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                       1 Why is transportation changing?

                       2 What is smart transportation?

                       3 How do we do this?

All photographs and images from PennDOT, Glatting Jackson Kercher Anglin, Orth-Rodgers, or public domain, unless otherwise noted.
    Why is
            Revenue sources
              for financing
               projects are
            severely limited.

Photographer: penywise. Used through license agreement with
   Nearly 25% of Pennsylvania’s bridges are
structurally deficient, compared with just 12% in
                      the U.S.

  Pennsylvania ranks last in the nation in this
Even if we did have the money,
 we can no longer afford the
  conventional approach to
   tackling transportation/
        land use issues.
 From 2003 to 2008…

                                                           Fabricated Structural Steel: + 156%

                                                           Concrete: + 53%

                                                           Hot Mix Asphalt: + 88%

Image Source: Used by license agreement from Photographers (top to bottom): kevinrosseel, alvimann, ppdigital
2008 Numbers are from First Quarter of 2008 (PennDOT)
 Inflation Indices

Sources: FHWA Bid Price Index for PA (BPI), Engineering News Record Construction Cost Index (CCI), Bureau of Labor and Statistics Consumer Price - Index (CPI), compared to 3% Annual Increase
Base Line (Calendar Year)
 Our families cannot afford it…
                                           Jan 2003             June 2008   Increase
       Gasoline                                 $1.41             $4.02     +185%
       Diesel                                   $1.50             $4.72     +215%

       18% of an average household budget
       spent on transportation

       In automobile-dominated regions, this
       figure can exceed 30% - often more
       than a family spends on housing

Source: U.S. Department of Energy; Bureau of Labor Statistics
 Our environment cannot afford it…

Photographer: rosevita. Used through license agreement with
is not alone…
every state is
grappling with
these issues.
       ―The problems we
       have created cannot
       be solved with the
       same thinking that
       created them….‖

Image Source: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division. Original copyright expired.
We’re up to the challenge.

―We are pushing ahead with a great
road program, a road program that will
take this Nation out of its antiquated
shackles of secondary roads… It will be
a nation of great prosperity, but will be
more than that: it will be a nation that is
going ahead every day. With… our
population increasing at five every
minute, the expanding horizon is one
that staggers the imagination.‖

                      — October 29, 1954
210,896 lane miles in less than 50 years

Source: FHWA
 What is Smart
    Smart Transportation
is partnering to build great
   communities for future
       generations of
 Pennsylvanians by linking
transportation investments
and land use planning and
More …       Less…
creativity   cost
More …             Less…
flexibility   design constraints
More …                                           Less…
listening                                        conflicts

            Photographer: kevinrosseel. Used through license from
More …       Less…
efficiency   confusion
More …     Less…
choices   limitations
  More …                                                 Less…
lasting solutions                                      ―do-overs‖

                    Photographer: ladyheart. Used through license agreement with
 More …                                             Less…
community                                          sprawl

            Photo Source: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, Visualizing Density program.
            Authorized for use in public presentations.
                                                                               How do
                                                                              we do this?
Photographer: ladyheart. Used through license agreement with
Integrating Smart Transportation

 1. Linking Planning and NEPA /New Project Development
 2. Context-Sensitive Solutions
 3. Fitting the Solutions to the Problem (right-sizing)
 4. Smart Transportation Guidebook
 5. Revisions to Design Manuals
 6. Revisions to HOP Process
 7. Smart Transportation Performance Measures
 8. Others?
Smart Transportation Guidebook
The Smart Transportation Guidebook
is fully compatible and consistent with
Guidebook Table of Contents

 1. Introduction
 2. Tools and Techniques
 3. A Local Commitment
 4. Land Use Context
 5. Transportation Context
 6. Designing the Roadway
 7. Roadway Guidelines
 8. Roadside Guidelines
 9. Road System Issues
Chapter 1: Introduction
              Some Guiding Principles

 •   Tailor the Solutions and Approach
 •   Plan and Implement Projects in Collaboration with
     the Community
 •   Plan for Alternative Modes
 •   Use Sound Professional Judgment
 •   Scale the Solutions to the Problem
Applying the Smart Transportation Themes

 1.   Money counts
 2.   Leverage and preserve existing investments
 3.   Choose projects with high value/price ratio
 4.   Safety always and maybe safety only
 5.   Look beyond level-of-service
 6.   Accommodate all modes of travel
 7.   Enhance local network
 8.   Build towns not sprawl
 9.   Understand the context; plan and design within the context
 10. Develop local governments as strong land use partners
Chapter 2: Tools & Techniques

 A. Understand the problem and the context before programming a
    solution for it.

 B. Utilize a multi-disciplinary project team for its breadth of view and
    expertise in varying issues.

 C. Develop a project-specific communication plan to ensure timely and
    efficient agency and community input.

 D. Establish project objectives that include the full spectrum of
    transportation needs and quality of life objectives.
Chapter 2: Tools & Techniques

E. Focus on alternatives that are affordable, cost effective, and meet
   project needs and objectives.

F. Agree on simple but wide-ranging measures of success.

G. Consider a full set of alternatives to address the project needs and

H. Systematically compare the alternatives using the measures of success
   to determine the best ―fit‖ transportation investment.
I. 2.2 Smart Transportation Tools & Techniques
Chapter 3: A Local Commitment

• Partnering with local officials is an essential element of
  Smart Transportation
• The longevity of PennDOT’s investment depends on the
  municipal plans created today.

                      “The future is purchased
                               by the present.”
                        – Dr. Samuel Johnson
Differing Roles Require Partnering

  PennDOT’s Role                    Municipality’s Role
  • Manage statewide and            • Manage local mobility
    regional mobility               • Maintain the local circulation
  • Allocate and manage               system
    state/federal transportation    • Manage and control land use
    funds                             and development
  • Maintain and improve
    transportation infrastructure
Chapter 4: Land Use Context

      Land Use Context   + Roadway Type
Land Use Contexts



• Land use context – land
  area comprising unique
  combination of land uses,
                                        TOWN / VILLAGE
  density, building form                         CENTER
• Common place types                       TOWN / VILLAGE
  found in every PennDOT                    NEIGHBORHOOD
  district                                                URBAN
Defining the Contexts
              RURAL              SUBURBAN                                                        URBAN

              Rural              Suburban            Suburban Corridor     Suburban Center       Town/Village        Town Center         Urban Core
                                 Neighborhood                                                    Neighborhood

              1 DU/ac - 8DU/ac   1 DU/ac – 8DU/ac    2 – 30 DU/ac          3 – 20 DU/ac          4 – 30 DU/ac        8 – 50 DU/ac        16 – 75 DU/ac

              NA                 <20%                20% - 35%             35% - 45%             35% - 50%           50% - 70%           70% - 100%

              20 acres           5,000 – 80,000 sf   20,000 - 200,000 sf   25,000 – 100,000 sf   2,000 – 12,000 sf   2,000 – 20,000 sf   25,000 – 100,000 sf

              NA                 50 to 200 feet      100 to 500 feet       100 to 300 feet       18 to 50 feet       25 to 200 feet      100 to 300 feet

              NA                 400 wide x varies   200 wide x varies     300 wide x varies     200 by 400 feet     200 by 400 feet     200 by 400 feet

                                                     retail-1 story;
MAX. HEIGHT   1 to 3 stories     1.5 to 3 stories                          2 to 5 stories        2 to 5 stories      1 to 3 stories      3 to 60 stories
                                                     office 3-5 stories

              Varies             20 to 80 feet       20 to 80 feet         20 to 80 feet         10 to 20 feet       0 to 20 feet        0 to 20 feet
Chapter 5: Transportation Context

       Land Use Context +   Roadway Type
Why rethink function classification?

 Just a few reasons…
 • Some arterials carry predominantly
   local traffic and have many access
 • The design speed for the arterial
   class can be too high for an arterial
   serving as the ―Main Street‖ of a
 • As land uses change, so should
   roadway design

                    Both of these roadways
                      are principal arterials
Roadways in Context
Design Using the Principles

 • Know the land use context
 • Know the role of the roadway within the network
 • Know the roadway type
 • Set the desired operating speed
 • Refer to the Matrix for the starting design values

 Requisite for process: understand the flexibility provided by
 the AASHTO Green Book
Can standards, alone, ensure an adequate design?
Regional Arterial
Community Arterial
Community Arterial
Desired Operating Speed
Also Known as “Design To” or “Target Speed”

 Definition: The speed of traffic that, in the expert judgments of
 the highway engineer and community planner, best reflects the
 function of the roadway and the surrounding land use context.

 Simple Definition: The speed at which we would like vehicles
 to travel.
Why Desired Operating Speed?

 • Forge a stronger relationship between posted speed limit,
   design speed and operating speed
 • Relate roadway type to land use context
 • Use roadway and roadside design elements to encourage
   compliance with the posted speed
Using Design Elements to Enforce
Desired Operating Speed

   • Horizontal and Vertical   • Median
     Curvature                 • On-Street Parking
   • Sight Distance            • Curbs
   • Street Trees              • Pedestrian Activity
   • Lane Widths               • Roadside Development
   • Shoulder Widths           • Traffic Calming
   • Total Roadway Widths      • Superelevation
   • Clear Zone                • Curb Return Radii
   • Access Density            • Horizontal Offset between
   • Signal Density              Inside Lane and Median Curb
Safe Transitions Between Contexts

 • Give motorists adequate warning of context change
 • Do not introduce change in increments greater than 10 MPH.
    – Greater changes in mph is possible with use of traffic signals,
      roundabouts, other measures

 • Use roadway and roadside elements to provide ―visual cues‖
Example Roadway Transition Tools

 • Change 8 ft shoulder to parking lane
 • Introduce a bike lane
 • Narrow the lane width
 • Introduce curvature or roundabout
 • Install gateway treatment
    – Landscaping
    – Medians
    – Curb extensions
    – Decorative pavement
Chapter 7: Roadway Guidelines

 Travel Lanes
 • Take full advantage of range of lane widths
    – Consider 10 ft. lanes for low-speed urban arterials
    – Consider 11 ft. lanes for roads at 35 mph or higher
    – Consider 12 ft. lanes for heavily trafficked roadways with high
      truck volumes

                          10 ft. travel lane
Travel Lanes

 But aren’t narrow travel lanes less safe?

 ―No indication that the use of 10- or 11-ft. lanes rather than
 12-ft. lanes for arterial midblock segments leads to increase in
 accident frequency‖
       Source: I. Potts, et. al., ―Relationship of lane width to safety for urban and suburban arterials,‖ TRB 2007.
Bicycle Facilities
    What is the best means of accommodating bicyclists?

                         Bike lane

      Wide curb lane                  Roadway with shoulders
Bicycle Facilities

 • Answer: It depends!
   Achieve consensus with
   local stakeholders.
    – Bike lanes are preferred by
      bicyclists of average skill,
      and have some safety
      advantages over wide curb
    – Effect of 4 to 6 ft. shoulders
      is very similar to bike lanes
    – Wide curb lanes are often
      preferred by experienced
• Width ranges from 4 to 18 ft.,
  depending in part whether it
  houses a left turn lane
• Physical or two-way left turn
    – Depends on number of left turns,
      total volumes
• Physical medians are best for
  pedestrians on multi-lane roads

 • In urban contexts, choose the smallest curb radius that
   can accommodate the design vehicle
    – Balance the need to accommodate truck turning movements with
      the benefit of smaller crossings for pedestrians
 • Add width of parking and
   bike lanes when determining
   effective curb radius
Chapter 8: Roadside Guidelines
Pedestrian Facilities

• Sidewalk network is the best gauge of
  community’s ―walkability‖
• Provide sidewalks along both sides of
  all roadways in commercial areas,
  and along all arterials and collectors
  in residential areas
• Strive for ―clear sidewalk width‖
  of 5 to 8 ft.
• Provide more intensive crosswalk
  treatments for major roadways
Public Transit

• ―Farside‖ bus stops are preferred to ―nearside‖ bus stops
   – Pedestrian crashes at bus stops are more associated with nearside
   – Farside bus stops are shorter, giving more room for on-street
• Be prepared for greater interest in public transit!

• Landscaping integrates roadway into the surrounding
   – Provide buffer strips of 4 to 5 ft. between sidewalk and road
   – Trees in medians reduce perceived width of street, and help calm
   – Avoid trees in clear zone on suburban and rural streets posted 45
     mph or above, or if street is uncurbed
Conduct Cost-Benefit Analysis for Roadside Features

 • Not always feasible to improve sidewalks, curb cut ramps,
   utilities, etc.
    – Consider cost, needed Right-of-Way

 • Sidewalks are recommended for State/Federal funded
   projects except under several conditions:
    – Pedestrians prohibited from roadway
    – Cost is ―excessively disproportionate‖ to need
Chapter 9: Road System Issues
Traffic Calming

 • Use physical design, striping strategies to slow vehicles
   to the desired operating speed
    – Consider on higher order roadways, using such measures as
      road diets, curb extensions, and roadside design

                 Before                                After

           ―Road Diet‖ on Arterial Roadway in Ocean City, NJ
Access Management
 • Encourage municipalities to pass access management ordinances,
   focusing on arterials.
 • Preserves the taxpayers investment in their transportation system.

                                             Poor access management on
                                             suburban corridor
Operations & Maintenance

 • Insure that the design is maintainable and fits into the
   District’s Traffic Operations Plans

 • Emergency response MUST be considered. Coordinate
   with Emergency Service Providers to understand response
   routes and response times. Be sure to:
    – Modify the design to accommodate emergency service vehicles
    – Show functionality of traditional street design through computer
      programs such as AutoTURN and/or actual street tests
AASHTO acknowledges the need
    for design exceptions.
Design Exceptions

2004 AASHTO Flexibility Guide

          “Design exceptions are acceptable
                  and useful tool when
            evaluated and applied properly”

    * Thorough evaluation and documentation is mandatory
         And there must be no compromise in safety

                       Applied Design Flexibility          80
When Considering Design Exceptions


      Flexibility = New Perspective
        » Thorough Evaluation STILL Required
        » Engineering Judgment VITAL
        » Safety Review STILL Required
        » Documentation is VITAL

                   Applied Design Flexibility   81
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