CE 2                                                                                                                 TULSA WORLD
                                                                                                                         A                                                                                                           Sunday, Nov. 5, 2006

WASHINGTON IRVING: HE SLEPT HERE?                                                                                                                                       OIL: PROSPERITY FLOWED

                                                                                                                                                                                     Courtesy of the Oklahoma State Senate Historical Preservation Fund Inc.

                                                                                                                                                                           Before the drilling and production of oil, American Indians were
                                                                                                                                                                         using petroleum found in Oklahoma for medicinal purposes.
                                                                                                                                                                         Petroleum was evident on the outcroppings of many water
                                                                                                                                                                         springs and streams. This painting, “The Magic of Petroleum,” is
                                                                                                                                                                         by Wayne Cooper.

                                                                                                                                                                        Wells oiled the
                                                                                                                                                                        way to statehood
                                                                                                                                                                        B Y R USSELL R AY
                                                                                                                                                                        World Staff Writer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Where does oil
                                                                                                                                                                           Oil propelled Oklahoma to
                                                                                                                                                                        statehood 100 years ago.                   come from?
                                                                                                                                                                           Huge oil discoveries near Tul-             According to one theory, oil
                                                                                                                                                                        sa and Bartlesville lured thou-            comes from prehistoric plants and
                                                                                                                                                                        sands to Indian Territory in a             animals, which died long ago and
                                                                                                                                                                        quest for wealth. As production            are buried below the Earth’s sur-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   face. Through heat and pressure
                                                                                                                                                                        grew and the industry pros-                from the Earth’s crust, those
                                                                                                                                                                        pered, Oklahoma became a                   plants and animals were trans-
                                                                                              Courtesy of the Oklahoma State Senate Historical Preservation Fund Inc.   state and Tulsa was on course              formed into chemicals known as
                                                                                                                                                                        to become the “oil capital of the          hydrocarbons — oil and natural
  In his book, “A Tour of the Prairies,” Washington Irving wrote of encountering an Osage village on the bank of the Arkansas River near                                world.”                                    gas.
present-day Tulsa. “Our arrival created quite a sensation. A number of old men came forward and shook hands with us severally; while the                                   The first recorded oil well in             “Those deposits naturally seep
women and children huddled together in groups, staring at us wildly. ...” The painting is by Wayne Cooper.                                                              Oklahoma was completed in                  to the surface,” said Larry Nation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   of the American Association of
                                                                                                                                                                        1859. But the find was acciden-            Petroleum Geologists.
                                                                                                                                                                        tal. The operator was drilling                Others believe oil comes from

        Author wrote of travels
                                                                                                                                                                        for saltwater, not oil.                    the Earth’s mantle, the layer of
                                                                                                                                                                           Nearly 40 years later, the Nel-         rock sandwiched between the
                                                                                                                                                                        lie Johnstone No. 1 — the first            Earth’s crust and core. Propo-
                                                                                                                                                                        commercial oil well in Oklaho-             nents of this theory contend oil
                                                                                                                                                                        ma — was drilled near Bartles-             originates from magma. If this
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   theory is true, oil may be more
                                                                                                                                                                        ville. The 1897 discovery ignited          abundant.
B Y S HAUN E PPERSON                                                                                                                                                    a rush that led to a series of
World Staff Writer                                                                                                                                                      big oil finds in the state, includ-
                                                                                                                                                                        ing the Red Fork, the Glenn                largest oil field.
           efore Oklahoma could

                                                                                                                                                                        Pool, the Seminole, the Cushing
           be found on any map,                                                                                                                                         and the Oklahoma City Field.                  Rapid development of the
           author Washington Ir-                                                                                                                                                                                   Oklahoma City Field led the
                                                                                                                                                                           The Glenn Pool, discovered
           ving captured readers’                                                                                                                                                                                  state to enact a comprehensive
                                                                                                                                                                        in 1905, wasn’t the biggest oil
           imaginations with his                                                                                                                                                                                   conservation law, the first of its
                                                                                                                                                                        discovery in Oklahoma. But for
account of a wilderness adven-                                                                                                                                                                                     kind in the nation.
                                                                                                                                                                        a time, it was the nation’s larg-
ture in the future state.                                                                                                                                               est producing oil field. The dis-             Oil production in the Sooner
   Born in Manhattan in 1783, Ir-                                                                                                    Courtesy, Oklahoma Arts Council    covery well flowed at about 85             State peaked in 1927 at 278 mil-
ving is best remembered for the                                                                                                                                         barrels a day.                             lion barrels.
short stories “The Legend of                                                                                                                                               “The Glenn Pool brought at-                But years of production have
Sleepy Hollow” and “Rip Van               Explorers and other early visitors are illustrated in “Discovery and Exploration 1541-1820,” a mural
                                                                                                                                                                        tention to the state,” said Larry          depleted the state’s once-mighty
Winkle.” However, he traveled             painted by Charles Banks Wilson in the state Capitol.
                                                                                                                                                                        Nation of the American Associa-            oil fields. Despite higher prices,
through what is now Oklahoma                                                                                                                                            tion of Petroleum Geologists. “It          Oklahoma oil production contin-
in 1832 and published “A Tour                                                                                                                                           also brought money and peo-                ues to decline.
                                                                                                         JEAN-BAPTISTE BENARD

on the Prairies” a few years later.                                                                                                      ZEBULON PIKE
                                                                                                         SIEUR DE LA HARPE               Country: American
                                                                                                                                                                        ple.”                                         Last year, Oklahoma oil pro-
   The writer decided to explore                                                                         Country: France                                                   The Cushing Field was dis-              duction fell to a 93-year low 61
                                                                                                                                         Expedition: Pike’s influence
the frontier after meeting Henry                                                                         Expedition: La Harpe in         on Oklahoma was indirect.      covered in 1912 and the Okla-              million barrels. The petroleum
Leavitt Ellsworth, who was to as-                                                                                                                                       homa City Field was discovered             industry produced less Oklaho-
sume the post of U.S. Indian
commissioner. Ellsworth invited
Irving to accompany him to Fort
                                          OUR PAST
                                          European adventurers who passed through
                                                                                                         1719 was given authority
                                                                                                         by French officials to fur-
                                                                                                         ther explore “Louisiana.”
                                                                                                            He was assigned to
                                                                                                                                         In 1806, Gen. James Wilkin-
                                                                                                                                         son sent Zebulon Pike to
                                                                                                                                         explore the southern part
                                                                                                                                         of the Louisiana Territory.
                                                                                                                                                                        in 1927. For a time, the Oklaho-
                                                                                                                                                                        ma City Field was the nation’s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ma oil in 2005 than in any year
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   since 1912, state records show.
Gibson to tour what would be-                                                                            explore, trade with the na-     Pike sent a party, which in-
come Indian Territory.                                                                                   tive people and establish a     cluded General Wilkinson’s
                                           FRANCISCO VASQUEZ DE          ROBERT CAVELIER, SIEUR
   The author and his compan-                                                                            link with the settlements of    son, Lt. James Wilkinson,
ions on the 35-day adventure ar-
                                          Country: Spain
                                                                         DE LA SALLE
                                                                         Country: La Salle was born
                                                                                                         New Mexico in the West.         down the Arkansas River                             Oklahoma Centennial
                                                                                                            La Harpe set up camp         from Kansas.
rived at Fort Gibson in October
1832, before departing to catch
                                          Expedition: Coronado in
                                          1541 led an expedition into
                                                                         in France and emigrated to      in Texas but personally led        The party was supposed                              Special Section
                                                                         Canada                          an expedition northward         to explore the lands and
up with an Army expedition that           what would become the          Expedition: In 1682, La
had left days earlier.                                                                                   into eastern Oklahoma. His      befriend local Indians. At              During the year leading up to
                                          state’s Panhandle, becom-      Salle traveled by canoe         party, which probably in-                                             Oklahoma’s 100th birthday, the
                                                                                                                                         the “Three Forks” of the
   Some historians say Irving and         ing the first European          down the Mississippi River      cluded a few Indian guides,                                           Tulsa World will publish five
                                                                                                                                         Arkansas, Verdigris and
his party camped in what is now           explorer in Oklahoma. Coro-    to claim it and surround-       several soldiers and others,    Grand rivers, Lt. Wilkinson           special sections:
Bixby and again in south Tulsa.           nado sought the famed          ing lands for the king of       first traveled across McCur-     met with an Osage leader,
The party then, according to his-         cities of Cibola, rumored to
                                                                                                                                                                                 Territory Days
                                                                         France.                         tain, Choctaw, Pushmataha,      who told Wilkinson he
torians, stayed at a site near Tul-       be rich with gold, but did        La Salle made the first
                                                                                                                                                                               (pre-statehood) Nov. 5, 2006
                                                                                                         Latimer and Pittsburg coun-     wanted the government                   Statehood and Oil (1907-32)
sa’s Owen Park. A marker stands           not find the riches for which   complete exploration            ties, by many accounts.                                               Jan. 28, 2007
                                                                                                                                         to establish an outpost at
at Easton Street and Vancouver            he searched.                   of the river, discovering          Although the party’s route                                           Depression, Dust and War
                                                                                                                                         the mouth of the Verdigris
Avenue where it is believed the                                          the mouth of the Missis-        has been disputed, histo-       River.                                (1933-57) March 25, 2007
group stayed.                             HERNANDO DE SOTO               sippi. He claimed all lands     rians say La Harpe then            Wilkinson recorded the               Hello Legal Liquor, Goodbye
                                          Country: Spain                 drained by the river, includ-   crossed the Canadian River                                            Oil (1958-82) July 15, 2007
   From Tulsa, the party traveled                                                                                                        leader’s request in his
                                                                                                                                                                                 Oklahoma Centennial — 100 Years (1983-07) Nov. 11,
                                          Expedition: A year after       ing Oklahoma, for King          near what is now Eufaula,       report. Pike, upon comple-
to a site Irving called Bear’s Glen       Coronado’s journey through                                                                                                           2007
                                                                         Louis, giving the lands the     pushing through McIntosh        tion of his explorations,
near Lake Keystone, historians            the Panhandle, de Soto         name Louisiana.                 County and the western          suggested that the land
say. After leaving Bear’s Glen,           explored what would               La Salle died without
the party followed the Cimarron                                                                          parts of Muskogee and           of present-day Oklahoma
River to the Stillwater area and
                                          become northeastern
                                          Oklahoma. In addition, his
                                                                         establishing a colony at
                                                                         the mouth of the river. He
                                                                                                         Wagoner counties before
                                                                                                         reaching Tulsa County.
                                                                                                                                         be set aside as Indian                                           Online
then to what is now Norman.                                                                                                              territory.
                                          party traversed the areas      was killed in 1687 by angry                                                                             Read the 1907 edition of the Tulsa World that
Weary and short on supplies, the                                                                            By many accounts, La                                               celebrated statehood and all of the centennial features
                                          of present-day Arkansas        colonists after they settled    Harpe was well-received by
group returned to Fort Gibson.            and Kansas. Although           on the coast of Texas.
                                                                                                                                                                               appearing in the paper. www.tulsaworld.com/centennial.asp
                                                                                                         villages of Wichita Indians
                                          Oklahoma was claimed by                                        along the Arkansas River
       Shaun Epperson 581-8369            Spain, and later Mexico,
    shaun.epperson@tulsaworld.com                                                                        near present-day Leonard.
                                          neither formally settled it.
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Debbie Jackson

First people were hunters and artists                                                                                                                                                                         Design
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Mark Brown
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Lauren Cavagnolo

B Y S HAUN E PPERSON                     At the Domebo site in Caddo               Wichita and Caddo ancestors                    Some say the mounds were                                                   Research
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Keith Binning
World Staff Writer                    County, spear points were found           lived in villages of thatched-roof             created for Caddoan-speaking                                             Hilary Pittman
                                      near mammoth bones. At a bi-              houses and raised corn, beans                  leadership who participated in                                          Rachele Vaughan
  Thousands of years ago, an-
                                      son kill site in Harper County,           and other food. Caddo, Wichita,                the Mississippian Culture, which
cient hunters may have stalked
                                      some of the earliest examples of          Osage, Quapaw and other tribes                 was a confederation that includ-                                        Acknowledgements
big game where Tulsa and Okla-
                                      painted artwork in North Ameri-           were here when the first Euro-                 ed a large number of leaders                                              Bob Blackburn
homa City now stand.
                                      ca were found.                            pean explorers arrived.                        from differing affiliations.                           executive director, Oklahoma Historical Society
  From Ice Age nomads to an-                                                                                                                                                                             Michael Dean
cestors of modern American In-           Toward the end of the Ice                The Spiro Mounds of LeFlore                     Those who lived in the area                      public relations director, Oklahoma Historical Society
dians, this land had been home        Age, the summers would have               County: While other sites hold                 may have been ancestors of Cad-                                Former State Sen. Charles Ford
to many people, millennia before      been cooler and wetter than in            important clues to what life was               do, Wichita, Kitsai or Tunica, re-                president and founder, Oklahoma State Senate Historical
European explorers arrived.           the present day. The western              like in prehistoric Oklahoma,                  searchers say. Other research                                       Preservation Fund Inc.
  Although some evidence sug-         part of the state and the Panhan-         perhaps none is as renowned as                 suggests that the inhabitants of                                         Pam Hodges
                                      dle area may have supported               the Spiro Mounds complex in                    the Spiro Mounds area aren’t                     Oklahoma State Senate Historical Preservation Fund Inc.
gests that the earliest people                                                                                                                                                                            Betty Price
were here more than 30,000            grasslands and woodlands, while           LeFlore County.                                linked to any of those groups.                         executive director, Oklahoma State Arts Council
years ago, the first well-docu-       forests prevailed in the east.               The 12 earthen mounds, locat-               Excavation of the mounds yield-                                          Scott Cowan
mented inhabitants arrived some          While not all inhabitants of           ed on the bank of the Arkansas                 ed evidence that the people who                             curator, Oklahoma State Arts Council
time around 12,000 years ago,         prehistoric Oklahoma forged               River, include one burial mound,               built them traded extensively                                             Linda Stone
                                      lasting connections to the land,          a pair of temple mounds and                    with other groups.                                                curator, Woolaroc Museum
some researchers say.                                                                                                                                                                                   I. Marc Carlson
  These Ice Age nomads possi-         some modern-day Oklahomans                nine other mounds.                                Artifacts included trade goods                interim head, Special Collections and Archives, University
bly traveled from Asia to Alaska      likely have ties to some of the              The site may have started as a              such as copper and shell beads.                                             of Tulsa
across a land bridge. Traveling       state’s earliest people.                  small village before the mounds,               The copper likely was from the                                       Tulsa Historical Society
in small groups, they likely fol-        The Wichita and Caddo tribes,          other ceremonial areas and ex-                 Great Lakes region, whereas the
lowed mammoth and bison spe-          researchers have said, can trace          panded settlements were con-                   shell beads and other items
cies, which they would have           their lineage to the prehistoric          structed sometime between A.D.                 were probably from the West
hunted with stone-tipped spears.      inhabitants of the state.                 850 and 1350.                                  Coast and the Gulf of Mexico.

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