CE 2 TULSA WORLD A Sunday, Nov. 5, 2006 WASHINGTON IRVING: HE SLEPT HERE? OIL: PROSPERITY FLOWED Courtesy of the Oklahoma State Senate Historical Preservation Fund Inc. Before the drilling and production of oil, American Indians were using petroleum found in Oklahoma for medicinal purposes. Petroleum was evident on the outcroppings of many water springs and streams. This painting, “The Magic of Petroleum,” is by Wayne Cooper. Wells oiled the way to statehood B Y R USSELL R AY World Staff Writer Where does oil Oil propelled Oklahoma to statehood 100 years ago. come from? Huge oil discoveries near Tul- According to one theory, oil sa and Bartlesville lured thou- comes from prehistoric plants and sands to Indian Territory in a animals, which died long ago and quest for wealth. As production are buried below the Earth’s sur- face. Through heat and pressure grew and the industry pros- from the Earth’s crust, those pered, Oklahoma became a plants and animals were trans- Courtesy of the Oklahoma State Senate Historical Preservation Fund Inc. state and Tulsa was on course formed into chemicals known as to become the “oil capital of the hydrocarbons — oil and natural In his book, “A Tour of the Prairies,” Washington Irving wrote of encountering an Osage village on the bank of the Arkansas River near world.” gas. present-day Tulsa. “Our arrival created quite a sensation. A number of old men came forward and shook hands with us severally; while the The first recorded oil well in “Those deposits naturally seep women and children huddled together in groups, staring at us wildly. ...” The painting is by Wayne Cooper. Oklahoma was completed in to the surface,” said Larry Nation of the American Association of 1859. But the find was acciden- Petroleum Geologists. tal. The operator was drilling Others believe oil comes from Author wrote of travels for saltwater, not oil. the Earth’s mantle, the layer of Nearly 40 years later, the Nel- rock sandwiched between the lie Johnstone No. 1 — the first Earth’s crust and core. Propo- commercial oil well in Oklaho- nents of this theory contend oil ma — was drilled near Bartles- originates from magma. If this theory is true, oil may be more ville. The 1897 discovery ignited abundant. B Y S HAUN E PPERSON a rush that led to a series of World Staff Writer big oil finds in the state, includ- ing the Red Fork, the Glenn largest oil field. efore Oklahoma could B Pool, the Seminole, the Cushing be found on any map, and the Oklahoma City Field. Rapid development of the author Washington Ir- Oklahoma City Field led the The Glenn Pool, discovered ving captured readers’ state to enact a comprehensive in 1905, wasn’t the biggest oil imaginations with his conservation law, the first of its discovery in Oklahoma. But for account of a wilderness adven- kind in the nation. a time, it was the nation’s larg- ture in the future state. est producing oil field. The dis- Oil production in the Sooner Born in Manhattan in 1783, Ir- Courtesy, Oklahoma Arts Council covery well flowed at about 85 State peaked in 1927 at 278 mil- ving is best remembered for the barrels a day. lion barrels. short stories “The Legend of “The Glenn Pool brought at- But years of production have Sleepy Hollow” and “Rip Van Explorers and other early visitors are illustrated in “Discovery and Exploration 1541-1820,” a mural tention to the state,” said Larry depleted the state’s once-mighty Winkle.” However, he traveled painted by Charles Banks Wilson in the state Capitol. Nation of the American Associa- oil fields. Despite higher prices, through what is now Oklahoma tion of Petroleum Geologists. “It Oklahoma oil production contin- in 1832 and published “A Tour also brought money and peo- ues to decline. JEAN-BAPTISTE BENARD EXPLORING on the Prairies” a few years later. ZEBULON PIKE SIEUR DE LA HARPE Country: American ple.” Last year, Oklahoma oil pro- The writer decided to explore Country: France The Cushing Field was dis- duction fell to a 93-year low 61 Expedition: Pike’s inﬂuence the frontier after meeting Henry Expedition: La Harpe in on Oklahoma was indirect. covered in 1912 and the Okla- million barrels. The petroleum Leavitt Ellsworth, who was to as- homa City Field was discovered industry produced less Oklaho- sume the post of U.S. Indian commissioner. Ellsworth invited Irving to accompany him to Fort OUR PAST European adventurers who passed through 1719 was given authority by French ofﬁcials to fur- ther explore “Louisiana.” He was assigned to In 1806, Gen. James Wilkin- son sent Zebulon Pike to explore the southern part of the Louisiana Territory. in 1927. For a time, the Oklaho- ma City Field was the nation’s ma oil in 2005 than in any year since 1912, state records show. Gibson to tour what would be- explore, trade with the na- Pike sent a party, which in- come Indian Territory. tive people and establish a cluded General Wilkinson’s FRANCISCO VASQUEZ DE ROBERT CAVELIER, SIEUR The author and his compan- link with the settlements of son, Lt. James Wilkinson, ions on the 35-day adventure ar- CORONADO Country: Spain DE LA SALLE Country: La Salle was born New Mexico in the West. down the Arkansas River Oklahoma Centennial La Harpe set up camp from Kansas. rived at Fort Gibson in October 1832, before departing to catch Expedition: Coronado in 1541 led an expedition into in France and emigrated to in Texas but personally led The party was supposed Special Section Canada an expedition northward to explore the lands and up with an Army expedition that what would become the Expedition: In 1682, La had left days earlier. into eastern Oklahoma. His befriend local Indians. At During the year leading up to state’s Panhandle, becom- Salle traveled by canoe party, which probably in- Oklahoma’s 100th birthday, the the “Three Forks” of the Some historians say Irving and ing the ﬁrst European down the Mississippi River cluded a few Indian guides, Tulsa World will publish five Arkansas, Verdigris and his party camped in what is now explorer in Oklahoma. Coro- to claim it and surround- several soldiers and others, Grand rivers, Lt. Wilkinson special sections: Bixby and again in south Tulsa. nado sought the famed ing lands for the king of ﬁrst traveled across McCur- met with an Osage leader, The party then, according to his- cities of Cibola, rumored to Territory Days France. tain, Choctaw, Pushmataha, who told Wilkinson he torians, stayed at a site near Tul- be rich with gold, but did La Salle made the ﬁrst (pre-statehood) Nov. 5, 2006 Latimer and Pittsburg coun- wanted the government Statehood and Oil (1907-32) sa’s Owen Park. A marker stands not ﬁnd the riches for which complete exploration ties, by many accounts. Jan. 28, 2007 to establish an outpost at at Easton Street and Vancouver he searched. of the river, discovering Although the party’s route Depression, Dust and War the mouth of the Verdigris Avenue where it is believed the the mouth of the Missis- has been disputed, histo- River. (1933-57) March 25, 2007 group stayed. HERNANDO DE SOTO sippi. He claimed all lands rians say La Harpe then Wilkinson recorded the Hello Legal Liquor, Goodbye Country: Spain drained by the river, includ- crossed the Canadian River Oil (1958-82) July 15, 2007 From Tulsa, the party traveled leader’s request in his Oklahoma Centennial — 100 Years (1983-07) Nov. 11, Expedition: A year after ing Oklahoma, for King near what is now Eufaula, report. Pike, upon comple- to a site Irving called Bear’s Glen Coronado’s journey through 2007 Louis, giving the lands the pushing through McIntosh tion of his explorations, near Lake Keystone, historians the Panhandle, de Soto name Louisiana. County and the western suggested that the land say. After leaving Bear’s Glen, explored what would La Salle died without the party followed the Cimarron parts of Muskogee and of present-day Oklahoma River to the Stillwater area and become northeastern Oklahoma. In addition, his establishing a colony at the mouth of the river. He Wagoner counties before reaching Tulsa County. be set aside as Indian Online then to what is now Norman. territory. party traversed the areas was killed in 1687 by angry Read the 1907 edition of the Tulsa World that Weary and short on supplies, the By many accounts, La celebrated statehood and all of the centennial features of present-day Arkansas colonists after they settled Harpe was well-received by group returned to Fort Gibson. and Kansas. Although on the coast of Texas. appearing in the paper. www.tulsaworld.com/centennial.asp villages of Wichita Indians Oklahoma was claimed by along the Arkansas River Shaun Epperson 581-8369 Spain, and later Mexico, firstname.lastname@example.org near present-day Leonard. neither formally settled it. Editor Debbie Jackson First people were hunters and artists Design Mark Brown Lauren Cavagnolo B Y S HAUN E PPERSON At the Domebo site in Caddo Wichita and Caddo ancestors Some say the mounds were Research Keith Binning World Staff Writer County, spear points were found lived in villages of thatched-roof created for Caddoan-speaking Hilary Pittman near mammoth bones. At a bi- houses and raised corn, beans leadership who participated in Rachele Vaughan Thousands of years ago, an- son kill site in Harper County, and other food. Caddo, Wichita, the Mississippian Culture, which cient hunters may have stalked some of the earliest examples of Osage, Quapaw and other tribes was a confederation that includ- Acknowledgements big game where Tulsa and Okla- painted artwork in North Ameri- were here when the first Euro- ed a large number of leaders Bob Blackburn homa City now stand. ca were found. pean explorers arrived. from differing affiliations. executive director, Oklahoma Historical Society From Ice Age nomads to an- Michael Dean cestors of modern American In- Toward the end of the Ice The Spiro Mounds of LeFlore Those who lived in the area public relations director, Oklahoma Historical Society dians, this land had been home Age, the summers would have County: While other sites hold may have been ancestors of Cad- Former State Sen. Charles Ford to many people, millennia before been cooler and wetter than in important clues to what life was do, Wichita, Kitsai or Tunica, re- president and founder, Oklahoma State Senate Historical European explorers arrived. the present day. The western like in prehistoric Oklahoma, searchers say. Other research Preservation Fund Inc. Although some evidence sug- part of the state and the Panhan- perhaps none is as renowned as suggests that the inhabitants of Pam Hodges dle area may have supported the Spiro Mounds complex in the Spiro Mounds area aren’t Oklahoma State Senate Historical Preservation Fund Inc. gests that the earliest people Betty Price were here more than 30,000 grasslands and woodlands, while LeFlore County. linked to any of those groups. executive director, Oklahoma State Arts Council years ago, the first well-docu- forests prevailed in the east. The 12 earthen mounds, locat- Excavation of the mounds yield- Scott Cowan mented inhabitants arrived some While not all inhabitants of ed on the bank of the Arkansas ed evidence that the people who curator, Oklahoma State Arts Council time around 12,000 years ago, prehistoric Oklahoma forged River, include one burial mound, built them traded extensively Linda Stone lasting connections to the land, a pair of temple mounds and with other groups. curator, Woolaroc Museum some researchers say. I. Marc Carlson These Ice Age nomads possi- some modern-day Oklahomans nine other mounds. Artifacts included trade goods interim head, Special Collections and Archives, University bly traveled from Asia to Alaska likely have ties to some of the The site may have started as a such as copper and shell beads. of Tulsa across a land bridge. Traveling state’s earliest people. small village before the mounds, The copper likely was from the Tulsa Historical Society in small groups, they likely fol- The Wichita and Caddo tribes, other ceremonial areas and ex- Great Lakes region, whereas the lowed mammoth and bison spe- researchers have said, can trace panded settlements were con- shell beads and other items cies, which they would have their lineage to the prehistoric structed sometime between A.D. were probably from the West hunted with stone-tipped spears. inhabitants of the state. 850 and 1350. Coast and the Gulf of Mexico.
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