in 1935
– Dr. John H. ―Doc‖ Ball, Don James (Ansel
  Adams of surf photo), and many other
  photograhers followed
             1940-1960 (6)
• Waimea Bay
  – 1943: Woddy Brown and Dickie Cross paddled
    out at Sunset, swell increased, they paddled 5
    miles to deep water of Waimea, giant set
    killed cross
  – Ancient Hawaiian heiau (place of worship) on
  – Rumors of haunted house below
  – Greg Knoll and friends surfed it on November
    7, 1957 (18-20 ft)
  – Qualified surfing as ―extreme sport‖
               1940-1960 (7)
• Australia
  – Surf-lifesaving clubs sponsored competitions
    and boards were clones of Dukes pine board
  – 1956 Olympics were in Melbourne
     • About that time, U.S. sponsored a team of
       California lifeguards to compete in paddling in
     • U.S. lifeguards surfed Malibu chips between
     • Introduced Malibu-style hotdogging on
       maneuverable boards
     • Circulating surf movies and importing balsa wood
       cross-pollinated Hawaii, California, and Australia
              1940-1960 (8)
• The Foam Revolution
  – Hobie Alter made balsa boards in yard ($20
    per board, 20 boards per summer)
  – Alter set up shop in Dana Point: February
    • Occasionally sent a board to east coast (surfing
      was just starting there)
    • Balsa availability was declining
    • Plastics salesman introduced foam to Alter
    • Alter set up foam board shop in Laguna Canyon
  – With release of film Gidget (1959) based on
    novel by Kohner, interest in surfing exploded
               1960-1970 (1)
• Surfing increases in Florida and Texas due to
  foam-and-fiberglass technology
• Jack O‘Neil in San Francisco pioneers first
  wetsuits of neoprene
  – Vests, jackets, and pants
  – Transformed surfing into a year-round sport
  – Broadens range of surfers: Northeastern Atlantic
    states, England, France, South Australia
• 3 Ms promote surfing: movies, music, magazines
            1960-1970 (2)
• Beach movies spawn interest in surfing,
  but they were not real surfing movies
  – Gidget 1959
  – Gidget Goes Hawaiian 1961
  – Beach Party 1963
  – Muscle Beach Party 1964
  – Ride the Wild Surf 1964
  – Beach Ball 1965
  – Beach Blanket Bingo 1965
  – Don‘t Make Waves 1967
               1960-1970 (3)
• Surf music
  – Hawaiian music (pre-1960): soft, romantic,
    island tunes
  – Surf music attempted to capture the emotion
    of riding waves on a surfboard
  – First music to grow out of and focus on one
  – Surf bands emerged in southern California
  – Surf music camps: instrumentals (maximum
    reverb on guitar) and vocals
            1960-1970 (4)

• Surf bands
  – Dick Dale and the Del-Tones
  – Surfaris: ―Wipeout‖
  – Chantays: ―Pipeline‖
  – Ventures:
  – Beach Boys:
  – Jan & Dean: ―Surf City‖
• Surf bands promote sport of surfing
                  1960-1970 (5)
• Surf media
  – Promotes surfing
  – Everyone wants to be in a movie or magazine
  – Magazine demographics: 12-15-year-olds
• surf movies
  –   Slippery When Wet by Bruce Brown 1958
  –   Surf Fever by John Severson 1960
  –   Sacrifice Surf by Bob Bagley 1960
  –   Surf Trek to Hawaii by Bob Evans 1960
  –   The Endless Summer by Bruce Brown 1964
       • $50,000 investment has made millions
       • Interest: adventure travel
                1960-1970 (6)
• Evolution of Surfer (magazine)
  – Book: The Surfer by John Severson to accompany his
  – The Surfer Quarterly
  – Surfer Bi-Monthly
  – Surfer
• Other surfing magazines came and went
• Plexiglas water housing for cameras made the
  – Phil Edwards is first surfer to surf Banzai Pipeline in
    1961 (photos and recognition not available to Knoll
    for riding Waimea in 1957)
                1960-1970 (7)
• Contests between clubs had gone on for
• First significant contests begin
  – World Surfing Championship (Australia, 1964)
  – First official World Contest (Peru, 1965)
  – Tom Morey (Boogie Board) Invitational (Ventura,
     • 25 noseriders
     • Compete for $1500
     • Style: focus on how surfer looked on board through hotdog
       manuevers and noserides (David Nuuhiwa had been the best
       noserider of this period)
              1960-1970 (8)
  – World Contest (San Diego, 1966)
    • Style: focus on full involvement with wave
      (aggression as seen in victory by Australian Nat
• Short board revolution (biggest change)
  – George Greenough rode a kneeboard (4‘ 10‘‘
    and 6 lbs, inspiration for short board)
  – By 1968, most surfers rode short boards (7-8
    feet or less)
  – Board design change: mass production and
    pop-outs from a few designers ends
  – Short, radical, creative new shapes dominate
             1970-1980 (1)

• Man-made wave machines (first one was
  in 1969 in Arizona)
• Surfing takes a dive
  – Many surfers are disinterested in contests
    (Mickey Dora of Malibu loathed contests)
  – Surf music almost dies with Beatles and
    British invasion of 1964
  – Drug use increases
    • Some prominent surfers are institutionalized
    • Some prominent surfers lose their lives to drugs
               1970-1980 (2)

• Inventions
  – The leash in 1971
    • Initial resistance (kook cord)
    • Reduced swimming for board
    • Reduced collisions with crowds
    • Opened doors for experimentation
    • Allowed for focus on ―tube ride‖
               1970-1980 (3)

• Inventions
  – The Boogie Board in 1971
    • Tom Morey shaped polyethylene into rectangle
       – Cut out 4‘ 6‖ shape with electric carving knife
       – Shaped edges with iron
    • Soft, light, small, ding-proof
    • Body stays in contact with water
    • Almost no learning curve
    • Opens wave-riding to almost everyone
              1970-1980 (3)
• Surfing grows again
  – Benefits from growth in related sports
     • Skateboarding (urethane wheels)
     • Windsurfing (grows most in Europe)
     • Snowboarding
  – Successful surf films
     • Big Wednesday 1978
     • Five Summer Stories
     • Free Ride
               1970-1980 (4)
• Surfing grows again
  – Surf travel
     • Baja, Mexico, Central America, Caribbean, Morocco
     • South Arica, West Africa, France, Japan, Australia
     • South Pacific, Bali, Spain, Ireland, Fiji
     • The word has more surf than most expected
  – Surf-related industry skyrockets
     • Hang Ten (started earlier)
     • Quicksilver
     • Instinct (later Solitude)
     • Gotcha
             1970-1980 (4)
• Gerry Lopez masters Pipeline
  – No addiction
  – Cuban, German, Japanese descent
  – Undisputed master of the barrel
  – Started Lightning Bolt surfing company
  – Featured in three of best films of decade
    • Five Summer Stories (1976)
    • Hot Lips and Inner Tubes (1976)
    • Free Ride (1978)
             1980-1990 (1)

• The 3-Fin Thruster
  – Australian Simon Anderson invents in 1980
  – Purpose: maneuver higher and deeper
    through positive traction
  – Duck dive
  – Ridden like skateboard (back foot above fins)
  – Surfing shifts from tube to air
             1980-1990 (2)

• Modern Surfing Contests
  – Focus only on surfing (paddling is not the
    main activity as in 1930s)
  – Divided into divisions by age, sex, and
    activity: menehunes (small children), boys,
    juniors, men, masters, seniors, girls, women,
    tandem, paddle race, professionals.
            1980-1990 (3)

• Rise in prize money
  – 1962 Bells Beach Classic (best ride): $28
  – 1966 Morey‘s Contest (best noseride): $2000
  – 1970 Makaha Smirnoff Pro-Am (first place):
  – 1970 Coke Surfabout (first place): $3000
  – 1996 Pipeline Masters (first place): $20000
             1980-1990 (4)
• After a few unsuccessful attempts to
  create a world surfing organization
  (starting in 1968), the Association of
  Surfing Professionals emerged in 1982
• Tom Curren
  – Christian, boycotted surfing events in South
    Africa during apartheid, surfed board without
    sponsor logos, preferred guitar to interviews
  – World Champion: 1982, 1986, and 1990.
               1990-Present (1)
• Wahines: surfing women
  – Surfing had been male-dominated since early
    Hawaiian culture
     • Men‘s club mindset
     • Size and weight of the equipment
  – Women surfers
     •   Mary Ann Hawkins (pre-WWII)
     •   Vicky Flaxman in 1050s
     •   Robyn, Marge, and Candy Calhoun in 1960s
     •   Linda Benson (first woman to surf Wiamea—age 16) in 1963
     •   Mary Godfrey (later Mary Godfrey Oberg) won World
         Championships in 1968, ‘77, ‘80, and ‗81
         1990-Present (2)
– Women surfers (continued)
  • Lisa Anderson
     – Ran away from home (Florida) to California at age 16
     – Left note saying she would become number 1 surfer in
     – Slept under table at Huntington Beach
     – Begged for entrance into NSSA contest (lacked parental
       consent and student ID)
     – Won that contest and 4 straight World Titles in 1994,
       ‘95, ‘96, and ‘97
     – Prefers man-style surf trunks
     – Inspired many women and girls to pursue surfing
           1990-Present (3)
• Layne Beachley (best female surfer ever)
  – Born in 1972, Australia
  – Adoptee
  – Competed as a girl in soccer and tennis
  – Pro surfer at 16 (skipping amateur contests)
  – Inconsistency plagued her until 1998
  – Boyfriend: Ken Bradshaw (big-wave rider)
  – World Champion: 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001,
    2002, 2003 (only 6-time consecutive world
    champion for men or women!)
         1990-Present (4)
– Women surfers (continued)
– Prize money has been low by comparison to
  men but has grown at a faster pace than for
  men since 1980
– Surfing Girl is one of several magazines aimed
  at female surfers
            1990-Present (5)

• Kelly Slater (best male surfer ever)
  – Born in Cocoa Beach, Floriday
  – Torrid amateur surfing career in high school
  – Costar of TV show Baywatch for two years
  – Featured in People magazine‘s ―50 Most
    Beautiful People‖
  – Won 7 word titles: ‘92, ‘94, ‘95, ‘96, ‘97, ‘98,
           1990-Present (6)
• Kelly Slater (best male surfer ever)
  – World record for youngest world champion in
    1992 (20)
  – World record for oldest world champion in
    2005 (33)
  – Highest prize money winner in history of
    sport: $U.S. 1,303,105.
  – Slater seeks last record of most competition
    victories held by Tom Curren (33). Slater
  – Had lengthy relationship with Baywatch star
    Pamela Anderson
            1990-Present (6)
• Surfrider Foundation: first non-profit
  environmental organization (1984)
• Fights over issues like beach access, oil spills,
  proposed harbors, coastal development, water
• Sponsors have grown to include Pearl Jam, The
  Doors, Rolling Stone magazine, MTV, Surf
  Industries Manufacturing Association, Surfdog
  Records, The Beach Boys, Dick Dale, etc.
• By 2002, more than 30,000 members and 50
  chapters in U.S. alone
             1990-Present (7)
• Tow-in Surfing
  – 25-30 ft waves were biggest without tow-in
  – 40 ft waves with tow-in
  – Jet-assisted take-off (JATO): Jet-ski pulls surfing into
    building swell
  – Footstraps allow for balance in chop
  – Laird Hamilton, Gerry Lopez and others
  – Locations: Mavericks, Cortes Bank, Jaws
  – Deaths: Mark Foo in 1994 (Mavericks), Donnie
    Solomon in 1995 (Waimea), and Todd Chesser in
    1997 (Outside Alligators near Waimea).
            1990-Present (8)

• Current world trend
  – Return to longboarding
  – Shift from ball sports to board sports:
     • Snowboarding
     • Skateboarding
     • Windsurfing
     • Kite surfing
     • Strap surfing
     • Wakeboarding
     • Sky surfing
               The End

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