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					Ch. 45 Endocrine           Name______________________________________

1. Which of the following describes a lipid that functions as a hormone in the
   body?
      a. Oxytocin
      b. Melatonin
      c. Glucagon
      d. Estrogens
      e. Calcitonin

2. Which of the following represents a pair of antagonistic hormones?
     a. FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone)
     b. Oxytocin and melatonin
     c. ADH (antidiuretic hormone) and GH (growth hormone)
     d. Estrogen and progesterone
     e. Insulin and glucagon

3. All of the following are short-term stress responses EXCEPT
       a. Increased blood pressure
       b. Increased rate of breathing
       c. Increased rate of metabolism
       d. Breakdown of glycogen into glucose
       e. Suppression of the immune system

4. Which of the following glands contributes to thermoregulation by adjusting the
   resting metabolic rate?
      a. Pancreas
      b. Thyroid
      c. Anterior pituitary
      d. Adrenal
      e. Pineal

5. Which of these hormones is produced by the anterior pitiuitary?
     a. GnRh
     b. Thyroid-stimulating hormone
     c. Cortisol
     d. Oxytocin
     e. Glucagon

6. A hormone released by the posterior pituitary is
      a. Oxytocin
      b. Prolactin
      c. Epinephrine
      d. Growth hormone
      e. Gonadotropin releasing hormone
7. Which of the following is produced in the hypothalamus?
     a. Calcitonin
     b. Thyroid-stimulating hormone
     c. Adrenocorticotropic hormone
     d. Vasopressin
     e. Prolactin

8. A lack of exposure to sunlight and a lack of fortified dairy products would have
   which of the following effects on the human body?
       a. Bones become more dense than normal.
       b. Bones become longer.
       c. Intestinal calcium absorption is reduced.
       d. Increased amounts of fat are deposited in adipose tissues.
       e. Parathyroid hormone production is reduced.

9. An accident damages an individual’s anterior pituitary gland. Production of
   which of the following hormones would not be directly affected?
      a. LH
      b. Prolactin
      c. Oxytocin
      d. FSH
      e. TSH

10. You are on a safari and see a lion stalking you. Which of the following
    hormones would most likely be released as a result of this stimulus?
       a. ADH
       b. Epinephrine
       c. Thyroxin
       d. ACTH
       e. FSH

11. An individual has a history of high blood pressure and excessively high salt
    concentrations. Which of the following hormones is most probably involved in
    this individual’s situation?
        a. FSH
        b. Aldosterone
        c. LH
        d. GnRH
        e. Glucagon

12. Which of the following is true of steroid hormones?
      a. Insulin is a steroid hormone.
      b. Steroid hormones are able to pass through plasma membranes.
      c. Steroid hormones are unable to affect transcription.
      d. Steroid hormones are composed of polypeptide subunits.
      e. FSH is a steroid hormone.
13. Which of the following hormones is involved in bone maintenance?
      a. Oxygtocin
      b. Cortisol
      c. PTH
      d. STH
      e. TSH

For questions14-17, use the following answer choices:
                          a. LH
                          b. FSH
                          c. Estrogen
                          d. Aldosterone
                          e. TSH
14. _____This hormone is involved in the regulation of the body’s metabolic rate.

15. _____This gonadotropin induces ovulation in females.
16. _____This hormone is involved in the regulation of the body’s sodium
    concentrations.
17. _____This hormone is vital to the maintenance of the endometrium during
    pregnancy.

18. Which gland is responsible for releasing a hormone that causes uterine
    contractions during labor?
       a. Posterior pituitary
       b. Thyroid
       c. Anterior pituitary
       d. Thumus
       e. Adrenal gland

19. Which of the following is LEAST likely to result in a release of adrenaline from
    the adrenal glands?
       a. Walking down a dark, unfamiliar street alone
       b. Participating in a highly selective math competition
       c. Representing your school at the county track meet
       d. Hanging out with your friends after school
       e. Being called into your boss’s office when you arrive late to work

20. What is a key difference between insulin and glucagon?
      a. Insulin binds to cell surface receptors; glucagon binds to receptors in
          the cytoplasm.
      b. Insulin is a peptide hormone; glucagon is not.
      c. Glucagon acts on the liver; insulin does not.
      d. Insulin is produced by the pancreas; glucagon is not.
      e. Insulin stimulates glycogen production in skeletal muscle; glucagon
          does not.
21. Which of the following is an endocrine gland?
      a. Salivary gland
      b. Gallbladder
      c. Sebaceous gland
      d. Lachrymal gland
      e. Pineal gland

22. Which organ in humans is most closely involved with ADH?
      a. Small intestine
      b. Pancreas
      c. Liver
      d. Kidney
      e. Large intestine

23. Which gland is the bridge between the nervous system and the endocrine
    system?
       a. Anterior pituitary
       b. Posterior pituitary
       c. Thyroid
       d. Hypothalamus
       e. Adrenal gland

24. Which of the following hormones is NOT released by the anterior pituitary
    gland?
       a. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
       b. Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)
       c. Growth hormone (GH or STH)
       d. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
       e. Luteinizing hormone (LH)

25. ADH, a hormone, is secreted by the
          a. Testes
          b. Kidney
          c. Pituitary
          d. Pancreas
          e. Thyroid

26. An accident damages an individual’s anterior pituitary gland. Production of
    which of the following would not be DIRECTLY affected?
          a. LH
          b. Prolactin
          c. Oxytocin
          d. FSH
          e. TSH
27. An individual has a hard time maintaining normal weight because his
    metabolic rate is low. There may be a problem with which of the following
    hormones?
           a. ADH
           b. Thyroxine
           c. Aldosterone
           d. GnRH
           e. Prolactin

28. You are on a safari and see a lion stalking you. Which of the following
    hormones would most likely be released as a result of this stimulus?
          a. ADH
          b. Epinephrine
          c. Thyroxin
          d. ACTH
          e. FSH

29. Which of the following is not a hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary?
      a. TSH
      b. FSH
      c. ADH
      d. LH
      e. STH

30. Which of the following is true about steroid hormones:
          a. Insulin is a steroid hormone.
          b. Steroid hormones are able to pass through plasma membranes.
          c. Steroid hormones are unable to affect transcription.
          d. Steroid hormones are composed of polypeptide subunits.
          e. FSH is a steroid hormone.

31. Which of the following hormones is involved in bone maintenance?
          a. Oxytocin
          b. Cortisol
          c. PTH
          d. STH
          e. TSH

32. The concentration of which of the following hormones in the bloodstream
    stimulates the contraction of uterine muscles in females?
           a. FSH
           b. LH
           c. Prolactin
           d. Oxytocin
           e. Epinephrine
33. An individual with a history of high blood pressure and excessively high salt
    concentrations. Which of the following hormones is most probably involved in
    this individual’s situation?
            a. FSH
            b. Aldosterone
            c. LH
            d. GnRH
            e. Glucagon

For questions 9-11, use the following answer choices:
       a. LH
       b. FSH
       c. Estrogen
       d. Aldosterone
       e. TSH
34. _____This hormone is involved in the regulation of the body’s metabolic rate.
35. _____This gonadotropin induces ovulation in females.
36. _____This hormone is vital to the maintenance of the endometrium during
    pregnancy.

37. Which of the following is not a hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary?
          a. TSH
          b. FSH
          c. ADH
          d. LH
          e. STH

For questions 38-41, please use the following answer selections:
       a. FSH
       b. LH
       c. Testosterone
       d. Estrogen
       e. HCG
38. _____This hormone ultimately triggers ovulation in females.
39. _____This hormone is produced in the interstitial cells.
40. _____This hormone is responsible for maintenance of the corpus luteum
    during early pregnancy.
41. _____This hormone works with testosterone to assist in maturation of the
    sperm produced during spermatogenesis.

42. Which of the following is true regarding the hypothalamus?
          a. It secretes thyroid-stimulating hormone.
          b. It secretes luteinizing hormone.
          c. It is an extension of the pituitary gland.
          d. It produces neurosecretory hormones.
          e. It secretes neurotransmitters into synapses.
43. Blood glucose levels can be caused by a shortage or absence of which of the
    following hormones?
           a. Glucagons
           b. Insulin
           c. Parathyroid hormone
           d. Calcitonin
           e. Norepinephrine

44. Destruction of all beta cells in the pancreas will cause which of the following
    to occur?
           a. Glucagons secretion will stop and blood glucose levels will
              increase.
           b. Glucagons secretions will stop and blood glucose levels will
              decrease.
           c. Glucagons section will stop and digestive enzymes will be secreted.
           d. Insulin secretion will stop and blood glucose levels will increase.
           e. Insulin secretion will stop and blood glucose levels will decrease.

45. A sustained decrease in circulating Ca+2 levels might be caused by
    decreased levels of which of the following substances?
          a. Growth hormone
          b. Parathyroid hormone
          c. Thyroid hormone
          d. Calcitonin
          e. Glucagons

46. Which of the following hormones is incorrectly paired with its respective
    function?
           a. Thyroxin-increases the rate of metabolism
           b. Insulin-decreases storage of glycogen
           c. Vasopression-stimulates water reabsorption in the kidney
           d. Epinephrine-increases blood sugar levels and heart rate
           e. Growth hormone-stimulates muscle growth

47. High levels of estrogen from maturing follicles inhibit the release of
    gonadotropin releasing hormones (GnRH). Which of the following endocrine
    structures produce GnRH?
           a. Anterior pituitary
           b. Posterior pituitary
           c. Hypothalamus
           d. Pineal gland
           e. Ovary
Questions 48-52
       a. Cortisol
       b. Oxytocin
       c. Progesterone
       d. Hypothalamus
       e. Parathyroid hormone
48. _____Regulates bone growth
49. _____Elevates blood sugar
50. _____Maintains uterine endometrium
51. _____Causes contraction of uterine muscles during childbirth
52. _____Secretes hormones that travel to the anterior posterior

53. All of the following are involved in the regulation of blood sugar EXCEPT
            a. Glucagons
            b. Insulin
            c. The liver
            d. Melatonin
            e. The pancreas

   Questions 54-57 refer to the diagram below.




54. _____A sudden change in an organism’s amount of extracellular fluid will be
    corrected by this organ.
55. _____A person eats three candy bars. Within minutes, this endocrine gland
    effects blood glucose homeostasis.
56. _____Substances that cause vasoconstriction change the diameter of blood
    vessels in order to assist in increasing blood pressure. Such substances are
    produced by this gland.
57. _____Secrete aldosterone.
Questions 58-61 refer to the following experiment.
In a glucose tolerance test, two fasting subjects drink glucose solutions (in
amounts that are proportional to their body weight). Plasma glucose levels are
measured just before ingestion, and at 30-minute intervals for the next two hours.




58. The plasma glucose levels of the subjects, while still fasting, are
          a. 0 minutes
          b. 80 mg/dl
          c. 130 mg/dl
          d. 180 mg/dl
          e. Not depicted in the graph above

59. Peak plasma glucose levels are reached
          a. At the time of ingestion
          b. At 30 minutes
          c. At 60 minutes
          d. At different times for the two subjects
          e. At 30 mg/dl

60. Graph A indicates
          a. A normal response to glucose ingestion
          b. A diabetic response to glucose ingestion
          c. A maximum plasma glucose level of 180 mg/dl
          d. A return to fasting glucose levels within a half hour
          e. A fasting glucose level of 130 mg/dl

61. Graph B indicates
          a. Excess insulin has been secreted
          b. High tolerance to glucose
          c. A diabetic condition
          d. A maximum glucose level of 180 mg/dl
          e. Rapid return to fasting glucose levels
Questions 62-66: Use the following key for the next five questions. Each answer
in the key may be used once, more than once, or not at all.
        a. Testosterone
        b. Progesterone
        c. Luteinizing hormone (LH)
        d. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
        e. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
62. _____Stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to release hormones
63. _____Stimulates ovulation
64. _____Promotes the development of the endometrium
65. _____Follicles secrete this hormone
66. _____Stimulates the testes to produce androgens

67. Urinary excretion of glucose may occur
           a. In subject A
           b. In subject B
           c. In both subjects
           d. In neither subject
           e. But it is unrelated to plasma glucose levels

68. Which hormone opposes the effect of the other four?
          a. Cortisol
          b. Epinephrine
          c. Glucagons
          d. Growth hormone
          e. Insulin

69. Prolactin stimulates mammary gland growth and development in mammals
    and regulates salt and water balance in freshwater fish. Many scientists
    believe that this wide range of functions indicates that
           a. Prolactin is a nonspecific hormone.
           b. Prolactin has a unique mechanism for eliciting its effects.
           c. Prolactin is an ancient hormone.
           d. Prolactin is derived from two separate sources.
           e. Prolactin interacts with many different receptor molecules.

70. The secretion of hormone A causes an increase in activity X in an organism.
    If this mechanism works by positive feedback, which of the following
    statements represents that fact?
            a. An increase in X produces an increase in A.
            b. An increase in A produces an increase in X.
            c. An increase in X produces a decrease in A.
            d. A decrease in A produces an increase in X.
            e. Both A and B are correct.
71. Chemical substances released by organisms that elicit a physiological or
    behavioral response in other members of the same species are known as
          a. Auxins
          b. Hormones
          c. Pheromones
          d. Enzymes
          e. Coenzymes

   72. Which of the following hormone sequences is CORRECT?
         a. LHFSHadrenal glands
         b. GNRHFSHovaries
         c. CRHACTHFSHthyroid gland
         d. CRHLHtestes
         e. GNRHFSHLHpineal gland

73. The mineral necessary for thyroxin synthesis is
          a. Ca
          b. Fe
          c. I
          d. P
          e. S

   74. The hypothalamus controls the anterior pituitary by means of
          a. Releasing factors.
          b. Second messengers.
          c. Third messengers.
          d. Antibodies.
          e. Pyrogens.

   75. Hormones from the hypothalamus do NOT affect the release of
          a. Prolactin.
          b. Oxytocin.
          c. Growth hormone.
          d. Thyroid-stimulating hormone.
          e. Adrenocorticotropic hormone.

   76. Which of the following pairs of hormones do NOT have antagonistic
       effects?
           a. Insulin and glucagon
           b. Growth hormone releasing hormone and growth hormone inhibiting
              hormone
           c. Parathyroid hormone and calcitonin
           d. Follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone
           e. Aldosterone and atrial natriuretic factor
   77. The endocrine system and the nervous system are chemically related.
       Which of the following substances best illustrates this relationship?
          a. Estrogen
          b. Calcitonin
          c. Norephinephrine
          d. Calcium
          e. Thymosin

   78. Which of the following hormones is INCORRECTLY paired with its action?
         a. GnRH-controls release of FSH and LH
         b. Estrogen-responsible for primary and secondary female sex
             characteristics
         c. Human chorionic gonadotropin-maintains secretions from the
             corpus luteum
         d. Luteinizing hormone-stimulates ovulation
         e. Progesterone-stimulates follicles to develop

   79. Which of the following structures is INCORRECTLY paired with its
       function?
          a. Epididymis-maturation and storage of sperm
          b. Fallopian tube-site of normal embryonic implantation
          c. Seminal vesicles-add sugar and mucus to semen
          d. Placenta-maternal/fetal exchange organ; progesterone producing
          e. Prostate gland-adds alkaline substances to semen

Questions 80-84: Match the following hormones to their functions:
                            a. LH
                            b. FSH
                            c. ICSH
                            d. GnRH
                            e. Estrogen
80. _____Triggers ovulation
81. _____Secreted by growing follicle
82. _____Stimulates corpus luteum
83. _____Hypothalamic hormone that stimulates secretion of gonadotropins by
    the anterior pituitary
84. _____Anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates maturation of follicle

   85. How does glucagon affect the liver?
         a. Glycogen synthesis is stimulated.
         b. Uptake of free fatty acids to produce triglycerides is increased.
         c. Glycogen phosphorylase activity is triggered.
         d. The liver releases insulin.
         e. The rate of liver glycolysis will increase.
Questions 86-91 refer to the list of hormones below. You may use each one
    once, more than once, or not al all.
                           a. Glucagon
                           b. Adrenocorticotropic hormone
                           c. Oxytocin
                           d. Thyroxin
                           e. Thyroid-stimulating hormone
86. _____Induces labor
87. _____Released by the posterior pituitary
88. _____Stimulates the adrenal gland
89. _____Controls metabolic rate
90. _____Produced in the pancreas
91. _____Causes blood sugar levels to rise

92. The hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex
       a. Reduces inflammatory response
       b. Is an amino acid
       c. Stimulates the adrenal medulla
       d. Lowers blood sugar
       e. Is oxytocin

93. Tropic hormones
       a. Are those that are secreted by the liver
       b. Are those that are secreted by the thyroid
       c. Stimulate other glands
       d. Are released only in females
       e. Are released only by the hypothalamus

94. The levels of calcium in the blood are regulated by hormonal secretions from
    which pair of organs?
       a. The pancreas and thymus
       b. The thyroid and parathyroid
       c. The testes and ovaries
       d. The posterior and anterior pituitary
       e. The adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex

95. The main target of antidiuretic hormone is the
       a. Heart
       b. Kidney
       c. Liver
       d. Spleen
       e. Thyroid
96. The use of radioactive iodine as a tracer element in the study of human
    metabolic rate has shown that iodine
          a. Alters gene expression
          b. Regulates calcium metabolism
          c. Binds to a specific receptor on the cell membrane of a thyroid gland
              cell
          d. Is a hormone that lowers glucose levels in the blood

97. Which of the following statements is not true?
          a. Sebaceous glands secrete sweat.
          b. Pancreas secretes hormones, such as glucagons.
          c. Pancreas secretes digestive enzymes such as trypsin.
          d. Lacrimal glands secrete tears.
          e. Mammary glands secrete milk.

98. Cyclic AMP plays what role in eukaryotic cells?
       a. Stores energy
       b. Provides a building block for DNA
       c. Acts as a second messenger in signal transduction
       d. Is a high-energy electron carrier
       e. Protects against foreign pathogens

99. Which of the following is an example of positive feedback?
      a. An increase in blood sugar increases the release of insulin, which
          lowers blood sugar.
      b. An infant suckling at a mother’s breast stimulates an increase in the
          levels of oxytocin, which causes more milk to flow.
      c. When the level of thyroxin in the blood goes below a set point, the
          pituitary stimulates the thyroid to produce more thyroxin.
      d. A decrease in calcium levels in the blood increases the levels of
          hormone that causes the release of calcium from the bones.
      e. A decrease in blood sugar levels causes an increase in glucagon
          levels, which stimulates release of glucose from the liver.

Questions 100-102: Use these choices
                           a. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone
                           b. Luteinizing hormone
                           c. Follicle-stimulating hormone
                           d. Progesterone
                           e. Oxytocin
100. _____Hormone produced by the corpus luteum that is responsible for
   thickening the uterine wall
101. _____Hormone from the hypothalamus that triggers the release of follicle-
   stimulating hormone
102. _____Hormone that triggers ovulation of the secondary oocyte

				
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