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					AirLive WISP

  Albert Yeh, Ph.D. / Vice President
Outdoor Basics
                                                                  Wireless Multi-Mode

AP Mode
The most basic mode of multi-function Access Point. In this mode, the AP will act as a
central hub for different Wireless LAN clients. Some hotspot APs requires 802.1x
authenticator function to authenticate a user before providing Internet service.

Bridge Mode

In this mode, 2 access points in two remote locations connect to each other to provide a wireless
bridge between 2 remote LANs. It is mostly used by enterprise to connect 2 remote office's network
together. The bridge modes are connected by using either the WDS (Wireless Distribution System)
or Adhoc topology
                                                                          Wireless Multi-Mode

       WDS Repeater
       A repeater's function is to extend the wireless coverage of another wireless AP or router.
       For WDS repeater to work, the remote wireless AP/Router must also support WDS

        Universal Repeater
       An universal repeater can also extend the wireless coverage of another wireless AP or
       router. But the universal repeater does not require the remote device to have WDS
       function. Therefore, it can work with almost any wireless device.

    If you are repeating signal of a Hotspot Authentication system such as AirLive WIAS-1000G. You must use
!   WDS Repeater mode because WDS repeater preserve the MAC Addresses of the wireless clients in the
    repeating process.
                                                                 WISP Wireless Modes

Client Mode
Also known as Ethernet Client. In this mode, the AP will act as a WLAN card to connect
with the remote AP. Users can connect PC or local LAN to the Ethernet port of the client
mode AP. This mode is mostly used as a CPE device for WISP subscriber.

 WISP Mode
In WISP mode, the AP will behave just the same as the Client mode for wireless function.
However, router functions are added between the wireless WAN side and the Ethernet LAN
side. Therefore, the WISP subscriber can share the WISP connection without the need for
extra router.
                                                                WISP Wireless Modes

WISP + Universal Mode
In this mode, the AP behaves virtually the same as the WISP mode, except one thing: the AP
can also send wireless signal to the LAN side. That means the AP can connect with the
remote WISP AP and the indoor wireless card, and then provide IP sharing capability all at
the same time! However, the output power is divided between 2 wireless side and proper
antenna installation can influence the performance greatly.
                                                              WISP Wireless Modes

 Gateway Mode
In gateway mode. The AP will behave like a broadband router. One of the LAN port will
behave as a WAN port for wired connection to ADSL or Cable modem. The NAT routing will
be performed between the WAN and LAN Port. Making IP sharing possible
                                                                             Multi-Function AP
                                          Multimode AP Functions

Modes/Model          WL-5460AP             WLA-5000AP       WL-5470AP       WL-5470POE         WLA-5200AP

AP Mode

Client Mode


WDS Repeater

Universal Repeater


WISP + Universal

Gateway Mode

TX Output            802.11g/b:            802.11a: 17dBi   802.11g/b:      802.11g/b: 23dBi   802.11a: 16dBi
(South America)      23dBi(firmware e9)    802.11g/b:       24dBi           Europe: 20dBi      802.11g/b: 20dBi
                                           20dBi            Europe: 20dBi
                                 Outdoor AP Mode

Modes/Model          WH-5410G   WH-5400CPE    WH-9000MESH   WH-5854A   WH-
AP Mode

Client Mode


WDS Repeater

Universal Repeater


WISP + Universal

Gateway Mode

TX Output            20dBm      20dBm         20dBm         23dBm      20dbm
                                               Outdoor Standard

           Shock Proof
                                          Water Proof grading.
           Grading. For
           commercial             IP 67   The number “8” is the
                                          highest for commerical
           application. The “6”
           is the highest.

Although the
housing are
waterproof. The
junctions need to
                                                        Unused connectors
be sealed by water-
                                                        should be closed
proof tape to
                                                        with the supplied
ensure no water
                                                        rubber caps at all
                                                               Cable Loss

Cable Loss
Each connector and cable can reduce the wireless signal significant. Wireless LAN require
cables with resistance with 50ohm. Higher price cable usually provide less cable loss
                                                    Antenna and the first fresnel zone

    If there is some obstruction in the first Fresnel zone that blocks about 40% of the
!   area, the connection will fail. Therefore, sometimes it is better to choose an
    antenna with narrow angle although it means more difficult to align over long
                                                  Antenna and the first fresnel zone

    Antenna doesn’t actually increase output power overall. Instead, it directs the
!   available power in particular direction. Therefore, higher gain antennas also means
    narrower angle.
Emission Diagram
Software Basics
                                                                          ACK Timeout

          ACK Timeout
         ACK Timeout is the time that the AP will wait for remote AP to respond, before deciding
         whether to resend the Packet again. For OFDM WLAN Standards (802.11g and 802.11a), ACK
         Timeout mechanism is important to maintain wireless performance.

                              (The Round Trip Time for                 For 5km, it is about 55
                               WLAN Signal + the AP                  microseconds. For 1km,
                              Process Time) is the ACK              it’s about 28 microseconds
                                 Timeout Windows.

    Without the ability to set the correct ACK timeout windows. The packets may be dropped or resend too
!   early. Resulting in poor or unusually WLAN performance. For long distance link, you can start with 55,
    255, then somewhere in the middle to find the best performance setting.
                                                                   Wireless Parameters

    Fragment Threshold
Frame Size larger than this will be divided into smaller fragment. If there are interferences in
your area. Lower this value can improve the performance. If there are not, keep this
parameter at higher value. The default size is 2346. You can try 1500, 1000, or 500 when
there are interference around your network.

   RTS Threshold
RTS (Request to Send). The RTS/CTS packet will be send before a frame if the packet frame
is larger than this value. Lower this value can improve the performance if there are many
clients in your network. You can try 1500, 1000 or 500 when there are many clients in your
AP’s network.

      Preamble Type

  Preamble are sent with each wireless packet transmit for transmission status. Use the long
  preamble type for better compatibility. Use the short preamble type for better performance.
                                                                 Wireless Parameters

   TX Output Power
The TX output power means the transmission output power of the radio. Normally, the TX
output power level limit for 2.4GHz 11g/b is 20dBm at the antenna end. The output power
limit for 5GHz 802.11a is 30dBm at the antenna end..

   Receiver Sensitivity
Receiver sensitivity means how sensitive is the radio for receiving signal. In general, the
slower the transmission. speed, the more sensitive the radio is. For example, for the WH-
5000A outdoor AP, the Receiver sensitivity is -90dB @ 6 Mbps, -74dB @ 54Mbps. Therefore,
it can run longer distance at lower speed settings.

Stands for Inter-Access-Apoint-Protocol. Using a network of AP with IAPP enabled will
provide roaming features for the wireless clients.
                  WLAN Standards

  802.11a has
 been tested to
deliver OFDM
performance to
 over 33km in
AirLive WISP Products
                                                AirLive WISP

  Basic Elements of a WISP architecture

              Base Stations

Deliver Wireless Internet Service to the home

               CPE Client

Receive Wireless Internet Service from Base Stations

          Wireless Backbone

Network backbone that links all the base stations

         Athentications System

Control user’s access and account status
AirLive WISP
AirLive WISP
AirLive WISP
                                                                                AirLive WISP

                                 AirLive WISP Base Station and Clients

Models        Type          Radio       Outdoor     Built-in   AP,      WISP     Gatewa     Universal
                                        Housing     Outdoor    WDS,     mode     y Mode     Repeater
                                                    Antenna    Client                       Mode
WL-5450AP     AP            Realtek     No          No         Yes      Yes      No         Yes
WL-5460AP     AP            Realtek     No          No         Yes      Yes      Yes        Yes
WL-5470AP     AP Router     Realtek     No          No         Yes      Yes      Yes        Yes
WLA-5000AP    AP            Atheros     No          No         Yes      Yes      No         No
WLA-5200AP    AP            Ralink      No          No         Yes      Yes      No         Yes
WH-5000A      Outdoor       Atheros     Yes         No         Yes      No       No         No
              AP            11/a/b/g
WH-           Outdoor       Atheros     Yes         Yes        Yes      No       No         No
5400CPE       CPE           11g/b
WH-           Outdoor       Realtek     Yes         Yes        Yes      Yes      No         Yes
5420CPE       CPE           11a/b/g
WHA-Because most AirLive Multifunction AP and CPE has AP and Client modes in the firmware. They can work
               Outdoor     Atheros      Yes         Yes       Yes       Yes        No        No
!   as a
5500CPE wireless CPE also. 11a/b/g
                                                                          AirLive WISP

                                AirLive WISP Backbone Equipments

Models       Type      Radio         Outdoor   Output   AP, WDS,   WISP    Gateway   Wireless
                                     Housing   Power    Client     mode    Mode      Duplixing
WH-5000A     Outdoor   1 x Atheros   Yes       20dBm    Yes        Yes     No        NO
             AP        Radio
WH-          Outdoor   2 x Atheros   Yes       20dBm    Yes        Yes     Yes       NO
9000MESH     AP        Radios
WH-          Outdoor   2 x Atheros   Yes       20dBm    Yes        Yes     Yes       NO
9100MESH     AP        Radios
WLA-9000AP   AP        2 x Atheros   No        23dBm    Yes        Yes     No        Yes
AirLive AP
New Firmware Features
                                                        Bootloader Protection

   With bootloader Protection, the AP will never write any data into the
   bootloader. It means the AP will always be recoverable, even in the case of
   firmware upgrade failure.

                           Firmware Area
Flash Memory

                          Bootloader Area               Protected Memory
                                                          Emergency Code

   When a firmware is corrupted and the AP can no longer be accessed. The
   bootloader has an emergency web server that can reload the AP’s firmware
   back into the AP(IP: There is no need for serial cable recovery.

                             Firmware Area
Flash Memory

                           Bootloader Area
                                                          Web Server
                                                      Bootloader Feature

                          Bootloader Protection

       Models              Bootloader          Emergency Code

       WL-5450AP           Yes                 Yes
       WL-5460AP           Yes                 Yes
       WL-5470AP           Yes                 Yes
       WLA-5000AP          Yes

       WLA-5200AP          Yes                 Yes
       WLA-9000AP          Yes                 Yes

With bootloader protection and emergency upload code, it is now much
safer to run 3rd party firmware. This is only available on AirLive APs!
                                                   Traffic Shaping

With Traffic Control shaping, the WL-5460AP and WL-5470AP e10 firmware
will have the capability to control individual or group bandwidth
WLA-5000AP Firmware
  Multimode, Multiple SSID and VLAN
                                           WLA-5000AP new firmware

!   All 6 wireless operation modes are now in the same firmware
                                            WLA-5000AP new firmware

Multiple VLAN and SSID now allow running multiple service out of
single AP
                                             WLA-5000AP new firmware

!   Each SSID has a different tag. Coupled with MW-2000S new
    firmware, you can run different policy on different SSID group
Dual Radio 802.11a/b/g

       2 x Atheros 802.11a/b/g Radios

       23dBm output in 802.11a mode

                 3 LAN Ports

                 Built-in POE

         8 Wireless Dual Radio Modes

             Wireless Duplexing

            Bootloader Protection

           Multiple VLAN and SSID

Much lower cost than comparable hi-power dual
             radio 11a solutions

                    A: Dual Bridge Mode

The 2 WDS bridge traffic are connected together, no LAN port VLAN.

                     B: Dual Bridge Mode

The 2 WDS bridge traffic are completely separated with their own LAN
port. This modes works like 2 independent bridges.

                     B: Dual Bridge Mode

In this mode, 2 bridge are trunked together to double the bandwidth
of the link.

In this mode, one radio work in AP bode, the other radio work in bridge
mode. This is probably the most common dual radio configuration.

In this mode, 2 radios works in their own AP mode. Each has their
own encryption and SSID. But the traffic are bridged together.

In this mode, one radio work as a Gateway router, the other works as
a bridge. This setup is perfect for WISP downllink station.

One radio works as a AP, the other radio works as a client. This mode
is useful as a high performance repeating station.

One radio work as a Gateway, the other works as a client. This mode
is designed for high performance WISP client with IP sharing.
                                                                           MESH Technology

The MESH AP uses Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) to achieve self forming and self healing capability. Up to 40
nodes are supported each time.

  Without MESH, if
  one outdoor station
  is down. It can

  jeopardize the
  entire network

 !   MESH is not the same as the 802.11d Spanning Tree protocol supported by some AP in
     WDS mode. The 802.11d in those APs are for loop prevention only.
                                 MESH Product

2 x Atheros 802.11a/b/g Radios

         Self Healing

         Self Forming

      Self Configuration

    Dual Radio, Dual Band

      IP 67 Certification

     Rogue AP Detection

     Client Load Balancing
                                                                   Temperature Control Module

Each AirLive MESH AP is equipped with sophisticated Temperature Control Module(TEC) that allow the AP to
operate from –30 degree to 70 degree Celsius, using Thermo Electric Active Cooler.
                                                                   Self Forming

Turn on the Auto-Bridge mode and set same RF channel and same SSID. The bridge interconnect
between themselves
                                                                                Self Configuring

        The mesh network will check on WLAN performance, Bridge Priority and others parameters to choose
        shortest, power aware and loop free routing path

  Check for                                Traffic Going from A to B
signal strenth
  and bridge
                                                                      Check for
                              A                                     signal strenth
                                                                      and bridge

                          Take the Best

                                                                Take the Best

                                                                         Self Healing

Checking routing status periodically, If one node broken, will find another routing path automatically

                                             Notify All AP
                                            In the network!

                                                                  The AP is not
                                                                 function. Data
     Sending data to                                              not received.
       the next AP

                            This path is
                           removed from
                            the network
                                                                Client Load balancing

When one AP has too many traffic. It will reject the connection and redirect to another AP


                                                              The AP has too
       Redirect to                                                many
       another AP                                              connection
                                            Product Line

• Dual Radio
•   802.11a/b/g
•   AP and Bridge mode
•   MESH Self Healing/Configure
•   Temperature Control Module

• Dual Radio
•   802.11a/b/g
•   AP, Bridge, and Router mode
•   VLAN, Multiple SSID, Client Isolation
•   MESH Self Healing/Configure
•   Temperature Control Module
ISP Authentication Server

                           Athentication Server for Small ISP

                        Complete Local Authentication System

                              Handles up to 200 accounts
Available August
                            Traffic Control and Traffic reports

                                QoS and Policy Firewall

                   Uplink with other IS-1000A for sharing account info

                         Auto PING to check AP/Client status
                                                   Wimax Advantage

                                                             Up to 70Mbit/s
Up to 48Km in
  Distance                High Speed

                        Long Distance
                                                                 Use OFDMA
802.16e                Non Line of Sight
                                                               Can provide
                         Extensive QoS                           service
5.8GHz          Work in Many different frequency
                                                             802.16 standards

                            IEEE 802.16 Standard
                         802.16-2004                     802.16e-2005

Completed      June, 2004                      Feb. 2006
Channel        NLOS (2~10GHz), LOS             Mobile Non line-of-sight
conditions     (10~66GHz)
Mobility       None                            Yes, Handover support
Bit Rate       Up to 70 Mb/s at 20 GHz         Up to 15 Mb/s at 5 GHz
               channelization                  channelization
Multiplexing   OFDM-256                        SOFDMA(scalable)
Modulation     QPSK, 16 QAM and 64 QAM         OFDM 256, OFDMA, 64 QAM,
                                               16 QAM, QPSK, BPSK
MIMO           Yes                             No
Channel        Selectable channel bandwidths   Selectable channel bandwidths
bandwidths     between 1.25 and 20 MHz         between 1.25 and 20 MHz, with
                                               up to 16 logical sub-channels
                                                                         Use sub carrier
Typical cell   7~10km(50km max)                2 to 5km                   relocation to
radius                                                                   compensate for
                                                                             Line of Sight

WiFi require at least 60% radio line of sight in order to work properly. Through the use of OFDMA, Sub
Channelization, and adaptive modulation, the Wimax can achieve None line of sight or Near Line of Sight.,
                                                                           802.16 Markets

             Subscriber Base                                     Equipment

In-Stat      Grows from over 80,000 in 2005 to over 3.8          By 2009, Asia-Pacific WiMAX
             million by 2009 (Asia Pacific subscribers will      equipment spending will account for
             account for 45% of the world total in 2009), and    $1,988.2 million.
             19.7 million by the end of 2010.
Semico                                                           Market size of BS and CPE will grow
Research                                                         from 6,000 units in 2005 to 4.27 million
                                                                 units in 2010; the CAGR would be
Infonetics                                                       Worldwide WiMAX equipment market
Research                                                         would increase to $5.6 billion in sales
                                                                 by 2010, with mobile WiMAX sales
                                                                 garnering $3.7 billion.
Gartner                                                          WiMAX CPE and BS revenues will hit
Dataquest                                                        about $2.2 billion by 2008

Visant                                                           WiMAX equipment could grow to $1
Strategies                                                       billion by 2008

IEK          Subscriber base in fixed application will grow to   Sales volume from Asia-Pacific will
             over 7 million subscribers in 2008. In mobile       grow 20% of global sales volume in
             application, subscriber base will reach 4 million   2005 to 44% in 2009
             in 2008, and over 10 million in 2009.
802.16 Spectrum
                                                                             Wimax Unit Price

The current average price for 802.11d or 802.16e station are still well over 10K euros. The lowest price for
802.11d bridge is more than $3000 Euro.
                                                       Wimax Application

                       WiMAX Service classes
  Class Description      Real Time?                   Bandwidth
  Interactive Gaming        Yes                      50 - 85 kbps

     VoIP, Video                          VoIP        4 - 65 kbps
     Conference                       Video Phone    32 - 384 kbps
                                      Music/Speech   5 - 128 kbps
                                       Video Clips   20 - 384 kbps
  Streaming Media           Yes
                                                       > 2 Mbps
                                        Instant       < 250 byte
                                       Messaging      messages
Information Technology      No        Web Browsing    > 500 kbps
                                       Email (with
                                                      > 500 kbps
                                       Bulk Data,
    Media Content                        Movie         > 1 Mbps
                            No         Download
                                      Peer-to-Peer    > 500 kbps
                                                   Wimax Agenda

                802.16-2004                      802.16e

2006   First certified product
       Outdoor CPE
       Indoor, self-installable CPE
       PCMCIA card for laptops

2007                                     First certified product
                                       Indoor, self-installable CPE,
                                            PCMCIA card for

2008                                  laptops
                                      Mini PCMCIA card for laptops
                                      PDA, Smartphone

                                                                  WiMax Issue
                                                                                 But Europe
      Project based                                                             open 5.8GHz
         only for                        Wimax Problem                            band for
      licensed band                                                              unlicensed
          holder                                                                Wimax access

                                   2.5 and 3.5 GHz are Licensed band
                                                                                     But Europe
                                                                                    open 5.8GHz
Only when the 802.16J                                                                 band for
                            The WiMax WISP Deployment cost is still too high
standard for repeating                                                               unlicensed
station is realized. That                                                           Wimax access
 the overall cost will go
down. The current cost      Expect to reach wider deployment cost by 4Q, 2007
     makes Wimax

                             Current 3G Operators is resistant because their
                                  investment cost is not yet recovered

                                      Wimax require installation of
                                       entirely new infrastructure.
                                                        AirLive Wimax Product
                                                                     Operate in the
                                AirLive Wimax                           band of
     Cost $2000USD                                                      5.8GHz
         or less
                         5.8GHz 802.11d Wimax Pico Bridge

NLOS and directional
  antenna support.
                         Built for WISP Backbone connection

                                 Release in 4Q, 2007

                              Fast and easy configuration

                       3.5GHz CPE for project based requirement
                                                       AirLive Wimax Product

                                Wimax Pico Bridge

   Built-in High Gain
    Antenna (16dbi)                                 Weather Proof
                                                     & UV Proof
                                                    Plastic Upper
Pole/ Wall Mount Kit                                    Case

                        for Heat Sink
                                             Power Device(802.3af)

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