The Emergence of Slavery _ Its Expansion by sofiaie


									The Emergence of Slavery &
      Its Expansion
The British and Jamestown
–       Britain slow to colonize due to climate, lack
        of finances & religious division
–       Roanoke Island, VA colony disappeared in
        the 1580s
–       Britain defeated Spanish Armada in 1588
    •     Had enough money to sponsor joint-stock colony
          in Jamestown, VA in 1607
    •     Initially investors did not make profits
          –   but then tobacco was cultivated which was in high
              demand in Europe
              » Harvesting the tobacco was labor intensive.
              » The English did not enslave the Indians who were
                   already dying from rampant disease.
              » Until 1700, white labor did the harvesting.
Africans Arrive in the Chesapeake
 –       In the 1500s, Spanish colonists brought
         Africans to South Carolina and Florida.
 –       In 1619, a Dutch ship likely brought 20
         Africans to Jamestown and traded them to
         local VA officials.
     •     They were regarded as unfree, but not as slaves.
     •     Had Spanish names & were Christians already
     •     Were allowed to work off their purchase price
 –       Subsequently, other colonies received small
         numbers of Africans.
Black Servitude in the Chesapeake
–       From the 1620s to 1670s, black and white people worked in the
        tobacco fields together.
–       All were considered unfree indentured servants.
    •      Masters controlled their lives & had their labor for a set number of
–       As the demand for tobacco increased, more white British
        indentured servants traded their freedom and labor for passage to
        the colonies in North America.
    •      Many died from overwork and abuse.
    •      But newly arrived Africans also entered into similar contracts.
          –   Anthony Johnson aka "Antonio the negro,"
              » Brought to VA in 1621 as a servant & then became a tobacco planter
              » had servants and even his own black slave
              » moved to Maryland where he died a free black while owning 300-
                  acres of property
              » in 1670 his VA land was seized
              » In 1705 VA declared that "All servants imported and brought in this
                  County... who were not Christians in their Native Country... shall be
                  slaves. A Negro, mulatto and Indian slaves ... shall be held to be real
    •      Ruling elite came to treat black servants more harshly than whites.
    Race and the Origins of Black
–        Why did colonial labor switch from mostly
         white indentured servants to black slaves?
     •     The British Caribbean sugar plantations set a
           precedent for black slavery
     •     Poor whites found other opportunities
     •     Because Britain had come to control the slave
           trade, slaves became cheaper
     •     Black and white servants had come to be treated
           differently, so all blacks and whites came to be
           treated differently.
           –   ex. VA’s House of Burgesses declared that Christian
               whites would have to pay a double fine if caught
               ―fornicating‖ with a black person than if caught with a
               white person
The Emergence of Chattel Slavery
–       In 1662 VA House of Burgesses decreed that a
        child’s condition—free or unfree—followed that
        of the mother; a reversal of British law
    •     White masters could freely rape a black servant
          knowing the child would follow the mother
    •     The colonies came to assume that servitude was
          the natural status of blacks
    •     Slave codes were enacted between 1660 and 1710
          –   restricted black rights to travel without a pass, congregate,
              enter into contracts, marry or bear arms
          –   whites were also exempted from felony charges for killing a
              black slave while punishing them
Bacon’s Rebellion and American
–       Supply of white indentured servants declined as
        Africans became more available
–       In 1676, Nathanial Bacon, an English aristocrat in VA
    •     Upset with VA governor William Berkeley over Indian policy
          –   felt they were overtaxed & governor was not helping planters
              expand their lands & he failed to protect them in expanding from
              attacks by hostile American Indian
          –   White indentured servants resented control of the planters over
    •     He encouraged whites and blacks to demand rebellion against
          the governor; died of dysentery
–       Colonial elite realized that white workers could freely
        revolt with access to weapons
    •     A black slave labor force would never be free
 Estimated Immigration 1607-1819
Years         Slaves       Convicts       Indentured Free
1607-1699         33,200        2,300         96,600        66,300

1700-1775        278,400       52,200        103,600    151,600

1776-1809        114,600        1,000         18,300    253,900

1810-1819          7,000              0        5,300    134,300

Total            433,200       55,500        223,800    606,700
 Estimated Immigration 1607-1819
Years         Slaves         Convicts       Indentured Free
1607-1699              17%          1%            49%         33%

1700-1775              47%          9%            18%         26%

1776-1809              30%              0          5%         65%

1810-1819              5%               0          4%         91%

Total                  33%          4%            17%         46%

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