Representative-at-Large by benbenzhou

VIEWS: 379 PAGES: 70

									22nd Annual IACM Conference

       Kyoto, Japan

     June 15-18, 2009
IACM 2009   June 15-18 - Kyoto, Japan   2
                        Table of Contents

Conference Sponsors…………………………………………………………………….. 4

IACM 2009 Board Members…………………………………..………..………………. 5

Conference Proceedings At-A-Glance……………………………..…………..…….. 6

Floor Plan……………………………………………………………………………………. 8

IACM Program
     Monday, June 15th………………………………………………………………… 9
     Tuesday, June 16th ……………………………………………………………….11
     Wednesday, June 17th …………………………………………………………..16
     Thursday, June 18th …………………………………………………………….. 22

IACM 2009 Abstracts…………………………………………………….………….......25

List of Registrants……………………………………………………………………….. 65

Notes Pages……………………………………………………………………………….. 68




IACM 2009             June 15-18 - Kyoto, Japan               3
  IACM would like to thank the following Conference Sponsors for their
                        generous contributions




IACM 2009                 June 15-18 - Kyoto, Japan                      4
                                 IACM 2009 Board Members


Mara Olekalns, Melbourne Business School                        President

Michele Gelfand, University of Maryland                         President-Elect

William Donohue, Michigan State University                      Past President

Bianca Beersma, University of Amsterdam                         Representative-at-Large

Sanda Kaufman, Cleveland State University                       Representative-at-Large

Terri Lituchy, Concordia University                             Representative-at-Large

Gerben van Kleef, The University of Amsterdam                   Representative-at-Large


                              Ex-officio Board Members - Standing

Shirli Kopelman, University of Michigan                         Executive Officer

Paul Taylor, Lancaster University                               Communications Officer

Judi McLean Parks, Washington University in St. Louis           NCMR Editor

Mara Olekalns, Melbourne Business School                        Incoming NCMR Co-Editor

Etty Jehn, Melbourne Business School                            Incoming NCMR Co-Editor

Godfrey Steele, University of the West Indies                   SIGNAL Co-Editor

Linda Steele, University of the West Indies                     SIGNAL Co-Editor

                          Ex-officio Board Members – 2009 Conference


Wendi Adair, University of Waterloo                             Program Chair

Tetsushi Okumura, Nagoya City University                        Local Arrangements Chair




IACM 2009                           June 15-18 - Kyoto, Japan                              5
                                                                                Conference-at-a-Glance



                  2009 IACM Conference Proceedings At-A-Glance

Sunday June 14th 2009
19:00-21:00 Board Dinner                                                                    Location TBA



Monday, June 15th 2009
8:30-12:00  IACM Board Meeting                                                               Boardroom
8:30-18:00  Registration and Tuesday Night Dinner Sign-up                                   Garden Level
10:00       Cultural Excursion: Morning Walking Lecture of Old Kyoto*                    Meet at registration
13:00-17:00 DRRC Negotiation Teaching Workshop*                                              Regency 1
14:00       Cultural Excursion: Afternoon Walking Lecture of Old Kyoto*                  Meet at registration
14:00       Cultural Excursion: Tea Ceremony*                                            Meet at registration
17:00-17:30 Welcome Cocktails                                                                  Gallery
                     th
17:30-18:30 IACM 25 Anniversary Panel                                                          Gallery
18:30-20:30 Welcome Banquet                                                                   Ballroom
20:30-22:00 Poster Session and Sake Tasting                                                Garden Room



Tuesday, June 16th 2009
08:00-17:00 Registration                                                               Garden Level
09:00-10:30 Parallel Sessions 1
            Session 1A: Culture and Conflict - New Perspectives                         Regency 1
            Session 1B: Negotiation in Context: Institutions, Nations, and Trade        Regency 2
            Session 1C: Physiology and Arousal in Negotiations                          Regency 3
            Session 1D: Symposium: Forgiveness as a Response to Interpersonal
            Conflict: Limits and Possibilities.                                           Salon 1
10:30-11:00 Refreshment Break
11:00-12:30 Parallel Sessions 2
            Session 2A: Diversity and Conflict in Teams: Subgroups and Communication    Regency 1
            Session 2B: Intractable Conflict & Peace Building: Theoretical and
            Practical Advances                                                          Regency 2
            Session 2C: Network Perspectives on Negotiation and Conflict                Regency 3
            Session 2D: Workshop: Taking a Communication Perspective:
            The Application of Coordinated Management of Meaning (CMM)
            to Conflict                                                                   Salon 1
12:30-14:00 Buffet Lunch                                                                 Ballroom
12:30-14:00 Advisory Council Lunch                                                      Boardroom
14:00-15:30 Keynote Address                                                           Drawing Room
15:30-16:00 Refreshment Break
16:00-17:30 Parallel Sessions 3
            Session 3A: Conflict in The Workplace                                       Regency 1
            Session 3B: Dynamical Systems Theory: New Perspectives                      Regency 2
            Session 3C: Ethics: Theoretical Advances                                    Regency 3
            Session 3D: Symposium: Climate Change Negotiation: Global and Local           Salon 1
18:00       Cultural Excursion: Walking Lecture of Old Kyoto*                        Meet at registration
18:00       Cultural Excursion: Traditional Dinner with Geisha Entertainment*        Meet at registration
18:00       Small Group Dinners                                                      Meet at registration
            * Advanced Registration Required




IACM 2009                                June 15-18 - Kyoto, Japan                                       6
                                                                                 Conference-at-a-Glance




Wednesday, June 17th 2009
08:00-17:00 Registration                                                                    Garden Level
09:00-10:30 Parallel Sessions 4
            Session 4A: Team Conflict Dynamics                                               Regency 1
            Session 4B: Conflict in Context - Firms and Markets                              Regency 2
            Session 4C: Negotiator Cognition and Motivation: New Advances                    Regency 3
            Session 4D: Roundtable: Conflict in Multi-Agency Relief Operations for
            Serious Disasters                                                                  Salon 1
10:30-11:00 Refreshment Break
11:00-12:30 Parallel Sessions 5
            Session 5A: Negotiation: Communication and Process                               Regency 1
            Session 5B: Conflict in Context: Community Conflict                              Regency 2
            Session 5C: Power and Status in Negotiation and Social Interaction               Regency 3
            Session 5D: Decision Making: Empirical Advances                                    Salon 1
12:30-14:00 Buffet Lunch                                                                      Ballroom
12:30-14:00 NCMR Board Lunch Meeting                                                         Boardroom
14:00-15:00 Lifetime Achievement Award Winner Remarks                                      Drawing Room
15:00-16:30 Parallel Session 6
            Session 6A: Interpersonal Conflict Inside and Outside of Work                    Regency 1
            Session 6B: Symposium: Culture, Conflict and Negotiation Research: Third
            Generation Studies                                                               Regency 2
            Session 6C: Trust: Theoretical and Empirical Advances                            Regency 3
            Session 6D: Environmental Conflict Case Studies                                    Salon 1
16:30-17:30 IACM Business Meeting (with refreshments)                                        Regency 2
17:30-18:30 Graduate Students and Gurus                                                      Regency 1
18:30-19:00 Cocktail Reception (Sponsored by NCMR)                                          Location TBA
19:00-21:00 Awards Banquet                                                                    Ballroom

                       th
Thursday, June 18 2009
09:00-10:30 Parallel Sessions 7
            Session 7A: Diversity and Conflict in Teams: Territorial Behavior, Culture
            and Leadership                                                                   Regency 1
            Session 7B: Intractable Conflict, Terrorism, and Hostage Negotiations            Regency 2
            Session 7C: Mediation: Theoretical and Empirical Advances                        Regency 3
            Session 7D: Roundtable: On the Generalizability of Negotiation Research
            to Organizational Studies                                                          Salon 1
10:30-11:00 Refreshment Break
11:00-12:30 Parallel Sessions 8
            Session 8A: Cross-Cultural Negotiation                                           Regency 1
            Session 8B: Emotions in Negotiation and Organizations                            Regency 2
            Session 8C: Ethics in Negotiation                                                Regency 3
            Session 8D: Workshop: Preparing For Negotiation using the Active
            Role Reversal Rehearsal Technique                                                  Salon 1
18:00       Cultural Excursion: Traditional Dinner with Geisha Entertainment*            Meet at registration
* Advanced Registration Required




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            Floor Plan and Meeting Rooms




IACM 2009       June 15-18 - Kyoto, Japan   8
                                                                                Monday, June 15




                                           IACM Program
Monday, June 15th

8:30-12:00       IACM Board Meeting                                        Boardroom

8:30-18:00       Registration                                              Garden Level

10:00            Optional Cultural Excursion (advanced registration):   Meet at registration
                 Walking Lecture of Old Kyoto

13:00-17:00      DRRC Negotiation Teaching Workshop                        Regency 1
                 (advanced registration)

14:00            Optional Cultural Excursions (advanced registration): Meet at registration
                 Walking Lecture of Old Kyoto
                 Tea Ceremony

17:00-17:30      Welcome Cocktails                                         Gallery

17:30-18:30      IACM 25th Anniversary Panel                               Gallery

Organizer:       Dan Druckman (George Mason University)

Panelists:   Dean Pruitt (IACM Past President), Sanda Kaufman (IACM Life-timer), Peter
Carnevale (IACM Past President), Michele Gelfand (IACM President Elect)

18:30-20:30      Welcome Banquet                                           Ballroom

20:30-22:00      Poster Session & Sake Tasting                             Garden Room

Poster Session

   1) A Personality Approach to Japanese Preference of Avoidance in Conflict:
        Neuroticism and Its Interaction with the Situation
        Sakura Komatsu (Doshisha University), Ken-ichi Ohbuchi (Tohuku University)

   2) Adaptation, Integration, and Learning: The Three Legs of the Steady Stool of Conflict
        Resolution in Asymmetrical Power Relations
        Peter T. Coleman (Columbia University), Adam Mitchinson (Columbia University),
        Katharina Kugler (Munich University)

   3) Argumentativeness and Verbal Aggressiveness as Predictors of Partner-Perceptions
        of a Person’s Conflict Style during a Simulated Downsizing Activity
        Michael Gross (Colorado State University), Laura Guerrero (Arizona State
        University)

   4) Attribution and Conflict: A Vicious Cycle Driven by Complexity
        Adam Mitchinson (ICCCR, Teachers College, Columbia University), Peter Coleman
        (ICCCR, Teachers College, Columbia University)
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                                                                             Monday, June 15




   5) Comparing Arbitrator Views on Roadblocks and Facilitators of Settlement in East
      Asia and the West
      Shahla Ali (University of Hong Kong)

   6) Conflict and Innovation in Teams – First Validation of a German Translation of
      Established Scales
      Albert Vollmer (ETH Zurich), Sarah Seyr (ETH Zurich), Denise Walser (ZHAW
      Zurich)

   7) Moral Conflict and Complexity: The Dynamics of Constructive versus Destructive
      Discussions over Polarizing Issues
      Katharina Kugler (University of Munich), Peter T. Coleman (Teachers College,
      Columbia University)

   8) Negotiated Performance Appraisal: Superior-Subordinate Mediation Model
      Gregorio Billikopf (University of California)

   9) Negotiating Safety: The Role of Supervisors and Worker Motivation
      Stacey Conchie (University of Liverpool), Charlotte Fournier (University of
      Manchester)

   10) Organizational Complexity and Negotiation Obstacles: A Case Study of Intra-
      Organizational Non-Negotiation
      Marisa Kousaie (ESCP-EAP), Sanda Kaufman (Cleveland State University),
      Laurence De Carlo (ESSEC)

   11) Perspective Shift in Moral Conflict: The Terry Schiavo Case
      Beth Fisher-Yoshida (Columbia University)

   12) Rank, Gender and Ethnic Membership: An Evidential Argument for the Necessary
      Inclusion of Gender in Donald Horowitz' Ethnic Groups in Conflict
      Nancy Morrison (Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution)

   13) Slow Development of Interest-Based Dispute Resolution in France: A First Look at
      the Gap in Competencies
      Adrian Borbély (ESSEC IRENE), Alain Lempereur (ESSEC)

   14) Strategic Response to the Display of Emotions & Cross-Cultural Causal Attributions
      in Negotiations
      Akshaya Varghese (University of Michigan), Shirli Kopelman (University of
      Michigan)

   15) Teaching Negotiation with Combining Computer-Based Simulation & Case
      Discussions
      Lionel Bobot (NEGOCIA)

   16) The Difussion of Constructive Processes in Destructive Settings: A Dynamical
      Systems Perspective
      Naira Musallam (Teachers College, Columbia University)

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                                                                           Tuesday, June 16




   17) The Mind of Negotiators: Exploration of Negotiator Mentality and Comparisons
       between China and the United States
       Zhi-Xue Zhang (Peking University), Leigh Anne Liu (Georgia State University), Li
       Ma (Peking University), Xiao Wang (Peking University)

   18) When the Negotiator Sees Red...
       Jayanth Narayanan (National University of Singapore), Jochen Reb (Singapore
       Management University), Jianwen Chen (Merill Lynch & Co.), Xue Zheng (National
       University of Singapore)

   19) Grad Students and Gurus
       Wendi Adair, Dan Druckman, Marjorie Druckman, and Anne Lytle

       Sign up tonight for the IACM Grad Student and Gurus session on Tuesday evening.
       Let us know your research interests and we will match you up for a chat with an
       IACM guru.



Tuesday June 16

8:00-17:00    Registration                                             Garden Level

9:00-10:30    Parallel Sessions 1A-D

Breakout Session 1A: Culture and Conflict - New Perspectives           Regency 1

Harmony and Conflict: Towards an Integrated Model of Conflict Styles
     Kwok Leung (City University of Hong Kong)

Surveying Attractor Landscapes for Conflict: Investigating the Relationship Between
Conflict, Culture and Complexity
       Peter T. Coleman (Columbia University), Andrea Bartoli (George Mason University),
       Christine Chung (Columbia University), Rafi Nets (Columbia University), Michele
       Gelfand (University of Maryland)

The Effects of Intranational Justice on The Sense of International Injustice
       Tomohiro Kumagai (Tohoku University), Nobuyoshi Kawasima (Tohoku University),
       Nobuko Asai (Nagoya University)

Cultural Differences and Universals in the Development of Trust
       Donald L. Ferrin (Singapore Management University), Nicole Gillespie (Melbourne
       Business School)




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                                                                               Tuesday, June 16


Breakout Session 1B: Negotiation in Context: Institutions, Nations, and Trade Regency 2

Integrative Bargaining Strategies and Negotiation Styles in the Turkish Finance Sector
       Isil Ismet (Sabanci University), Nimet Beriker (Sabanci University)

Negotiating Succussfully on Behalf of Europe
       Alain Lempereur (ESSEC, Harvard Law School)

Normative Changes and Emerging Trends of Negotiation within Cultural Institutions
      Maria Koutsovoulou (ESCP-EAP), Marie-Pierre Fenoll-Trousseau (ESCP-EAP)

Linkage Theory and the Global-Multilevel System: Multilateral, Regional and Bilateral
Trade Negotiations
       Larry Crump (Griffith University)

Breakout Session 1C: Physiology and Arousal in Negotiations                       Regency 3

Breathe Your Way to a Good Deal: The Effect of Concentration Exercises on Negotiation
Outcomes
       Jochen Reb (Singapore Management University), Jayanth Narayanan (National
       University of Singapore)

Coping with Conflict: How Cardiovascular Reactions to a Task Related Disagreement Affect
Decision-Making Quality
       Frank de Wit (Leiden University), Karen Jehn (Leiden University), Daan Scheepers
       (Leiden University)

Effects of Creativity and Positive Arousal in Negotiation
        Vidar Schei (Norwegian School of Economics and Business Adm.)

How an Active Conflict Management Strategy Relates to Psychological Strain: The Role of
Control
       Maria Dijkstra (Vrije Universiteit), Bianca Beersma (University of Amsterdam), Arne
       Evers (University of Amsterdam)

Breakout Session 1D: Symposium: Forgiveness as a Response to Interpersonal
Conflict: Limits and Possibilities                                         Salon 1

Implicit Attitudes toward Forgiveness: How/Whether We Ask the Question Determines the
Answer That We Get
        Jeremy Goldring (University of Adelaide)

‘I Just Couldn’t Forgive’: The Identification of Salient Barriers to Forgiveness Following
Interpersonal Conflict
        Heather Pearce (University of Adelaide)

Using Retributive Justice to Move towards Forgiveness and Relationship Repair
       Letty Tumbaga (University of Adelaide)

Discussant: Ken-ichi Ohbuchi (Tohoku University)

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                                                                             Tuesday, June 16


10:30-11:00   Refreshment Break


11:00-12:30   Parallel Sessions 2A-D


Breakout Session 2A: Diversity and Conflict in Teams: Subgroups and
Communication                                                       Regency 1

Believing is Seeing? How Diversity Beliefs Shape the Perception of Diversity in Groups
       Astrid Homan (VU University Amsterdam), Lindred Greer (University of
       Amsterdam), Karen Jehn (Leiden University), Lukas Koning (Leiden University)

Fighting Conflict: Violent Splits or Healthy Divides?
       Katerina Bezrukova (Santa Clara University), Chester Spell (Rutgers University)

The Effects of Diversity and Communication Media on the Relationship between Conflict and
Cohesion in Teams
       Anita Bhappu (University of Arizona), Robert Giambatista (Lehigh University), Rena
       Shifren (University of Arizona)



Breakout Session 2B: Intractable Conflict & Peace Building: Theoretical and
Practical Advances                                                    Regency 2

Distributive Justice and the Durability of Peace Agreements
       Daniel Druckman (University of Queensland and George Mason University), Cecilia
       Albin (University of Uppsakla)

From Crude Law to Civil Relations: The Dynamics and Potential Resolution of Intractable
Conflict
       Andrzej Nowak (Warsaw University), Morton Deutsch (Columbia University),
       Wojciech Bartkowski (Warsaw School for Social Psychology)

Teaching Co-existence Through Civic Education – Theoretical Implications and Lessons
Learned from Four Middle East Projects
       Kenneth Fox (Hamline University)

Tipping Points and Tipping Lines in Conflict Dynamics
       Sanda Kaufman (Cleveland State University), Miron Kaufman (Cleveland State
       University)




IACM 2009                        June 15-18 - Kyoto, Japan                                13
                                                                             Tuesday, June 16


Breakout Session 2C: Network Perspectives on Negotiation and Conflict           Regency 3

An Exploration of Multiple, Simultaneous, Conflict Episodes and the Key Account Manager’s
Internal Selling Role.
       James Speakman (Cranfield University)

Conflict Resolution Strategies of Chinese Private Entrepreneurs: The Role of Political
Participation
       Guofeng Wang (University of Electronic Science and Technology of China), Ray
       Friedman (Vanderbilt University), Tae-Hyun Kim (Northwestern University), Runtian
       Jing (University of Electronic Science and Technology of China)

The Importance of Simmelian Ties: Social Network Decomposition and the Emergence of
Reciprocity
       Gregory Jones (Consortium on Negotiation and Conflict Resolution)

Socially Constructed Institutionalization of Conflict Management: The Confluence of Agents,
Networks, and Sense-making
        Leigh Anne Liu (Georgia State University), Lin Inlow (Georgia State University)


Breakout Session 2D: Workshop: Taking a Communication Perspective:
The Application of Coordinated Management of Meaning (CMM) to Conflict          Salon 1

In this workshop participants will be presented with Coordinated Management of Meaning
(CMM) (Cronen & Pearce, 1982) concepts and tools, which they will apply to a case study
and one of their own conflicts.

       Workshop Leader: Beth Fisher-Yoshida (Columbia University)


12:30-14:00   Buffet Lunch                                               Ballroom

12:30-14:00   Advisory Council Lunch                                     Boardroom

14:00-15:30   Keynote Address                                            Drawing Room

                     In-group Cooperation as a Reputation Mechanism
                         Toshio Yamagishi (Hokkaido University)

15:30-16:00   Refreshment Break

16:00-17:30   Parallel Sessions 3A-D




IACM 2009                        June 15-18 - Kyoto, Japan                                14
                                                                              Tuesday, June 16


Breakout Session 3A: Conflict in the Workplace                           Regency 1

Depending on the Angle: Perspectives on Conflict and Workplace Climate
      Kelly Pike (Cornell University)

Mobbing: Conflict Transformed into Psychological Violence in the Workplace
      Müberra Yüksel (Kadir Has University)

The Relationship between Perceptions of Safety Climate and Relational Conflict within R&D
Teams: Taking Need for Closure as a Moderator
       Shu-Cheng Steve Chi (National Taiwan University), Chiung-Yi Huang (National
       Taiwan University), Artemis Chang (Queensland University of Technology)

Gender Diversity, Relationship Conflict, and Satisfaction: The Powerful Moderating Role of
Climate for Inclusion
       Lisa Nishii (Cornell University)

Breakout Session 3B: Dynamical Systems Theory: New Perspectives          Regency 2

Dynamical Negotiation Networks: A Dynamical Model of Negotiation Process
     Lukasz Jochemczyk (University of Warsaw), Andrzej Nowak (University of Warsaw)

The Nature of Adaptivity: A Theoretical Discussion
      Adam Mitchinson (ICCCR, Teachers College, Columbia University), Peter Coleman
      (ICCCR, Teachers College, Columbia University), Lan Bui-Wrzosinska (Warsaw
      School for Social Psychology), Andrzej Nowak (University of Warsaw/ Florida
      Atlantic University)

The Orthogonality of Conflict Processes: On Being Constructive and Destructive at The
Same Time
       Katarzyna Samson (University of Warsaw), Andrzej Nowak (University of Warsaw)

Understanding the Spread of Malignant Conflict: a Dynamical Systems Perspective
      Naira Musallam (Teachers College, Columbia University), Peter Coleman (Teachers
      College, Columbia University), Andrzej Nowak (Florida Atlantic University/ Warsaw
      School)

Breakout Session 3C: Ethics: Theoretical Advances                        Regency 3

Culture’s Impact on Behavioral Integrity: When is a Promise not a Promise?
       Ray Friedman (Vanderbilt University), Tony Simons (Cornell University), Ying-yi
       Hong (Nanyang Business School)

Economics and Greed
      Long Wang (Northwestern University), J. Keith Murnighan (Northwestern
      University)

The Limits of Legitimacy: Morality and a Constraint on Deference to Authority
       Linda Skitka (University of Illinois at Chicago), Christopher Bauman (University of
       Washington), Brad Lytle (University of Illinois at Chicago)

IACM 2009                        June 15-18 - Kyoto, Japan                                 15
                                                                          Wednesday, June 17


Breakout Session 3D: Symposium: Climate Change Negotiation:
                    Global and Local                                     Salon 1

Flexibility in Climate Change Negotiations: A Framework Analysis
        Mary Jo Larson (FlexAbility International, LLC and University of Peace)

International Negotiation on Climate Change – The Integration of Justice Psychology and
Economics as a Way Out of the Normative Blind Alley?
       Heidi Ittner (Otto-von-Guericke-University), Cornelia Ohl (Helmholtz Centre for
       Environmental Research - UFZ)

Managing Climate Change through Collaborative Governance: The Potential Role of
Collaborative Systems in Addressing Environmental and Policy Challenges
       Michael Elliott (Georgia Institute of Technology)

Moderator and Discussant: Sanda Kaufman (Cleveland State University)

Tuesday Evening Activities

18:00         Walking Lecture of Old Kyoto (advanced registration)   Meet at registration

18:00         Traditional Dinner with Geisha Entertainment            Meet at registration
              (advanced registration)

18:00         Small Group Dinners (Monday night sign-up)              Meet at registration


Wednesday June 17th

8:00-17:00    Registration                                               Garden Level

9:00-10:30    Parallel Sessions 4A-D

Breakout Session 4A: Team Conflict Dynamics                              Regency 1

Are Three Heads Better Than One? Group Versus Individual Rationality Attainment Using a
2-Person Beauty Contest Game
       Eileen Chou (Northwestern University), Katherine Phillips (Northwestern University)

Excited to Disagree? A Study of Conflict and Emotions
       Laurie Weingart (Carnegie Mellon University), Julia Bear (Carnegie Mellon
       University), Gergana Todorova (Carnegie Mellon University)

Team Goal Orientation and Conflict: Decoupling Task and Relational Conflicts with Goal
Orientation Theory
       Jana Raver (Queen's University), Ingrid Chadwick (Queen's University)

When Leader Emotional Displays Conflict With Follower Social-Relational Goals
      Gerben van Kleef (University of Amsterdam), Astrid Homan (VU University
      Amsterdam), Bianca Beersma (University of Amsterdam), Daan van Knippenberg
      (Erasmus University Rotterdam), Barbara Wisse (University of Groningen)
IACM 2009                          June 15-18 - Kyoto, Japan                              16
                                                                             Wednesday, June 17




Breakout Session 4B: Conflict in Context: Firms and Markets                       Regency 2

Conflict Management in Public Private Partnerships: The Case of the London Underground
       Denise Savage (Queens University Belfast), Paul Teague (Queens University Belfast)

Intercultural Conflict. Conflict Management Styles and Communication Success - A Case
study in a Russian-Western European Project
        Albert Vollmer (ETH Zurich), Patricia Wolf (ETH Zurich), Nina Boxberger (ETH
        Zurich)

The Effect of Governance Structures on Inter-Firm Dispute Resolution
       Fabrice Lumineau (IMD), Deepak Malhotra (Harvard Business School)

Effects of Identity Rivalry and Markets on Property Negotiation
        Peter Carnevale (University of Southern California), Mayuko Onuki (University of
        Southern California)

Breakout Session 4C: Negotiator Cognition and Motivation: New Advances            Regency 3

Mental Accounting for Negotiation and Exchange
       Alexandra Mislin (University of Buffalo, State University of New York), William
       Bottom (Washington University in St. Louis), Peter Boumgarden (Washington
       University in St. Louis)

Negotiating For Better or Worse: Evidence of Learning from Multiple Anchors
       Jimena Y Ramírez-Marín (University of Seville), Wolfgang Steinel (Leiden
       University), Francisco J. Medina (University of Seville)

The Change and Convergence of Mental Models in Negotiation: Taking Social Conditions
into Consideration
       Wu Liu (The Hong Kong Polytechnic University), Leigh Anne Liu (Georgia State
       University), Jiandong Zhang (Shanghai Institute of Foreign Trade)

Breakout Session 4D: Roundtable: Conflict in Multi-Agency Relief Operations for Serious
Disasters                                                                    Salon 1

This roundtable features three excellent panelists from the coast guard, fire department and
medical care. Speakers will talk about how conflict creates obstacles to effective field
operations in large scale disasters. Roundtable participants will discuss how we can reach
conflict solutions in the real world given diverse regulations, procedures and organizational
cultures.
        Roundtable Organizer: Fumiaki Yasukawa (Kunamoto University)




IACM 2009                         June 15-18 - Kyoto, Japan                                 17
                                                                           Wednesday, June 17


10:30-11:00   Refreshment Break


11:00-12:30   Parallel Sessions 5 A-D


Breakout Session 5A: Negotiation: Communication and Process              Regency 1

Changing Contracts, Changing Negotiators: Impact on Buyer-Supplier Negotiations
      Fabrice Lumineau (IMD), James Henderson (IMD)

Early Words That Work
       Roderick Swaab (INSEAD), Will Maddux (INSEAD), Marwan Sinaceur (INSEAD),
       David Huffaker (Northwestern University), Daniel Diermeier (Northwestern
       University)

How do Chameleons Bake Bigger Pies?: Dissecting the Layers of Behavioral Alignment in
Negotiation
       Paul Taylor (Lancaster University), Stacey Conchie (University of Liverpool)

Integrative Offer Movement Theory: Classification of Offer Exchanges in an Integrative
Negotiation
       SeungWoo Kwon (Korea University)



Breakout Session 5B: Conflict in Context: Community Conflict             Regency 2

Conflict Resolution in the Management of In Situ Museums
       Kalliopi Fouseki (University of York)

Emotion and Conflict Management in Elementary Schools
      Godfrey A. Steele (University of the West Indies, Trinidad)

Relationship Among Cooperative Learning Experiences, Social Interdependence, Children’s
Aggression, Victimization, and Prosocial Behaviors
       David W. Johnson (University Of Minnesota), Jiyoung Choi (Seoul National
       University), Roger T. Johnson (University Of Minnesota)




IACM 2009                        June 15-18 - Kyoto, Japan                                18
                                                                           Wednesday, June 17


Breakout Session 5C: Power and Status in Negotiation and Social Interaction Regency 3

Good Samaritans and Ugly Tacticians: How Mastery and Performance Goal Individuals
Treat Less Well-Off Others
       P. Marijn Poortvliet (Tilburg University), Frederik Anseel (Ghent University)

Power and Decision Making in Negotiation: Predictions from Construal Level Theory
      Ronny Ben-Dov (Tel-Aviv University), Daniel Heller (Tel-Aviv University), Shirli
      Kopelman (University of Michigan)

Power and Overcoming Obstacles: Implications for Disobedience and Bystander
Intervention
       Jennifer Whitson (University of Texas at Austin)

Power to the Powerless: Strategic Influence through the Elicitation of Sympathy in
Negotiations
       Aiwa Shirako (University of California, Berkeley)

Breakout Session 5D: Decision Making: Empirical Advances                         Salon 1

Self-Disclosure Prior to Negotiation Decreases Altruistic Punishment in the Ultimatum Game
       Thomas Denson (University of New South Wales), Emma Fabiansson (University of
       New South Wales)

Spontaneity in Decision-Making: It Can Help and Hurt
      Jayanth Narayanan (National University of Singapore), Madan M. Pillutla (London
      Business School), Xue Zheng (National University of Singapore)

Vicarious Entrapment: Your Sunk Costs, My Escalation of Commitment
       Brian Gunia (Northwestern University), Niro Sivanathan (London Business School),
       Adam Galinsky (Northwestern University)


12:30-14:00   Buffet Lunch                                                Ballroom


12:30-14:00    NCMR Board Lunch Meeting                                   Boardroom


14:00-15:00   Lifetime Achievement Award Winner Remarks                   Drawing Room

                         Jeanne M. Brett (Northwestern University)




IACM 2009                        June 15-18 - Kyoto, Japan                                 19
                                                                           Wednesday, June 17


15:00-16:30   Parallel Sessions 6A-D


Breakout Session 6A: Interpersonal Conflict Inside and Outside of Work           Regency 1

A Typology of Negative Relationships at Work
      Angeline Lim (National University of Singapore)

Conflict Management in Online Relationships
       Kumi Ishii (Western Kentucky University)

Expatriate Couples' Adjustment: The Pros and Cons of Avoidaning Interpersonal Conflict
       Kim J. P. M. Van Erp (University of Groningen), Ellen Giebels (University of
       Twente), Karen I. Van der Zee (University of Groningen), Marijtje A. J. Van Duijn
       (University of Groningen)

Interpersonal Conflict as Job Stressor: Its Management in Different Organizational Settings.
       Jose M. León-Pérez (University of Seville), Jimena Y. Ramírez-Marín (University of
       Seville), Francisco J. Medina (University of Seville)


Breakout Session 6B: Symposium: Culture, Conflict and Negotiation Research: Third
Generation Studies                                                          Regency 2

Culture and Apologies
       Willian Maddux (INSEAD), Tetsushi Okumura (Nagoya City University), Peter Kim
       (University of Southern California)

Effects of Status Differential and Cooperative/Competitive Relationship on Joint Outcome in
Mixed Motive Negotiation: A Cross-Cultural Comparison between the U.S. and China
        Jiunwen Wang (Northwestern University), Yaru Chen (Rutgers University), Jean Lee
        (China Europe International Business School)

Getting What You Want: The Role of Culture and Partner's Needs in Predicting the
Effectiveness of Influence in Negotiation
        Wendi Adair (University of Waterloo), Nicole Ethier (University of Waterloo),
        Tetsushi Okumura (Nagoya City University), Masako Taylor (Osaka Gakuin
        University)

Share and Share Alike: Information-Sharing and Cross-Cultural Assumptions about Trust in
Negotiations
       Brian Gunia (Northwestern University), Dishan Kamdar (Indian School of Business)

Organizer: Jeanne Brett (Northwestern University)
Discussant: Michele Gelfand (University of Maryland)




IACM 2009                        June 15-18 - Kyoto, Japan                                 20
                                                                           Wednesday, June 17


Breakout Session 6C: Trust: Theoretical and Empirical Advances            Regency 3

A Tale of Two Dimensions: Trust and Distrust as Two Distinct Mechanisms for Explaining
the Influence of Emotions in Negotiation
        Meina Liu (University of Maryland), Chongwei Wang (Hong Kong Polytechnic
        University)

Implicit Theories and the Trust Repair Process
        Tai Tong Kam (National University of Singapore)

The Influence of Automatic Trust on Information Sharing in Negotiations
        Li Huang (Northwestern University)

A Balance Theory Approach to Trust Repair in Groups
      Susan Brodt (Queen's University), Faye Ling (Queen's University)

Breakout Session 6D: Environmental Conflict Case Studies                  Salon 1

An Amicable Intercession: Juan Carlos I of Spain in the River Uruguay’s Pulp Mills
International Dispute
       Roberto Luchi (Austral University), A. Ariel Llorente (Austral University)

The Federal Government as Agent for Promoting Collaboration in Local Planning and
Redevelopment: An Evaluation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Brownfields
Facilitation Pilot Program
        Michael Elliott (Georgia Institute of Technology)

The Social License to Operate in the Latin American Mining Sector: The Cases of Bajo de la
Alumbrera and Michiquillay
       Alejandro Zamprile (Austral University), A. Ariel Llorente (Austral University)


16:30-17:30   IACM Business Meeting (with refreshments)                   Regency 2


17:30-18:30   Grad Students and Gurus                                     Regency 1


18:30-19:00   Cocktail Reception (Sponsored by NCMR)                      Location TBA


19:00-21:00   Awards Banquet                                              Ballroom




IACM 2009                        June 15-18 - Kyoto, Japan                                21
                                                                           Thursday, June 18




Thursday June 18


9:00-10:30    Parallel Sessions 7 A-D


Breakout Session 7A: Diversity and Conflict in Teams: Territorial Behavior, Culture and
Leadership                                                                    Regency 1

Workplace Territorial Behaviors: A Conceptual Model of The Impact of Employees’
Territorial Behaviors on Conflict and Outcomes in Diverse Teams
       Oluremi Ayoko (University of Queensland), Neal Ashkanasy (University of
       Queensland), Karen Jehn (University of Leiden)

Culture Fit, Teamwork Process, and Performance
       Susan Crotty (Dubai School of Government)

The Role of Transformational and Emotional Leadership in the Relationship Between
Conflict and Team Outcomes
       Oluremi Ayoko (The University of Queensland), Victor Callan (The Unviersity of
       Queensland)


Breakout Session 7B: Intractable Conflict, Terrorism, and Hostage Negotiation Regency 2

Balancing Advocacy and Local Ownership of Gender: Lessons Learned from Peace Building
Processes at the Municipal Level in Kosovo
       Eva Maria Malisius (CSSP)

Comparative Perceptions against Background of Israeli-Palestinian Gaza Conflict
     Ben Mollov (Bar Ilan University), Chaim Lavie (Interdisciplinary Dept. Social
     Sciences)

Paths towards Negotiated Agreement in Terrorism Conflict: Illustrations from Four Cases
       Karen A. Feste (University of Denver)

The Identity Trap: Managing Paradox in Intractable Conflict
       William Donohue (Michigan State University)




IACM 2009                       June 15-18 - Kyoto, Japan                                 22
                                                                                 Thursday, June 18


Breakout Session 7C: Mediation: Theoretical and Empirical Advances Regency 3

Angry at Your Boss or Fearing Your Employee? Negative Affect in Hierarchical Conflicts
and the Moderating Role of e-supported Mediation.
       Katalien Bollen (Catholic University of Leuven), Martin Euwema (Catholic
       University of Leuven)

What Difference Does A Robe Make?
      Stephen Goldberg (Northwestern University), Margaret Shaw (JAMS, Inc.)

Mediation of Hierarchical Conflicts at the Workplace – Does Justice Matter?
       Heidi Ittner (Otto-von-Guericke-University), Katalien Bollen (Catholic University of
       Leuven), Martin Euwema (Catholic University of Leuven)

Face First
       Roderick Swaab (INSEAD)

Breakout Session 7D: Roundtable: On the Generalizability of Negotiation Research to
Organization Studies                                                  Salon 1

This roundtable discussion will focus on how assumptions about negotiations in
organizations affect the design of research and the generalizability of its findings to
organizational studies.

Panelists: Ray Friedman (Vanderbilt University), Wendi Adair (University of Waterloo) and
Bill Bottom (Washington University of St. Louis)

Organizers: Corinne Bendersky (University of California at Los Angeles) and Kathleen
McGinn (Harvard University)

10:30-11:00    Refreshment Break

11:00-12:30    Parallel Sessions 8 A-D

Breakout Session 8A: Cross-Cultural Negotiations                             Regency 1

A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Face and Facework in Negotiation
      Hairong Feng (University of Minnesota Duluth)

Cultural Orientation and Preference for Third Party Help: A Bi-cultural Comparison
Between Dutch and Turkish Employees
       Huadong Yang (University of Twente), Ellen Giebels (University of Twente)

Culture, Accountability, and Group Membership: A Dynamic Constructivist Approach to
Cross-Cultural Negotiation
       Wu Liu (The Hong Kong Polytechnic University), Ray Friedman (Vanderbilt
       University), Ying-yi Hong (Nan Yang Businss School)

Stereotypes and Reputations in Cross-Cultural Negotiations
       Yu Yang (Cornell University), Kathleen O‘Connor (Cornell University), Jin Zhang
       (Tsinghua University), Catherine Tinsley (Georgetown University)
IACM 2009                          June 15-18 - Kyoto, Japan                                   23
                                                                              Thursday, June 18




Breakout Session 8B: Emotions in Negotiation and Organizations                    Regency 2

Mad Enough to See the Other Side: Anger and the Confirmation Bias
      Maia Young (University of California, Los Angeles), Larissa Tiedens (Stanford
      University), Heajung Jung (University of California, Los Angeles), Ming-Hong Tsai
      (University of California, Los Angeles)

Negotiating Positive Relational Identities in Organizations: Self-Narration as a Mechanism
for Strategic Emotion Management in Interpersonal Interactions
        Shirli Kopelman (University of Michigan), Lydia Chen (University of Michigan),
        Joseph Shoshana (Northwest Community Hospital)

Untangling the Web of Emotional Deceit: Measuring Strategic Use of Emotions in
Negotiations
       Emily Amanatullah (University of Texas at Austin), Rebecca Levine (Columbia
       University), Michael Morris (Columbia University)

Anger in Organizations: Review and Future Directions
       Donald E. Gibson (Fairfield University), Ronda Callister (Utah State University)

Breakout Session 8C: Ethics in Negotiation                                        Regency 3

Friendship, Deception and Punishment in Negotiations
       Per van der Wijst (Tilburg University), Emiel Krahmer (Tilburg University)

Moral Emotions & Unethical Bargaining: The Differential Effects of Empathy and
Perspective Taking in Deterring Deceitful Negotiation
       Taya R. Cohen (Northwestern University)

When are Integrative Tactics More Effective? : The Moderating Effects of Moral Identity and
the Use of Distributive Tactics
       Inhyun Han (Korea Workplace Innovation Center), SeungWoo Kwon (Korea
       University), JongHoon Bae (Korea University of Business)

Breakout Session 8D: Workshop: Preparing For Negotiation Using The Active Role
Reversal Rehearsal Technique                                              Salon 1

This interactive workshop will provide IACM members with an opportunity to review and
practice an active role reversal (ARR) technique that has proven very effective in rehearsing
solo negotiators and negotiation teams prior to their entering into ‘formal’ negotiation.

Workshop Leader: Michael Hudson (ENS International)




IACM 2009                         June 15-18 - Kyoto, Japan                                 24
                                                                                       Abstracts


                               IACM 2009 Abstracts
                 Organized Alphabetically by First Author’s Last Name

Getting What You Want: The Role of Culture and Partner's Needs in Predicting the
Effectiveness of Influence in Negotiation (Session: 6B)
Wendi Adair (University of Waterloo), Nicole Ethier (University of Waterloo), Tetsushi
Okumura (Nagoya City University), Masako Taylor (Osaka Gakuin University)

Consistent with a dynamic constructivist approach to culture, we propose the negotiation
context activates a different set of needs for U.S. and Japanese negotiators. While both U.S.
and Japanese negotiators have needs to be logical and to uphold social norms, we propose
that the effectiveness of influence strategies will be explained more by a need for logic in
U.S. negotiations and a need to uphold social norms in Japanese negotiations. We test our
hypotheses with a sample of 15 U.S. and 15 Japanese dyads that negotiated a conflict
simulation. Results indicate that the interaction between a negotiator‘s use of influence and
the partner‘s underlying needs in predicting how much value negotiators claim is distinct in
the U.S. and the Japanese culture. Findings offer extensions to existing theory on culture and
negotiation and implications for managers in cross-cultural negotiation and conflict settings.

Comparing Views on Roadblocks and Facilitators of Settlement Among Arbitration
Practitioners in East Asia and the West (Session: Poster)
Shahla Ali (University of Hong Kong)

The context of the integration of global markets is a new arena for research and practice. To
date, most research on international arbitration has focused exclusively on Western models of
arbitration as practiced in Europe and North America. While such studies accurately
reflected the geographic foci of international arbitration practice in the mid-20th century, in
recent years, the number of international arbitrations conducted in East Asia has grown
steadily and on par with growth in Western regions. This article presents a cross cultural
examination of how international arbitrators in East Asian and Western countries view the
role of settlement in international arbitration. The results of a 115 person survey and 64
follow up interviews shed light on the underlying cultural attitudes and approaches to
perceived roadblocks and facilitators of settlement in international arbitration. The findings
indicate that arbitration practitioner‘s perceptions of the factors influencing the achievement
of settlement as well as specific barriers to settlement demonstrate a high degree of
convergence across regions. At the same time, cultural and socio-economic distinctions are
reflected in varying arbitrator perceptions regarding arbitrator proclivity toward making the
first move toward settlement in arbitration, the degree of focus on past facts and legal rights
as opposed to exploring creative solutions and orientation toward adversarial procedures.

Untangling the Web of Emotional Deceit: Measuring Strategic Use of Emotions in
Negotiations (Session: 8B)
Emily Amanatullah (University of Texas at Austin), Rebecca Levine (Columbia University),
Michael Morris (Columbia University)

This paper studies the emotion usage of negotiators, specifically the purposeful management
of emotion suppression and expression as a strategic tool for shaping bargaining behavior and
subsequent negotiation outcomes. We explore the strategic use of emotions in three ways,
expressing truly felt emotions, hiding felt emotions, and feigning unfelt emotions. Using self-
report transcript coding methods, we are able to accurately identify when and how negotiators
managed emotional expression during the course of the negotiation and how such tactical
IACM 2009                         June 15-18 - Kyoto, Japan                                  25
                                                                                          Abstracts


manipulation of emotions influenced negotiated outcomes. We provide evidence using a
simulated negotiation exercise of a monetary benefit to negotiators of using emotional
deception as a bargaining tactic.

Workplace Territorial Behaviors: A Conceptual Model of The Impact of Employees’
Territorial Behaviors on Conflict and Outcomes in Diverse Teams (Session: 7A)
Oluremi Ayoko (University of Queensland), Neal Ashkanasy (University of Queensland),
Karen Jehn (University of Leiden)

Workplace territoriality, while a subject of on-going inquiry in environmental psychology,
has been relatively ignored in conflict research. For example, we know that contemporary
organizations spend millions redesigning workspaces, and incur more millions in damage as a
result of the need to manage conflict, negative emotions, and counterproductive behaviors
caused by workplace territoriality. This issue can be especially acute in an open-plan office
(e.g., no physical barriers such as walls or doors to create a transparent fluid space),
especially when the workforce is diverse. We address this issue in a conceptual model of the
impact of office design on conflict and its effects on outcomes in diverse teams over time.
Specifically, our model depicts features of the office space (e.g., layout, noise) as leading to
employees‘ territorial behaviors, conflict, and outcomes. We also propose that these effects
can be ameliorated by specific moderators such as conflict training that is especially focused
on managing territorial behaviors. Implications for theory, research and practice have
discussed.

The Role of Transformational and Emotional Leadership in the Relationship Between
Conflict and Team Outcomes (Session: 7A)
Oluremi Ayoko (The University of Queensland), Victor Callan (The University of
Queensland)

We applied the frameworks used from studies of transformational leadership and emotional
leadership to examine the impact of specific features of team leader style in determining team
performance, as well as influencing social outcomes for team members in 97 teams. Leader
behaviors that involved higher levels of emotional management were strongly related to
improved levels of task performance. Results also revealed that higher levels of inspiration
and communication of vision by leaders were directly associated with lower levels of
bullying by team members. Implications of findings are discussed.

On the Generalizability of Negotiation Research to Organizational Studies (Session: 7D)
Corinne Bendersky (University of California, Los Angeles)

This roundtable discussion will focus on how assumptions about negotiations in
organizations affect the design of research and the generalizability of its findings to
organizational studies.

Power and Decision Making in Negotiation: Predictions from Construal Level Theory
(Session: 5C)
Ronny Ben-Dov (Tel-Aviv University), Daniel Heller (Tel-Aviv University), Shirli
Kopelman (University of Michigan)

This research examines the role of power in negotiation from the perspective of Construal
Level Theory (CLT; Liberman & Trope, 1998). Elevated power increases the psychological

IACM 2009                          June 15-18 - Kyoto, Japan                                    26
                                                                                        Abstracts


distance one feels from others, and should therefore lead, according to CLT, to more abstract
information processing. Given the link between power and abstraction, we predicted that
elevated power would: a) increase preference for simultaneous as opposed to sequential
consideration of issues in the context of integrative negotiation; and b) predispose negotiators
to make lower offers in the context of ultimatum bargaining. Our results supported these
predictions. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

Fighting Conflict: Violent Splits or Healthy Divides? (Session: 2A)
Katerina Bezrukova (Santa Clara University), Chester Spell (Rutgers University)

In this study, we develop a theory to understand how groups with strong divisions may,
paradoxically, help members to cope with conflict and injustice. We test our theoretical
predictions using a survey methodology and the data from 72 work groups across different
industries. Consistent with our hypotheses, we found that group faultlines weakened the
positive relationships between injustice and psychological health.

The Effects of Diversity and Communication Media on the Relationship between Conflict
and Cohesion in Teams (Session: 2A)
Anita Bhappu (University of Arizona), Robert Giambatista (Lehigh University), Rena Shifren
(University of Arizona)

We explore the effects of diversity and communication media on the relationship between
conflict and cohesion in teams. Communicating either face-to-face (FTF) or via computer-
mediated (CM) communication, student teams with varying degrees of ethnic diversity
performed a creative decision-making task. We found significant two-way and three-way
interaction effects for diversity and communication media on the relationship between
conflict and cohesion. Our findings suggest that CM communication insulates diverse teams
from the negative effect of conflict on group cohesion, making it an effective medium for
decision-making in diverse teams. This media benefit, however, does not extend to
homogenous teams.

Negotiated Performance Appraisal: Superior-Subordinate Mediation Model (Session:
Poster)
Gregorio Billikopf (University of California)

Lack of superior-subordinate dialogue can lead to contention and dissatisfaction among both
parties. While performance appraisals have the potential to solve this quandary, they often are
adversarial in nature and exacerbate matters. Superiors frequently deem it problematical to
provide candid feedback without subordinates' performance suffering. Subordinates, in turn,
are apt to feel unduly judged and frustrated with their jobs. As a result, the traditional
performance appraisal is just as likely to increase superior-subordinate contention as it is to
mitigate it. This paper presents the Negotiated Performance Appraisal (NPA) model, which is
designed to increase superior-subordinate dialogue. After more than a decade of field testing,
NPA has not only functioned as a dispute avoidance tool, but also as an alternate superior-
subordinate mediation approach.




IACM 2009                         June 15-18 - Kyoto, Japan                                   27
                                                                                         Abstracts


Teaching Negotiation with Combining Computer-Based Simulation & Case Discussions
(Session: Poster)
Lionel Bobot (NEGOCIA)

As such, academicians teaching negotiation courses have began considering innovative ways
to enhance the learning environment in order to adequately expose students to the requisite
skill set for succeeding in the professional world. It seems clear from the research and
analysis in the literature that students in negotiation courses experience many positive
outcomes from both cases and computer simulations, although there is some continuing
debate about their relative advantages. In this study, the author compared the effectiveness of
two different negotiation course designs: one centered on case discussions and the other
combining a computer-based simulation with some cases. Both course designs produced
statistically equivalent learning outcomes; there were no significant differences between the
two course designs in any of the nine outcome measures, including objective measures and
student perceptions.

Angry at Your Boss or Fearing Your Employee? Negative Affect in Hierarchical Conflicts
and the Moderating Role of e-supported Mediation. (Session: 7C)
Katalien Bollen (Catholic University of Leuven), Martin Euwema (Catholic University of
Leuven)

This paper examines (1) the relationship between hierarchical position and the negative affect
experienced during the mediation, and (2) the moderating role of mediation type in this
relationship. Specifically, we hypothesize that the relationship between hierarchical position
and negative affect may be stronger when people are involved in face-to-face mediations
compared to when they participate in an e-supported mediation. Results are based on a
sample of 66 respondents (33 supervisors and 33 subordinates) which all participated in real
mediation cases in the Netherlands. 49 respondents participated in face-to-face mediations,
17 respondents filled in an intake tool before going to the mediation. Results support our
hypotheses: Whereas in face-to-face mediations subordinates experience significantly more
negative affect (anger and fear) than supervisors, using the e-supported mediation levelled the
negative affect between supervisors and subordinates. These results support the
implementation of an online tool when mediating hierarchical conflicts since it contributes to
the effectiveness of mediation by eliminating asymmetry.

Slow Development of Interest-Based Dispute Resolution in France: A First Look at the
Gap in Competencies (Session: Poster)
Adrian Borbély (ESSEC IRENE), Alain Lempereur (ESSEC)

This research tries to explain the slow development of ADR in the French corporate
environment by the training of the different participants in the dispute resolution strategizing
process. More precisely, it aims at assessing, through a survey of future business and HR
managers, their level of preparedness to face potential litigation and to enter with lawyers,
generally considered as adjudication experts, into a discussion that takes into account all
available interest-based alternatives.




IACM 2009                          June 15-18 - Kyoto, Japan                                   28
                                                                                            Abstracts


Culture,Conflict, and Negotiation Resarch: Third Generation Studies (Session: 6D)
Jeanne Brett (Northwestern University)

The papers in this session illustrate a ―third generation‖ of culture, conflict and negotiation
research which has several defining characteristics. First, it is grounded in psychological
theory. Second, this research questions and documents how these theories operate in different
cultural contexts. Third, this research frequently relies on constructivist logic which
conceptualizes culture as interacting with context to activate knowledge structures that direct
behavior. Fourth, this research does not rely on cultural values for causal explanations, but
rather on cultural differences in knowledge structures that are closely tied, theoretically, to
the research question. Third generation research is actively building knowledge consistently
finding that cultural differences react with contextual differences and exert influence through
knowledge structures that are directly relevant to behavior. By moving beyond more basic
assumptions about culture as a mediator, this research thus makes important theoretical
contributions that build upon previous generations of research.

A Balance Theory Approach to Trust Repair in Groups (Session: 6C)
Susan Brodt (Queen's University), Faye Ling (Queen's University)

This paper examines interpersonal trust, trust violation, and repair in the context of
workgroups, drawing on balance theory (Heider, 1958). We offer three unique insights. First,
in analyzing dyadic processes, we incorporate connections between the dyad and others in the
group; this change of focus reveals new questions about the repair process, such as questions
about the role of fellow group members in facilitating or hindering trust repair. Second, we
focus on tensions within a group that arise from trust violations between two group members,
assuming that trust violations necessarily affect others in the group, not just the two involved
in the violation. Finally, we assume that imbalanced states are both aversive and unstable,
and that the system (group) seeks balance. Thus, at the heart of our approach to trust repair in
groups is the assumption that groups serve to create and maintain interpersonal trust. In
addition to developing these ideas, we offer a set of propositions to guide research.

Effects of Identity Rivalry and Markets on Property Negotiation (Session: 4B)
Peter Carnevale (University of Southern California), Mayuko Onuki (University of Southern
California)

Some of the world‘s most difficult disputes are about property – land, buildings, borders,
looted art, and examples are numerous: Jerusalem, Kashmir, Kosovo, and even the J. Paul
Getty Museum in Los Angeles, whose former antiquities curator was indicted by the Italian
government for stolen works. Often in these disputes, one side views the property as core to
its identity, and so does the other side. This is identity rivalry. This study tested the general
proposition that identity rivalry plays a critical role in negotiation, and its effects interact with
properties of markets. Students at the University of Southern California were asked to assess
the value of a building that was associated with both USC and UCLA (a rival). Their
valuations were predicted by a measure of group identity, and the presence of market factors
moderated this effect.




IACM 2009                           June 15-18 - Kyoto, Japan                                     29
                                                                                         Abstracts


The Relationship between Perceptions of Safety Climate and Relational Conflict within
R&D Teams: Taking Need for Closure as a Moderator (Session: 3A)
Shu-Cheng Steve Chi (National Taiwan University), Chiung-Yi Huang (National Taiwan
University), Artemis Chang (Queensland University of Technology)

This study examines the safety climate for innovation within teams at the individual level. A
sample of 165 respondents in 25 R&D teams was used to test our hypothesis. We proposed
and found that team members‘ individual differences in need for closure mitigated the
negative relationship between perceptions of team safety climate and team relational conflict.
We discuss the implications of our findings and the study‘s limitations.


Are Three Heads Better Than One? Group Versus Individual Rationality Attainment
Using a 2-Person Beauty Contest Game (Session: 4A)
Eileen Chou (Northwestern University), Katherine Phillips (Northwestern University)

Organizations increasingly rely on small groups as the problem-solving units. The present
study investigates the contexts in which groups outperform individuals. We also explore the
locus of processing that explains group superiority over individuals in rationality attainment.
We measured group versus individual performance in an intellective task - a two-person
beauty contest game. The findings of two studies show that not only do groups outperform
individuals within this intellective context, they are also superior in rationality attainment
even with only one-time interactions. This superiority withstands the highly demanding truth-
win norm. Furthermore, we demonstrate that outward and inward competitiveness diminish
the gap between group and individual performance and promote individuals to achieve the
same level of group rationality. We therefore project that the locus of group superiority
resides in the individuals.


Moral Emotions & Unethical Bargaining: The Differential Effects of Empathy and
Perspective Taking in Deterring Deceitful Negotiation (Session: 8C)
Taya R. Cohen (Northwestern University)

Two correlational studies tested whether personality differences in empathy and perspective
taking differentially relate to disapproval of ethically marginal negotiation strategies. Across
both studies I found that empathy discouraged unethical bargaining tactics, such as
misrepresentation and inappropriate information gathering, but perspective taking did not.
These results suggest that unethical bargaining is more likely to be deterred by empathy than
by perspective taking. Study 1 also tested whether individual differences in guilt proneness
and shame proneness inhibited the endorsement of unethical bargaining tactics. In Study 1,
guilt proneness, but not empathy, was correlated with disapproval of false promises. The
comparatively private nature of the sin of false promises suggests that private ethical
breaches are more likely to be deterred by anticipated guilt, while ethical breaches with clear
interpersonal consequences are more likely to be deterred by empathy.




IACM 2009                          June 15-18 - Kyoto, Japan                                   30
                                                                                           Abstracts


Surveying Attractor Landscapes for Conflict: Investigating the Relationship Between
Conflict, Culture and Complexity (Session: 1A)
Peter T Coleman (Columbia University), Andrea Bartoli (George Mason University),
Christine Chung (Columbia University), Rafi Nets (Columbia University), Michele Gelfand
(University of Maryland)

This survey study will examine how cultural group differences in degrees of structural,
social, and psychological complexity affect procedural knowledge (cultural scripts) regarding
conflict with members of ingroups and outgroups. In other words, we are interested in
identifying differences in cultural conditions which foster a press for coherence and collapse
of complexity in situations of conflict, and result in simple, automatic rules for conflicts with
insiders, and in evaluatively different sets of simple rules for conflicts with outsiders. This set
of more coherent versus more complex orientations and rules for conflict constitute
differences in what we term attractor landscapes for conflict. This project, funded as a
Multiple University Research Initiative (MURI) through the US Army Research Institute
(ARI), aims to develop basic theory to better understand constructive negotiation and
collaboration processes in Middle Eastern cultures.

Adaptation, Integration, and Learning: The Three Legs of the Steady Stool of Conflict
Resolution In Asymmetrical Power Relations (Session: Poster)
Peter T. Coleman (Columbia University), Adam Mitchinson (Columbia University),
Katharina Kugler (Munich University)

This survey study investigates how differences in chronic versus adaptive-integrative
orientations to conflict between parties of unequal power affect learning, goal-attainment, and
general levels of satisfaction with conflict processes over time. Based on a new dynamical
model of power and conflict (Coleman, Bui-Wrzosinska & Nowak, 2008), we predict that
more flexible, learning-oriented conflict orientations and strategies will result in more long-
term goal-attainment and satisfaction in situations of conflict for both high- and low-power
parties, especially when situations are unstable or dynamic in nature.

Negotiating Safety: The Role of Supervisors and Worker Motivation (Session: Poster)
Stacey Conchie (University of Liverpool), Charlotte Fournier (University of Manchester)

Within high-risk industries, organizations are faced with the problem of how to manage the
conflict between production and safety. Research has focused on active safety leadership as a
way to address this conflict and promote safety among workers. In the current study we tested
the role of motivation as a currency through which leaders negotiate safety. Drawing on self-
determination theory, we hypothesised that leaders effectively negotiate safety citizenship
through intrinsic motivation (H1) and safety compliance through identified regulation (H2).
Data were collected from 81 UK construction employees using a questionnaire survey. The
results of mediation analyses partly supported our hypotheses. Intrinsic motivation partially
mediated leaders‘ effects on safety citizenship. However, integrated regulation moderated
leaders‘ effects on safety compliance: leaders‘ negotiation efforts were significant when
identified regulation was low, but not when identified regulation was moderate or high. The
implications of these findings for conflict research are discussed.




IACM 2009                          June 15-18 - Kyoto, Japan                                     31
                                                                                            Abstracts


Culture Fit, Teamwork Process, and Performance (Session: 7A)
Susan Crotty (Dubai School of Government)

The current management literature offers little guidance on how national culture and cultural
values affect teamwork processes and outcomes (Tsui, Nifadkar, & Ou, 2007).
Organizational researchers typically develop and test teamwork process models in Western
settings and treat findings as universal rather than potentially culturally contingent. To
address this gap, I draw ideas from the Model of Cultural Fit (Kanungo & Jaeger, 1990,
Mendonca & Kanungo, 1994; Aycan, Kanungo, & Sinha, 1999) from the human resources
literature, elaborate the model, and apply it to teamwork process and performance. The
present work makes two contributions. First, I call attention to the need to address how
national culture and cultural values affect teamwork process, both in non-Western cultures
and multicultural teams containing members from non-Western cultures. Most importantly, I
offer a theoretical model based on the ideas from the Model of Cultural Fit and argue that a
fit between cultural values and teamwork process may predict both the types of teamwork
process we observe and how well teams perform using different types of teamwork processes.

Linkage Theory and the Global-Multilevel System: Multilateral, Regional and Bilateral
Trade Negotiations (Session: 1B)
Larry Crump (Griffith University)

Linkage theory (the way one negotiation influences or determines the process or outcome of
another) can effectively explain the relationship between a negotiation and its relevant
environment. This study examines how external events grounded in multilateral, regional or
bilateral environments influence negotiation process and outcome. Linkages between four
trade negotiations are investigated: the WTO Doha round (multilateral); EU–Mercosur
(regional); EU–Chile (bilateral); and US–Chile (bilateral). This study is able to extend
understanding about issue linkages and two-level games by developing a theoretical
framework that defines the known universe of linkage dynamics. The controlling influence of
multilateral negotiations on regional, but not bilateral, negotiations is of particular interest, as
is the use of a bilateral–multilateral linkage strategy by nation-states in pursuing geopolitical
ends.

Coping with Conflict: How Cardiovascular Reactions to a Task Related Disagreement
Affect Decision-Making Quality (Session: 1C)
Frank de Wit (Leiden University), Karen Jehn (Leiden University), Daan Scheepers (Leiden
University)

In this article, we demonstrate that physiological reactions to a conflict affect the way
individuals manage their conflicts and, in effect, how the conflict affects decision making.
Instead of a uniform positive or negative conflict-performance relationship, we show that a
task-related team conflict can be functional when it is perceived, and physiologically
experienced, as a challenge, but dysfunctional when it is perceived, and physiologically
experienced, as a threat. The results were contingent on the level of power of a team member.
Specifically, results show that high power individuals make inferior decisions when their
cardiovascular reactions to a conflict indicated that they were threatened, while the reverse
relationship was found for low power individuals. Together the findings illustrate the
important, but often neglected, role human physiology plays in conflict management.




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Self-Disclosure Prior to Negotiation Decreases Altruistic Punishment in the Ultimatum
Game (Session: 5D)
Thomas Denson (University of New South Wales), Emma Fabiansson (University of New
South Wales)

A laboratory experiment investigated the role of self-disclosure on altruistic punishment,
fairness, mood, and partner liking. In a laboratory experiment using the Ultimatum Game,
participants were randomly assigned to recieve either 8 fair offers from an anonymous
partner, 8 unfair offers from an anonymous partner, or 8 unfair offers from a partner to whom
participants have briefly self--disclosed. Relative to recieivng unfair offers from an
anonymous partner, participants in the self-disclosure condition did not report greater liking
and even reported more anger. However, self-diclosure decreased altruistic punishment and
increased fairness.Our findings suggest that self-disclosure prior to engaging in ultimatum
bargaining might be an effective strategy for increasing these positive outcomes.

How an Active Conflict Management Strategy Relates to Psychological Strain: The Role of
Control (Session: 1C)
Maria Dijkstra (Vrije Universiteit), Bianca Beersma (University of Amsterdam), Arne Evers
(University of Amsterdam)

Interpersonal conflict at work correlates with stress related outcomes like psychological
strain. In our study we examined the relationship between workplace conflict, conflict
management and psychological strain by taking a perspective of control. Consistent with
conflict theory, we argued that the relationship between workplace conflict and psychological
strain is weakened when employees experience a sense of control. We also expected the
relationship to be weakened when employees use the active conflict management strategy of
problem solving. Finally we expected control to exert influence on the relationship between
conflict and psychological strain through problem solving. Cross-sectional data from 774
health-care workers in the Netherlands indeed revealed that feelings of control and workplace
conflict interact to affect the level of psychological strain. In addition we showed that this
moderation was mediated by the active conflict management strategy of problem solving;
People who experience more control feelings more often use a problem solving conflict
management strategy and, as a result, experience less psychological strain in case of
workplace conflict. Implications for conflict theory, for future research, and for practice are
discussed.

The Identity Trap: Managing Paradox in Intractable Conflict (Session: 7B)
William Donohue (Michigan State University)

The purpose of this paper is to propose a broader theoretical understanding of intractable
conflict by taking more of a developmental approach to this important topic. The primary
thesis of the paper is that intractable conflicts emerge when individuals communicate
paradoxical relational messages that, over time, places them within an Identity Trap. The
characteristics of the trap are explored and exemplified by exerpts from the Waco hostage
negotiations.




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Distributive Justice and the Durability of Peace Agreements (Session: 2B)
Daniel Druckman (University of Queensland and George Mason University), Cecilia Albin
(University of Uppsakla)

This study explores the relationship between principles of justice and the durability of
negotiated agreements. Sixteen peace agreements negotiated during the early 1990s were
coded for the centrality of each of four principles of distributive justice (DJ) -- equality,
proportionality, compensation, and need -- to the core terms of the agreement. The
agreements were also assessed on scales of implementation and durability over a five-year
period. Another variable included in the analysis was the difficulty of the conflict
environment. These data were used to evaluate three sets of hypotheses: the relationship
between justice and durability, the role of the conflict environment, and types of DJ
principles. The results obtained from both statistical and focused-comparisons analyses
indicate that justice moderates the relationship between conflict environments and outcomes:
when many principles of justice are included in an agreement, the negative effects of difficult
conflict environments are reduced; when only a few principles are included, the negative
effects of difficulty are heightened. These relationships are accounted for primarily by the
principle of equality. Implications of these findings are discussed along with a number of
ideas for further research.

Managing Climate Change through Collaborative Governance: The Potential Role of
Collaborative Systems in Addressing Environmental and Policy Challenges (Session: 3D)
Michael Elliott (Georgia Institute of Technology)

Climate change might best be described as a ―wicked‖ problem, one with a high level of
complexity, interaction and uncertainty yet demanding timely public attention and action.
The ability to create change of a scale sufficient to address climate change is ultimately based
on the capacity of governance systems to develop, articulate and promote such change. This
presentation will examine key challenges to integrating negotiation and consensus-based
processes into climate change decision making, as raised by professional environmental and
public policy dispute resolvers during the Association for Conflict Resolution‘s Managing
Climate Change through Collaborative Governance Conference this June. The presentation
focuses on the characteristics of global climate change that most significantly challenge
governance systems, the strengths and weaknesses of collaborative governance as a system
for managing climate change issues, and the forms of collaborative intervention that might
most effectively promote the development of long term inclusive and participatory
governance systems.

The Federal Government as Agent for Promoting Collaboration in Local Planning and
Redevelopment: An Evaluation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s
Brownfields Facilitation Pilot Program (Session: 6D)
Michael Elliott (Georgia Institute of Technology)

While of significant benefit to many stakeholders and communities, brownfield
redevelopment requires cooperation amongst stakeholders and often generates conflict. This
research assesses whether, and under what conditions, mediation-based facilitation improves
community revitalization efforts; the contextual, procedural, and substantive variables that
contribute to effectiveness of such efforts; and the impact of a federal agency, the U. S.
Environmental Protection Agency, in altering these variables. The research examines an
experimental program implemented by the USEPA to systematically foster collaborative

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                                                                                         Abstracts


decision making within brownfield redevelopment efforts, comparing 12 nationally initiated
processes with 12 locally initiated processes. Overall, locally initiated collaborative processes
incorporate a wider range of facilitations, attract stronger local support, and lead to more
substantial outcomes. At the same time, the national program, which assisted already stalled
projects, were able to overcome some degree of impasse present in two-thirds of the cases,
while catalyzing significant change in a quarter of the cases.

A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Face and Facework in Negotiation (Session: 8A)
Hairong Feng (University of Minnesota Duluth)

The current study is designed to explore how the U.S. American and Chinese negotiators
differ when dealing with facework in the processes of negotiation. Negotiations between the
U.S. American and Chinese subjects in a simulated buyer/seller bargaining situation are
analyzed to see if subjects use facework as determined by their cultural values.

Cultural Differences and Universals in the Development of Trust (Session: 1A)
Donald L. Ferrin (Singapore Management University), Nicole Gillespie (Melbourne Business
School)

Do the determinants of trust differ between people from different national-societal cultures?
There is considerable anecdotal evidence and some theoretical argumentation to suggest they
do, but are these supported by empirical research? This paper reviews the available empirical
evidence on the effects of national-societal culture on the development of interpersonal trust.
It focuses largely on quantitative empirical evidence to consider the extent to which, and
ways in which, the determinants of interpersonal trust differ across national-societal cultures.
The review concludes that there is consistent evidence of cross-cultural differences, and also
evidence of universals across cultures. In evaluating these findings, we conclude that trust
may operate as a variform functional universal. We conclude with two proposed routes for
future research, and implications for practice.

Paths towards Negotiated Agreement in Terrorism Conflict: Illustrations from Four Cases
(Session: 7B)
Karen A. Feste (University of Denver)

Government officials are never eager to negotiate with terrorist groups. In practice, though,
they often decide to do so after a long terrorist campaign threatens their national security.
Sometimes negotiated agreement is the result. What causes this development? Conflict
ripeness, turning points, and negotiation readiness explain conceptually how parties come to
the table for talks. These ideas are represented respectively in frequency and severity of
terrorist attacks and leadership change in affected governments and examined in four cases of
long wars of terrorism conflict: Northern Ireland, Spain, Sri Lanka, and Israel-Palestine, to
discover whether escalation or de-escalation processes--examined in a simple form--signal
convergence toward negotiation, and if new leaders in office make a difference.

Taking a Communication Perspective: The Application of Coordinated Management of
Meaning (CMM) to Conflict (Session: 2D)
Beth Fisher-Yoshida (Columbia University)

The Coordinated Management of Meaning (CMM) (Cronen & Pearce, 1982) is a practical
theory based on a communication approach to social construction theory. It is one possible

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framework to use to understand and resolve conflicts constructively using specific models.
CMM models‘ concepts and tools help to articulate assumptions and influences that
formulate perspectives, deepening understanding between and amongst groups with very
different sets of values, beliefs and experiences. CMM has been used globally across cultures
and can facilitate intercultural understanding. It has been used in research and practice. There
is a community of practice using CMM and a robust body of resources available including
publications in research studies, applications in practice including large group change in
municipalities, interpersonal conflict, organizational contexts and ethnic conflicts. In this
workshop participants will be presented with CMM concepts and tools, which they will apply
to a case study and one of their own conflicts.

Perspective Shift in Moral Conflict: The Terry Schiavo Case (Session: Poster)
Beth Fisher-Yoshida (Columbia University)

Moral conflicts are challenging to understand and resolve. They are typically intractable.
They are interminable because they have no endpoint; are morally attenuated because those
engaged have the tendency to become what they are fighting; and are rhetorically attenuated
because they speak negatively about and have little understanding of the other group‘s moral
order (Pearce and Littlejohn, 1997). I will use three theoretical lenses to understand and
resolve moral conflict and foster better communication: intractable conflict (Coleman, 2003;
Pearce and Littlejohn, 1997); Coordinated Management of Meaning (CMM), a
communication approach that suggests we make meaning in our communication (Cronen and
Pearce, 1982; Pearce, 1994); and transformative learning, in which we transform meaning
perspectives (Mezirow, 2000; Brookfield, 1987). I will use a case study to illustrate the points
being made because this practical application will enable others to understand the complexity
of addressing and potentially resolving a moral conflict.

Conflict Resolution in the Management of In Situ Museums (Session: 5B)
Kalliopi Fouseki (University of York)

This paper suggests a conflict management model for resolving conflicts that occur at in-situ
museums (modern structures that conserve in situ archaeological remains). The formation of
the model has been based on a comparative analysis of constants and variables of conflict
situations among a wide range of case studies in Europe.

Teaching Co-existence Through Civic Education – Theoretical Implications and Lessons
Learned from Four Middle East Projects (Session: 2B)
Kenneth Fox (Hamline University)

This presentation describes a series of conceptual and practical lessons learned from five
inter-related education projects that promote co-existence through civic education in the
Middle East. Since 2001, these projects have involved work with a series of cross-national
groups of Palestinian, Israeli, Jordanian, and Lebanese educational and local civic leaders.
The projects focus on middle and high schools in the various communities, each of which
serve as social institutions through which to educate young adults to re-conceptualize ―self‖
and ―other‖ as engaged citizens in civil society and to support the possibility for constructive
co-existence in the region. The presentation outlines the complex layers of reality-
construction evident in the various participating communities and the systematic approach the
project participants have taken to address these complexities while promoting the concept of
co-existence.

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                                                                                       Abstracts




Culture’s Impact on Behavioral Integrity: When is a Promise not a Promise? (Session:
3C)
Ray Friedman (Vanderbilt University), Tony Simons (Cornell University), Ying-yi Hong
(Nanyang Business School)

Behavioral integrity (BI) – a perception that a person acts in ways that are consistent with
their words – has been shown to have an impact on many areas of work life, such as
organizational commitment, turnover intentions, and trust in managers. While there is
growing evidence that BI maters, there have been no studies of BI in Asian cultural contexts.
Yet there is good reason to expect that words are interpreted differently in the East and the
West. This study looks at response to word-deed inconsistency in the U.S. and India, using a
scenario-based experiment. Results suggest that Indians do not respond as strongly to word-
deed inconsistency as do Americans, and that US-Indian differences are especially
pronounced when the speaker is a boss (rather than a subordinate) in the workplace.

Anger in Organizations: Review and Future Directions (Session: 8B)
Donald E. Gibson (Fairfield University), Ronda Callister (Utah State University)

Anger is an important emotion in the workplace and organizations are likely to generate
situations prompting anger. This has led to a range of studies exploring the implications of
anger for critical organizational phenomena including emotion norms, leadership, employee
relations and satisfaction, workplace aggression, gender issues, and status. Despite the
dramatic increase in scholarly attention over the last decade to understanding anger
experience and expression in organizations, there exist few current reviews and little
integration of this diverse literature. This review will summarize current work in this vital
area, provide a framework for understanding and integrating this work, and propose themes
for future research.

What Difference Does A Robe Make? (Session: 7C)
Stephen Goldberg (Northwestern University), Margaret Shaw (JAMS, Inc.)

The use of mediation to resolve commercial and employment disputes has greatly increased
over the past 25 years. Among the effects of this increase has been a substantial growth in the
number of former judges now serving as mediators of commercial and employment disputes.
This influx of former judges into the mediation ranks raises the following questions which we
address in this paper. (1) Are former judges achieving success as mediators of commercial
and employment disputes, and if so why? What are the characteristics and skills of those
former judges who have succeeded as mediators? (2) Do former judges succeed as mediators
for the same reasons that those mediators who have not been judges succeed? (3) What are
the reasons why some former judges have not succeeded as mediators?

Implicit Attitudes toward Forgiveness: How/Whether We Ask the Question Determines the
Answer That We Get (Session 1D)
Jeremy Goldring (University of Adelaide)

I will present findings from two studies in which people‘s implicit preferences for
forgiveness were examined using an Implicit Association Test (IAT: Greenwald, McGhee, &
Schwartz, 1998). Across both studies there was an implicit preference for forgiveness,
however this preference was much lower when using a self-concept IAT (mean D = .52) than

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                                                                                       Abstracts


an attitude IAT (mean D = .94). The self-concept IAT also correlated far better with people‘s
self-reported forgiveness attitudes. These findings suggest that although a person may
implicitly believe that forgiveness is good, they may not necessarily perceive themselves as
being a forgiving person. Implications will be discussed.

Argumentativeness and Verbal Aggressiveness as Predictors of Partner-Perceptions of a
Person’s Conflict Style during a Simulated Downsizing Activity (Session: Poster)
Michael Gross (Colorado State University), Laura Guerrero (Arizona State University)

In the present study 5 hypotheses and 2 research questions are advanced predicting various
associations between perceptions of argumentativeness (where the locus of attack is on the
other person‘s position or issue) and verbal aggressiveness (where the locus of attack is on
the other person‘s self-concept) with perceptions of communication competence and conflict
style during a simulated downsizing activity. The concept of employee voice provides a
conceptual basis for our predictions as voice involves more than simply expressing one‘s
ideas and concerns; it involves expressing oneself in a skillful manner. The results from the
present study demonstrate that people are more likely to report that their partner (a) engaged
in competent communication when their partner is high in argumentativeness and low in
verbal aggressiveness, (b) used an integrating conflict style if their partner is high in
argumentativeness and low in verbal aggressiveness, (c) used a dominating conflict style if
their partner is high in argumentativeness and high in verbal aggressiveness and (d) used an
obliging conflict style if their partner is low in argumentativeness. Directions for future
research are discussed.

Vicarious Entrapment: Your Sunk Costs, My Escalation of Commitment (Session: 5D)
Brian Gunia (Northwestern University), Niro Sivanathan (London Business School), Adam
Galinsky (Northwestern University)

Individuals often honor their own sunk costs, increasing their commitment to failing courses
of action, from financial investments to wars. Because honoring sunk costs is driven by self-
justification processes, a widely offered prescription for preventing escalation of commitment
is to have a different, second individual make subsequent resource decisions. In contrast to
this proposed remedy, three experiments explored whether creating a psychological
connection between the first and second decision-maker leads the second decision-maker to
invest further in the failing program orchestrated by the initial decision-maker. Across three
studies, employing different escalation scenarios, we found that multiple forms of
psychological-connectedness – perspective-taking and interdependence – led decision-makers
to vicariously justify others‘ initial decisions, escalating their commitment to the earlier
investments. Overall, psychological connections between decision-makers undermined the
most accepted prescription for de-escalation. These results have important implications for
organizations and public policy and for theories of escalation.

Share and Share Alike: Information-Sharing and Cross-Cultural Assumptions about Trust
in Negotiations (Session: 6B)
Brian Gunia (Northwestern University), Dishan Kamdar (Indian School of Business)

Our 2009 Academy of Management submission documents that, relative to U.S. managers,
Indian managers generate lower joint gains in value creation negotiations. Study 3 in that
paper traced this difference to self-reported, low levels of information-sharing, and low
information-sharing to the assumption that trust in negotiation is inappropriate. The design of

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                                                                                        Abstracts


the studies reported in the AOM paper did not permit causal inference. In this IACM
submission, we analyze the negotiation strategies used by the Indian and U.S. negotiators
participating in study 1 of the Academy submission. Analyses of negotiation transcripts
revealed that U.S. negotiators shared more information and asked more questions (the two,
crucial elements of value creation via Q&A), while Indian negotiators made more offers and
engaged in more substantiation (which tend to undermine Q&A). These behaviors mediated
the relationship between culture and joint gains. The current findings confirm several causal
links in our theoretical argument that Indian managers‘ assumptions about trust in negotiation
prevent them from sharing the information necessary to generate joint gains.

When are Integrative Tactics More Effective? : The Moderating Effects of Moral Identity
and the Use of Distributive Tactics (Session: 8C)
Inhyun Han (Korea Workplace Innovation Center), SeungWoo Kwon (Korea University),
JongHoon Bae (Korea University of Business)

This study investigates when integrative tactics are more effective to generate higher joint
outcomes. We test whether (1) moral identity of negotiators and (2) the concurrent use of
distributive tactics increase the effectiveness of integrative tactics on joint outcomes. The
results show that negotiators with high moral identity achieved higher joint outcome by using
integrative tactics more effectively even though not by using them more often. In addition,
the positive effects of integrative tactics on joint outcomes increase as two parties employ
distributive tactics along with integrative tactics rather than integrative tactics alone.

Believing is Seeing? How Diversity Beliefs Shape the Perception of Diversity in Groups
(Session: 2A)
Astrid Homan (VU University Amsterdam), Lindred Greer (University of Amsterdam),
Karen Jehn (Leiden University), Lukas Koning (Leiden University)

Similar diversity constellations have sometimes been found to aid and sometimes to hamper
group processes and performance. Previous research has revealed that diversity can promote
group functioning when perceived in terms of differences ("we're all different individuals")
but disrupt group functioning when perceived in terms of subgroups ("us versus them"
distinctions). However, it is unclear what determines how diversity is perceived. We argue
that diversity construal is shaped by group members' beliefs about the value in diversity.
Focusing on groups with objective subgroups, we show in a field study and an experiment
that the more group members value diversity, the more likely they are to construe their
diversity in terms of differences and the less likely they are to construe their diversity in
terms of subgroups. The experiment further showed that diversity construal is only affected
by diversity beliefs in intellectual tasks (where diversity matters) but not in physical tasks.

The Influence of Automatic Trust on Information Sharing in Negotiations (Session: 6C)
Li Huang (Northwestern University)

Because the choice to trust is inherently risky, people naturally assess others‘ trustworthiness
as a necessary precondition for trusting behavior. This conscious process depends on a type
of relational schema - what we call a ‗trust schema‘ - that provides an explicit cognitive
starting point in most models of trust development. In this paper, we show that the process of
trust development can not only start earlier than previously considered, but that it can also
start nonconsciously. We present three experiments that display the automatic activation of
individuals‘ trust schemas via positive or negative, relational or non-relational subliminal

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                                                                                        Abstracts


cues. The results indicate that, although non-relational cues had no significant effects,
positive relational cues changed affective reactions to potential reciprocity, increased
behavioral trust without conscious awareness, and enhanced the exchange of information on
interests and priorities in two-party negotiations.

Preparing For Negotiation Using The Active Role Reversal Rehearsal Technique
(Session: 8D)
Michael Hudson (ENS International)

This interactive workshop will provide IACM members with an opportunity to review and
practice an active role reversal (ARR) technique that has proven very effective in rehearsing
solo negotiators and negotiation teams prior to their entering into ‗formal‘ negotiation. The
ARR rehearsal technique allows negotiators to: • experience what it is like to be on the
receiving end of their own behaviour • explore the consequences of specific approaches to the
situation • experiment with a variety of behaviours and approaches, and • observe options
suggested by others.

Conflict Management in Online Relationships (Session: 6A)
Kumi Ishii (Western Kentucky University)

With the diffusion of networked technology, personal relationships today can easily be
formed and maintained online. Similar to a face-to-face (FtF) situation, conflict is also seen in
these online relationships. Traditional computer-mediated communication (CMC) theories
suggest that text-based CMC (e.g., email) tends to increase conflicts due to the lack of social
context cues, and CMC is not rich enough to solve conflict. More than a decade ago, a study
reported that 94% of respondents had formed and maintained online relationships. As such,
CMC has become part of our daily life, and we cannot just say that CMC is not effective for
conflict management, but we need to understand how people manage conflict online. To
fulfill this significant gap from past research, this study will explore how online users manage
interpersonal conflict by attempting to identify some factors associated with their conflict
management styles in online relationships.

Integrative Bargaining Strategies and Negotiation Styles in the Turkish Finance Sector
(Session: 1B)
Isil Ismet (Sabanci University), Nimet Beriker (Sabanci University)

In this study we investigate real-life business negotiations conducted in the Turkish financial
sector. We collected 6 narrated negotiation cases, and analyzed the outcomes of negotiations
on the basis of distributive and integrative divide, and looked at the nature of the integrative
outcomes. In addition, we analyzed the relationship among negotiation processes, bargaining
styles, and the outcomes of negotiations. The findings showed that, almost in all cases,
negotiations ended with integrative agreements. The way exchanges were made between and
within the issues in real world business negotiations showed more complicated patterns than
what has been described in Pruitt et. al (2003). The findings also suggested that there was
consistency between the process and style constructs, however, the nature of the outcome was
not in the expected direction with the elements of style and process. Finally, we argue that the
context of the negotiation–business negotiations- had a positive impact on the achievement of
integrative agreements.




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                                                                                        Abstracts


International Negotiation on Climate Change – The Integration of Justice Psychology and
Economics as a Way Out of the Normative Blind Alley? (Session: 3D)
Heidi Ittner (Otto-von-Guericke-University), Cornelia Ohl (Helmholtz Centre for
Environmental Research - UFZ)

With respect to international cooperation tasks, like climate and biodiversity protection, one
has to ask for an explanation of global cooperations and their systematic support. For that
reason, this conceptual paper proposes a strong linking of methods and approaches of justice
psychology and environmental economics, in particular game theory. At a methodological
level, the empirical approach of psychology in combination with game-theoretical models
allow important conclusions for the support of international environmental cooperations for
climate protection. In addition, we consider the integrative perspective as fundamental for
further theoretical and empirical advancements of the interdisciplinary as well as disciplinary
approaches.

Mediation of Hierarchical Conflicts at the Workplace – Does Justice Matter?
(Session: 7C)
Heidi Ittner (Otto-von-Guericke-University), Katalien Bollen (Catholic University of
Leuven), Martin Euwema (Catholic University of Leuven)

The paper deals with hierarchical conflicts at the workplace, more specifically with conflicts
between supervisors and subordinates. The perceived effectiveness of mediation in that field
is analysed empirically in a standardized questionnaire study of real mediation cases (N=49).
Furthermore, we want to shed some light on the crucial factor of perceived procedural justice.
As, till now there is hardly any empirical field research analysing the impact of justice
perceptions on mediation processes and outcomes in the area of labour-related conflicts.
Results show that – also in hierarchical conflicts at the workplace – justice perceptions play a
crucial role within mediation as well as with respect to the outcome of mediation. Moreover,
the extent to which the parties perceive the mediation as an effective way to solve the conflict
is clearly mediated by their perception of procedural justice during the mediation. And
interestingly, this is first and foremost the case for the subordinates.

Dynamical Negotiation Networks: A Dynamical Model of Negotiation Process
(Session: 3B)
Lukasz Jochemczyk (University of Warsaw), Andrzej Nowak (University of Warsaw)

Traditional, static negotiation theories focus on descriptions of various external factors that
influence the outcome of negotiations. They are useful in predicting the negotiation outcome
in a limited way, because the result of the negotiation is ultimately determined not only by
objective facts, but is worked out during the negotiation itself. We present a Dynamical
Negotiation Network (DNN) model that links the negotiation outcome with the process of
attaining that outcome. This model represents the negotiation process in terms of a
dynamically constructed network of interconnected nodes of meaning. The structure of the
network and dynamics of its creation determine the outcome of a negotiation. In this paper
we present results of two studies, in which we examined the dynamics and outcomes of
negotiation simulation games. We show the relationship between the dynamics of negotiation
process and the outcome of the negotiations.




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                                                                                       Abstracts


Relationship Among Cooperative Learning Experiences, Social Interdependence,
Children’s Aggression, Victimization, and Prosocial Behaviors (Session: 5B)
David W. Johnson (University Of Minnesota), Jiyoung Choi (Seoul National University),
Roger T. Johnson (University Of Minnesota)

This study examined the relationships among cooperative experiences, social
interdependence predispositions, harm-intended aggression, victimization, and prosocial
behaviors with 217 elementary school children from the 3rd to 5th grades. Path analysis using
LISREL indicate that cooperative experiences predicted cooperative predispositions, the
absence of individualistic predispositions, and prosocial behaviors. Cooperative
predisposition predicted prosocial behaviors and the absence of harm-intended aggression.
Competitive predisposition predicted harm-intended aggression. The implications of
increasing cooperativeness through cooperative experiences, especially for bullies and
victims, were discussed.

The Importance of Simmelian Ties: Social Network Decomposition and the Emergence of
Reciprocity (Session: 2C)
Gregory Jones (Consortium on Negotiation and Conflict Resolution)

German sociologist Georg Simmel suggested that network closure, most prominently in the
form of closed triples, is central to the development of trust and cohesiveness that may
contribute to organizational effectiveness. Krackhardt has gone on to argue that social
contracts such as norms of reciprocity are actually due to Simmelian ties and that the
structural influence of these ties are often hidden from view until networks are decomposed
into constituent parts. Here we present the results of two empirical studies that demonstrate
how the creation of closed triads extracted by social network decomposition into sub-
networks, creates circumstances characterized by trust and strong group norms that allow for
efficient coordination of behavior and that enable the emergence of reciprocity.

Implicit Theories and the Trust Repair Process (Session: 6C)
Tai Tong Kam (National University of Singapore)

Trust repair research has largely focused on investigating the appropriate strategies to use
when faced with different types of violations - integrity-based and competency-based
violations. This paper introduces implicit theories to the trust repair framework as an
important consideration when deciding on trust repair strategies, and more broadly, shows
that individual differences are useful in the trust repair framework.

Tipping Points and Tipping Lines in Conflict Dynamics (Session: 2B)
Sanda Kaufman (Cleveland State University), Miron Kaufman (Cleveland State University)

The interaction between two conflicting groups is represented with a nonlinear dynamic
model to explore the evolution of outcomes - opting for a peace accord or continuing the fight
- in time. The members of each group influence the decisions to settle or not. They have
either a flexible/peace-oriented inclinations or they are intransigent/fight-oriented. In many
real situations too, intractable conflict unfolds in numerous episodes in which the group
members have to make or support decisions to continue the confrontations or make peace.
The multiple contextual factors affecting the episodes are captured in the arguments that
people utilize to persuade their peers to continue the struggle or make peace. These
interactions, combined with information about the opponents‘ leanings alter the initial intra-

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                                                                                         Abstracts


group proportions of flexibles and intransigents, until the two-group system jointly opts for
peace or war. The Cyprus conflict is used to illustrate the potential usefulness of this model.

A Personality Approach to Japanese Preference of Avoidance in Conflict: Neuroticism and
Its Interaction with the Situation (Session: Poster)
Sakura Komatsu (Doshisha University), Ken-ichi Ohbuchi (Tohuku University)

Research has indicated Japanese preference of avoidance in interpersonal conflicts. We
attempted to examine its psychological mechanism in terms of personality determinants.
Specifically, we predicted that neurotic Japanese would be more likely to take avoidance than
non-neurotic ones. Assuming that the effects of personality are moderated by situational
variables, we made two alternative hypotheses: the effects would be observed only when the
conflict was moderate and they would be observed only when it was intense. Completing the
Japanese version of NEO-PI-R, 147 Japanese students rated their conflicts with friends in
terms of strategies and anger, which we regarded as an index of the intensity of conflicts. The
results supported the first and third hypotheses, but not the second. We interpreted that
neurotic individuals avoid conflict because of their fear of social rejection and the fear leads
to avoidance when conflict is intense and so a certain level of anxiety is evoked.

Negotiating Positive Relational Identities in Organizations: Self-Narration as a
Mechanism for Strategic Emotion Management in Interpersonal Interactions
(Session: 8B)
Shirli Kopelman (University of Michigan), Lydia Chen (University of Michigan), Joseph
Shoshana (Northwest Community Hospital)

This paper explores the impact of emotions on identity. In organizational settings, displays of
negative (e.g., anger or sadness) and positive (e.g., happiness or joy) emotions, whether
authentic or feigned, can be counterproductive to negotiated task and relational outcomes
(e.g., Allred, Mallozzi, Matsui, & Raia, 1997; Côté, 2005; Hochschild, 1983; Pillutla &
Murnighan, 1996). Strategic response to counterproductive emotional displays will impact
the responder‘s experienced emotions and subsequent behavior (Kopelman, Gewurz, &
Sacharin, 2008). We suggest that emotion management—strategic response and display of
emotions—will not only lead to improved interdependent outcomes (Frank, 1988; Barry,
1999; Kopelman, Rosette, & Thompson, 2006; Kopelman, Gewurz, & Sacharin, 2008), but
will also influence the social construction and re-construction of interpersonal relational
identities. Adopting a framework that conceptualizes identity as narrative (Gergen, 1991;
McAdams, 1985; Omer & Strenger, 1992; Spence, 1982), a relational identity (Sluss &
Ashforth, 2007) is a negotiated shared narrative that emerges from both parties‘ self-narration
of the social interaction. When relational threats such as counterproductive display of positive
or negative emotions are strategically managed, people in interdependent role-relationships
can co-create, re-narrate, and maintain positive relational identities.

Organizational Complexity and Negotiation Obstacles: A Case Study of Intra-
Organizational Non-Negotiation (Session: Poster)
Marisa Kousaie (ESCP-EAP), Sanda Kaufman (Cleveland State University), Laurence De
Carlo (ESSEC)

We combine several negotiation analysis tools and experimental research findings and bring
them to bear on a well-documented case of failure to anticipate and to negotiate effectively in
a large organization. To analyze this situation, we examine it from psychoanalytic, group

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                                                                                       Abstracts


dynamics, and decision making perspectives, using the insights each offers to help make
sense of the impasse at Interieurs, a prominent French company producing high-end objects
for interior decoration. One of the authors conducted research at Interieurs, aimed at
characterizing the company‘s decision-making and negotiations practices. A secondary
purpose was to develop recommendations for how to foster conditions for the emergence of
collaborative processes, which are essential for organizational effectiveness. We use the data
collected through in-depth interviews to develop our three-pronged analysis. After describing
the company, we focus on a recent time period when despite financial success Interieurs
appeared to be headed toward conflict and crisis.

Normative Changes and Emerging Trends of Negotiation within Cultural Institutions
(Session: 1B)
Maria Koutsovoulou (ESCP-EAP), Marie-Pierre Fenoll-Trousseau (ESCP-EAP)

Our interdisciplinary research (legal sciences and social psychology) is related to cultural
institutions and makes a diagnosis of decision –making and negotiation practices in a context
of regulatory mutations. We first aim at connecting experimental conclusions to theoretical
models of negotiation and decision-making processes with the actual development we
observed within the specific field of culture (artistic production). Our second purpose is to
study new trends of management, decision-making process and negotiation practices that
regulating bodies induce on specific public and private cultural institutions – in the shape of
contractual shifts. For our research study we chose a qualitative methodology made up of a
documentary analysis as well as 22 research interviews with eleven managers and
administrators of significant institutions. Results showed a systemic position of the
manager/negotiator of cultural institutions –systemic position refers to the manager‘s three
action clusters, i.e. : Within each of these action-clusters we identify elements which promote
or hinder the decision-making and integrative negotiation processes. These elements are
indeed related to the new institutional standards and the managerial relations between a
manager and its team.

Moral Conflict and Complexity: The Dynamics of Constructive versus Destructive
Discussions over Polarizing Issues (Session: Poster)
Katharina Kugler (University of Munich), Peter T. Coleman (Teachers College, Columbia
University)

Moral conflicts pose a serious challenge to the field of conflict resolution. When they turn
destructive, they can pull thoughts, feelings, and actions toward a narrow, negative state that
becomes self-organizing and self-perpetuating, thus trapping the dynamics of the conflict. On
the other hand, constructive conflict dynamics over difficult issues are thought to be
characterized by more complex movement between different states of thinking, feeling and
acting. Originating from a new dynamical-systems theory of intractable conflict, this research
offers important insights into the basic dynamics of destructive versus constructive moral
conflicts. Fifty-nine dyads were asked to reach consensus on a polarizing topic on which their
opinions differed. Results from the study provide strong support for the basic propositions of
the theory.




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                                                                                         Abstracts


The Effects of Intranational Justice on The Sense of International Injustice
(Session: 1A)
Tomohiro Kumagai (Tohoku University), Nobuyoshi Kawasima (Tohoku University),
Nobuko Asai (Nagoya University)

Studies concerning intergroup aggression have shown that intragroup justice enhances
intergroup conflict. In this study, we applied that psychological process to the real world
setting. Especially, justice by society, nation and international relation was examined. It was
hypothesized that intranational justice would enhance the positive evaluation on government
then it would intensify patriotism and nationalism. That patriotism and nationalism would
engender a sense of the international injustice. The results of multiple regression analysis
showed that perceived social justice enhanced the positive evaluation on their government,
then it intensified international injustice which was mediated by nationalism. However,
perceived personal justice directly intensified patriotism and weakened nationalism. The
results were interpreted that in the case of social justice, fair treatment may intensify
identification with nation then it engender the sense of international injustice. The ecological
validity of the relationship between intragroup justice and intergroup justice was discussed.

Integrative Offer Movement Theory: Classification of Offer Exchanges in an Integrative
Negotiation (Session: 5A)
Seungwoo Kwon (Korea University)

Offer and offer changes convey information regarding strategies, tactics, priorities, and
preferences. Offers are more complicated in an integrative negotiation than in a distributive
negotiation. An Offer movement is defined as a change in a negotiator‘s offer from his or her
previous offer. This study classifies offer movements into 4 categories based on their effects
on the individual and joint outcome: concession, exploitation, integration, and destruction.
Each category has three sub-categories. These offer movements can be generally classified
into one of the followings: integrative, disintegrative, or distributive offer movements.
Integrative offer movements lead negotiators to integrative solutions whereas distintegrative
offer movements lead negotiators to disintegrative solutions. Distributive offer movements
have effects on individual outcomes rather than joint outcomes. Implications for the
negotiation studies are discussed.

Flexibility in Climate Change Negotiations: A Framework Analysis (Session: 3D)
Mary Jo Larson (FlexAbility International, LLC and University of Peace)

Human-generated greenhouse gases are heating the planet at a dangerous rate. The risks of
climate warming include rising sea levels, coastal erosion, fresh water salination, plant and
animal species extinctions, drought, and extreme weather events. Small Island and low-lying
coastal nations are among the most vulnerable, particularly those coping with poverty. The
1997 Kyoto Protocol, which expires in 2012, established international commitments for
reducing greenhouse gas emissions produced by industrialized nations. A distinguishing
feature of this multilateral agreement, and continuing negotiations, is the emphasis on
flexibility. What do we mean by "flexibility" and how do the integrative and distributive
features of multilateral negotiations contribute to international consensus building? This
multi-method study examines evidence of flexibility from various perspectives, including
multilateral agreements and position papers of vulnerable and industrialized states.
Framework analysis categorizes proposed solutions, and it identifies gaps. Testimonials relate
framework analysis to the wider practice of multilateral cooperation.

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                                                                                         Abstracts




Negotiating Succussfully on Behalf of Europe (Session: 1B)
Alain Lempereur (SJD (Harvard Law School))

Continual negotiation is the method carried out for, and by the European construction in Post-
War Europe. European Union Member States have entrusted the European Commission (EC)
with negotiating an increasing number of topics, giving EC's civil servants a pre-eminent role
as agents. We investigated these negotiators' practices to draw out recurrent features. In 2004,
about fifteen in-depth interviews were conducted with high-ranking officials from different
directorates in charge of top-level negotiations. An interview guide was designed which
tackled the five following points: success factors in negotiation, reasons for failure,
management of people, and relationship, management of substantive issues and problem-
solving, management of process. Following the interview analysis, a report was submitted to
the EC's General Directorate of the Administration. It highlighted some possible success
factors for European negotiators. The following text sums up some keys of success through
three negotiation dimensions: process, people, and problem.

Interpersonal Conflict as Job Stressor: Its Management in Different Organizational
Settings. (Session: 6A)
Jose M. León-Pérez (University of Seville), Jimena Y. Ramírez-Marín (University of
Seville), Francisco J. Medina (University of Seville)

This study examined how employees managed conflict in different organizational settings
depending on the target of conflict. According to an Occupational Health perspective,
interpersonal conflict is conceptualized as an important job stressor. In that sense, to avoid
the negative consequences of stress at work, employees need to know how to manage
interpersonal conflict effectively. Participants (N = 142) from two different organizations
(private vs. public organization) voluntarily filled out a scenario study based on an
experimental design using a 2 conflict types (relationship vs. task) x 2 hierarchy levels
(superior vs. subordinate). Results suggested that the way how employees manage
interpersonal conflict depends on the social setting in which they are involved: avoiding is
used more frequently for relationship conflict in public sector whereas in the private sector
yielding is more common. Employees also used problem solving with their colleagues and
yielding with their superiors. Implications for conflict and stress research are discussed.

Harmony and Conflict: Towards an Integrated Model of Conflict Styles (Session: 1A)
Kwok Leung (City University of Hong Kong)

Disagreements are typically viewed from a harmony perspective in East Asia, whereas they
are viewed from a conflict perspective in the West. Harmony models developed with
reference to the Chinese cultural context suggest that conflict avoidance represents vigilant,
effortful attempts to maintain an interpersonal relationship, which contrasts sharply with the
dual concern model, which asserts that conflict avoidance represents low concern for self and
others‘ outcomes. To address this type of inconsistency, harmony motives are integrated with
outcome concerns, giving rise to a three dimensional conflict model with eight conflict styles.
This integrative model is argued to be more comprehensive and universal than either
harmony or conflict models. Empirical evidence in support of this integrative model is
reviewed, together with directions for future research.




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                                                                                        Abstracts


A Typology of Negative Relationships at Work (Session: 6A)
Angeline Lim (National University of Singapore)

Much of the management literature focuses on positive relationships. This is in spite of the
impact negative relationships have on individuals and organizations. A review of the
literature indicates that negative relationships have not been clearly defined and different
labels and operational measures have been applied, both within and across disciplines. In this
study, I investigate the types of negative relationships that can develop at the workplace and
to uncover the possible individual (e.g. paranoia) and structural factors (e.g. faultlines,
compensation systems) that may initiate and/or catalyze the development of each of these
relationships. Through in-depth interviews with working personnel, a typology of negative
relationships will emerge. This typology and list of possible antecedents of negative
relationships will be useful in facilitating the study of negative relationships at work.

Socially Constructed Institutionalization of Conflict Management: The Confluence of
Agents, Networks, and Sense-making (Session: 2C)
Leigh Anne Liu (Georgia State University), Lin Inlow (Georgia State University)

We investigated the process and outcomes of a systematic approach to institutionalize
conflict management in a large public organization. Using longitudinal and multilevel field
data from a large hierarchical organization‘s deliberate efforts to implement a conflict
management initiative, we were able to test the effects of the institutionalization process from
multiple perspectives. We hypothesized and found the combination of three critical factors –
leadership of agentic actors, construction and maintenance of social networks, and the sense-
making processes – in the diffusion of both codified and tacit knowledge about conflict
management. Also, social construction supplements structural factors in the
institutionalization process of conflict management practices.

The Change and Convergence of Mental Models in Negotiation: Taking Social Conditions
into Consideration (Session: 4C)
Wu Liu (The Hong Kong Polytechnic University), Leigh Anne Liu (Georgia State
University), Jiandong Zhang (Shanghai Institute of Foreign Trade)

The change and convergence of mental models have received increasing attention, while the
antecedents have been under researched. The purpose of this study is to explore under which
conditions people are likely to change and converge their mental models in the context of
dyadic negotiation. Based on the motivated information processing model of negotiation (De
Dreu & Carnevale, 2003), we propose that the group membership of the other party (ingroup
vs. outgroup) and accountability (high vs. low) influence the change and convergence of
mental models in negotiation. We collected data from 256 college students in China, and
some of our hypotheses were supported. One of the most interesting finding was that shared
mental model mediated the relationship between social conditions (group membership and
accountability) and joint gain. The implications of our study are discussed.




IACM 2009                         June 15-18 - Kyoto, Japan                                   47
                                                                                        Abstracts


A Tale of Two Dimensions: Trust and Distrust as Two Distinct Mechanisms for Explaining
the Influence of Emotions in Negotiation (Session: 6C)
Meina Liu (University of Maryland), Chongwei Wang (The Hong Kong Polytechnic
University)

This study examines the paths through which two discrete emotions (i.e., anger and
compassion) influence negotiators‘ interaction goals. Findings showed that the two emotions,
which differ in valence and appraisal, influence interaction goals through two distinct,
functionally independent, mechanisms. Specifically, the influence of compassion (a positive
emotion with appraisal of situational control) on cooperatively oriented goals was mediated
by trust, but not distrust, whereas the influence of anger (a negative emotion with appraisal of
other-person control) on competitively oriented goals was mediated by distrust, but not trust.
This study not only sheds light into the dynamic process whereby emotions influence
negotiation behavior, but also supports the proposition that trust and distrust represent two
distinct psychological processes that are associated with different antecedents and have
different effects on behavioral tendencies.

Culture, Accountability, and Group Membership: A Dynamic Constructivist Approach to
Cross-Cultural Negotiation (Session: 8A)
Wu Liu (The Hong Kong Polytechnic University), Ray Friedman (Vanderbilt University),
Ying-yi Hong (Nan Yang Businss School)

Most cross-cultural research focuses on general differences or similarities between cultures,
while little attention has been paid to when these differences emerge. A dynamic
constructivist view of culture (Hong, Morris, Chiu, & Benet- Martínez, 2000; Morris & Fu,
2001) posits that culture impacts individuals‘ behaviors through the activation of cultural
knowledge in specific contexts. Using this approach, the present study examines how the
interaction between cultural and situational factors affects business negotiation. Specifically,
we predicted that only when they negotiate with ingroup members under high accountability
conditions, would Chinese negotiators show greater relationship-oriented (vs. self-focused)
tendencies than would American negotiators. A pilot negotiation simulation study with 108
Chinese students and a main study with 230 students from China and the United States
provided support to our predictions. The implications of our studies to theory and practice are
also discussed.

An Amicable Intercession: Juan Carlos I of Spain in the River Uruguay’s Pulp Mills
International Dispute (Session: 6D)
Roberto Luchi (Austral University - IAE), A. Ariel Llorente (Austral University - IAE)

This paper examines the diplomatic and sociopolitical dynamics that limited the expected
results of a Third Party Intervention (TPI) in the ongoing international dispute, involving two
Latin American (LA) countries, Argentina and Uruguay, that the latter‘s approval of two
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) pulp mill projects on the River Uruguay‘s eastern coast
unleashed. The purpose of this Conflict Management (CM) analysis is to expose how and
why both national governments‘ belated and improper handling of the dispute severely
limited the scope and the capabilities of the agreed TPI. Argentinean societal opposition to
each FDI was firstly based on grounds of environmental concerns and, when environmental
assessments contradicted that claim, on the refusal to grant a Social License to Operate (SLO)
to any of them. The overall effect of these restrictions made the TPI partially ineffective;
thus, the dispute continues unsolved.

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                                                                                        Abstracts


The Effect of Governance Structures on Inter-Firm Dispute Resolution (Session: 4B)
Fabrice Lumineau (IMD), Deepak Malhotra (Harvard Business School)

This paper draws upon psychological research on cognitive framing and dispute resolution in
order to investigate how contractual vs. relational governance structures impact the processes
and outcomes of inter-firm disputes. The paper leverages a unique dataset consisting of over
150,000 pages of documents relating to 102 inter-firm disputes. We find that the choice of
governance structure impacts the type of dispute resolution approach that is adopted when
conflict arises, and that different approaches are associated with different costs for resolving
the dispute. Thus, even after controlling for various attributes of the exchange relationship
and the dispute, the choice of governance structure has important strategic implications. The
paper concludes with a discussion of how insights from psychology may help to improve
strategy research and practice, and provide a lens through which inter-firm processes may be
studied.

Changing Contracts, Changing Negotiators: Impact on Buyer-Supplier Negotiations
(Session: 5A)
Fabrice Lumineau (IMD), James Henderson (IMD)

This paper analyzes how changes in contracts and/or negotiators may influence buyer-
supplier relationships and subsequent buyer-supplier negotiations. Our empirical analysis
employs a unique dataset of 2293 negotiation interactions in 102 disputes arising in buyer-
supplier relationships. The results suggest that contract and negotiator changes can positively
shift the effect of negative prior relationships on subsequent negotiation strategies (from
competitive to collaborative). Yet, they also suggest that contract and negotiator changes can
negatively shift the effect of positive prior relationships on subsequent negotiation strategies
(from collaborative to competitive).

Culture and Apologies (Session: 6B)
Willian Maddux (INSEAD), Tetsushi Okumura (Nagoya City University), Peter Kim
(University of Southern California)

We suggest that the function and meaning of apologies differs across cultures. Specifically,
we hypothesized that people from an individual-agency culture (such as the United States)
tend to see apologies as rational mechanisms for assigning blame and re-establishing trust in
a relationship. In contrast, we hypothesized that apologies in collective-agency cultures (such
as Japan) are used more as general expressions of remorse rather than as a means to assign
culpability. We found support for these ideas across two studies. An initial survey study
found that compared to Americans, Japanese apologize more often and are more likely to
apologize for actions in which they themselves were not involved; on the other hand,
Americans were more likely than Japanese to equate apologizing with responsibility-taking
and use apologies as opportunities for relationship repair. A subsequent experimental study
found that apologies for integrity violations were more successful for Japanese than for
Americans. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.




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                                                                                        Abstracts


Balancing Advocacy and Local Ownership of Gender: Lessons Learned from Peace
Building Processes at the Municipal Level in Kosovo (Session: 7B)
Eva Maria Malisius (CSSP)

This paper focuses on lessons learned regarding gender resulting out of peace building
processes at the municipal level in Kosovo. The paper argues that a general willingness to
engage with the gender topic exists among municipal leaders, although they are at the same
time hesitant to adopt a gender agenda pushed on them by the international community.
Reviewing the background of the Kosovo context and the methodology applied, the paper
focuses on observations regarding gender and gender awareness, as well as drawing lessons
learned. In conclusion, the paper demonstrates the importance to find the right balance
between advocacy and local ownership of gender by treating gender as a cross-cutting issue
in peace building processes.

Mental Accounting for Negotiation and Exchange (Session: 4C)
Alexandra Mislin (University of Buffalo, State University of New York), William Bottom
(Washington University in St. Louis), Peter Boumgarden (Washington University in St.
Louis)

Complex negotiations occur within a broader stream of ongoing social exchange, but
negotiation research focuses on narrowly circumscribed encounters. Building on Trivers‘
model of reciprocal altruism and Thaler‘s theory of mental accounting, we propose a model
of a negotiator who opens and updates ‗relational accounts‘ that regulate social exchange.
The accounts generate particular emotional response profiles forming the basis for social
motives to compete, cooperate, or self-sacrifice. In one study we manipulated Thaler‘s mental
accounting scenarios to test whether these emotional responses mediate the impact of specific
social events on social motives. Having found evidence for this mediation, we ran a second
study testing whether social motive mediates the impact of specific events on the vigor with
which a party implements the terms of a negotiated agreement. Evidence for this mediation
helps to fill a significant gap in our current understanding of the implementation process.
Implications of mental accounting for the development of a general, multi-level behavioral
theory of negotiation are considered.

The Nature of Adaptivity: A Theoretical Discussion (Session: 3B)
Adam Mitchinson (ICCCR, Teachers College, Columbia University), Peter Coleman
(ICCCR, Teachers College, Columbia University), Lan Bui-Wrzosinska (Warsaw School for
Social Psychology), Andrzej Nowak (University of Warsaw/ Florida Atlantic University)

The ability to adapt and maintain behavioral flexibility in conflict situations may be a key
way to avoid destructive interpersonal conflicts and ensure the greatest individual satisfaction
with conflict processes and outcomes. Adaptivity is implicit in many theoretical discussions
but is rarely refined and operationalized. This paper seeks to move towards this goal,
providing a theoretical discussion of the nature of adaptivity, what specifically the construct
is, and what its antecedents may be. This discussion is guided by, and integrated with,
concepts and propositions from a current line of dynamical research looking at the interplay
of power and interdependence in conflict situations (Coleman, Bui-Wrzosinska, & Nowak,
2008). The paper explores how an individual may be adaptive in situations of varying power
asymmetries and types of goal interdependence and presents key outcomes for this theory.




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                                                                                         Abstracts


Attribution & Conflict: A Vicious Cycle Driven by Complexity (Session: Poster)
Adam Mitchinson (ICCCR, Teachers College, Columbia University), Peter Coleman
(ICCCR, Teachers College, Columbia University)

A common observation is that conflict situations can often become characterized by negative
attributional patterns that occur as parties seemingly develop simple rules to explain the
others' behavior. These attributional rules may develop as conflicts become more intense,
resulting in a less complex and nuanced view of the conflict. It is hypothesized that this
reduction in complexity reduces the perspective of the individual and their ability to consider
multiple causes for the other parties actions. The outcome of this is that individuals rely on
simple and often erroneous attributions on which to base their behavioral response, resulting
in possible escalatory dynamics and increasing conflict intensity. As a result a vicious cycle
emerges. This extended abstract presents the theoretical underpinnings of these notions and
proposes a methodology to begin to test a set of specified hypotheses.

Comparative Perceptions against Background of Israeli-Palestinian Gaza Conflict
(Session: 7B)
Ben Mollov (Bar Ilan University), Chaim Lavie (Interdisciplinary Dept. Social Sciences)

This paper is part of a continuing research project assessing the impact of Israeli-Palestinian
dialogue, contact in work and eductional settings and Jewish-Arab perceptions. Building on a
research project that began in the late 1990's with roots in the period immediately following
the 1967 Six-Day War the researchers have assessed the impact of Israeli-Palestinian
dialogue with emphasis on the inter-religious/cultural dimension, the impact of Jewish-Arab
educational encounters and the impact of Jewish-Arab work encounters, along with general
testing of willingness for contact with Palestinian Arabs primarily among Israeli Jewish
respondents. The latest phase of this research assesses the impact of the recent Israeli-
Palestinian Gaza conflict on perceptions and willingness for contact with Palestinian Arabs of
approximately 200 Israeli Jewish students surveyed at Bar-Ilan University in comparison
with approximately 100 Israeli Jewish students at the Ashkelon Regional College who were
under direct assault by rocket fire from Gaza during the recent hostilties.

Rank, Gender and Ethnic Membership: An Evidential Argument for the Necessary
Inclusion of Gender in Donald Horowitz' Ethnic Groups in Conflict (Session: Poster)
Nancy Morrison (Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution)

Donald Horowitz, in his comprehensive study of ethnic conflict, Ethnic Groups in Conflict,
raises compelling arguments that scholars in the field of conflict studies should find relevant
and of high analytic utility. In particular, his distinction between ―ranked‖ and ―unranked‖
systems makes a persuasive argument that ethnicity is not static, nor is it a specific property.
Social identity theorists will find that Horowitz deftly addresses other types of identity
affiliations such as: class, tribe, race, nationality, culture, religion, kinship, language, and
even political affirmation. These overlapping identity descriptors can mask ethnic identity,
but with careful examination, certain indicators can be attributed to ethnic affiliation. One
type of identity category is missing, however: gender. A discussion of how gender identity
might be situated within Horowitz‘s views on ethnic conflict follows, in the methodological
form of a classic, philosophical evidential argument.




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Understanding the Spread of Malignant Conflict: A Dynamical Systems Perspective
(Session: 3B)
Naira Musallam (Teachers College, Columbia University), Peter Coleman (Teachers College,
Columbia University), Andrzej Nowak (Florida Atlantic University/ Warsaw School)

Using a Dynamical Systems Perspective, the current paper will examine the processes and the
mechanisms under which conflict malignancy spreads psychologically, socially, and
structurally. The paper includes the following sections: 1) a discussion of the characteristics
of malignant social conflicts, 2) a review of the literature on psychological, social, and
structural dimensions related to conflict pervasiveness, 3) findings from an exploratory study
conducted with Israelis and Palestinians on the spread of destructive conflict, and 4) a
discussion of the relevance of dynamical-systems theory for conceptualizing and measuring
the spread of negativity in conflict.

The Difussion of Constructive Processes in Destructive Settings: A Dynamical Systems
Perspective (Session: Poster)
Naira Musallam (Teachers College, Columbia University)

While significant scholarship has been devoted to the understanding of intractability,
comparatively, little systematic research has been conducted in order to understand how can
we reverse intractability. The current study will explore the conditions under which
constructive processes diffuse in a destructive settings, using a dynamical systems
perspective.

Spontaneity in Decision-Making: It Can Help and Hurt (Session: 5D)
Jayanth Narayanan (National University of Singapore), Madan M. Pillutla (London Business
School), Xue Zheng (National University of Singapore)

Spontaneity characterized as unplanned action without premeditation is important to
interpersonal relationships. However, not all ‗spontaneous‘ decisions will lead to positive
consequences. Our study attempts to clarify the role of spontaneity in decision making by
taking the perspective of recipients of spontaneous actions to investigate how spontaneity in
decision-making can lead to positive reciprocity or negative reciprocity depending on the
valence of the spontaneous action. In study 1, we found that people were more likely to
reciprocate quick (i.e. the manipulation of spontaneity) positive offers than delayed positive
offers in the trust game. In study 2, we found that people were more inclined to punish quick
small offers than delayed small offers in the ultimatum game.

When the Negotiator Sees Red... (Session: Poster)
Jayanth Narayanan (National University of Singapore), Jochen Reb (Singapore Management
University), Jianwen Chen (Merill Lynch & Co.), Xue Zheng (National University of
Singapore)

The negotiations literature abounds with studies about how cognitive heuristics affect
negotiation outcomes. However, the role of colors in negotiations remains unexplored. The
color red is associated with male dominance and leads to superior outcomes in sporting
contests (Hill and Barton, 2005a). In this study, we examined the effect of wearing the color
red on outcomes in distributive negotiations. Our findings revealed that when male
negotiators wore red clothing, they gained a distributive advantage over their counterpart
wearing white.

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Gender Diversity, Relationship Conflict, and Satisfaction: The Powerful Moderating Role
of Climate for Inclusion (Session: 3A)
Lisa Nishii (Cornell University)

Using data collected from 1,324 employees working within 100 departments of a biomedical
company that was interested in understanding the factors that could help mitigate problems
associated with gender diversity, I tested the hypotheses that the climate for inclusion of
departments would moderate both the relationship between gender diversity and relationship
conflict, as well as the relationship between relationship conflict and department-level
satisfaction. Results provided strong support for these hypotheses. Levels of relationship
conflict were lower in gender diverse groups characterized by a strong climate for inclusion
compared to gender diverse groups with a weak climate for inclusion. Furthermore, in those
departments with a strong climate for inclusion, the negative relationship between
relationship conflict and satisfaction that has been consistently found in the literature was
reversed. Relationship conflict was actually associated with higher levels of satisfaction.

From Crude Law to Civil Relations: The Dynamics and Potential Resolution of Intractable
Conflict (Session: 2B)
Andrzej Nowak (Warsaw University), Morton Deutsch (Columbia University), Wojciech
Bartkowski (Warsaw School for Social Psychology)

A formal model that captures the basic processes at work in the development and
transformation of intractable conflict is presented. The formal model translates the insights of
the Crude Law, which distills the principles underlying a highly diverse set of ideas and
research findings into parameters that can be instantiated in computer simulations. The results
of the simulations show emergent consequences that were not anticipated in the verbal
version. Local mechanisms are found to be crucial for global dynamics of conflict. Conflicts
grow exponentially in places of the highest incompatibility of interests and diffuse from these
places. Conflicts escalate to intractability by changing social orientations in areas of its
highest intensity. Disruption of locality (e.g. globalization) can paradoxically reduce the
conflict. Simulations also suggest that seemingly intractable conflicts can be transformed by
creating a fast growing positive process in the vicinity of their center.

Forgiveness as a Response To Interpersonal Conflict: Limits and Possibilities.
(Session: 1D)
Heather Pearce (University of Adelaide), Jeremy Goldring (University of Adelaide), Louise
Mooney (University of Adelaide), Letty Tumbaga (University of Adelaide)

This symposium aims to present some of the current research concerning the application of
forgiveness to the resolution of interpersonal conflict. Within the session, we will be
addressing four important gaps in the forgiveness research; specifically, we will examine:
potential barriers to forgiveness people may experience following interpersonal conflict; the
possibility for the coexistence of forgiveness and retributive justice; and the assessment of
implicit attitudes towards forgiveness. We will be presenting research from three different
studies addressing the issues outlined above, and will discuss the implications of the findings
for conflict management and resolution, as well as aiming to promote the application of
forgiveness as a legitimate means of overcoming interpersonal conflict. Professor Ken-ichi
Ohbuchi of Tohoku University will moderate the session.


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                                                                                          Abstracts


‘I Just Couldn’t Forgive’: The Identification of Salient Barriers to Forgiveness Following
Interpersonal Conflict. (Session: 1D)
Heather Pearce (University of Adelaide)

The presentation will address findings from two studies (N= 262 & 235) investigating why
people may not forgive following interpersonal transgressions. Potential barriers to
forgiveness were identified via a thematic analysis of the literature, and a Barriers to
Forgiveness (BTF) scale was developed. Results indicate that the most salient barriers
impacting one‘s willingness or ability to forgive are the victim‘s moral stance against the
transgression, the dissolution of trust in the relationship, and the offender‘s lack of repentant,
conciliatory behaviors post-transgression. The relevance of findings to interpersonal conflict
resolution will be discussed, and the application of the BTF will be considered.


Depending on the Angle: Perspectives on Conflict and Workplace Climate (Session: 3A)
Kelly Pike (Cornell University)

This study closely examines the relationship between perspectives on conflict and workplace
climate to create a model for forecasting the likelihood of successful organizational change.
That change, in this case, is the implementation of new technology – electronic medical
records (EMRs) – in nursing homes. A case study of ten nursing homes (on average 255
beds) in the New York City area is used to identify different workplace issues and managerial
approaches to dealing with conflict. The research question examined is how organizations
with the same types of conflict can experience vastly different workplace climates. The
preliminary findings indicate that different perspectives, not merely types, of conflict were
what shaped either a positive or negative workplace climate. Three managerial approaches to
dealing with conflict are identified, and workplace climate is illustrated in feedback from
personal interviews with both managers and front-line staff at eight of the ten homes.
Scholarship would benefit from additional research that tests the proposed model.

Good Samaritans and Ugly Tacticians: How Mastery and Performance Goal Individuals
Treat Less Well-Off Others (Session: 5C)
P. Marijn Poortvliet (Tilburg University), Frederik Anseel (Ghent University)

Historically, performance goals have been somewhat favored over mastery goals, because
performance goals were found to be better predictors of individual task performance.
However, up until recently crucial interpersonal processes have been largely neglected in
achievement goal research. In this paper three experiments show that performance goals,
relative to mastery goals, may have detrimental effects for social exchange relationships.
First, results indicate that performance goals lead to stronger interpersonally harmful
behavior and less accurate information giving than mastery goals. Also, it is argued and
shown that performance goal individuals take into account the competence of the adversaries
that they are confronted with by adjusting their tactical deceptive behavior: strong opponents
are more subtly deceived than weak opponents, who receive more blatant treatment.




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Negotiating For Better or Worse: Evidence of Learning from Multiple Anchors
(Session: 4C)
Jimena Y. Ramírez-Marín (University of Seville), Wolfgang Steinel (Leiden University),
Francisco J. Medina (University of Seville)

The effects of multiple reference points and social motivation in negotiation learning are
explored in repeated negotiations. Across five rounds with changing available profit,
negotiators (n=230) reach agreements depending on their social motivation. Consistent with
our predictions, prosocially motivated individuals reach higher joint outcomes compared to
proself negotiators. Moreover, social motivation moderated the effects of multiple anchors
over joint outcomes. On the other hand, individual distributions of the outcomes were only
affected by social motivation. Implications for learning and negotiation with multiple anchors
are discussed.

Team Goal Orientation and Conflict: Decoupling Task and Relational Conflicts with Goal
Orientation Theory (Session: 4A)
Jana Raver (Queen's University), Ingrid Chadwick (Queen's University)

The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the extent to which teams' goal
orientations are related to intra-team conflict and to also examine subsequent relationships
with team creativity. We proposed that even though it is difficult to find variables that
decouple task and relationship conflict, teams' goal orientations have the potential to play this
role because they reflect team members' underlying pursuits and beliefs regarding the
meaning of conflict. Also, in line with evidence on interactive relationships between task and
relationship conflict, we proposed and tested a model of how task and relationship conflict
interact to predict team creativity, after accounting for goal orientation effects. Results from a
field study of 50 high-tech manufacturing teams illustrate the beneficial effects of team
learning and performance orientation for reducing levels of relationship conflict while
maintaining task conflict, and an interactive relationship between task and relationship when
predicting team creativity.

Breathe Your Way to a Good Deal: The Effect of Concentration Exercises on Negotiation
Outcomes (Session: 1C)
Jochen Reb (Singapore Management University), Jayanth Narayanan (National University of
Singapore)

While scholars and practitioners agree that preparation plays a crucial role for achieving
successful negotiation outcomes, there is little empirical research on the topic. In the present
research we examine the effect of engaging in a concentration exercise in preparation to an
upcoming negotiation on negotiation outcomes. Traditional approaches to negotiation
preparation emphasize rational planning and analysis. However, these activities are unlikely
to address all challenges of negotiating, especially those associated with a lack of attentional
focus on the task at hand. In two experiments we found that engaging in a concentration
exercise significantly improved performance in a distributive negotiation task vis-à-vis a
control group that engaged in an unrelated filler task or that did ―traditional‖ planning for the
same amount of time. This effect was observed for both objective and subjective outcome
measures. Mediation analyses suggest that the effect works through increased negotiator
concentration and reduced anxiety.




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The Orthogonality of Conflict Processes: On Being Constructive and Destructive at The
Same Time (Session: 3B)
Katarzyna Samson (University of Warsaw), Andrzej Nowak (University of Warsaw)

In this paper a new, two-dimensional approach to constructiveness and destructiveness of
conflict is proposed in a Dynamical System Theory framework. Archival analysis of 20
discussions (981 messages altogether) from various Internet forums was conducted. Two
factors obtained from independent judges' highly consistent ratings of each of the messages
on 10 scales were interpreted as constructive and destructive processes in the course of
conflict, and correlated with the messages' linguistic complexity. The results show that only
the destructive process present in conflict possesses non-linear dynamics, leads to a collapse
of complexity and acts as an attractor for the state of the system. It implies that constructive
and destructive conflicts are not two ends of a continuum but two independent dimensions of
conflict, and thus separate models of their formation and development should be sought.

Conflict Management in Public Private Partnerships: The Case of the London
Underground (Session: 4B)
Denise Savage (Queens University Belfast), Paul Teague (Queens University Belfast)

In the business world, managing conflict, whether it is commercial or employment-related
has traditionally been documented in the context of the single firm. Yet more and more the
boundaries between firms are blurring to form business networks, in which the success of one
organisation becomes increasingly dependent on the activities of others. Discussion of how
business networks function mostly focuses on the development of sophisticated legal
contracts or relational capital to ensure the activities of involved organisations dovetail with
each other. These are important matters that need investigation, but like single organisations
business networks must experience some level of internal conflict and it is important to try
and uncover what mechanisms are used to solve these problems. The purpose of this paper is
to address this shortcoming in the literature by examining how conflict is managed in the
London Underground Private Public Partnership, viewed as a form of business network.

Effects of Creativity and Positive Arousal in Negotiation (Session: 1C)
Vidar Schei (Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration)

This study investigates how creativity and positive arousal impact negotiation process and
outcome. We measured the negotiators‘ creative personality and their level of positive
arousal before they participated in a simulated negotiation. Results demonstrated that the
level of creativity in negotiation dyads had a positive effect on the negotiators‘ joint outcome.
Positive arousal did not affect outcome, but strengthened the relationship between creativity
and joint outcome.

Power to the Powerless: Strategic Influence through the Elicitation of Sympathy in
Negotiations (Session: 5C)
Aiwa Shirako (University of California, Berkeley)

Influence and power have long fascinated researchers in psychology and organizational
behavior. However, much of the research on power has focused on the individuals in the
position of power, leaving positions of weakness, and associated influence tactics
understudied. This paper focuses on the elicitation of sympathy as an influence strategy to
overcome weak positioning in exchange relationships. Prior work on exchange relationships,

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                                                                                        Abstracts


such as negotiations, generally assumes that people in positions of low power are at a
disadvantage. However, I show that by making appeals to sympathy, low power individuals
can mitigate their disadvantage. In addition, I show in two studies that sympathy elicitation
can lead to positive interpersonal outcomes, including the counterpart‘s satisfaction with the
interaction, which have been shown by others to positively predict instrumental outcomes in
future interactions (Curhan et al., 2003).

The Limits of Legitimacy: Morality and a Constraint on Deference to Authority
(Session: 3C)
Linda Skitka (University of Illinois at Chicago), Christopher Bauman (University of
Washington), Brad Lytle (University of Illinois at Chicago)

Various versions of legitimacy theory predict that a duty and obligation to obey legitimate
authorities generally trumps people‘s personal moral values. However, most research has
assumed rather than measured the degree to which people have a moral stake in the situations
studied. This study tested compliance with and reactions to legitimate authorities in the
context of a natural experiment that tracked public opinion before and after the U.S. Supreme
Court ruled in a case that challenged state‘s rights to legalize physician-assisted suicide.
Results indicated that citizens‘ degree of moral conviction about the issue of physician-
assisted suicide predicted post-ruling perceptions of outcome fairness, decision acceptance,
and changes in perceptions the Court‘s legitimacy from pre- to post-ruling. Other results
revealed that the effects of religiosity independently predicted outcome fairness and decision
acceptance, but not perceptions of post-ruling legitimacy.

An Exploration of Multiple, Simultaneous, Conflict Episodes and the Key Account
Manager’s Internal Selling Role (Session: 2C)
James Speakman (Cranfield University)

This paper examines conflict and the salesperson‘s internal sales job, salesperson customer
advocacy, conflict composition and the behavioral sequences adopted in the management of
complex internal organizational conflict episodes.

Emotion and Conflict Management in Elementary Schools (Session: 5B)
Godfrey A. Steele (University of the West Indies, Trinidad)

Adult and childhood conflict resolution may be related. This study uses current approaches to
studying emotion and conflict in children to develop an understanding of conflict
management and negotiation among elementary students. An integrated theory of emotion
and conflict management is proposed. Since animated films generate emotional responses this
study examines the relationship between animated films and the emotional management of
conflict management. Survey data (244 males, 271 females aged 10-13) in Trinidad and
Tobago reveal that gender and school location are related to constructive conflict
management/emotional management; using a third party is related to film viewing, school
location and staff training; using facilitative communication is related to film viewing, gender
differences, school location and staff training; using a negotiation and problem solving
strategy is related to the same factors except staff training. The proposed theory is used to
account for the effect of viewing animated films on primary students‘ emotion and conflict
management strategies moderated by sex differences, school location and staff training.




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Early Words That Work (Session: 5A)
Roderick Swaab (INSEAD), Will Maddux (INSEAD), Marwan Sinaceur (INSEAD), David
Huffaker (Northwestern University), Daniel Diermeier (Northwestern University)

We examine how words within the first period of a conversation can predict agreement
between conversation partners in multiparty and dyadic negotiations. In a computer-mediated
environment, it was shown that linguistic mimicry increases the likelihood of agreement in a
multiparty negotiation (Study 1) and individual gain in a dyadic negotiation (Study 2).
Implications for thin slices theory for negotiations are discussed.

Face First (Session: 7C)
Roderick Swaab (INSEAD)

Building on face theory, we propose that managers can mediate disputes more effectively
when they use a pre-mediation caucus (a separate meeting with each disputant prior to any
joint meeting) to give face to each disputant. A field study of 540 employment disputes
indicates that mediators who use the pre-mediation caucus to affirm face by establishing trust
but not to resolve the dispute by having a substantive discussion, increase settlement quality
and reduce conflict. A second interview and survey study confirmed these findings but also
suggested that pre-mediation caucuses are more effectively used by experienced mediators.

How do Chameleons Bake Bigger Pies?: Dissecting the Layers of Behavioral Alignment in
Negotiation (Session: 5A)
Paul Taylor (Lancaster University), Stacey Conchie (University of Liverpool)

A number of recent papers have demonstrated that ‗matching‘ or ‗mimicry‘ of an opponent‘s
behavior can result in a better negotiation outcome. But what aspect of behavior should a
negotiator mimic to achieve success? We used a cognitive account of dialogue processing—
the Interactive Alignment Model—as a framework for exploring when and how mimicry
occurs within negotiation. Specifically, we examined four levels of alignment (situational,
semantic, syntactic, and lexical) within the dialogue of 20 divorce mediations. Consistent
with previous research, we found a positive relationship between husband and wife‘s verbal
alignment and mediation success. This alignment typically emerged incrementally over time
as disputants increasingly ―spoke the same language‖ about the dispute. Alignment within a
level was often reinforcing, and alignment at one level correlated significantly with
subsequent alignment at the other levels. Our findings support the IAM model and shed light
on when and how mimicry facilitates success.

Using Retributive Justice to Move Towards Forgiveness and Relationship Repair
(Session: 1D)
Letty Tumbaga (University of Adelaide)

The study examined the relationship between punishment and forgiveness. It also explored
whether or not one‘s motives for punishing as well as who decides the punishment could
influence forgiveness and relationship repair. A 3 (Punishment motivation: retributive,
deterrence, no punishment) X 2 (person initiating: victim, offender) between-subjects
experimental design was used. 193 community participants were randomly assigned to one of
six conditions. They were presented with a hypothetical scenario and asked to respond to
several forgiveness and relationship outcome measures. Results showed that when a
transgressor was punished, the transgressed party became more forgiving. Punishment also

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                                                                                         Abstracts


restored trust and increased the likelihood for victims to feel more satisfied and committed to
the relationship. Motives and who decided the punishment appeared to have less influence
on forgiveness and relationship outcomes. Overall, these findings suggest that practitioners
should not be too quick to discount punishment as a way of managing conflict in close
relationships.

Friendship, Deception and Punishment in Negotiations (Session: 8C)
Per van der Wijst (Tilburg University), Emiel Krahmer (Tilburg University)

In distributive bargaining, a negotiator‘s first aim is to serve one‘s own interests. However, in
repeated bargaining, it is important to maintain a good relationship with the other. When
negotiating with a friend, the impact of that relational factor becomes even more important
and it may influence the strategies that will be selected. In bargaining situations with a zero
sum character, withholding or misrepresenting the background information is a common
strategy in order to gain more power. This study addresses the question of how friends cope
with that double task of the negotiator, and if they are prepared to deceive the other in order
to get a better result. A repeated ultimatum game experiment indicated that competing friends
are as willing to deceive each other as strangers are. Deception leads generally to more
rejections, but friends reward honesty more than strangers.

Expatriate Couples' Adjustment: The Pros and Cons of Avoidaning Interpersonal Conflict
(Session: 6A)
Kim J. P. M. Van Erp (University of Groningen), Ellen Giebels (University of Twente),
Karen I. Van der Zee (University of Groningen), Marijtje A. J. Van Duijn (University of
Groningen)

This research examines the moderating effect of conflict avoidance on the relationship
between interpersonal conflict and psychological adjustment among 56 expatriate couples at
two time-points. We propose a model based on the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to
address simultaneously the effects of own and other‘s avoidance behavior. We found
substantial support for our model, in that both parties‘ conflict perceptions were detrimental
to their own adjustment. Regarding avoidance, three factors were essential: role, level of
conflict, and time. First, direct and moderating effects of avoidance were only significant for
expatriate partners, suggesting that they are more sensitive to reaction to conflict than
expatriates. Second, high conflict resulted in higher adjustment when avoidance was high,
whereas low conflict resulted in higher adjustment when avoidance was low. Presumably,
severe threats to the intimate relationship are better avoided, whereas smaller threats should
be faced. Third, the findings were especially significant at T2.

When Leader Emotional Displays Conflict With Follower Social-Relational Goals
(Session: 4A)
Gerben van Kleef (University of Amsterdam), Astrid Homan (VU University Amsterdam),
Bianca Beersma (University of Amsterdam), Daan van Knippenberg (Erasmus University
Rotterdam), Barbara Wisse (University of Groningen)

Followers sometimes perform better when their leader expresses anger and sometimes when
the leader expresses happiness. We propose that this inconsistency can be solved by
considering potential conflict between leader emotions and follower social-relational goals,
operationalized in terms of agreeableness. Happiness facilitates affiliation and social
connection—states that are also associated with agreeableness. Anger, in contrast, is

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                                                                                        Abstracts


associated with hostility and conflict—states that are opposite to agreeable individuals' goals.
We hypothesized that leader emotional displays enhance or hamper performance depending
on whether they match or conflict with follower agreeableness. Four-person teams viewed a
video clip of their leader, who provided feedback on their performance in an angry or happy
way. Low agreeableness followers performed better with an angry leader and high
agreeableness followers performed better with a happy leader. This effect could be explained
in terms of experienced workload, which was highest among agreeable followers with an
angry leader.

Strategic Response to the Display of Emotions & Cross-Cultural Causal Attributions in
Negotiations (Session: Poster)
Akshaya Varghese (University of Michigan), Shirli Kopelman (University of Michigan)

Emotions at the bargaining table can be advantageous or counter-productive to the individual
displaying the emotions. This research extends previous research on how culture influences
the effectiveness of the strategic displays of emotions in negotiations, by examining South
Asian negotiators. It also extends previous research by looking at cross-cultural attributions
of emotions, whether dispositional or situational, and how they influence negotiation
outcomes.

Intercultural Conflict: Conflict Management Styles and Communication Success - A Case
study in a Russian-Western European Project (Session: 4B)
Albert Vollmer (ETH Zurich), Patricia Wolf (ETH Zurich), Nina Boxberger (ETH Zurich)

In this case study, we aim at exploring the relationship between CMS and the success of an
intercultural project with the focus on how CMS are embedded within the social structure of
the project. Results of a social network analysis show that different conflict management
styles were deployed during the project time. The most prevalent CMS was smoothing (31%)
followed by compromising (25%) and integrating (19%). The two fewest adopted styles were
avoiding (15%), and forcing (10%). This indicates that pro-social behavior, especially
smoothing, prevails, but not integrating, as most literature shows. Furthermore, project
members representing the project success (they were elected to initiate a succeeding project),
hold more than 50% of the conflict communication In-Degrees, and applicated avoiding to a
much higher degree as the others. Results indicate that pro-social, but not nessecary
integrating behavior, can be the adaequate conflict behavior in the intercultural, especially
Eastern-Western-European context.

Conflict and Innovation in Teams – First Validation of a German Translation of
Established Scales (Session: Poster)
Albert Vollmer (ETH Zurich), Sarah Seyr (ETH Zurich), Denise Walser (ZHAW Zurich)

In this study, established scales of the fields of conflict management (goal interdependency,
conflict types, conflict management styles, debate), and team innovativeness are translated
into German and applied in two validation studies. A first pre-study was conducted with a
heterogeneous sample of innovation managers (N=48) of different organizations. Items and
scales were optimated on the basis of item analysis, reliability analysis, factor analysis, and
feedback from expert interviews. A second study was conducted with a homogeneous sample
of innovation managers (N=100) of a service provider (insurance company) and aimed at
achieving fully satisfactory statistical outcomes. The results of both studies are presented.


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Conflict Resolution Strategies of Chinese Private Entrepreneurs: The Role of Political
Participation (Session: 2C)
Guofeng Wang (University of Electronic Science and Technology of China), Ray Friedman
(Vanderbilt University), Tae-Hyun Kim (Northwestern University), Runtian Jing (University
of Electronic Science and Technology of China)

This study investigated the link between private entrepreneurs‘ political networking and
organizational strategies for conflict management in China. We predicted, and found, that
those with political influence were more likely to use a ―rights‖ approach to resolve inter-
organizational disputes (i.e., going to court), while those without political influence were
more likely to use an ―interests‖ approach (i.e., mediation and negotiation). There were no
differences between those with and without political influence in use of ―power‖ (i.e., going
directly to government agencies). These findings are based on a survey of 4149 private
Chinese entrepreneurs in 1995, 1997, and 2000.

Economics and Greed (Session: 3C)
Long Wang (Northwestern University), J. Keith Murnighan (Northwestern University)

Greed is a classic topic in human development (Balot, 2001; Robertson, 2001) and it
inevitably affects many of our choices and decisions. Although greed is typically viewed as
uniformly negative and reprehensible, we propose that people‘s attitudes and opinions about
greed are actually subject to change. In particular, studying economics may help legitimize
and even beautify greed. Previous research shows that economics education might make
people more self-interested because self-interest maximization is central to most economic
models (Marwell & Ames, 1981; Frank, et al, 1993). Because greed and maximizing self-
interest are sometimes difficult to separate, conceptually or empirically, we propose that
studying economics may make people view greed as potentially positive and beneficial. Two
complementary studies support our proposition. Study 1 shows that students who are
pursuing economics view greed more positively than students who are pursuing other majors
and taking other courses. Study 2 indicates that positively priming greed can significantly
increase people‘s positive attitudes and opinions about greed.

Effects of Status Differential and Cooperative/Competitive Relationship on Joint Outcome
in Mixed Motive Negotiation: A Cross-Cultural Comparison between the U.S. and China
(Session: 6B)
Jiunwen Wang (Northwestern University), Yaru Chen (Rutgers University), Jean Lee (China
Europe International Business School)

Most organizational behavior research in general, and negotiation research in particular, have
paid little attention to the role of relative status between social exchange parties. In this paper,
we note that while past research and theory on status tends to assume a competitive
relationship between parties of different status and a fixed-sum pool of status resources, such
assumptions do not apply to exchange between parties of different status in cooperative
relationships and social systems. Accordingly, we hypothesized an interactive effect between
status differential (unequal vs. equal) and relationship (cooperative vs. competitive) such that
the negative impact of status differential on interactions and outcomes between exchange
parties of different status would be reduced or disappear in cooperative, as opposed to
cooperative, relationships. We tested this effect on negotiation joint outcomes in two cultural
contexts – the US and China — where people are known to differ in their relational


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orientation toward others and hierarchical difference in social exchange. Theoretical
implications to research in negotiation, status, and social exchange are discussed.

Excited to Disagree? A Study of Conflict and Emotions (Session: 4A)
Laurie Weingart (Carnegie Mellon University), Julia Bear (Carnegie Mellon University),
Gergana Todorova (Carnegie Mellon University)

Prior research on emotion and team conflict has primarily focused on the experience of
negative emotions, especially as they pertain to relationship conflict. We extend prior
conceptualizations by considering both the valence of emotion (positive versus negative) and
the activation level (passive versus active) across three types of conflict. We report survey
results demonstrating that active positive emotions (e.g., attentive, interested, excited) are
most prevalent in response to all types of conflict. We also find that while the pattern across
the four types of emotions is similar for task and process conflict, it differs for relationship
conflict.

Power and Overcoming Obstacles: Implications for Disobedience and Bystander
Intervention (Session: 5C)
Jennifer Whitson (University of Texas at Austin)

We suggest that power enables individuals to defy obstacles in their environment and
continue to pursue their goals, unfettered by constraints. The first two experiments test
whether the powerful defy instructions from authority (Experiment 1) and ignore social
constraints against helping in emergencies (Experiment 2). The final two experiments test
whether the powerful are aware of obstacles but disregard them or if power blinds its bearers
to potential challenges they face. Support for the latter proposition emerges as both
experiments show that the powerful are less likely to consider potential obstacles in goal
pursuit (Experiment 3), and that even when presented with obstacles, they are less likely to
attend to and remember them (Experiment 4).

Cultural Orientation and Preference for Third Party Help: A Bi-cultural Comparison
Between Dutch and Turkish Employees (Session: 8A)
Huadong Yang (University of Twente), Ellen Giebels (University of Twente)

This study is from the disputant perspective to investigate individual preference for different
types of third party help, and to explore the impact of disputants‘ cultural orientations on their
preference for a certain type of third party help across ethnic cultures. We draw a sample in
the Netherlands consisting of 106 employees from a Turkish ethnic group and 83 employees
from a Dutch ethnic group to empirically test the theoretical assumptions. The results show
that, only in the Turkish group, the uncertainty avoidance orientation (and the masculinity
orientation) has a positive impact on the preference for the procedural help (and the
preference for the content help). Besides, the individualistic orientation shows a negative
impact on the preference for the relational help, and the collectivistic orientation has a
positive impact on the social-emotional help.




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                                                                                        Abstracts


Stereotypes and Reputations in Cross-Cultural Negotiations (Session: 8A)
Yu Yang (Cornell University), Kathleen O‘Connor (Cornell University), Jin Zhang (Tsinghua
University), Catherine Tinsley (Georgetown University)

Recent studies have demonstrated the powerful effects of group-level stereotypes and
individual-level reputations on negotiations. A question remains about the comparative
weight that negotiators, particularly those involved in cross-national negotiations, give to
each kind of information. The current study explores whether negotiators will attend to and
weight group-level information over individual-level information in cross-cultural
negotiations. Specifically, we investigate the differential predictions from four relevant
hypotheses: the resource preserving hypothesis, the personalization hypothesis, the cultural
differences hypothesis, and the positive-negative asymmetry hypothesis. Results of this study
will shed light on the complex dynamics in cross-cultural negotiations and interpersonal
processes.

Conflict in Multi-Agency Relief Operations for Serious Disasters (Session: 4D)
Fumiaki Yasukawa (Kunamoto University)

This roundtable features three excellent panelists from different fields: coast guard, fire
department and medical care. At first, each speaker will talk about ―what conflict can be an
obstacle to effective field operations under large scale disaster?‖ from their own perspectives
and considering the views of academics and practitioners and economics, management,
public policy, geology and nursing. The facilitators will summarize the differences and
similarities in the panelists‘ perspectives. Then, the participants will discuss ―how we can
reach conflict solutions‖ in the real world given diverse regulations, procedures and
organizational cultures. This means ―what we can manage‖ when we cooperate with other
actors on the disaster operation.

Mad Enough to See the Other Side: Anger and the Confirmation Bias (Session: 8B)
Maia Young (University of California, Los Angeles), Larissa Tiedens (Stanford University),
Heajung Jung (University of California, Los Angeles), Ming-Hong Tsai (University of
California, Los Angeles)

The current research explores the effect of anger on hypothesis confirmation—the propensity
to seek information that confirms rather than disconfirms one‘s opinion. We argue that the
moving against action tendency associated with anger leads angry individuals to seek out
disconfirming evidence, attenuating the confirmation bias. We test this hypothesis in two
studies of experimentally-primed anger and sadness on the selective exposure to hypothesis
confirming and disconfirming information. In Study 1, participants in the angry condition
were more likely to choose disconfirming information than those in the sad or neutral
condition when given the opportunity to read about a controversial social issue. Study 2
measured participants‘ opinions and information selection about the 2008 Presidential
Election and the desire to ‗move against‘ a person or object. Participants in the angry
condition reported a greater tendency to oppose a person or object, and this tendency led
them to select more disconfirming information.




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Mobbing: Conflict Transformed into Psychological Violence in the Workplace
(Session: 3A)
Müberra Yüksel (Kadir Has University)

Most research investigating the background of mobbing is based on both experiences and
stories of victims; therefore, the findings are often at individual level and subjective. Besides,
determining the risk factors at the organizational or cultural level is difficult. They are often
ex post facto analysis of psychological dimensions or legal dimensions. There are no ex ante
analysis of organizational dimensions or the mobbing process. In this exploratory research, I
make in-depth structured interviews with twenty human resource employees who are
experienced in preventing or handling mobbing as organizational insiders and/ or managers
within a developing country framework. I classify the risk versus precautionary factors at
three different levels of analysis: (1) Task, (2) Team or division, (3) Policy, codes of conduct
and culture at organizational level.

The Social License to Operate in the Latin American Mining Sector: The Cases of Bajo de
la Alumbrera and Michiquillay (Session: 6D)
Alejandro Zamprile (Austral University - IAE), A. Ariel Llorente (Austral University - IAE)

We show that, in several of the Latin American (LA) countries, the outcomes that may be
derived from the interactions between Multinational Corporations (MNCs) and the ever
widening variety of interest groups that are part of civil society are deeply influenced by the
recipient country‘s government political and economic attitudes regarding Foreign Direct
Investments (FDIs). There are other effective ways to reduce the non commercial risks that
FDIs, even when MNCs from environmentally ill reputed industries are involved, confront in
the region: the Social License to Operate (SLO). Our research, in the form of a case study,
analyzes the processes by which two different mining MNCs implemented their respective
projects; the presence or absence of the SLO, as part of their corporate ethical behavior, led to
polar outcomes: how and why that happened is the subject of our research.

The Mind of Negotiators: Exploration of Negotiator Mentality and Comparisons between
China and the United States (Session: Poster)
Zhi-Xue Zhang (Peking University), Leigh Anne Liu (Georgia State University), Li Ma
(Peking University), Xiao Wang (Peking University)

We examine the mentality of negotiation of both Chinese and American individuals. We
define negotiation mentality as a negotiator‘s general understanding and belief about the
nature, context, and effective approaches of negotiation and explore it in two empirical
studies. In Study 1, we analyzed metaphors and found that American and Chinese individuals
have different understanding of negotiations. In Study 2, we developed scales and tested their
psychometric characteristics. Results demonstrated that negotiation mentality contains at least
three etic or universal aspects (i.e., competition, cooperation, and trust) that can be measured
with acceptable reliability coefficients. Comparisons indicated that the American sample
demonstrated higher levels of competition and trust than the Chinese sample, but they did not
differ in cooperation. Putting the two studies together, we established the constructs and
scales of negotiation mentality, and pave an avenue for studying more proximal cultural
factors influencing negotiation processes and outcomes.




IACM 2009                          June 15-18 - Kyoto, Japan                                    64
                                IACM 2009 Conference Attendees
                              Reflects Registration as of May 19, 2009

                                   Bruce Burke                        Beth Fisher-Yoshida
Wendi Adair                        tucsonburkes@cox.net               bf2017@columbia.edu
wladair@uwaterloo.ca
                                   Melinda Burke                      Kenneth Fox
May Aldabbagh                      mburke@ag.arizona.edu              kenfox@hamline.edu
may.aldabbagh@dsg.ae
                                   Ronda Callister                    Ray Friedman
Shahla Ali                         Ronda.Callister@usu.edu            Ray.Friedman@Vanderbilt.edu
sali@hku.hk
                                   Peter Carnevale                    Maki Fukami
Emily Amanatullah                  peter.carnevale@usc.edu            makiradola@m4.dion.ne.jp
emily.amanatullah@mccombs.
utexas.edu                         Christine Chung                    Mitsuteru Fukuno
                                   ctc2110@columbia.edu               fukuno@human.kj.yamagata-
Toshiaki Aoki                                                         u.ac.jp
shunmei@tohtech.ac.jp              Taya Cohen
                                   t-cohen@kellogg.northwestern.edu   Michele Gelfand
Ken-ichiro Araki                                                      mgelfand@psyc.umd.edu
ken_araki@nifty.com                Peter T. Coleman
                                   pc84@columbia.edu                  Stephen Goldberg
Oluremi (Remi) Ayoko                                                  stephengoldberg@law.northwestern
r.ayoko@business.uq.edu.au         Stacey Conchie                     .edu
                                   s.m.conchie@liv.ac.uk
Christopher Bauman                                                    Jeremy Goldring
cwbauman@u.washington.edu          Matthew Cronin                     jeremy.goldring@adelaide.edu.au
                                   mcronin@gmu.edu
Corinne Bendersky                                                     Michael Gross
cbenders@anderson.ucla.edu         Susan Crotty                       michael.gross@business.colostate.
                                   cyclingchick@gmail.com             edu
Nimet Beriker
beriker@sabanciuniv.edu            Larry Crump                        Brian Gunia
                                   L.Crump@griffith.edu.au            b-gunia@kellogg.northwestern.edu
Yekaterina Bezrukova
ybezrukova@scu.edu                 Laurence de Carlo                  Inhyun Han
                                   decarlo@essec.fr                   haninhyun@gmail.com
Anita Bhappu
abhappu@email.arizona.edu          Frank de Wit                       Andrea Hollingshead
                                   FWit@fsw.leidenuniv.nl             aholling@usc.edu
Gregorio Billikopf
gebillikopf@ucdavis.edu            Maria T. M. Dijkstra               Astrid Homan
                                   mtm.dijkstra@fsw.vu.nl             ac.homan@psy.vu.nl
Terry Boles
terry-boles@uiwa.edu               Daniel Druckman                    Chiung-Yi Huang
                                   dandruckman@yahoo.com              joye0520@gmail.com
Katalien Bollen
katalien.bollen@psy.kuleuven.be    Michelle Duguid                    Michael Hudson
                                   mmd49@cornell.edu                  mhudson.ens@negotiate.org
Jeanne Brett
jmbrett@kellogg.northwestern.edu   Michael Elliott                    Linda Inlow
                                   michael.elliott@coa.gatech.edu     cncr@gsu.edu

Susan Brodt                        Hairong Feng                       Kumi Ishii
susan.brodt@queensu.ca             hfeng@d.umn.edu                    kumi.ishii@wku.edu

Anne Bülow                         Don Ferrin                         Heidi Ittner
amb.ikk@cbs.dk                     dferrin@smu.edu.sg                 heidi.ittner@ovgu.de



IACM 2009                            June 15-18 - Kyoto, Japan                                       65
Gregory Todd Jones             Materne Maetz                 Jochen Reb
cncr@gsu.edu                   materne.maetz@fao.org         jreb@smu.edu.sg

Sanda Kaufman                  Eva Maria Malisius            Premarupan Sachithananthan
s.kaufman@csuohio.edu          emalisius@gmail.com           premarupan@yahoo.com

Akiko Kikuta                   Adam Mitchinson               Katarzyna Samson
g47076@nda.ac.jp               agm2128@columbia.edu          kasiasamson@gmail.com

Peter Kim                      Nancy Morrison                Denise Savage
kimpeter@usc.edu               carymorrison@verizon.net      dsavage04@qub.ac.uk

Sakura Komatsu                 Naira Musallam                Vidar Schei
eli3502@mail2.doshisha.ac.jp   nm2140@columbia.edu           vidar.schei@nhh.no

Gillian Ku                     Katsuhiko Nagase              Rena Shifren
gku@london.edu                 nagase@tmu.ac.jp              renas31@email.arizona.edu

Katharina Kugler               Jayanth Narayanan             Aiwa Shirako
Katharina.Kugler@gmx.de        bizjayan@nus.edu.sg           ashirako@gmail.com

Tomohiro Kumagai               Anette Villemoes Nissen       Chester Spell
kumagai@sal.tohoku.ac.jp       av.ikk@cbs.dk                 cspell@camden.rutgers.edu

Seungwoo Kwon                  Ken-ichi Ohbuchi              Linda Steele
winwin@korea.ac.kr             ken1_obu@sal.tohoku.ac.jp     Linda.Steele@sta.uwi.edu

DE CARLO Laurence              Tetsushi Okumura              Godfrey Steele
decarlo@essec.fr               tetsu12@hotmail.com           Godfrey.Steele@sta.uwi.edu

Zhike Lei                      Junji Okuzono                 Kanji Sugii
zhike.lei@esmt.org             junji-49@nifty.com            ewigewig@air.linkclub.or.jp

Alain Lempereur                Mara Olekalns                 Paul Taylor
lempereur@essec.fr             m.olekalns@mbs.edu            p.j.taylor@lancs.ac.uk

Jose M. Leon-Perez             Mayuko Onuki                  Masako Taylor
leonperez@us.es                monuki@usc.edu                masakost@hotmail.com

Angeline Lim                   Patricia Palmerton            Melissa Thomas-Hunt
angeline.lim@nus.edu.sg        ppalmerton@hamline.edu        mct24@cornell.edu

Bobot Lionel                   T.K. Peng                     Per van der Wijst
mlanderoin@ccip.fr             tkpeng@isu.edu.tw             Per.vanderwijst@uvt.nl

Leigh Anne Liu                 Kelly Pike                    Kim Van Erp
laliu@gsu.edu                  kip3@cornell.edu              k.j.p.m.van.erp@rug.nl

Meina Liu                      Marijn Poortvliet             Gerben van Kleef
liu@umd.edu                    p.m.poortvliet@uvt.nl         g.a.vankleef@uva.nl

Roberto Luchi                  Dean Pruitt                   Soeren Viemose
rluchi@iae.edu.ar              dean@pruittfamily.com         viemose@mail.tele.dk

Fabrice Lumineau               Jimena Ramirez-Marin          Albert Vollmer
fabrice.lumineau@imd.ch        jimenaram@gmail.com           avollmer@ethz.ch

Anne Lytle                     Jana Raver                    Long Wang
anne.lytle@gmail.com           jraver@business.queensu.ca    long-
                                                             wang@kellogg.northwestern.edu


IACM 2009                        June 15-18 - Kyoto, Japan                                   66
Laurie Weingart
weingart@cmu.edu

Denise Ann Weinreis
denisew@agsm.edu.au

Jennifer Whitson
jennifer.whitson@mccombs.utexas.
edu

Huadong Yang
H.Yang@utwente.nl

Mei-Yu Yang
d92741001@ntu.edu.tw

Yu Yang
yy368@cornell.edu

Maia Young
maia.young@anderson.ucla.edu

Muberra Yuksel
muberray@khas.edu.tr

Alejandro Zamprile
azamprile@iae.edu.ar

Xue Zheng
g0700588@nus.edu.sg




IACM 2009                          June 15-18 - Kyoto, Japan   67
                       Notes




IACM 2009   June 15-18 - Kyoto, Japan   68
                       Notes




IACM 2009   June 15-18 - Kyoto, Japan   69
                       Notes




IACM 2009   June 15-18 - Kyoto, Japan   70

								
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