Validity of Uniaxial and Triaxia

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					       Validity of Uniaxial and Triaxial Accelerometers for Assessment of
                            Physical Activity in Adults
                       Alexandra Anderson and Louise A. Kelly, Ph.D.
                                  Exercise Science Department
                                 California Lutheran University

       Background: One of the most important limiting factors in the study of physical activity
has been the continuing methodological difficulty in measuring physical activity unobtrusively
and accurately. Use of bi or triaxial accelerometers should in theory provide an advantage
relative to uniaxial accelerometers in young children; however, this theoretical advantage may
not be actually achieved in practice. Purpose: The primary aim of this study was to assess the
validity of the GT1M and the GT3X Actigraph accelerometers against oxygen consumption.
Methods: Thirty-four participants (age = 21.6 +2.1 yrs) performed three 6-minute bouts of
exercise on a treadmill at 4.8, 6.4, and 9.7 km.h-1. Oxygen consumption was measured minute-by
minute using a metabolic cart.. Results: The GT3X had significantly higher counts at all speeds
as compared with GT1M accelerometer (p<0.001). Mean error for the GT1M at 4.8 km.h- was
+2862 cpm (limits of agreement +1897 to +3828), at 6.4 km.h- was +4852 cpm (limits of
agreement +3616 to +6088), and at 9.7 km.h- was +9369 cpm (limits of agreement +6589 to
+12148). Whereas, mean error for the GT3X at 4.8 km.h- was +5716 cpm (limits of agreement
+3589 to +7843), at 6.4 km.h- was +13142 cpm (limits of agreement +8329 to +17954), and at
9.7 km.h- was +8580 cpm (limits of agreement +5846 to +11314). Conclusions: These data
suggest that the uniaxial GT1M and the triaxial GT3X Actigraph accelerometers are valid tools
for measuring treadmill walking and jogging.

Research supported by the Swenson Summer Research Fellowship Program
       Evolutionary Search and Multi-Component Kinetic Approaches for
                    Modeling Dynamic Chemical Processes
                         Jennifer Arceo and Grady Hanrahan, Ph.D.
                                   Department of Chemistry
                                 California Lutheran University

       There is great movement towards the development of neuro-computational and kinetic
models to realize powerful analytical problem solving strategies when examining complex
chemical systems. Herein, this talk describes two novel modeling studies: i) the development of a
hybrid artificial neural network-genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) approach for the optimization of
on-capillary dipeptide derivatization, and, ii) kinetic determination of bioaccumulative metals in
surface sediments during sequential extraction processes. In the first study, results proved the
utility of genetic operators in determining neural network structure for subsequent optimization
of electrophoretic conditions. In the second study, trace metal mobilization in sediments were
realized using sequential extraction schemes designed for the kinetic study of exchangeable
processes. These studies provide broad insight into the development and application of
computational tools that can increase the robustness and transparency, and therefore confidence
and acceptance of modeling techniques as methods for routine chemical analysis and data

Research supported by the Swenson Summer Research Fellowship Program
                     The Effects of Varying Landing Conditions on
                          Three-dimensional Impact Forces
               Joy Cyprian, Steven Hawkins, Ph.D. and Michele LeBlanc, Ph.D.
                                  Human Performance Laboratory
                                   California Lutheran University

        Introduction: Previous research has shown that impact loading is an effective means to
stimulate bone adaptation. Little research has been done on using various directions as a strategy
to elicit large ground reaction forces in multiple directions. Purpose: The purpose of this study is
to determine how different landing conditions affect peak vertical, medial, lateral, anterior and
posterior forces on each leg. Methods: Thirty subjects aged 18-24 years with no previous
landing training performed landings onto two force plates from a set height (0.61 m) and set
horizontal distance (0.44 m) in five different directions: forward (F), to the left (L), to the right
(R), diagonally to the left (DL) and diagonally to the right (DR). Directions were randomly
assigned and five landings per condition were collected. Motion analysis was used to determine
maximum knee flexion for each leg to define the end of the force absorption (FA) phase. Peak
forces made on the lead and trail leg during the FA phase were compared using repeated
measures ANOVA with p < 0.05. Results: There was no difference in peak Fz values for the
lead leg. The peak medial and the peak lateral forces displayed significant differences in the lead
leg with the F condition different than all other conditions and the R and DR values differing.
The peak anterior and posterior forces for the lead leg for the R and L landings were statistically
different than the F, DR and DL landings. The trail leg exhibited similar findings. Conclusions:
Altering landing directions can significantly alter the peak forces that are exerted on the lower
extremity. A landing protocol which utilizes landings to the right and/or left may be most
effective in stimulating bone adaptations.

Research supported by the Swenson Summer Research Fellowship Program
         Immigration Policy and Gangs: Los Angeles & Special Order 40
                                 Paul Dilger and Haco Hoang, Ph.D.
                                             Political Science
                                      California Lutheran University

        The purpose of this project is to evaluate the effectiveness of Special Order 40 in fighting gangs
in Los Angeles. Special Order 40 is a policy in which LAPD cannot investigate the immigration status of
LA residents except in cases of suspected gang members. This policy has been used to deport
undocumented gang members to their countries of origin. This topic has important policy implications
because it examines the link between national policies (immigration) and local policies (gang reduction
efforts). The use of Special Order 40 to repatriate gang members to their countries of origin is a
controversial because they often return to the US after repatriation via human smuggling/trafficking
which some call a "revolving door."
        To examine this topic, the researcher will use interviews and public records as the sources of data.
Individuals working on gang and immigration-related issues will be interviewed. Public information
generated from relevant government hearings, community hearings, and legislation/policies will also be
used. The researcher will have access to the necessary inteviews and public records with the assistance of
his faculty advisor's social and political networks in LA. The purpose of the interviews and data
collection from public records/meetings is for the researcher to examine the use of Special Order 40 in
anti-gang efforts from the perspective of those working to reduce gang activity in Los Angeles.
        Understanding the effectiveness of Special Order 40 is important because it addresses two
important aspects. First, this study examines how national policy (immigration) impacts local policy
(gang reduction efforts). Immigration is made at the federal level but is implemented at the local level
with minimal input from local authorities. Special Order 40 illustrates this gap between policy
formulation and implementation. Second, this project addresses the globalization of gangs. Since the
1980s, transnational gangs have proliferated especially those comprised of Central American immigrants
from El Salvador and Guatemala. Historically, gangs have been seen as a local problem but the
increasing permeability of borders and mass migration (legal and illegal) due to globalization and weak
immigration enforcement have turned gangs into a global phenomenon and problem. This study directly
addresses how L.A.'s gang reduction efforts are being challenged by ineffective immigration enforcement
from the national government.
        The study resulted in a policy paper that laid out recommendations for addressing the policy
concerns posed by Special Order 40. The policy paper concludes that Special Order 40 can continue to be
an effective tool to combat gangs under certain conditions but should not be applied to career and/or
suspected criminals.

 Research supported by the Pearson Scholar for Leadership and Engagement in Global Society Program
          Are mammalian signaling pathways mediating retinal damage
                response evolutionarily conserved in Zebrafish?
                 Thomas L. Estus, Samuel S. Hunter1,2, Deborah L. Stenkamp1,2
  Department of Biological Sciences1, Bioinformatics and Computational Biology Graduate Program2
                                         University of Idaho

       The retinal damage response is a complex process which has been studied in a number of
model organisms. In mammals, retinal damage results in gliosis (growth and proliferation of
Muller glia) constituting non-functional scar tissue. In zebrafish, retinal damage results in a
regenerative response in which the Muller glia proliferate and generate new retinal neurons. In a
previous study, a comparison of microarray datasets measuring the retinal transcription response
to damage in a number of model organisms was carried out. A set of genes with evolutionarily
conserved expression patterns across species were identified, and follow up work showed that
some of these genes were conserved across damage types in zebrafish. Additionally, a number
of homologous genes with little evidence for conserved expression patterns were identified.
Among these were genes involved in the endothelin signaling pathway. This is very interesting
because the endothelin signaling system has been implicated in various mammalian models of
retinal disease and injury1,2 as well as human patients with a variety of retinal diseases3,4. In
order to test whether the zebrafish retina shows an evolutionarily conserved response to this
signaling peptide, we injected adult fish with ET1 (H-6995 Bachem) ET1b (H-3066 Bachem an
endothelin receptor b specific peptide), or the vehicle (PBS). Eyes were then collected at 3 and 7
days post injection (dpi) and the response to injections was examined with immunocytochemistry
and qRT-PCR. Results show an increased efficacy of ET1 to elicit a damage response when in
comparison with ET1b, suggesting that receptor density assays be undergone in the future.
Preliminary, qualitative histological analysis with glial markers suggests few or no changes in
glial morphology; however responses to the endothelin peptides are evident through qRT-PCR
results. Up-regulation of genes encoding Ednrb1 and GFAP, as well as other genes of interest,
show a successful damage response elicited from the model organism. The extent of this
response in comparison to the damage inherently caused by the treatment, however, is under
            Thinking Space: Exploring Issues in the Representation of
                            Our Built Environments
                          Erin Hacker and Bryan Rasmussen, Ph.D.
                                       English Department
                                  California Lutheran University

       This project explored the relationship between space and human experience. Questions
such as: What does it mean to be in space (how does space influence our behaviors and
identities), and how do we use and understand our constructed environments, were examined to
further develop a comprehension as to which social, cultural, and personal issues are expressed
through a built medium. Two theoretical analyses of “space” were studied for a complete
spectrum of human spacial experience, phenomenology and sociology. Phenomenology is a form
of philosophical thinking based upon the direct experience of phenomena (experiences of events
shaped by our relationship to objects in conjunction with our orientation in space), and the belief
that reality consists of objects and events which can be consciously perceived. Sociology studies
human social interactions, and the processes that bind and separate people not only as individuals
but as members of a group. Iconic Walt Disney Concert Hall in downtown Los Angeles, CA was
chosen as the site in which these theoretical views would be applied and observed. Multiple in-
field observations were made which included extensive photographic, video, and written
documentation of the space. This documentation was then used in conjunction with the
theoretical research to compose an integrated multimedia presentation which represented both
our direct and indirect experience of Disney Hall.

Research supported by the Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Program
       Sequencing the Hypervariable Region of the Hepatitis C Virus and
                  Comparing it to Different Blood Cell Types
                           Peter Henderson and Dennis Revie, Ph.D.
                                       Biology Department
                                  California Lutheran University

       Just as you cannot live without a brain or a heart you cannot live without a liver. Your
liver transforms food into energy, sends nourishment through cells, acts as a filter, and stores
nutrients, fats, and vitamins. Hepatitis C virus (HCV), which causes liver diseases, is present in
our blood and spreads when infected blood enters the body of another. Presently 10,000-12,000
people die annually from HCV in the U.S. HCV is a single-strand RNA virus that is about 9600
bases long. The constant mutations that occur when HCV replicates has produced six major
groups, called genotypes, of the virus.

       Part of the HCV genome constantly changes and prevents elimination of it from blood.
This part of the genome is called the hypervariable region (HVR-1). This project focused on
studying this region of HCV genotype 3 replicated and isolated from macrophages, B-cells, and
T-cells. RNA from HCV isolates of three different patients was purified in order to see if the
RNA sequence of the isolated virus is the same as in the patients’ blood. To sequence the RNA,
RT-PCR was performed to convert the RNA into DNA. The resulting DNA fragments of the
HVR-1 were cloned into pCR4Blunt-TOPO plasmids. . Plasmid DNA was purified and then
sequenced. Sequences were obtained from samples of each of the three patients. All three
samples from patient 388 were completed. For patient 389, two samples were completed and
one is almost finished. For patient 384, one sample has been completed and two are almost
finished. By comparing these sequences to each other, we can determine if the hypervariable
region changes based on the type of blood cells they grow in. We will also compare these results
with data previously obtained from HCV genotype 1 samples. With this information we can
better understand the replication of the virus and possibly combat it in the future.

Research supported by the Swenson Summer Research Fellowship Program
        The Acute and Chronic Effect of Wii Fit Exercise in Older Adults

                           Danielle Kirk and Louise A. Kelly, Ph.D.
                                 Department of Exercise Science
                                 California Lutheran University

       Seniors need forms of exercise that are effective, convenient, and safe. Exercise using
technology is advertised as effective, but current literature is unclear on the value of programs
such as the Wii Fit. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the acute and chronic
effect of Wii Fit exercise in older adults. Methods: For the acute study, five female and four
male subjects (age 75±7 yrs) participated in balance, strength, and aerobic games. Metabolic and
heart rate measurements were taken during each game. Blood pressure was monitored by
auscultation before and after each game. Five minutes rest was provided between exercises. For
the chronic study, four females and one male (age 76±6 yrs) were tested for postural sway,
mobility, and lower limb muscle strength, before and after four weeks of balance training.
Subjects trained twice a week on the Penguin Slide, Ski Slalom, and Table Tilt games. Results:
For the acute study there was no significant difference in systolic blood pressure and a significant
increase in diastolic blood pressure (p<0.05). For the training study, there were significant
increases in leg muscle strength (p<0.05) and decreases in postural sway (p<0.05). Conclusion:
The Wii Fit may be an effective tool for increasing muscle strength and decreasing postural sway
in the elderly, however further research is clearly warranted.

Research supported by the Swenson Summer Research Fellowship Program
    Synthesizing an Organic Sensor for Determining Nitrite Concentrations
             Katina Landon, Grady Hanrahan, Ph.D. and John Tannaci, Ph.D.
                                     Chemistry Department
                                  California Lutheran University

       Accurate determination of nitrite concentrations is important in both biology and
environmental chemistry. However, current quantification methods are limited by heavy metals
or single-use organic sensors. The long-term goal of this project is to develop a reversible,
nitrite-specific organic sensor for on-site field measurements. Design criteria include
fluorescence-based quantification to maintain high sensitivity, surface-attachment capability for
incorporation into a microfluidic device, and rapid reversibility to enable sampling intervals of
15-30 minutes. A 1,2-diaminonaphthalene derivative was chosen as the synthetic target, and the
starting point for research was studying the reversibility using commercially available model
compounds and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Preliminary results
utilizing zinc as a reducing agent look promising, but they are complicated by metal binding and
solubility issues. Prospects for future synthetic work will also be discussed.

Research supported by the Swenson Summer Research Fellowship Program
  Suzuki Coupling Methodology for Advanced Organic Electronic Materials
             Lindsay Lawrence, Shiloh Stone, Jennifer Norman, Sasha Sommer,
                        Katina Landon, and John Tannaci, Ph.D.
                                     Chemistry Department
                                  California Lutheran University

       Conjugated organic polymers have been explored extensively for applications such as
solar cells, display technologies, and thin-film transistors. Processing these electronic materials
from solution could drastically lower device costs as compared to traditional inorganic
semiconductors like silicon. However, improved polymerization methodologies are needed to
enable advanced conjugated materials. To this end, we have been using a small-molecule model
system and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis to perform a detailed study
of Suzuki coupling methodology. The model system facilitates rapid data collection and
optimization, and preliminary results indicate an efficient catalyst-transfer mechanism.
Connections to polymer synthesis and solar cell applications will also be discussed.

Research supported by the Swenson Summer Research Fellowship Program
               Physiological and Mechanical Parameters of Cycling at
                         Critical Power in Two Age Groups
      Scott McClave, Cole Olmon, Michele LeBlanc, Ph.D. and Steven Hawkins, Ph.D.
                                 Human Performance Laboratory
                                 California Lutheran University

       Introduction: A 3 min all-out cycling test has been successfully used to determine
critical power in young cyclists. However, the physiological and mechanical parameters of
critical power have not been well described in different age groups. Methods: Two groups of
elite cyclists (young 21.8± 2.4 yr, n=15 and middle aged 53.0± 6.6 yr, n=15) performed a
V02max test and a 3 min all-out test on their own bicycle using the Computrainer Lab Ergometer.
The 3 min all-out test was performed at the power associated with the midpoint between the
ventilatory threshold and V02max. At four different time points during the 3 min all-out test
ankle ROM, shoulder horizontal and vertical displacement, and horizontal knee displacement
were obtained via motion analysis. Results: There was a significant difference in critical power
between the age groups (318±36W vs 283± 41W, young vs. middle-aged, respectively, p ≤ 0.05).
All mechanical data illustrated a significant difference from the first time point to all other time
points (p < 0.05). The only parameter that showed significant group differences was the ankle
ROM (28.8+8.4° vs 25.0+8.4°, young and middle-aged, respectively). When reaching critical
power subjects’ lower extremity cycling mechanics became less varied (p < 0.05) implying the
sustainability of this workload. Conclusion: A 3 min all-out cycling test appears to identify
critical power in middle-aged cyclists. Critical power may be associated with optimal
mechanical efficiency in elite cyclists.

Research supported by the Swenson Summer Research Fellowship Program
  Cross-Testing of Antibodies Against the Viral Proteins of Hepatitis C Virus
                            Trung Nguyen and Dennis Revie, Ph.D.
                                        Biology department
                                  California Lutheran University

       Viruses recognize and infect target cells based on proteins expressed by the antigen and
receptors present on target cell. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an enveloped RNA virus with a
positive stranded RNA genome that is 9.7 kb in length. Individuals infected with HCV produce
antibodies to the virus. Errors in the replication process of viruses occur, which leads to
mutations in their genomes. The mutations cause variation in viral proteins, which enables the
virus to avoid the host’s immune system. The variation in HCV has produced six recognized
genotypes (1-6) with different subtypes within each genotype such as 1a, 1b, 2a, and 2b.
       HCV RNA is translated into a large polyprotein of about 3000 amino acid residues. This
polyprotein is cleaved into structural proteins (C, E1 and E2/p7) and nonstructural (NS) proteins
(NS2, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, NS5A, NS5B). The goal of the research is to figure out which parts
of HCV proteins are more likely to react with antibodies from different infected individuals, and
therefore are more immunogenic. HCV proteins are extracted from one patient and allowed to
cross-react with another patient’s antibodies by using Western Blots. In Western blots, proteins
are separated by gel electrophoresis, then transferred to a membrane. The membrane is then
reacted with antibodies purified from an HCV infected individual. If a reaction occurs, protein
bands will develop darker colors after incubation with a color development system. To date we
have developed the system and have started determining if cross reactions occur.

Research supported by the Swenson Summer Research Fellowship Program
               Synthesis of Through-Space Conjugated Materials and
                        Novel Suzuki Coupling Methodology
                          Jennifer Norman and John Tannaci, Ph.D.
                                      Chemistry Department
                                  California Lutheran University

       This research project was divided into two separate pieces. The first part focused on
synthesizing a triflate derivative from 1,8-dichloroanthraquinone to be used as a building block
for novel through-space conjugated materials. Unfortunately, progress on the final synthetic step
was hampered by air sensitivity, so work was initiated on a side project while awaiting full
installation of a glove box and Schlenk equipment, which will enable chemical reactions to be
run under an inert atmosphere. The independent side project investigated the use of cobalt in
Suzuki coupling chemistry. Palladium is the typical catalyst in Suzuki coupling reactions, but it
is expensive, so achieving cobalt-catalyzed cross-coupling would be beneficial for applications
such as pharmaceuticals and electronic materials. Preliminary results using a model reaction and
gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis indicate successful Suzuki coupling,
but the exact role of cobalt is unclear because of trace palladium contamination. Future
prospects for utilizing other transition metal catalysts in Suzuki coupling will be discussed.

Research supported by the Swenson Summer Research Fellowship Program
          The Effects of Ground Reaction Forces and Muscle Forces on
                          Bone Parameters in Runners
                Cole Olmon, Michele LeBlanc, Ph.D., Steven Hawkins, Ph.D.
                                Human Performance Laboratory
                                California Lutheran University

       Bone tissue adapts to exercise training by changing architecture and increasing bone
mineral density (BMD). Ground reaction forces and muscle forces are both known to load bone
and increase bone strength. There is debate about which type of force makes the greatest
contribution to bone strength. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects
of typical ground reaction forces from running on bone parameters and explore the respective
contributions of ground reaction forces and muscle forces to BMD. Methods: Twelve male
runners (18-50yrs) training at least twice per week and at least 10 miles per week were chosen as
subjects. Each subject completed a training questionnaire for volume, intensity and cross
training. BMD was determined by DXA (Hologic Discovery D) for whole body, spine, and hip
and by ultrasound (Hologic Sahara) for the calcaneous. Running kinematics and ground reaction
forces were determined using motion capture and force plates. Lower extremity power and
lower extremity strength were determined on a Keiser leg press. Data were analyzed by Pearson
correlation. Results: Heel BMD was significantly correlated with hip BMD (r=0.59, p<0.05),
but not with spine BMD. Vertical jump airtime was significantly correlated with hip BMD
(r=0.68, p<0.05) and spine BMD (r=0.62, p<0.05). Finally, vertical jump airtime was inversely
correlated with average running contact time (r=-0.62, p<0.05) and positively correlated with
average vertical peak force during running (r=0.72, p<0.05). Conclusion: It appears that bone
density is affected by both muscle and ground reaction forces and that the rate of force
application may be the most important determinant of bone adaptation.

Research supported by the Swenson Summer Research Fellowship Program
  Contemporary Quinceañera Practice in Chicano/Latino/Hispanic Families
                               Sergio Salazar and Julia Fogg, Ph.D.
                                        Religion Department
                                   California Lutheran University

       A Quinceañera has been understood and examined as the celebration of a girl’s 15th
birthday, marking her passage from childhood to adulthood. Quinceañeras are celebrated in
Latin America and in the United States among Latinos, Hispanics, and Chicanos. Studies of
Quinceañera celebrations to date have focused on gender and class identity. The purpose of this
project is to expand the study of the Quinceañera celebration in two ways. This project includes
first an analysis of the community’s economic and social role in the celebration, and second, an
examination of the role the celebration plays in the ethnic identity of the girls, their families, the
community, and the local church.
       To examine this topic, this project compares past studies on Quinceañeras to interviewees
who have had a Quinceañera in the Los Angeles, Pasadena, and surrounding urban areas.
Previous scholars have identified:
   •   the constituent components of a Quinceañera/15th birthday celebration to be a church worship
       service, a reception, participation of the family, and one scholar adds a myth of origins regarding
       the genesis of the Quinceañera/15th birthday tradition;
   •   both secular and religious marketing to Quinceañera celebrants;
   •   the lack of Protestant churches offering of Quinceañera/15th birthday celebrations;
   •   the ways in which the Quinceañera/15th birthday celebration functions as a social identity
       marker of class and gender.
The preliminary findings of this research project reveal some missing trends in the previously
available scholarship on Quinceañeras.
   •   Messiah Lutheran Church-Iglesia Luterana Mesias in Pasadena CA provides one case
       study showing that Quinceañeras have been practice in Protestant settings. Messiah
       Lutheran Church began to celebrate Quinceañeras in 1987.
   •   Women clergy have presided over Quinceañeras.
   •   Dress color of a Quinceañera varies. Girls no longer wear the more traditional white or pink dress.

Research supported by the Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Program
                          Los Angeles High School Walkouts 2006
                              Sergio Salazar and Akiko Yasuike, Ph.D.
                                         Sociology Department
                                     California Lutheran University

        Walkouts from Middle and High Schools have occurred throughout the United States. Prior to
2006 the most notable walkouts in Los Angeles County had been the ones that occurred in East Los
Angeles in 1968. These walkouts were connected with the broader Chicano Movement. There is scholarly
literature available on the 1968 walkouts, which suggests that a lack of educational opportunities, poor
school conditions, the Anglo-centered school curriculum and/or racial inequalities in education faced by
Chicanos (Mexican-Americans) caused many youths to walkout and protest.
        In March 2006, many high school students in Los Angeles also participated in walkouts to protest
against the passage of an anti-immigration bill (HR4437) by the House of Representatives that
criminalizes undocumented immigrants and those who provide assistance to them. However, it has not
been explored whether other conditions or factors aside from the self evident protest against this bill were
also present. This project examines how public education facilitates or hinders civic engagement among
Latino, Hispanic or Chicano students in Los Angeles by comparing the 1968 and 2006 walkouts. The
project uses newspaper articles and at least 10 in-depth interviews for data to identify common trends and
themes in the 2006 high school walkouts.
        The preliminary findings of this research project compare the media portrayal of the walkouts to
the actual experiences of walkout participants. A few interviews of participants who did walkout and do
not know each other revealed some themes that were not mentioned in newspaper accounts:
1) Racism at schools and in society is also a potential reason for participating in the walkouts, 2) Student
demonstrators waved flags as part of their heritage pride (when they felt their ethnicity or race are under
attack), 3) In addition to Myspace, another social networking site used primarily by Latinos, Mocospace,
was used to promote the walkouts, 4) the informants marched on behalf of their parents and
undocumented friends who attended their high schools, 5) gang members also did walkout and waved
flags as part of their heritage pride, 6) schools did not encourage civic engagement and there were no
discussions or lectures on immigration issues prior to the walkouts, 7) the informants became civically
engaging after the walkouts, 8) churches did not talk about the walkouts or encourage civic engagement,
9) informants’ parents did not know they participated in the walkouts, and 10) some students were
expelled, suspended or cited for participating in the walkouts.

 Research supported by the Pearson Scholar for Leadership and Engagement in Global Society Program
                  Coupled Numerical/Experimental Investigation of
                           Optical Stress Birefringence
                           Travis Severt and Michael C. Shaw, Ph.D.
                             Department of Bioengineering & Physics
                                 California Lutheran University

       Optical stress birefringence offers a powerful window into the details of the spatially
complex redistribution of stress that occurs around geometric irregularities within solids.
Quantitative interpretation of the results, however, requires careful calibration with first-
principles analytical models, as well as iterative numerical models. This investigation examines
both the numerical and experimental results for stress redistribution around a model geometry
derived through numerical modeling and optical stress birefringence experiments, respectively.
The investigation began by developing a numerical model using the solid mechanics program
ANSYS Multiphysics, in particular a linear elastic model, to predict the two-dimension stress
fields resulting from a given force applied to a specific test object. This model was then analyzed
to predict the stress contours within the test object, dependent upon material composition and
geometric structure. Simultaneously, an experimental investigation was conducted using the
same test object to capture its stress contour patterns by optical stress birefringence, for a given
force acting on it. Then, using the NIH ImageJ program, the stress contours of the experiment
were analyzed for comparison with the results of the numerical model. Analysis of the results of
are then interpreted to provide insight into the extent and the limits of validity of both the
numerical and experimental models.
         Nanostructured Materials Imaged by Atomic-Force Microscopy
                         David M. Sievert and Michael C. Shaw, Ph.D.
                             Department of Bioengineering & Physics
                                California Lutheran University

       Nanostructured materials offer unique properties owing, in part, to their extraordinarily
high surface area to volume ratio. Synthesis of optimized structures, in turn, is greatly aided by
direct examination of prototypical specimens by high-resolution microscopy. In this study, our
research has focused on the theory and instrumentation of the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM),
as a first step in our research with nanomaterials. Specifically, the goals are to scan and
characterize the surfaces of a variety of micro- and nano- structured materials near or with
atomic resolution. The AFM consists of a microscopic tip placed on the edge of a cantilever
which mechanically probes the surface of a sample. Interactions between the probe and the
sample’s surface cause the cantilever to bend in accordance with Hooke’s law. This movement
is detected by monitoring the position of a reflected laser beam from the cantilever with a
photodiode. By scanning the surface in a controlled manner, this information is then analyzed to
generate an image of the sample’s topographic features, as well as to provide feedback to control
the height of the probe. This poster summarizes our work to date with the contact and tapping
modes of the AFM applied to surfaces with features in the tens to hundreds of nanometers in
dimension. Our future plans are to utilize these methods in the characterization and imaging of
nanostructured materials synthesized at CLU with sub-nanometer resolution.
         Synthesis of Helicenes via Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling
                            Sasha Sommer and John Tannaci, Ph.D.
                                      Chemistry Department
                                   California Lutheran University

       Organic semiconductors (OSCs) are useful for light-emitting diodes, photovoltaics, and
thin-film transistors. The current material used in these devices is silicon, which is an inorganic
semiconductor, but efficient OSCs are potentially more cost effective, especially if processed
from solution. Organic materials are also lighter and more flexible compared to their inorganic
counterparts, and the physical properties of OSCs can be tuned synthetically through structure-
property relationships. Helicenes, which have a helical three-dimensional structure, are
particularly interesting in this regard because of their unique optical, electronic, and physical
properties. Therefore, an improved synthesis of functionalized helicenes was pursued through
Suzuki coupling chemistry. Preliminary results using 2,2’-dibromobiphenyl as a model substrate
showed high conversion to the desired product, and further optimization is currently in progress,
including the large-scale synthesis of extended helicenes.

Research supported by the Swenson Summer Research Fellowship Program
                Online Social Networking and the Christian Church
                 Nicole Sparkman, Paul Witman, Ph.D. and Kapp Johnson
                                      Religion Department
                                 California Lutheran University

       Online social networks enable users to build their own online communities and interface
with each other freely. In growing numbers, businesses and organizations, including Christian
churches in the United States, have begun to utilize these networks. This multiple-case study
focuses on the ways in which churches employ these social networks, and examines both
successful and unsuccessful elements. We have studied two Christian-focused services (Church
Social Network, or CSN, and Church Member Relationships, or CMR) and two secular services
(Ning and Facebook). CSN and CMR tend to focus on members in those social networks, and
church members using these services connect with other users through the particular church
network to which they belong. Ning and Facebook, on the other hand, are founded around
personal interests and prior relationships. We have found churches using each of these services
with varying degrees of success and interaction based upon promotion of the network service,
administrative support, and congregational age, among other factors. Facebook networks appear
to have the greatest response rate, as churches operating Facebook groups and pages reported the
highest usage levels. Strong administrative support, and younger congregations, also tend to
report higher levels of success and engagement levels.

Research supported by the Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Program
              Evan Sponseller, Wyant Morton, D.M.A. and Sam Thomas, Ph.D.
                                 Music and Religion Departments
                                 California Lutheran University

       The apocalyptic tradition is alive and well in American culture, manifesting itself in many
forms and modes of expression. This project is a choral composition that attempts to intersect
with that tradition and offer a musical arrangement based on several themes from the book of
Revelation. The choral work consists of three movements corresponding to the typical threefold
conception of history (and Trinity, etc.), the text is in Greek, Latin, and English, and the music is
based on a scale tied to tonal values of the letters in the word "revelation." The presentation will
explain the musical and cultural background of the piece and the process of composition, and
will include brief samples of the music for illustration and visual images of the score.

Research supported by the Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Program
   Civic Engagement and Citizen Participation: Case Study Ventura County
                         Yeraldy Torres and Gregory Freeland, Ph.D.
                                   Political Science Department
                                  California Lutheran University

       Civic and political participation instills community members with the sense that the
political system is capable of responding to what they desire in terms of fair representation,
individual rights, and responsible policies. This study analyzes the impact of a community-based
task force’s redistricting plan on the electoral process in Ventura County, California to determine
whether the redistricting positively affected fair representation and social equity issues in the
community. By evaluating the organizational strategies and collaborations involved in the
process it is found that the supervisorial districts drawn by members of the community were
successful in improving fair representation based on comparing supervisorial votes and policies
with community member’s votes on state propositions and local measures. This project’s
research findings provide evidence that will inspire community members to become actively
involved with issues that affect them by providing them with the knowledge of how redistricting
assists in a establishing and maintaining a more healthy and livable community.

Research supported by the Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Program
      RNAi and its Impact on the Singed Gene of Drosophila Melanogaster
                           Andrew Walker and David Marcey, Ph.D.
                                       Biology Department
                                  California Lutheran University

       Due to the relatively recent research regarding the unique system in cells known as RNAi
(RNA interference), a door has been opened allowing the performing of experiments that will
help us understand strange phenotypic effects that exist in organisms. RNAi is elicited by a
pathway in which complimentary portions of RNA (sense and anti-sense) form a double stranded
bond that induces proteins to cleave them into smaller sections. These sections can attach
themselves to DNA and attract chromatin remodeling factors, which elicits heterochromatization
of the region. Using this system as our foundation, we performed an experiment that tested the
affect of RNAi on the gene singed (sn). This gene codes for formation of bristles on the surface
of drosophila melanogaster and has two forms of mutation aside from the wildtype normal
phenotype: weak effects and extreme effects. The anti-sense strands described above could attach
themselves to transposable elements known as P elements that exist around this gene of interest
and result in the repackaging of the DNA in the surrounding region. In this repackaged form,
transcription factors and other proteins essential in the transcription process cannot attach,
leading to undesired phenotypic results. By crossing singed stocks of flies with stocks that create
anti-sense and homozygosing the alleles that we believe are the root of a mutation called extra
eye (ee) we hope to show that RNAi is the cause behind the variable bristle types and ultimately
ee. Unfortunately, after crossing the singed lines of flies to ee mutants and then homozygosing
to achieve ee/ee F2 generation offspring, there was no noticeable increase in the severity of the
singed phenotype. However there is potentially promising research underway that could possibly
confirm the RNAi directed control of the extra eye phenotype that involves larval tumor growth.

Research supported by the Swenson Summer Research Fellowship Program

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